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Faculty of Engineering

Content

Structure of EC3 1-1 Technical terms & General terminology Design checks & Ultimate limit states Global analysis & Design Relation between Global analysis Design Section classification

Faculty of Engineering

Introduction to EC3

Faculty of Engineering

EC3 Part 1-1 comprises 9 chapters and a number of Appendices

Chapter 1 General Chapter 2 Basis of Design Chapter 3 Materials Chapter 4 Durability Chapter 5 Structural analysis

Annex may be normative, in which case they have the same status as the chapters of EC3 to which they relate, or informative. Informative annexes are not mandatory but provide useful information.

Faculty of Engineering

Technical terms

Outstand Internal

Web

Internal

Faculty of Engineering

Technical terms

Faculty of Engineering

Technical terms

Faculty of Engineering

General terminology

A - Action - this is a general term describing loads and other external influences such as temperature effects and imposed deformations which may act upon a structure. E - Effect of actions - this is a general term describing the result of an action on the structure or element (e.g. stresses, deflections, bending moments) R - Resistance - this is a general term to describe the ability of a structure or element to resist the effects of actions (e.g. bending strength and compressive strength) - Partial safety factors - these are factors which account for variability in parameters such as actions and material strength; they also provide for a global margin of safety

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 9

General terminology

The Eurocodes also makes extensive use of subscripts.

k - characteristic - this describes characteristic or typical values of variables such as actions or material strengths. d - design - this describes the values of variables such as strength or action to be used in the design calculation process; design values are determined from characteristic values modified by appropriate partial safety factors.

Normal symbols may also be used as subscripts, and subscripts are often combined, for example:

Rd Ed design resistance design values of internal force or moment

Subscripts can be arranged in sequence as necessary, separated by a decimal point for example: Npl.Rd design plastic axial resistance.

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 10

General terminology

Frame an assembly of structural elements Sub-frame part frame used for analysis

Colum (N) Beam-column (M+N) Beam (M) Joint

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General terminology

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12

General terminology

In-plane buckling Out-of-plane buckling Column buckling (only N) Lateral-torsional Beam-Colum buckling (M+N) buckling (M+N) Restrained beam Unrestrained beam Beam unable to move laterally Beam can move laterally

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13

Lengths relating to member stability:

System length: length between lateral restraints/end Buckling length: equivalent pin-ended system length

Lcr =1 L

Lcr = 0, 7 L

Lcr = 0,5 L

Lcr =2 L

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14

Type of framing:

JOINT MODELLING BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS MAJOR AXIS BENDING BEAM SPLICES COLUMN BASES

SIMPLE

SEMICONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

Simple joints do not resist moments Continuous joints assumed to be rigid Semi-continuous connection need explicit consideration in analysis

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Pinned joint: joints not capable of transmitting significant bending moments Rigid joint: capable of transmitting bending moments Semi-rigid joint: neither pinned nor rigid

Partial strength joint: design resistance less than the connected member

16

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Sway frames: insufficient lateral stiffness, therefore horizontal displacements must be accounted for Non-sway frames: sufficient lateral stiffness, so one can ignore forces from horizontal displacements

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Braced frame: sway resisted by a stiff bracing system Unbraced frame: inadequate sway resistance

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Material properties

Three nominal grades of steel (EN 1993-1-1):

S235 nominal yield strength = 235N/mm2 S275 nominal yield strength = 275N/mm2 S355 nominal yield strength = 355N/mm2

Strengths reduce for 80mm t > 40mm Slightly other strength in EN 10025-2 For all structural steels E = 210 kN/mm2. Special requirements for plastic analysis, fracture toughness, and cold-formed steel

Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 19

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Design checks

Design checks depend on type of structure

frames must be checked for:

resistance of cross-sections resistance of members resistance of connections frame stability static equilibrium

resistance of cross-sections

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Check under factored loads Effects on individual elements determined by analysis Elements designed as isolated components Design checks depend on type of member

SLS (Serviceability Limit State): deflection and vibrations

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Global analysis

Internal forces and corresponding deformations

Elastic analysis

Can practically always be used (with linear load deflection curve; may be combined with plastic calculation of the section)

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Plastic analysis

Requirements to material, section class, restrains, joint ductility Only section class 1

25

Global analysis

Elastic analysis Plastic analysis

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Global analysis

Internal forces and corresponding deformations

(used for non-sway frames or by taking the deformation into account other ways)

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(Equilibrium equations are formulated for the deformed structure, can always be used)

27

Global analysis

First-order analysis done when non-sway frame:

cr 10 cr 15 cr

for elastic analysis for plastic analysis h H , Ed for portal frames with shallow roof slopes

otherwise it is a sway frame, and Second-order analysis must be done (including imperfections) Usually First-order analysis can be done Steel industrial halls (portal frames) are generally non-sway structures

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 28

Design

Calculation of the section

Elastic calculation

Section class 3+4

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Plastic calculation

Section class 1+2

29

Design

Elastic

Plastic

Fully plastic

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Global analysis: internal forces and deformation ULS: Ultimate Limit State

Shtcinfgbals oi ia ol anys ps to ol a i Sro hef a er fo ft bwn ee te ts as k Ganys lbals ol a i Udinhk L egcc Ss es Spianfgbals i lfci ol anys m to ol a i i

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 31

The more sophisticated the analysis is, the less design check tasks are required.

With a true 2nd order elastic analysis, the inplane stability check, for the members and for the frame, is no longer needed. Following a true 2nd order elastic-plastic analysis, in addition, cross-section resistance checks may not be necessary.

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 32

Global analysis Plastic (P) Elastic (E) Elastic (E)

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1

Design

(Calculation of the section)

37

Some are outstand - flanges of I beams - legs of angles and Tees Rolled or welded sections may be considered as an assembly of individual plate elements Internal Internal Web Web Web Internal

Some are internal - webs of open beams - flanges of boxes Outstand Internal

Outstand

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Simply supported edge b

Local buckling

(c)

http://www.shf.tugraz.at/elearning.html

L t

Free edge

(a )

(b)

S im p ly s u p p o r t e a ll f o u r e d g e s

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As the plate elements are relatively thin, when loaded in compression they may buckle locally The tendency of any plate element within the cross section to buckle may limit the axial load carrying capacity, or the bending resistance of the section, by preventing the attainment of yield. Avoidance of premature failure arising from the effects of local buckling may be achieved by limiting the width-to-thickness ratio for individual elements within the cross section.

Outstand Web Internal Web Flange Hollow section Internal Outstand Web Internal Internal

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Section classification

EC3 defines four classes of cross section. The class into which a particular cross section falls depends upon

slenderness of each element (defined by a width-tothickness ratio) the compressive stress distribution

Classes are defined in terms of performance requirements for resistance of bending moments

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Moment

Plastic moment on gross section

fy

M pl

Local Buckling

M Mpl

1

Class 1 crosssections are those which can form a plastic hinge with the required rotational capacity for plastic analysis.

Sufficient

1

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1

rot pl

pl

42

Moment

Plastic moment on gross section

fy

Mpl

Local Buckling

M Mpl

1

Class 2 cross-sections are those which, although able to develop a plastic moment, have limited rotational capacity and are therefore unsuitable for structures designed by plastic analysis.

Limited

pl

43

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Moment

Elastic moment on gross section

fy

Mpl

Mel Local Buckling

Class 3 cross-sections are those in which the calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre can reach yield but local buckling prevents the development of the plastic moment resistance.

M Mpl

None

1

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1

pl

44

Moment

Plastic moment on Class 4 cross-sections are those in which local effective section

fy

Mpl

Mel

Local Buckling

M Mpl

buckling limits the moment resistance (or compression resistance for axially loaded members). Explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling is necessary.

None

pl

45

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Global analysis Plastic (P) Elastic (E) Elastic (E)

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Design

(Calculation of the section)

47

Steel Structures EN 1993 -1

b

tw Axis of Bending d tw

d

tw

tw

b axis of bending

d = h-3t (t = tf = t w)

tf

tf

tf

tf

Web subject to bending and compression + fy d d h fy when > 0,5: d/t w < 396/(13 1) _ when < 0,5: d/t w _ 36/ <

Type + -

Section in bending fy

Section in compression + fy

_ <33 _ <33 _ <38 _ <38

- + (b - 3t f)/ t f b / tf (b - 3t f )/ tf b / tf + fy

_ <42 * _ <42 _ <42 * _ <42

2 d/t w < 83 _ _ d/t w < 38 d/t w < 456/(13 1) _ when < 0,5: d/t w < 41,5/ _ +fy d + h fy when > 1: d/t w _ 42/(0,67 + 0,33) < _ when < 1: < d/t w _ 62/(1 ) = 235 / f y fy 235 1 275 0,92 d h

+ fy d/2 h d/2 fy -

+ fy

_ <42 _ <42

= 235/ f y

_ d/t w < 42

* For a cross section in compression with no bending the classification 1,2,3 are irrelevant and hence the limit is the same in each case.

( )

355 0,81

Faculty of Engineering

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c. Outstand flanges:

c tf

c tf tf c tf

Welded sections Flange subject to compression and bending Tip in Tip in compression tension c c + c c _ c/t f < 10 _ c/t f < 9e _ c/t f < 10 _ 9 c/t f < 11

+ 3 e. Tubular sections:

t

h b+h 15 : 115 , t 2t

Rolled Welded

Rolled 2 Welded

_ c/t f < 11 _ c/t f < 10 + c _ c/t f < 23 k c/t f < 23 k _ 275 0,92

_ c/t f <

Class

c/t f < 10 _

+ c

1 2 3 fy

2

d / t 70 2 d / t 90 2

235 1 1

= 235/ f y

= 235/ f y

fy

Faculty of Engineering

49

Conclusion

No calculation of resistance against local buckling is necessary for class 1-3, only in class 4 local buckling may occur Cross-sections with class 4 elements may be replaced by an effective cross-section Class 4 - taken as the gross section minus holes where the buckles (from local buckling) may occur designed in a similar manner to class 3 sections using elastic cross-sectional resistance limited by yielding in the extreme fibres There will be no further work on local buckling during this course.

Faculty of Engineering

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Working Example

Example 5.1: cross-section classification under combined bending and compression Designers Guide to EN 1993-1-1 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures general rules and rules for buildings

Faculty of Engineering

51

Working Example

5.12.15 Example 15 checking a simply supported beam THE BEHAVIOR AND DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES TO EC 3 (Note: m0=1,1 DK NA)

Faculty of Engineering

52

Working Example

4.9.2 Example 2 section moment resistance of a Class 3 I-beam THE BEHAVIOR AND DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES TO EC 3 (Note: m0=1,1 DK NA)

Faculty of Engineering

53

Working Example

Faculty of Engineering

54

Summary

Structural sections may be considered as an assembly of individual plate elements. Plate elements may be internal or outstand When loaded in compression these plates may buckle locally Local buckling may limit the load carrying capacity of the section by preventing the attainment of yield strength Premature failure due to local buckling may be avoided by limiting the width to thickness ratio - or slenderness of individual elements within the cross section. This is the basis of the section classification approach.

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 55

Exercise

To the next lesson, please recall how to calculate:

Moment of intertia Iy and Iz Elastic section modulus Wel,y and Wel,z (also just called Wy and Wz) The elastic stress el=N/A+My/Wy+Mz/Wz for H profile and the stress distribution over the profile

Faculty of Engineering Steel Structures EN 1993 -1 56

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