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# COHSTHL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING

Volume 7 Philip L.-F. Liu, Editor

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World Scientific

ADVANCES IN COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING

**CORSE HND OCEHN ENGINEERING
**

Volume 7

Editor

Philip L.-F. Liu

Cornell University

V f e World Scientific

wb Singapore • New Jersey • London • Hong Kong Sinqapore L

Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. P O Box 128, Farrer Road, Singapore 912805 USA office: Suite IB, 1060 Main Street, River Edge, NJ 07661 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ADVANCES IN COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING Volume 7 Copyright © 2001 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher.

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ISBN 981-02-4620-X

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but also serve as guides to the literature and as stimuli to thought and to future research. Collections of review articles covering broad sectors of science and engineering are still the best way of sifting new knowledge critically. coastal and offshore structures. air-sea interactions. Critical reviews on engineering designs and practices in different countries will also be included. Our plans for this series include articles on sediment transport. P.PREFACE TO T H E R E V I E W SERIES The rapid flow of new literature has confronted scientists and engineers of all branches with a very acute dilemma: How to keep up with new knowledge without becoming too narrowly specialized. Each article will review and illuminate the development of scientific understanding of a specific engineering topic. L. Comprehensive review articles written by discerning scientists and engineers not only separate lasting knowledge from the ephemeral. Liu . engineering materials.-F. ocean waves. The aim of this review series is to present critical commentaries of the stateof-the-art knowledge in the field of coastal and ocean engineering. and seafloor dynamics.

.

Ming-Yang Su and Joel Wesson. They provide a comprehensive review of mathematical modeling procedures developed in recent years in the area of elliptic wave equations. Drs. Several experiments have suggested that the frequency downshift could be a rather sudden process associated with wave breaking. the Zakharov's equation provides a broader basis for higher-order equations. such as Dysthe's equation and the Zakharov's equation. Drs. Several field experiments are used to illustrate the functionality of these sensors. Drs. Discussions are extended to higher-order modulation equations. The Nonlinear cubic Schrodinger (NLS) equations are then presented and discussed for both deepwater and varying water depth with or without an ambient current. Both authors. This comprehensive review article starts with several illustrative sections to guide readers to the nonlinear wave processes in deep and intermediate water. they first give a comprehensive review of various sensors for measuring physical parameters of the bubble field generated by wave breaking and the corresponding deployment methods for some of these sensors in the coastal water. The second paper is entitled "Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics in Coastal Shallow Water". Derived from the Hamiltonian principle. are experts in field measurements and instrumentations. and electromagnetic principles. Based on their experience in the field experiments. entitled "Simulation of Waves in Harbors Using Two-Dimensional Elliptic Equation Models".PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH V O L U M E This volume consists of five papers covering a wide range of topics in coastal oceanographic engineering. In this paper. These sensors are based on the optical. acoustical. Panchang and Demirbilek present the third review paper. Dingemans and Otta point out the importance of including the formulations of dissipation due to breaking in the modulation equations. Su and Wesson give an insightful account of dynamical and statistical features of wave breaking and bubble field in the nearshore environment. Drs. they have been involved in studying bubble dynamics in deepwater waves and in coastal shallow water waves for more than fifteen years. which vii . Maarten Dingemans and Ashwini Otta prepare the first paper on the subject of "Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves". Drs. In particular.

The fourth paper is written by Dr. The Laser-Induced Fluorescent-dye technique is used to examine the qualitative characteristics and behaviors of gravity currents and internal bores.viii Preface to Volume 7 are suitable for simulating wave agitations and resonance in ports and harbors. Several practical applications are demonstrated.-F. Harry Yeh and Kiyoshi Wada report their laboratory observations on lock exchange flows. realistic boundary conditions. the determination of empirical coefficients characterizing the porous materials is discussed. The structure could be impermeable and permeable. Philip L. Modeling techniques and extensions of the linear mild-slope equation to include steep slope. In the last paper Drs. The volume of fluid method is used in the model to trace the free surface location so that wave-breaking process can be simulated. Losada and is entitled "Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave and Permeable Structure Interaction". 2001 . In the case of permeable structures. wave-wave and wave-current interactions are discussed. The similarity and dissimilarity between gravity flows and internal bores are discussed based on vortex dynamics. The paper also reviews the state of arts wave models based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations. This paper focuses on the theoretical development of various mathematical models for wave and structure interactions. Liu. and dissipative mechanisms such as wave breaking and bottom friction.

MD 20910. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory. USA) IX . Orono. O. Avda. ME 04469 USA (Temporarily at NOAA Sea Grant Office. University of Maine. Vicksburg. Losada Ocean Sz Coastal Research Group. 1315 East-West Highway. de los Castros s/n.CONTRIBUTORS Zeki Demirblek US Army Engineer Research and Development Center.S. E. 39005 Santander Spain Ashwini Kumar Otta Splash Hydrodynamics Kerkstraat 20a 8011 RV Zwolle The Netherlands Vijay Panchang School of Marine Sciences. MS 39180 USA Maarten Dingemans Delft Hydraulics P. Canales y Puertos. Box 152 8300 ad Emmeloord The Netherlands Inigo J. Silver Spring. de Caminos. Universidad de Cantabria.T.I.

x Contributors Ming-Yang Su Naval Research Laboratory. Stennis Space Center. WA 38195-2700 USA . Inc. 50104 Japan Joel C. Oceanography Division. Slidell. LA 70458 USA Harry Yeh Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Box 352700 University of Washington Seattle. MS 39529 USA Kiyoshi Wada Department of Civil Engineering Gifu National College of Technology Sinsei-cho. Wesson Neptune Sciences. Gifu-ken.

Wesson Simulation of Waves in Harbors Using Two-Dimensional Elliptic Equation Models Vijay Panchang and Z.CONTENTS Preface to the review series Preface to the seventh volume Contributors Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves Maarten Dingemans and Ashwini Otta Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics in Coastal Shallow Water Ming-Yang Su and Joel C. Demirbilek Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave and Permeable Structure Interaction Inigo J. Losada Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows Harry Yeh and Kiyoshi Wada v vii ix 1 77 125 163 203 .

1.1.3.1.4. Narrow-band approximation in both dispersion and nonlinearity 6. Reduction of Zakharov equation to NLS-type equation 6. Some Solutions of the NLS-type Equations 5.4. Basic Insight into Modulational Processes 2.3. Modification due to an ambient current 6.4.2.4. Decaying solutions 5. The Zakharov equation 6. Propagation in one dimension 4. Soliton-type solutions 6.4. Nonlinear Schrodinger-type Equations: Horizontal Bottom 3. Effects of surface tension 4. Nonlinear Schrodinger-type Equations: Uneven Bottom 4.2. OTTA Contents 1.1. An alternative 2DH set of equations 3. The Dysthe equation 6. Special cases of NLS-type equations 3.1.4. Modification due to surface tension 6.2. Introduction 2. Extensions of the Zakharov equation 1 2 4 5 7 8 8 10 11 15 16 18 19 22 22 25 28 28 31 31 31 35 35 37 38 43 43 45 47 51 .3.3. DINGEMANS and ASHWINI K.NONLINEAR MODULATION OF WATER WAVES MAARTEN W. The scaling in the NLS equation 3.1. Shallow-water limit 4. A sketch of the derivation in two horizontal dimensions 3.1. Basic ideas of the Benjamin-Feir instability mechanism 3.2. Effect of an ambient current on ID propagation 5.2. Narrow-band approximation in nonlinearity only 6. Propagation in two horizontal dimensions 4.2. A heuristic derivation of the NLS equation 3. A simple example of instability 2.5.3. Higher-Order Modulation Equations 6.5. Conservation laws 3.6.

Deep-water modulation: initial stage and demodulation 8. variation of the bottom and current and forcing conditions such as wind. This allows introduction of a wave potential Q(x. usually uniformly. Summary References 1.y)T is directed horizontally while z is directed upwards (opposite to the gravity acceleration vector). Transformation of waves take place as they propagate due to interactions between components. Observations of Wave Modulations 8.1.t) and a kinematic condition at the bottom. W. a kinematic and a dynamic condition at the free surface z — ((x. t) such that the velocity field (it. Generation of Free Long Waves 7. Regular waves typically consist of a few components (not necessarily harmonics of each other) while random waves consist of many components in which the phases are distributed randomly. distinction is made between regular and random waves. Deep-water modulation: modulation leading to breaking 8.t). V 2 $+|^=0. in water-wave propagation problems. Comparison between theory and experiment 9.v)T = (ui.2 M.5.2. z. -h(x.ii2) T is the horizontal velocity vector and w is the vertical component.6. Experiences show that the important features of nonlinear wave interactions. refraction and shoaling due to bottom and current variation may be represented satisfactorily using a simpler mathematical description under the assumption of the fluid being inviscid and irrotational. the Laplace equation for $.1. The governing equations for wave motion are then given by a field equation. In wave motion. Theoretical aspects of modulational instability 8.t) < z < C(x. K. no ambient currents 8.3. ID situation.X2) T = (x. Introduction Customarily. w)T is given by (V$. (la) . Formulation of the equations 7. We shall use in this text a coordinate system such that x = (xi. The still-water level and the sea bed are defined respectively by z = 0 and z = —h{x). Otta 52 53 56 59 59 63 64 66 67 68 69 71 7. Laboratory observations 8. effect of shear is usually confined to a thin boundary layer.2.4. Dingemans & A. d$/dz)T where u = (u. Spectral evolution 8.

(lb) ^ and + V*. (lc) and (Id) in terms of the free-surface wave potential ip(x.t) = $>{x. Because the pressure in the water is reckoned with respect to the atmospheric pressure. (Id) where with 7 V T[(] = 7V . pa is taken to be zero for simplicity. see Dingemans (1997. While the framework described above is complete within the assumption of potential theory. Eqs.((x. Both 7 and the atmospheric pressure pa are usually taken to be constant.V< = - at z = £(x. we write the free-surface conditions of Eqs. «92$ dt2 5$ dz d 1„^ „ 15$ d h-V$•VH 9t 2 2dzdz +9 £)+'-'2 at = 0 2 = C .g. tractable solutions of the exactly nonlinear equations are at the least computationally too heavy to permit computations over large area and gain insight into the physical processes.t). f[(l + VC ) 1] ivci / 2 1 2 5 (le) 7 being the surface tension.V / i = 0. (V$) 2 9< = 0 at z = ((x. z — —h(x). ^ + i ( V ^ ) 2 .t). It is therefore essential to simplify the analytical setups with which the "relevant" physical processes .t). we can eliminate ( from the two free-surface conditions to get. (lc) 9$ ~dt P = Pa .Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 3 and the three boundary conditions. Taking pa = 0 and 7 = 0.i K ) 2 [ l + (VC)2] + ^ + K = 0 : dt (3a) (3b) + v^-vc-«/[i + (vc)2 0.. (64)).T[C] V $ . e.(2) For later use.t} and the s free-surface vertical velocity w — (<9<&/<9z)|z=f.

A key assumption used in the simplification of this process is the narrow-bandedness of the spectrum. This allows one to represent the entire spectrum or components within a narrow-band by a single component with a fast-varying phase function (varying at a basic central frequency u>o and a corresponding wave number ko) and a slow-modulation of the amplitude. and Dias and Kharif (1999). While for capillary waves (wave length A less than 2 cm) on one end of the wave spectrum and shallow water waves (A > 7h. are beyond the purview of this review. This article is by no means an exhaustive review of modulation phenomena. Of importance to coastal engineers over intermediate depth. well-known as the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS). An example of the application of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation to the computation of the velocity field under waves has been given by Trulsen et al. Basic Insight into Modulational Processes One of the earliest motivations for study of nonlinear modulation came from the observations of instabilities of water waves in wave flumes (Benjamin and . the simplest form of the modulation equation. W. For interested readers. Dingemans & A. the significant interaction takes place between three waves (quadratic). Otta may be quantified. A summary of the experimental observations is compiled to discuss the "relevant" features during interactions and the need to go beyond NLS. the same occurs between four waves (cubic) over deep and intermediate water for gravity waves. This equation is the simplest form to study nonlinear modulation over deep and intermediate water. 2. Hammack and Henderson (1993). h being the water depth) on the other. except for a short discussion on their effects. Capillary waves. Mathematical definitions and elaboration of the narrow-bandedness and the slow-modulation will be presented in the following section. shallow water waves are kept outside the present scope. One of the fundamental processes in wave propagation is "resonant" or "near-resonant" interaction between wave components.4 M. additional references of previous reviews of modulation of water waves are by Yuen and Lake (1980. Similarly. (2001). 1982). Nonlinear transformations taking effect over a length scale much larger compared to 2ir/kQ are accounted for in the slow-modulation of the amplitude function. We will then discuss how the assumption of narrowness may be relaxed and higher-order description may be used. K. We will first provide an insight to the nonlinear modulation followed by a derivation of the nonlinear (cubic) modulation equation. we have paid attention to propagation over a varying bottom and in the presence of an ambient current.

Nonlinear Modulation

of Water Waves

5

Feir, 1967). Although instability is a special feature of nonlinear modulation, we shall start with instability as an introduction. The essence of modulational instability can be treated in a number of factually equivalent ways. First, we consider an example based on the action equation and the equation of conservation of wave crests. Next, we consider the principal features of the Benjamin and Feir instability. Subsequently, we consider the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation of which we give an heuristic derivation. The Benjamin and Feir instability also results from a perturbation of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. A succinct physical explanation for the onset of instability of weakly nonlinear waves has been given by Lighthill (1965, 1967). We here follow his analysis, (1) Consider a pulse of weakly nonlinear waves in deep water which initially contains waves of uniform lengths. (2) Since the nonlinearity causes the crests of the waves with the larger amplitudes to travel more quickly {to2 = gk(l + k2a2)), wave numbers tend to increase in the front of the pulse and decrease at the end of the pulse. (3) Because dcg/dk < 0, the shorter waves in front of the pulse and the longer waves behind the pulse cause energy to approach the centre of the pulse, resulting in an increase of the amplitude in the centre of the pulse. This accelerates the instability. For the case of finite-amplitude waves in water of finite depth, the spatial variation of the waves induces a mean flow and a change in mean water level. These mean flow and mean water level variations have a stabilizing effect because they cause wave numbers to increase behind the pulse and decrease in front of the pulse. 2.1. A simple example of instability

We first notice that, in absence of ambient currents, the modulation of a wave train can be described by the equation for wave action conservation and the equation for conservation of wave crests,

^ ^Urr '

n

da2

+

d

/

8LU 2 \

0

(4a)

6

M. W. Dingemans

& A. K. Otta

An essential property of nonlinear behaviour is the dependence of the frequency w on the amplitude a of the wave. For near-linear waves, u> may be written as: UJ = uj0(k) + L02(k)a2-\ . (5)

**Simply using this expression for u in Eq. (4b) results in:
**

dki fdu>o 9u>2 2\ ®kj

dt

\ dkj

-a dkj J dxi

•w2(k)—=0. dxi

. .da2

(6)

The important term in Eq. (6) is u>2da2/dxi. This term leads to a correction of 0(a) in the characteristic velocities. The other extra term merely gives an 0(a2) correction of an existing term in dkj/dxi. Substitution of Eq. (5) into the wave action equation (4a) only results in extra terms of 0{a2). Neglecting this term and considering wave propagation in one spatial direction only, results into: da2 ,,,^da2 — +.'0(k)^ ,,.,. 0dk + < ( f c ) a » - = 0, ._ , (7a) .„ N (7b)

dk , .,. dk ,,. da2 -5E+-'o(k)^+^k)—=0,

where a prime denotes differentiation to k. The characteristics (or wave rays) of this set are given by:

^=#)TyS#)a.

(8)

If u>2(k)ujQ (k) > 0, we have two different characteristic velocities. This is clearly a nonlinear effect because for vanishing a (the linear approximation), we have dx/dt = oj'0(k), as follows directly from Eq. (4b) when w = u>o is used. If U2(k)cjQ(k) < 0, the characteristic velocities of Eq. (8) are complex and the system in Eqs. (7a) and (7b) is elliptic. That means small sub-harmonic modulations will grow with time and that the wave system is unstable in this sense. For waves on deep water, the dispersion relation reads,

LO

2

gk(l + (ak)2 + • • • ) ,

(9a)

'gk[l+l-(ak)2

+ --- ) .

(9b)

Nonlinear Modulation

of Water Waves LO2LOQ

7

We thus have LU0 = \fgk and LO2 = gl^2kb/2/2 for all k for waves on deep water. 2.2. Basic ideas of the Benjamin-Feir

and we have

= -gk/8

<0

instability

mechanism

A Stokes wave can be unstable due to side-band perturbations as shown by Benjamin and Feir (1967). The essential steps are as follows (see also Stuart and DiPrima, 1978), (1) Consider the small-amplitude wave, aexp[i(kx — cot)}. (10)

(2) Nonlinear interactions force the generation of harmonics of this mode in particular the second harmonic which is proportional to: a2 exp[2i(kx - ut)] . (3) Suppose that two modal perturbations arise, An upper side band and a lower side band a-i exp[i(k2X — u>2t)], (12b) with ai, C2 -C a. (4) Nonlinear interaction between the second harmonic and these side-band perturbations produces, a2ai exp[i(2fc — k\)x — i(2to — to{)t\, and a2a,2 exp[i(2fc — k2)x — i(2u> — W2)t], and also the sum-interaction terms. (5) Suppose now that:

kx + k2=2k, LJ1+U2 = 2LO. (14)

(11)

a\ exp[i(kix — u>it)],

(12a)

(13a)

(13b)

Then a2a,2 exp[i(fcia; — cuit)] ~ upper side band, and a2a\ exp[i(k2X — u^i)] ~ lower side band. (15b) (15a)

8

M. W. Dingemans

& A. K. Otta

We see that the simultaneous presence of the upper and lower side bands in association with the second harmonic results in a mutual reinforcement of resonance. The instability mechanism for Stokes waves is essentially the exponential growth in time resulting from this synchronous resonance. Mathematical features of modulational instability will be discussed later in section 8.1. 3. Nonlinear Schrodinger-type Equations: Horizontal B o t t o m The nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation is the simplest example of an evolution equation for weakly nonlinear waves with strong frequency dispersion. The NLS equation describes the nonlinear evolution of a wave group with carrier wave number k and frequency LO. We first consider the properties of a wave group (see also Chu and Mei, 1971). Let the group consist of a superposition of two sinusoidal waves with amplitude oo and different (u>i, ki) and (u>2, k2). The resulting wave is written as a cos x with: / 5k a(x, t) = 2oo cos ( —x

X{x,t)

5LJ

\ —t I ,

(16) (17)

= -(k1+k2)x--(to1+uj2)t,

with 5k = k\—ki and 5u> = u>i — <JJ2- We now introduce the carrier wave number and frequency by k = dx/dx = (ki + k2)/2 and u> = —dx/dt = (u>i + u>2)/2. It is seen now that when the individual waves satisfy the dispersion relation u>j = fl(kj), it is not true for o = fi(fc) except for nondispersive waves. Indeed, > one has w = (£l(ki) + Q,(k2))/2 which becomes Taylor expansion for small 5k/k,

u=

o (i) + M

w

8

dk2

+

M

384 dk4 equation

+

....

(18)

v

'

3.1. A heuristic

derivation

of the NLS

A heuristic derivation of the NLS equation has been given by a number of authors, amongst which are Karpman and Krushkal' (1969), Kadomtsev and Karpman (1971), Karpman (1975, section 27), Jeffrey and Kawahara (1982, p. 59), Yuen and Lake (1982, p. 75), and Dingemans (1997, section 8.3.2). The derivation starts with a harmonic wave with basic frequency and wave number

Nonlinear Modulation

of Water Waves

9

given as

(u0,k0),

C(x,t) = R e ^ O r , * ) ^ 0 * - ^ ^ ^ } = R e ^ O r , ^ 7 ^ }

= Re{A(x,t)e-^x'^}. The dispersion relation is written in the general form, w= ft(fc,a2). (20) (19)

As we consider modulated waves, we now focus on small changes in the carrier wave frequency and wave number U>Q and ko: u> = OJQ + SLO and k = ko + Sk with SUJ/LOQ = 0(/3) <C 1 and 5k/ko = C(/3). We now consider small changes of this basic state, i.e., we expand around the basic state consisting of (wo,ko) an-d zero amplitude (thus around the linear approximation). As amplitude measure, we use the small parameter e which stands for either ak or a/h whichever parameter is the most restrictive. Then, we have,

u

= n(*,.o)+(£)o«+i (*g)o(«,.+(g>)|i.>+.aJV). Pi)

with ()o denoting that the quantity is evaluated for the basic state (ko and a = 0). We introduce the abbreviations, a;0 = ft(fco,0), c

f l

=(^)

and

< = (|j^)

.

(22)

so that Eq. (21) may be written as: - ( w - w„) + cgSk + ^{Skf + (^\ a2 + • • • = 0 . (23)

We now introduce operator correspondence for which we have Sk —• idx and > w — u>o = Su> —> —idx with X is the slow spatial coordinate X = j3x and T the slow time T = /3t. Operating on A* results in:

i£r+°-&y-?*!m

+ (m)wA-

=

°-

(24)

Introduction of the moving coordinate £ and the time variable r by (see also next subsection): £ = X -cgT and r = sT, (25)

k) and (u>'.2.. we follow simple arguments of Asano (1974).. V = u/K is: y = c (9o ) + + I^+i^2 + 2dk2 Qdk3 (32) .-. d2A . the linear phase velocity of the wave envelope. then. T. „l2 „ (26) have been used and where e = j3 has been set. The dispersion relation is: _. (30b) In order to see why r and £ are scaled as Eq. 1 d2ui r ^ 2 + 1 d3uj _~ "()*+2^* 6WK + ' (31) where cfl(°) = dw/dk is the group velocity of the carrier wave (u.2 „ (30a) £ =/3(z . = u>' — u> and K = k' — k are small. k). W. K. 2 | „. 1+ -k2a2 gk 1 + -fcV ^0. (30b). If the differences Q. Consider two waves with frequency and wave numbers (u>.„ (29) 3.c s i) and r = e/3t. The scaling in the NLS The NLS equation reads. (28) and we thus obtain for deep water the NLS equation. Otta and changing to A leads to the NLS equation in its usual form.. dA lu)0d2A 1 .k'). Then. Dingemans & A. „.10 M. (27) d2A <9£ 2 . the resulting wave will have a long-wave envelope with wave number K and frequency Q. For deep water we have. dA where equation . dA where the abbreviations. n = c /(.

Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 11 On the other hand. one obtains dx/dt = ecg^' + cg(°>. it was required that (kh)2 ~ a/h. the free-surface elevation is given as: C(x.. 0) = ie-a(Pxu px2)eikxi + CC . (33) The coupling between the modulation and the nonlinearity is strongest when both effects are of equal order of magnitude.3. without frequency dispersion). and so X = j3x where x is scaled with A = 2ir/k. The coordinate along the characteristic curve is then £ = (3(x — cg(°H). its propagation velocity may be described by the characteristic velocity dx/dt which expanded in powers of e. A sketch of the derivation in two horizontal dimensions We will give here a sketch of the derivation of the NLS-type of equations in two horizontal dimensions for the case of a horizontal bottom. considering the long wave with (Cl.K) to be a nonlinear long wave (i.e.cg(°H). it is necessary that: pedt 9 ' This (34) Introducing the slow time scale r = £/3t.. At time t ~ 0. r = e(3t.r). (33). (35) . In order to remain near the centre of the wave group. a moving coordinate system should be applied. the scale on which the wave group has to be considered is A = A//3. it follows that dx/dt = p-ld£. one obtains d£/dt = cg^(^. Because K = C(/3) is measured with respect to the carrier wave number k. produces. In order that these expressions are the same. K = 0(s). this means that /3 ~ e. can be written as: g = c g (°)+ £Cs W+ £ 2 c g ( 2 ) + . Because we already had K — 0((3). For permanency. Thus./dt + cg(°\ From Eq.-. 3. £ = (3{x . Notice that this is similar to the case of stationary fairly long waves where the linear dispersive long wave velocity is c = ^fgh{\ — (kh)2/3 + • • • } and the nonlinear nondispersive long wave velocity is c = \/gh{l + a/(2h) + • • • } . Because one has x = (3~li + cg^H. This derivation follows Davey and Stewartson (1974).

dz [ + > [d? + dV2 r • . £ = e(xi . ((X. The governing equations are the Laplace equation for $ in —h < z < ((x.t). T (37b) (e = j3) . we get. it can be seen that <^1.m) 92j. 4>*-m = <Pm .m) d$ Q2±(n.t) and <j>m(x. where cg is the linear group velocity and no distinction between the two scales e and j3 is made anymore. Dingemans & A.a.T).i . the functions (m(x. and the dynamic condition at z = (.t) are expanded as: (37a) cm = E £ ^ ( n . (38) Using the bottom condition.Lot)}. m ) (^ 7 ?' T )n—m oo = J2en</>^m>(Z. A solution of these equations is taken to be of the following form. Upon substitution of the representation for <? in the J Laplace equation. EE^ «9£2 ^(n'm) 2 dz *^V(-)+2fefcm-^(B. the kinematic conditions at z = —h and z = (. £(0.. (36b) Subsequently. zeroth-harmonic terms £(°>°) and <^°'°) are taken to be zero. Otta which thus represents a progressive wave in the xx direction with a slowlyvarying amplitude. The amplitude a is measured here in m 2 s _ 1 .z. i.. The zeroth-order.t) = J2 77171 (36a) C-m = Cm .Z. a is a measure for the amplitude of the velocity potential $(x.cgt). E = exp[i(A.m) dr]2 0. rj = ex2 .t)= with J2 tmE™.z. <f>(3'°} is the first zeroth-harmonic term which depends on z.t). $(x. K.12 M.0) and c/>(2'0) are independent of z. W. (37c) = e2t.°) = </>(°'°) = 0.T.(n.e.

. . 2. and for c^2.O) . 2. 2 and then it is possible to calculate the quantities £(n. the component d^'^/dz of the vertical velocity gives a contribution in the kinematic free surface condition. c = w/fc and a — tanh /c/i. but. (40) and (41) describe the evolution of the progressive wave to first order in e. .dB (z + h) sinhk(z + h) — htanhkhcoshk(z <9£ cosh k h + h) (39b) Subsequently. 2. an equation for 0(3>°) follows. (41) is a NLS equation. For n = 3.3 and m = 0.m) for n = i i 2 a n d m = 0.1) and £(3.1) is found. The coefficients of enEm are equated to zero for n = 1. 4M„. (41) It is noted that Eqs. and <> are substituted in the kinematic and £ dynamic free-surface conditions. that one is not needed here.1. the expressions for C.4/ . 2r . Equation (40) is a Poisson-type of equation for the mean flow with forcing and Eq. The coefficients of e3E1 in the kinematic and dynamic free-surface conditions yield two equations for </>(3. i^1'0) is the first-order mean current and B is the amplitude of i^1'1) evaluated at z = 0.9r. Eliminating C^2'°\ a differential equation for </>(1.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 13 For <^1. 2 i ^ + "dkiW + CC9 W = 2 k{9a ~ u + 13a ~ 2 a m B + k2(2c + cg(l-a2))B^^.1. coupled to the mean flow. Elimination of one of these from the two equations shows that the equations are only compatible if the following condition is fulfilled.0) is found.aV li0) L 0V (1. 2NIS|S| 2 where c is the phase velocity. Also.1) at z = 0.:L) and <fi(2'2\ the following expressions are found. dB d2ud2B d2B 1.

we write xf a n d 4 to remind one of the fact that these coefficients depend on the definition of B being the envelope of the wave potential or the free-surface elevation. We obtain (Davey and Stewartson.o . v2 (45a) (45b) g C =iu.c s 2 + gh(l . We have. (a 2) flC ' = k2B2 ( ^ ) . Dingemans & A. 4 =fc2[2c+ c 0 ( l . 1974).dB x d B l +X l + ^ W >* W + g h d2B . « = ^ | > 0 .14 M. . (42a) a ^ ^ = ^ ( i l B P h (42b) with the coefficients given by: xf = ^(9(7-2-12 + 13a2-2a4). g(^=iuB. K. (39). l2n „90(1. Otta For later use.[ .kha)}. in the latter case.D + c g ^.2 ) ] . 2 . W. we write Xi a n d 4. (430 Because B is the envelope of the wave potential.cr 2 )(l .cg2 . ^ gCW)=cga-^--k2{l-o2)\B\2. + cg(l-a2)]. these equations are written in the following form.We drop the superscript in those situations in which the value of the coefficients is not immediately needed. (43a) (43b) (43c) (43d) (43e) X2 = ^[2c a = gh. X\=^x\ a d 4 = -4. n (44) The solutions for the £(n>m) follow from the free-surface conditions for the various orders of approximation using the solutions of Eq. A i = ^ . .o) 1 X2 = Xl1 l dT' .

In fact.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 15 LOF = 3ik2B2 1-a4' 4CT2 (45c) 3.1.).3.rj. (49a) 9 .d 2 l (48a) (48b) 2 \B\2 dr)2 ^ dr] >1 = i „ » ( t ) < o . ghd2Q +gh 2 <9£ r. cg2 Equations (48) are sometimes referred to as the Davey and Stewartson equations (D&S Eqs.T) = 2 k d£ l gh-cg2 c9 2(l-o-2)\B\ g (46) The mean surface elevation £(2'0) then is given by: £(2. 2c + c 3 ( l . \ ^ dr {gh-cg2)'~with 92Q . k4 Acoa2 w = ^)s|>„.c r 2 ) gh - K\ = ghc.a2) + gh{\ - a2)2} (49b) (49c) (49d) fc4 2U)Cr [2c + c f f ( l .10a 2 + 9CT4 2a2 gh-cg V2 :{4c2 + 4cc s (l . 2 (47) Equations (41) and (40) can then be written in the form.V. An alternative 2DH set of equations A quantity Q(^. i ™ + 0^ ^+ +^dr.2 = vt\B\2B + v2QB.a 2 ) ] > 0 .0) k2 „ g k[a + 2kh(l-a2)} ghcg2 B\2.T) is introduced by: d^ifi) Q{Z. it would be more appropriate to call these and similar equations the Benney and Newell equations because they were first derived for .

p. Dingemans & A. The first conservation law is obtained by multiplying Eq. (50) by qx and the complex conjugate equation by qx and subtracting these equations. „ (50) Zakharov and Shabat (1972) (see also Lamb.e. (53) . one has gh — cg2 > 0 for waves of finite length and therefore..4. 349). Adding these equations leads to: i{qqxt .j+k=n fjfk> * = |"ii* £ (51b) and /o = 0.16 M. see Debnath. (52) Secondly.. in absence of capillarity. W. n>l. (50) with qx and its complex conjugate with qx and add these equations to give. An integration to x then leads to d/dt J_oo \q\2dx = 0. P = A/A = Ak/k and AA^/Afci are all small parameters of the same order where k = (k2 + k^)1/2. First. an elliptic equation). Conservation laws It is well known that the NLS has a infinite set of conservation laws. (48) are derived under the conditions that e = ka. Writing the NLS equation as: { da ~b\ + d2q . 3. we multiply Eq. p. We also note that Eqs. Otta water waves in the paper of Benney and Newell (1967). It is noticed that. (51a) /n+i = 9 i(^) + . CO {2i)nCT / with -oo fn(x)dx.qqxt) + {qxXXq + qxxxq) + o\ [q{\q\2q)x + q{\q?q)x] = o. .qtqx) + {qxxqx + qxXqx) + vi\q\2(qqx + qqx) = o. The second conserved quantity fc is obtained as follows. «(<Mx . t>0. The first two conservation laws are readily obtained as follows (e. Q satisfies an equation of Poisson type (i. I l l ) gave the conserved quantities in the form.g. 1980. K. (50) and its complex conjugate are differentiated to x and we multiply the resulting equations with q and q respectively. 1994. Eq.n W^+(Jl^ 1= ° m -oo<x<oo.

= I2.= — . (59a) h= IJ(BW~A'w)d^dn' (59b) W/H^-<)^' (9) 5c . e. (57) is independent of time as Ii is a conserved quantity and thus time-independent. also given in Dingemans (1997. Ablowitz and Segur (1979) gave the following conserved quantities belonging to the D&S equations (42). (52) and integration to x then leads to: d_ oo rco dt / i(qqx . Watanabe et al. •oo (54) Usually. The first two are: OO -I /-OO / •oo dx\q(x. real conserved quantities are used with different numerical factors.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 17 Subtraction of Eq.t) defined as: %E = S^°oo x\q\2dx roo3 | .g.t)\2dx and I2 = — / • " J -oo (q*qx .qqx)dx = 0 . With the centre of gravity XE of q(x. (1979). . 928).. p. (55) Watanabe et al.9 . y) because the left side of Eq. (57) -oo which can be used to define the velocity of the centre of gravity of q(x.q*xq)dx. (58) J_oo \q?dx dt h and thus XE is also a conserved quantity. h= JJ\B\2d^drj.t)\2dx dt / (56) which upon differentiation to t leads to the relation. (1979) gave also a different conserved quantity IQ as: 7 = ° I-" I*' 9 ' 2 " ^iiq*qx ~ m*x)} ^ ' OO d r°° x\q(x. it follows that dxE li ——. (53) from Eq. see.

see L o n g u e t Higgins (1976). Special cases of NLS-type equations In the reduction to the I D case. we have kh — 00 and a —> 1. the envelope B is the amplitude of the potential. W h e n the envelope B is independent of the lateral coordinate 77. (60a) 30(1. Eq. (61) is in fact uniformly valid for kh —> 00 (the condition ekh <C 1 need not be imposed) because the troublesome terms cancel in the next approximation. W. or the length of the wave group is much larger t h a n the depth). 5 . Dingemans & A. . 3 .0) can be determined after the complex amplitude has been determined from the NLS equation (60a). K. Equation (42b) can then be integrated once so t h a t the resulting system is: 8B x d2B vi\B\2B. Notice t h a t Eq. In the limit for deep water. Here. therefore.0) dt where the condition d<f>^1^ /d£ given by: -«2|S|2. the equation reduces further to the one-dimensional NLS equation for deep water. the dependence on the lateral coordinate 7 7 is ignored. (41) reduces to: which is the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation for deep water. Skh <C 1. Keeping now > ekh <C 1 (and. (59d) These conservation laws can be useful as a check on numerical computations of NLS-type equations. aX2 (xD3 (d± drj d£ d^drj.18 M. (60b) 0 has been used and v\ is (60c) 0 whenever \B\ «2 v\ = Xi -X2 • T h e long-wave potential (T>(1. Otta SI [{- dB 2 dA + Mi drj fd(f> 4 . in fact. (40) reduces to V ^ 1 ' 0 ) = 0 and Eq.

a Under the condition that e/{kh)2 = 0(1). Djordjevic and Redekopp (1977) extended the analysis of Davey and Stewartson (1974) in that they also included the effect of surface tension. i. B and fit1'0' do not vary in the direction perpendicular to the wave motion. 1 was fulfilled. (64a) Notice that Djordjevic and Redekopp (1978) defined e/(kh)2 while e measured the wave slope ka. When B and i^1'0) are independent of 77.. (62a) ' d£2 drj2 The validity of these equations has been checked by Freeman and Davey (1975) who started from the original equations of motion and introduced the appropriate long-wave scaling. the set of shallow-water equations reduces to a NLS equation for B.e. this condition can be written as (a/h)/(kh). They showed that the double limit e —• 0. (40) and (41). Because e = ka.6. 2ik OB w*. The linear dispersion relation and the phase and group velocities then are given by: T/fc2 uT = (1 + >y)gk tanh kh. Freeman and Davey obtained the Kadomtsev-Petviashvillii equation (the two-dimensional generalisation of the Korteweg de Vries equation).nd2B = -w*™B' 9k2 .Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 19 Davey and Stewartson (1974) gave the following set of equations as the shallow water limit {kh —• 0 and cg -» c) of Eqs. to be the Stokes parameter . „ l 2 „ (63) here use has been made of d<j>W/d£ = 0 for \B\ = 0. kh — 0 > > in the asymptotic expansions for $ and £ was uniform when the condition e/{kh)2 <§. Effects of surface tension {kh) fl . a with 7 = -— .w 3. This condition does not necessarily imply that the Stokes parameter which is given by (a/h)/{kh)2 is a small quantity. 2ik8B_{khfd^+8^ JghdT v = ^ 2gh3* ' ^B3J^^ yfgh dt.

K. . (48). • With surface tension included. we have cg > \fgh in the shallow-water approximation. the set of Eqs.14) of Djordjevic and Redekopp (1977).. (67) As 7 > 0. Instead of Eq. f„.. 903). p.0). 320) or Dingemans (1997. 2^(1.0) t3V (1. see also Eqs. a printing error occurs: the first term between curly brackets has 2c instead of 2c-y in the numerator. 7 . 2 f . c Notice that a misprint in Djordjevic and Redekopp (1978.c l + kh1 a + 2 ^ 2 (7 l+7_ It is found that the second-harmonic term £(2>2) becomes singular when 7 = cr 2 /(3 — cr2). A few notable differences between the situation with and without surface tension are listed below.0) . „ .17)) is present: the third term between square brackets in the expression for v\ should have the numerical factor one and not four. one has second-harmonic resonance which is possible for capillary waves. W. In that case. it becomes possible that cg > gh. p. 2^ 2 1 d\Bf (65) Introducing a quantity Q by b : 8*(1'°> . Ablowitz and Segur (1979. Assuming that the wave numbers are not too close to the ones for which 7 = er 2 /(3 — a2). (48) is recovered now with the coefficients0 modified by the surface tension effect. the third-order terms may be considered.k (64b) (64c) 1 . cg = ^gh(l+j) (l + ^ ) = 0{{khf). see Djordjevic and Redekopp (1977). Eq. 1981. (64c) which yields. Otta 2 1 ^((l+7)tanhfc/i . (2.20 M. now the following equation is obtained for the leadingorder mean flow </>(1. b Notice that in Eq. (2. This is easiest seen by considering a series expansion for small kh of cg from Eq. (40). Dingemans & A. «..

one has long-wave/short-wave resonance in which the group velocity of the short (capillary) waves equals the phase velocity of the long (gravity) waves. (68c) In this case.o) (69) nt and Si Si d£ Qi = -5ik2{l-a2) l + g(l-a2)(l+7) and > 0. 1981). another scaling of the independent variables has to be used and the asymptotic expansion of $ and ( is also different (Djordjevic and Redekopp. taken from Ablowitz and Segur. A similar picture is also given by Djordjevic and Redekopp (1977). A major aid in discussing the general behaviour of the equation system including surface tension is the figure for the parameter space of the coefficients with respect to the surface tension parameter 7 = "~fk2/(pg) and kh (Fig. 1977). An explicit definition of these coefficients are found in Ablowitz and Segur (1981. p. as noted before. The corresponding set of equations is Eq. singularities of v occurs.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 21 The coefficient v\ of the term \B\2B is singular when cg = y/gh and when 7 = cr 2 /(3 — <72). $ = 2 3 £ / <f>0 + e4>i + ei/3h + ••-. the ID version becomes. d2B 2 di FB. For cg = y/gh. i. D and F where \v < 0 admit solitons as solutions for . dB dr where . Near cg2 = gh. (68a) (68b) with ( = e2/i(xi -cgt). 320) with v = v\ = \i ~ ^2X2/0: and A = Ai. the coefficients are modified due to the effect of surface tension. T =-4/3 t. The other three lines represent a simple zero of a coefficient. The regions C. each region of this figure has specific characteristics regarding the dynamical behaviour of waves. 2/30 r) = e2/ix2. (42) where. Therefore. X = XiThe character of the solution is determined by the sign of the coefficient. Along the two lines bounding the region F. 9F -«i^(l^l2). 1.

E and B where Xu > 0.75 1. from Ablowitz and Segur (1981). Djordjevic and Redekopp (1978) gave a derivation of an inhomogeneous NLS equation in a way which is similar to that in which the Davey and Stewartson equations .25 1. Parameter space of the coefficients inclusive surface tension. an inhomogeneous NLS equation can be derived for the propagation of wave packets on an uneven bottom. the reflection has to be neglected because both the NLS and the KdV equations describe waves propagating in one direction only.5 Fig. Dingemans & A. Propagation in one dimension In the same way as a weakly-dispersive long-wave equation such as the KdV equation for water of constant depth can be extended to a KdV-like equation for the case of varying depth. The reader would find it worthwhile to refer to Ablowitz and Segur (1979.0 1. Nonlinear Schrodinger-type Equations: Uneven B o t t o m 4. 4. W.1. For water waves for which surface tension effect is negligible. the amplitude envelope. K. h = h(x). Otta 0 .22 M. 1. one is primarily interested along the ordinate (7 = 0). 1981) and Djordjevic and Redekopp (1977) for an elaborate discussion on the behaviour of the solutions in the separate regions. Some more properties of the system along this ordinate are discussed in section 5.25 . showing where they change sign as functions of surface tension 7 (abscissa) and kh (ordinate). In both cases. No soliton solutions are possible in the regions A.5 .

m)(£. T ) of the solution for t^ 1 ' 1 ) emerges.cg {2^ + l . T ) by: QQ&T) £ < E c(n.T)En n—1 \m= oo ( n (71a) exp / k(£)dx . Introducing the quantity Q ( £ . c and k is with £: c s (£). dx {[• t Z = e2 (70) Note that the role of r and £ is reversed compared to the constant-depth case.wt I (71b) dcj>^°) k2cg H . The free surface is expanded as: COM) with E and C ( n '" m ) = (C ( n . the following multiple scales are introduced now. the phase velocity c and the wave number k can locally be defined as a function of the local depth h(£) and therefore the variation of cg. Because the group velocity is a function of the depth h and therefore also a function of e2x. no temporal variation of the medium is considered. (71c) with ()* denoting the complex conjugate. c(£) and fc(£). Proceeding in the usual way. i. h = h{(32x) and /? is supposed to be proportional to e where e is the wave slope which conforms with the common assumption in the NLS scaling. we find from the e3E° terms an equation for ^M1'0) and from the e3El terms an equation for the amplitude B ( £ ..a 2 } | S | "i ^ (72) the equation for </>(1. Because j3 = A/A is the modulation parameter and the modulation of the carrier wave gives rise to a wave group. The depth is slowly varying. the difference being an adoption to the nonuniform depth which necessitates the adoption of a coordinate moving with a nonuniform velocity so as to remain near the centre of the wave group. It is supposed that the group velocity cg. This expansion thus is similar with the expansion used before. dQ dr 0. It is supposed that u> = constant. with the solution Q = Qo(£) : (73) . A may be seen as a measure for the horizontal extent of the wave group.0) becomes simply.e.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 23 (48) are derived. ?r dr gh . m ) )*.

(2.dB .10a 2 + 9cr4 2az2„ c..kha) a + kh(l-a2) k' ' ~k (74b) (74c) l-Bh. Equation (76) describes the evolution of wave packets propagating over an uneven bottom under the condition that reflection can be neglected and ^Note that (1 — a2)2 occurs in the last term between curly brackets in the expression for V\ and not (1 — a)2 as given by Djordjevic and Redekopp (1978. W. Another difference is that the coefficients Ai and Ui in Eq. B(£.T)exp 'J V2(OQo {£)<% (75) The resulting inhomogeneous NLS equation then reads in terms of B.(l-kha){l-a2)\ ) 1 d2u 2cg3 Ok2 v\ 4toa c 2 9 . (76). hfl 2 + 4-(l-<r2) + 4 ( 1 . . (74a) can be written in a simpler form upon application of the transformation. The essential difference between the NLS equation (26) and (76) is the term —ifiiB in the right-hand side of Eq.17)). Otta and the equation for B{^.. Eq.r)=B(£.T) becomes.kha) Mi Ai d{kh) <% { C (74a) a+ 1 2UJC kh(l-a ) 9 2 a(l .cr2)(l . d2B . dB d2B 2 i-^r + Ai -dr^ + ifnB = vi \B\2B + u2QQB . where the coefficients are given by d : (1 .2-iUxB. Dingemans & A. (74e) It is noted that Eq.24 M. . K. (76) It is obvious that the term V2Q0B gives only a phase shift. (76) are functions of £.f f 2 ) 2 C(7 CQ (74d) yi *1 1 2a c„ \-a' >0.

-h\D\2D = 0. with E = exp ':X{xi. The nonlinearity parameter is related to the slope of the carrier wave ka with a and k the amplitude and wave number of the carrier wave. irrotational fluid motion with a free surface z = ((x. also in terms of harmonics. C = ^ £ " ] T ^n<m)Em. Only for constant depth.i) and velocity potential <&(x. Basic to the perturbation approach is the introduction of two small parameters viz.e. h = h(/32x).„„ 2 Xi^r^. Propagation in two horizontal dimensions The starting point for the derivation is the usual set of equations for inviscid. Sy] and t\ = St so that Vi = d/dx\ and the most general set of equations is obtained when e and S are of equal order. one (78a) .. we have Hi = 0 and Aj. dr dt with B = aD . a modulation parameter S and a nonlinearity parameter e. Use is made of slow scales x\ = Sx — [Sx. z. i.2.h) =+n $ = ^2en m—-\-n i)Er./ »i(i)d£ (78b) 4. the bottom slope and the variation of the incoming wave field in both time and space.v\ and a(£) = exp 1 -fii. 3D . The modulation parameter is related to both the inhomogeneity of the medium. (77) By carrying out the transformation and choosing a~ da/d£ obtains.t) are expanded in terms of the nonlinearity parameter s and. v\ are constants. (79) . 82D .z. For the derivation of the evolution equations for complex amplitude of the wave group and the accompanying long wave motion is referred to Liu and Dingemans (1989) and the references referred to there. Equation (76) can be transformed to a homogeneous equation with independent coefficients by introducing the transformation.t) and velocity potential $>(x. u\ = a. The free surface elevation C(x. t) on water of varying depth with the bottom given by z = —h(x). as we are interested in the propagation of harmonic waves.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 25 consequently the depth varies very slowly.

„ i ffeor. These equations are.m) £™. Dingemans & A. The final result is an evolution equation for the complex amplitude A and a wave equation with forcing for the wave induced current i^'1'0) which is a real function (see Eqs.( V . . $ = J2 £n m=-j-n Yl <r4(7i'm)-Bo1. while writing <j> for <j>^1'0') and A for A for convenience. and in physical variables. To ensure the nonsecularity of the higher-order solutions._.m) &xp 71=1 and similarly for <jy-r gives the expansions. and u>o = —dxo/dti is the constant carrier wave frequency and ko = ViXo is related to WQ through the linear dispersion relationship LOQ = gko tanh koh with ko = \ko\.!.m) = £(n. For the first-order problem is obtained. V \k0 J ko \ko k0 ) k0 ) + ikluQK\A\2A+l-vA = Q. without the fast varying part hi of the bottom. 2 (81) where A is an unknown complex amplitude.14) of Liu and Dingemans. 1989). ^ oz = C(i. c s M .o)=0| ^ ^ M c o ^ k o i h + z)) 2wocosh(fco/i) C(1.| ^ V ^ ^ . dA : . (80) n=l m——n where £ 0 — exp[ixo(a:i. c = Y^£ Yl c n=l m=—n n m=-\-n (n. (5.„. W. Otta and Qn>~m) is the complex conjugates of Qn<m) and similarly for </An'-m). solvability conditions have to be imposed.1) = 1A. Expansion of the phase function x as x = S n = o enXn(xi.*i)/£]./9cg ko xA 8t • c . t\) and introducing new functions £(">m) by: ^(n..26 M. see Chu and Mei (1970) and Liu and Dingemans (1989). (82a) . V A + .For the several orders in efn) and the harmonics (m) equations for the £(ra-m) and </>(n'm) are obtained.12) and (5. K.

the evolution equation. Eq.-axis and ignoring all y-dependence.dy)T is the horizontal gradient operator. . simplifies considerably. dA dt with Cg 9^Z--A dA dx i (dcqd2A c„d2A\ . 2 + T-^2 2 \+^k2u0K\A\2A-iAG<P ^0 1 = 0. kx = — .2 t a n h 2 g ) . (82a). . . (83a) (83b) and the coefficients fj. Eqs. (B.l) and (B.2 . the resulting evolution equation reads for horizontal bottom. . Taking the main wave direction in the rc-direction (and thus fco is directed along the a>axis so that fco • V = kod/dx). N „l2\ A w2 d ( u p . dt • (85) The reduction of Eq. 16sinh q g a = cothg and q = koh . and v represent functions of the derivatives of depth and wave number of which the expressions have been given in Liu and Dingemans (1989.2 IAI2A = 1 f d fdcg\ and d24> d ( d<j>\ Mtek£)-' \te-{2i£-2 ) > W . (82) to ID is readily obtained by supposing fc0 is directed along tree a.Tat {^tq) ' (86b) . 2 \ dk" 5dx 7 k0 dy . and v are zero in case of a horizontal bottom.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 27 and d2 m2 -V-(ghVcf>)=V- ~92\A? 2w 0 4 dt Vsinh 2 g \A? (82b) where K= 2-(cosh4q + 8 . dA dA\ +C lK ^) + 2dt^+AG*-k0"0KlAlA i } dA fidcq ldcgd2A „^J . (84a) The corresponding wave equation for a horizontal bottom with fc0 directed along the a>axis is: ^f l / l V 0 -^o"^^-4sinh 2 . Both /J. Notice that V = (dx. v A 1 \ „ (86a) .. 4l2 „ t „ . For a horizontal bottom.d~x { £) = dx {^ n 9h d ( fc0 2.2)).

4. «~\M"*. e/(kh)2 <C 1. the governing equations for the envelope-hole solution reduce to the inhomogeneous KdV equation with variable coefficients. Shallow-water limit In the shallow-water limit. K. That Eq.T) and R\(X. '»"{?£)-*}• *=""<• c(X) Substitution of the expansions for R and 6 yields expressions for RQ(X) and c(X) and a relation between 9\{X. W.e. fdf)] with R and 9 be the real functions.T) as: where RQ = roh~~l/A."Aw**"- (7 ) 8b where a prime denotes differentiation to the argument. Otta 4. Write B = i?(^. The following further coordinate stretching is introduced.28 M..r)exp[i J #(£.T). The secularity condition for R2 and #2 yields the generalised KdV equation which can be written with i?i =h7/2H(X. In the absence of waves. under the condition that the Stokes number is small. Ai. the current variation may be determined . For \\V\ > 0 (which is always the case in shallow water). kh —> 0.3. we obtain. 4. The discussion here is restricted to any small-amplitude long-wave perturbation of a wave which is modulationally stable (i. v\ and f2. (78a) reduces to this generalised KdV equation can be shown in the following way. Effect of an ambient current on ID propagation We proceed with the assumption of kh = 0(1) and a current U such that U/s/gK < 1. the following expressions for the coefficients fix. Aii^i > 0). R and 6 are then expanded in a power series to a small parameter 6: R = Ro + SRi + 52R2 + • • • and 9 = 56\ + <52#2 + • • • where S is a measure of the slope of the modulation of a wave train about a uniform finite-amplitude state. Dingemans & A.

(1983) showed that the amplitude A of the waves satisfies the equation (note that the form of the equation mentioned below is a result of multiplying icg to their original Eq.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 29 by the nonlinear shallow water equation. Turpin et al.) ( l . d(c dt dU_ dt dU(h + Cc) dx dU_ dx dCc dx 0. (71).vi\A\2A + ijcA = 0. (2. (93) where T = e2t. (93). £ = e2x and r = e(J(dx/cg) — t).e.. (92) Using a perturbation analysis with respect to the underlying current (U.e. .a J ) ujr d l c„ (i-O 2\2 (94b) + U Tdl. (c). IAT +icgA^ + X\ATT . i. identical to c^1. (94c) with a — tanh(fcd) and d = h + (c. T) — 1 dtor 2u~r~&T •4 1 . i.T) = Aula2 1 IOCT2 + 9CT4 3f± gd-c2 gd 41-1 c„ 7c(?. the variation of depth and current is assumed to be an order of magnitude higher than the wave nonlinearity parameter e = ka. A is the complex amplitude of the first order elevation.T) 1 {ca? 2uv (cg uy l-^(l-a2)-(l-akd) 1 d\ 2{cg + U)2 dk2 ' (94a) g2kA \ "i(t. 1 dh kh dx 1 dU kU dx 1 dU = toU dt 0{e2).22) and converting the pressure amplitude to surface amplitude). In Eq.1) in the expansion series of Eq.. (90) (91) Further. The coefficients vary slowly as a function of depth and current and are given by: Ai(£.

1983).36 where k is the local wave number taking into account the ambient current. can be derived from a simplified form made possible through a transformation (Djordjevic and Redekopp. Additional properties of the modulation equation.23c). Eq. The equation fails near such points and its validity is limited to milder opposing current such that the blocking condition is not met.. Equation (93) with the coefficients defined by Eq. An important parameter that emerges is: K= -T* > Wr / i / U (96) r where s may be recognised as the shoaling factor for infinitesimal waves. In both cases of with and without current. 5) in Turpin et al. waves are prevented from propagating upstream as the group velocity cg becomes zero. Otta The effect of current in the first instance is reflected in the linear dispersion relation. (93) is the complex amplitude of surface elevation unlike in the expression ((2. c ° = d^ = ir^+kh(l-^> < 95c > where vg is the absolute group velocity.e. with J^ = gk tanh kd. (93). Turpin et al. UJ = ur + kU c= — . e A in Bq. i. (1983) where A corresponds to the pressure amplitude. 1978. p. W.. broad features of the evolution of a wavepacket may be determined from the parameter K. and (95a) (95b) vg = Cg + U. K. if present. (92). (94) e is an extension of the equation derived by Djordjevic and Redekopp (1978) and represents a general one-dimensional modulation equation for narrow-banded short waves on an ambient current or a long wave (long enough compared to the short waves to validate the scales of Eq. Dingemans & A. K becomes zero when k(h + (c) = 1. Formation of a soliton is expected with increase of K to a positive value. For a given variation of depth and current. For an opposing current. taken with respect to a fixed reference frame and d represents the mean water level including the set-down due to current and tur the apparent frequency for an observer moving with the current U.30 M. .

T) = . Segur and Ablowitz take this form of solution as starting point for the case of the NLS equation for uneven bottom and they let the constants A and (j> then be slowly varying in £ and r. (100) . see also Segur and Ablowitz (1976). 5. In 2D. This decaying solution of Eq. The free-surface elevation is given by: COM) = -Aei<-koX-u'0^ +CC. + d{r) (99a) 4>{m (99b) For scaled versions of Eqs. r) = -X2 -^i + C(T)T. V. ..n. Some Solutions of the NLS-type Equations We consider the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation in its standard form.363. ^. . (42) reads. 5.e x p db (£.1. „ n (97) where A is the envelope of the free surface elevation ((x.2. Ai = co"(k)/2 < 0 and v\ > 0 for kh > 1. while for v\ < 0.. t). For v\ > 0. decaying solution can be found. d2A . B(£. (97) reads. a decaying solution which satisfies Eqs. (97) and (42). Ablowitz and Segur (1979) gave similar solutions. Decaying solutions A specific decaying solution with an oscillatory tail was given by Benney and Newell (1967). so-called soliton solutions are possible.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 31 5.dA dr . Soliton-type solutions We now consider the case v\ > 0 so that soliton-type solutions are possible.r)=(-A1r)-*(^-) Aexp |A| 2 log(-A 1 r) + (98) 4Air where A and <j> are constants.

p. Otta Since we look for stationary solutions. Ai d2b + ab. V2 exp Z 2A7^' 2Uia° + 4AT (103) where v and the amplitude ao are still two free parameters. K. 1997. i r . The conditions imposed are now: db/dX — 0 for b — ao as X — X(. Notice that this solution is valid only under the condition that i^iXi < 0.i/ib3 = 0 dX2 with 4AT' (102) and where has been substituted £ = v/{2\{) in order to obtain real solutions for the amplitude b.„ x + • exp i—— £ — i _ . (2) v\ > 0 and r3 < 0 leading to the cnsolution. Substituting Eq. the > » following solution is obtained (for details. otherwise stated. 919). the differential » » » equation is: dr 2—r(r—ro)(r Ai ~ox — r3) with ro = a^ and r$ = 2 V\ r0 . For the case that period conditions on the amplitude b are imposed. r) and v and £ are constants. or. (104) In this case three cases for viable solutions have to be considered: (1) v\ > 0 and r$ > 0 leading to the dn-solution. v\ > 0 and thus kh > 1. we put. Dingemans & A. With the notation r = b2.363. The parameter v is usually taken to be zero. giving the sn-solution. more possible stationary solutions are found. ^4(£.r) = &3dn " 2Ai 1 X . and (3) v\ < 0 and r3 > 0.32 M.T) = a o sech V ^ . see Dingemans. 3 ( 2 _ m ) 2Ai V2 __ (105a) . These solutions are: (1) i/i > 0 a n d r 3 > 0 1/2 A(£. Imposing the condition that b(X) and db(X)/dx — 0 for X —• ^oo. A($. T) = &(X)e i ^.S T ) where X (101) is a moving frame with respect to the frame (£. (101) in the NLS equation (97) leads to an ordinarily differential equation in b(X). W.

T ) = a0sn 2aA: Kir) * • v / \ 1/2 m M ..A(£. we see » > > t h a t t h e limiting values for m — 1 of t h e solutions (105)-(107) are: > 1/2 . 1/2 X and exp .t) = ao t a n h with i^i < 0 + • / 2 v 1 a <0. t) = ao sech with " 2Ai X exp ^ - M ^ + SAT (109) a < 0. (110) .T) = a0cn 2TOAJ la with m 2r0 u < 1. \ -i an rz — ' 'J TO V 4A1J7! • exp r -1 2 2Ai m = 2s ^OQVI (107a) with 4Aii/ 1 a 2 . (105b) v\ \ 1/2 X m .1 2 2 l 1 V TO • •exp V y (106a) 4Aii/iag (106b) 2Ai with TO = ( 2 — (3) i^i < 0 a n d r3 > 0 A ( £ . we have d n —• sech.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 33 T3 -T-p »"3 (2) i ^ > 0 a n d r3 < 0 2 A(£. (108) with r 3 = 63 = 2 — > 0 2\ I/2 and A(£. sn —• t a n h a n d en — sech. v A(£. TO 2 V" 4Ai^ia. i) = 6 3 sech X exp vi\i W" iST vx > 0 .y (107b) Because for m — 1.

We note that for NLS-type of equations for water waves. Fig. 4. p. Otta Some examples of these solutions have been considered in Dingemans (1997. Dingemans & A.. .0) T and g = 1. We replot solutions for the dn. let us consider the deep-water case Eq. 2. .„.34 M. W.dA 1 (d2A d2A\ . In nondimensional quantities such that to = 1 and k = (£. en and sn-solutions given there. (61) because of its simplicity. m)T = (1. A sn-solution. 3. A dn-solution. Fig. K. we then have. In two dimensions. A cn-solution. the coordinate along the propagation direction £ and the lateral one r/ are not interchangeable. Fig. 925). AI2A .

Higher-Order Modulation Equations The equations discussed in the previous sections govern modulation of gravity waves valid up to 0(e3).15) and asymmetric growth which lie beyond the NLS approach. 6. Denoting the angle between the direction of the carrier wave and the direction for which solutions are sought for by •&. we will first discuss a higher-order modulation due to Dysthe (1979) which is valid only in deep water. only constant amplitude plane waves are possible.e. Modification of this set of equations due to an ambient current will be treated following the recent work of Stocker and Peregrine (1999). + CC]. Finally. i. • For the case that ip < 0. ( I l l ) have been given by Hui and Hamilton (1979). the situation is much more complicated.2 sin2i9 . which also vary periodically in space and time.. (112) For tp > 0 (tan 2 •& < 1/2).Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 35 Several special solutions of Eq. In this section. However. comparisons with experiments have also revealed features like deviation of the predicted growth rate of unstable modes for steeper waves (e > 0. the section will be closed by a description of "the Zakharov equation". For the case %jj < 0. encompassing Dysthe's equation as a special case. The Dysthe equation To express the potential and free surface elevation. Zakharov's set has two distinct features of being derived from an alternative principle and being more general. we refer to Hui and Hamilton (1979). solutions for the group envelope in terms of the elliptic functions dn and en always exist.1.. 6. (113a) . r\ plane is split into regions according to the sign of the quantity ip defined by: i> = cos2 •& . These limitations of the NLS equation have drawn attention to the necessity of higher-order modulation. the £. we use the form (Dysthe's form has been modified slightly for consistency).. The common limit (771 — 1) is the sech profile. C = C + \[AJ* + A2ei2i> + . In the critical direction i?c such that tan 2 i? c = 1/2 (or V = 0). groups of permanent waves and of infinite extent exist. These equations have been found to be capable of producing several broad features of nonlinear modulation.

W. Dingemans & A. The governing equations for the modulation of B corresponding to Eqs. dB* dx as dx (114a) 5$ •gC = 0 (114b) at z = 0. (114a) reduces to: dB ~dt w dB ~5k~dx~ 3 uj d2B + 8k2 dx2 d3B dx3 d2B 4fc2 dy2 k3 \B\2B 2OJ' 16 k d3B dxdy2 + iT-B B dx . This simplifies the substitution oidQ/dz in Eq. (2. Eq. (114c) may be neglected. In that case. (2.+ CC].19) of Dysthe (1979) as pointed out by Janssen (1983). (2. Otta $ = <£> -[Bekz A'd D 2fcz i2tf i>2e e + --.19).10) of Dysthe (1979) are given in dimensional variables by: dB_ ~dt LO_0B 2 u> d B 8k2 dx2 2k~dx % to d2B 4fc2 dy2 3k3 -BIB 4ui 2UJ' \B\2B B* "l6fc3 A-3 4w' d3B dxdy2 dB ' dx at k-V(\B\2) d3B dx3 ox 0. (113b) with $ and ( denoting the potential and elevation respectively of the slowly varying mean flow and where $ = k • x — tot and k = \k\. (114c) ~di dt Equation (114a) incorporates the correction of a misprint in the original Eq. the term d(/dt in Eq.20) and (2. As ( is of third order. The terms on the left-hand side of the evolution equation (114a) are all of 0{ka)3 while the terms on the right-hand side are all of fourth order. the usual NLS equation for deep water is retrieved if the higher-order correction terms contained in the right-hand side are set equal to zero. Another misprint appearing in Eq. (2. K.36 M. (114a).dB* 6B* dB_ dx kB dx z=0 (115) . In other words.17) of the same article is the factor 3 of the second term of r which should be 8 and has been noted by Brinch-Nielsen and Jonsson (1986).

Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 37 which is also identical to Eq.z. d 3 dt+Cgodx kA 2( f l feo)V2 KQ „ 1„ v-v. i. we now introduce $ c ( x . (118) To complete the system.k0$CxB = i k0 4(fffc 0 ) 1 /2 1 . (119) . itf A2ei2» + • • • + CC]. In addition to the wave-induced mean flow. Vi(x. U = — V + (U\(x. these equations are derived under the condition that kh = 0{(fca) . Modification due to an ambient current Modification to Dysthe's equation in the presence of an ambient current is considered by Stocker and Peregrine (1999). (116b) Assuming further that the ambient current U has a slow variation. z<0.(gfco)1/2 (Bxxx . Thus. (10) of Trulsen and Dysthe (1996). the current potential $ c and the wave-induced mean potential 3 need to be defined. the current modified higher-order equations read. In a frame of reference moving with the mean velocity —V. -{Ae (116a) C = C + Cc $ = $ + $ c + I [BekzeM + B2eIkzAld + •• •+ CC]. 6. the current field may be expressed as a perturbation about a constant (both spatial and temporal) mean —V.6BXB*) (117) B\B\2 .t) and (. The current potential is determined by: > V 2 $ c = 0. i=0 where the term Pi contains the higher-order contribution due to the current and is given by: -Pi = ik0 v2(fffc0) 1 /2 [di+C90~dx~ V-V $czLB-iV$-VB.t).2. the expressions for potential and elevation are: 1. B „ (gko)1/2 -{Bx 2 8fc0 2Byy) B{BB*X . As also discussed in Lo and Mei (1985).GByyx) + k0B$x 16fcj} hPi.t))T. i ) and (c to represent the potential and elevation due to an ambient current. denoted by $>(x.e.1 } <C 1.. Lo and Mei argue that the equations also remain valid for kh = 0{{ka)~1} when also the condition d^/dz = 0 at z = —h is added.

Significant improvement was achieved by adopting the C(e 4 )nonlinear equation. However. 0. 0.3. Computed profiles from both a lower-order (C(e 3 )) and the higherorder models are compared with those from an exactly nonlinear boundary integral model. 6. 9$ ~dz~ 5a: 0. (120) (121) [l"H V2$ + while the wave-induced mean flow valid up to 0{e4) is given by: d2$ dz2 0. The Zakharov equation That the NLS equation is a special case of the Zakharov equation has been proven by Stiassnie (1984) for the case of deep water. the equations for restricted depth were given by Zakharov and Kharitanov (1970). the evolution predicted from the lower-order NLS equation kept deviating with time. depends explicitly on the external current. the amplitude of the velocity potential. Zakharov (1968) derived a deep-water evolution equation for the amplitude of a wave field. still for horizontal bottom. the surface elevation terms are related to B in an identical manner as that in Brinch-Nielsen (1988) and Brinch-Nielsen and Jonsson (1986) without any explicit dependence on the current U. To evaluate the performance of the 0(£ 4 )-modulation equation. K. (122) (123) d_ dt ' v-v 1/2 <£ + 5 C = 0 . Dingemans & A. (117) 'B. Agreement with the fully nonlinear solution was good till about breaking (breaking was said to occur if sharp curvature appeared on the computed surface in the exactly nonlinear model) was initiated. A little later. . Otta dt $C2 - V-V $c + C c 0. Originally. Stocker and Peregrine (1999) have undertaken numerical solution for a specific case of waves being modulated by a sinusoidally (of much longer wave length) varying current. Comparison shows that starting from the identical initial condition. (124) ~2 As seen from Eq. z< 0.38 M. z = 0. W.

£)] 2TT 7-oo + sinh[|fc|/i] smh[\k\((x. The kinematic and dynamic free-surface conditions are written in terms of the free-surface potential ip(x. see also Shemer and Stiassnie (1991). An expression for ws has to be found. (3) yields two integro-differential equations for the Fourier transforms ( and tp where the Fourier transform of a function f(x) is defined by: f(k) = — 27r dxf(x)e-ik*. (1) The horizontal Fourier transform of Eqs.t) in the following way. w also features in the transformed form of Eqs. these equations constitute the description of the physical problem. t) cosh[|fc|(z + h)]. we follow Stiassnie and Shemer (1984).£}. This is achieved in the following steps.z = £(x. Together with the Laplace equation V 2 $ = 0 and the kinematic bottom condition d^/dz = 0 at z = — h. The derivation of the Zakharov equation proceeds in the following steps. A detailed account can also be found in Rasmussen (1998). where the bottom has been assumed to be horizontal. £). (2) Taking the horizontal Fourier transform of the Laplace equation and satisfying subsequently the bottom condition yields a separation of the vertical structure in the following way.t) = $>{x. t) = 4>(k. We stress the fact that in this derivation. Here. 1 f00 <p(x. the vertical velocity ivs = (d$>/dz)\z=£ and have been given in Eqs. (3). z.t) and ((x. (126) this makes it possible to express the free-surface variables tp and ws in terms of <fi(k.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 39 We first sketch the steps along which the Zakharov equation can be obtained.t) = — / dfc[cosh[|fc|/i] cosh[|fc|£(x. (3). $(fc.t)]]eikx . (127a) . i-oo (125a) and the delta function is defined as: 1 f°° 5(k) = j^y]JxJkxs (125b) In addition to the variables £ and (p. the bottom is taken to be horizontal.

t))[ =1 H b(km. (128) where the dispersion relation is: w = T h e evolution equation for b{k. This expression for ws is now used in the Fourier transform of the free-surface equations (3). It is here t h a t t h e first approximations have to be made. by y/g/(2uj(k)) a n d multiplying t h e equation for <p by y/u(k)/(2g) and adding these two equations together. the result is an evolution equation for the complex variable. (130) with the C(n given by: /n-l \ Cln=[ l[b*(km.t) + iu(k)b(k. T h e expressions sinh(|fc|£) a n d cosh(|fc|£) are replaced by their Taylor expansions up to 0{(|fc|£) 3 }.t)] k a + sinh[|fc|/i] cosh[|fc|C(a3. (127) is considered. 1/2 b(k.t) + i^2 n = 1 // JJ-oo dkldk2V^\k. A n iterative solution of the equation for ip is applied to obtain <j> as a function of ip and the subsequent use of 4>{(p) in the equation for ii!s yields an expression for ws in terms of ( a n d (p.t) _2u>(k) C(k. ( is expressed by its Fourier transform (.k1.k2.t) db [g\k\tanh(\k\h)}^2 then is: (129) (k. fci. k^C^ = 0.k3)C3n S n=l / / / / dkidk2dk3dk4Xin)(k. K.t) 2?r dfc[|fc|0cosh[|fc|/i] sinh[|fc|C(a:. Multiplying t h e equation for C. This yields two equations in which <p a n d ws are expressed in terms of <j> and £. Dingemans & A. Otta ws(x. * 3 .t) + i u(k) 1/2 ip(k. fe2. Finally the Fourier transform of Eq.kl.k2)C2n + iJ2 n=l 5 dk1dk2dk3W^\k. W.40 M. t)]]e (127b) (3) T h e next step is t o express ws in terms of ( and (p.t).t)\ •6[k+J2krn-J2k™)> m=l ^ .

we obtain the evolution equation. . 1/2 (132a) <£(M) = -* 2w(fc) (4) We now use the transformation. When surface tension is included. j = 2. t2. (130) while for b can be read B in Eq. (130). B(k. t) = eB(k.t)-6*(-fe. (134) where tj = eJt. exact resonance is possible for three-wave interaction. but. t2. •£-///: dk1dk2dk3T^l2t3BlB2B3S(k •fei. Separating this equation into a slow and fast-varying part and also writing B = eB.wz)t]. separating terms of equal power in e leads to evolution equations for the B and B'. t2. For e1. B" and B'".k2 .h).t. t. B{k. Terms with e 2 yield an evolution equation for dB' jdt which depends on B and therefore can be integrated to t while keeping t2 and £3 fixed.t) = [6(fe. (132b) b{k. and (p can be expressed in terms of b as: 1 C(M) = u>(k) 25 1/2 [6(M) + &*(-M)]. t. The slow time ti is omitted because no exact resonance between three waves is possible.UJ2.t2.t)e~iu^t (133) The term iiob then disappears from Eq. The representation of Eq.fe3) (135) x exp[i(w + UJI. t3) + e3B"(k.t)]. these waves are very short and not of interest for us here. t3) + e4B'"(k. no information is obtained. (134) is substituted into the evolution equation (130). At 0(e3) is obtained an equation for idt2B + idtB" in which the right-hand member depends on terms with B where both slow and fast-varying terms are present. It is assumed also that most of the wave energy is contained in B. 3.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves = 41 with * denoting the complex conjugate and $^ m = n (-) = 0 an< ^ llm=n(') whenever £ < n. Notice that C. B" and B'". t3) + e2B'(k. The next assumption now is that we suppose that B is composed of a (in time) slowly-varying part B and faster varying parts B'.

t)= J dk(^-\ [B{k.61)) writes the Zakharov equation (135) in the form. an evolution equation is obtained in which the right-hand side does not depend on the slow time-scale so that an integration to t is possible. the coefficients were not sufficiently symmetric. Dingemans & A.t)) x exp l[b(km. (2. (136) A problem with the Zakharov equation is that many different forms for the interaction coefficient T^2' exist. this had to do with the definition of the interaction coefficients. (135).t). W. As put forward by Krasitskii (1994). It appears that in the older form of the Zakharov equation. For B". The Zakharov equation has been reconsidered by Krasitskii (1994) who showed that previously used forms did not give a truly Hamiltonian system of equations.2 . the symmetry conditions are not clear without considering the Hamiltonian formulation. For an extensive discussion of these matters is referred to Krasitskii (1994) and Badulin et al. Equation (135) is the so-called Zakharov equation which is also valid for restricted depth when the dispersion relation u>(k) and the definition of T 2 are adapted for finite depth. Once B has been determined. Notice that Rasmussen (1998. Otta where Bj stands for B(kj. the free-surface elevation ((x. The interaction coefficients can be symmetrised as noted by Stiassnie and Shemer (1984). The reason for this is that there is some freedom in the definition of T^2> without changing the value of the integral in Eq. 'n-l / / / dkidk2dk3X^l2t3C'3.t) follows by: ((x. 8B_.t)ei{-k-x-ut) + CC]. (1995).t) = -i ~dt with for C" the expression. (137a) CL= l[b*(km.42 M. -{k.t))-S[k+J2km- n-1 J2k" m=n m=\ Y2um~ y^Wm )t (137b) . Eq. K.

a new amplitude variable B is introduced by: B(K. k2) (139) 6.k0 + K3) K3) . taken here as the x = X\ direction. t) exp{-i[w(fc) .4.k 3 ) = T^(kuk. the underlying system is a Hamiltonian system and we have the property that (see also Badulin et al.1.1.k0 + K2. 1995): T< 2 )(fc.O = o(l).k2.K2)T with |K|/A. Reduction of Zakharov equation to NLS-type equation = T^(kuk.k1). ^M).k. (A.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 43 Taking T^ = -X^2\ the same equation as given in Eq.t) . X^ = 0.w(fe0)]} . The coefficient YQ^2 3 n a s been given in Rasmussen (1998. (135) is obtained.u>(ko)]B(K.k u k 2 . T^> is called V^). Taking the symmetric form of Krasitskii (1994) (in his notation. Eq.2) i (138) whenever both k + ki — k2 . To this end. t) = B(K.2.2. fc3.fc3) = T(-2\k2.3 + ^0.1. 6.18)). otherwise. dB i — (K. K=(KI. Narrow-band approximation in both dispersion and nonlinearity Stiassnie (1984) showed that the NLS equation can be derived from the Zakharov equation by restricting the waves to have narrow spectra only. (2.k3 = 0 and \u + co(ki) — w{k2) — w(fc3)| < 0(e2). Eq. The Zakharov equation (135) becomes in terms of B.60)) gives the expression.k3. We then write.. it is supposed that the energy is concentrated around the wave number k = ko = (fco.k0 + Ki.4.3. k = k0 + K. (142) (141) x B*{K1)B{K2)B(K3)6(K + K1-K2- .0)T which is in accordance with the usual assumption for NLS equations that the waves have one predominant direction.Hfc) .1.3 = Q^ 0. (140) To facilitate the expansion for narrow spectral width. For X Q I 2 3 = —T0 ! 2 3' Rasmussen (1998.t) /// dKidK2dK3TQjl23(k0 + K.

3(^0 + K2 + K3 .2. 1984) permits us to approximate the complex amplitude a to: In the Zakharov equation (142). (143) We also write ( as: C(x.K2dK3 Ki 4fo> '^0. C(x.Pt 2 V k0 K L_ _) ±_ 4k0 2k0 8k2 o k3 (146) The Zakharov equation (142) has to be expressed in terms of the complex amplitude a instead of A. co(k0 + K) = w(fc 0 )(l + K\/(2k0)). fc0 + K 2 .Ki. fco + K 3 ) (147) •^*(/c1)e(K2)^(K3)ei(K2+K3-Kl)'x . (141) in Eq.t)iKX + CC]. (142) is multiplied by yj2uj{ko)lg • (1 + K/(4/CO)) and subsequently the inverse Fourier transform is taken. W.(k0)\l/2 { . Otta Substitution of Eq.(2) 9 J 2n d.[kax-u(k0)t] 2TT dn Lo(k0 + K) 29 1/2 [B(K.k0 + Ki.1. (144) Expansion of y/u(ko + K) to first order in K for the case of deep-water waves (the case considered by Stiassnie. Therefore (Stiassnie. 1984). In deep water. to . + 2K\/ko + |/c| 2 /fcg) 1 / 4 and thus.da l ~di + 1 2~V k0 da dx 1 1 d2a 4k0dx2 + 1 d2a 2k2 dy2 8k3 1 d3a dxdy2 K-2 + K3 - /2u. Eq. K. (136) yields the following expression for (. one has u = \J g\ko + K\ = \/gko(l first order.Kid.£)ei[fcoa!-a'(fc°)t]} .t) = Re{a(a:.t) J. u>(\k0 + K\) -u(k0) .44 M. Dingemans & A. 1984): . This results in (Stiassnie. we now expand the term ui(k) — w(fco).

See also Hogan (1985. ^ 0 + K3) 4TT 2 / 2^2 3 («1 . Modification due to surface tension Hogan (1985) extended the analysis of Dysthe (1979) by also taking surfacetension effects into account and derived a fourth-order equation valid for deepwater waves with surface tension effects included.2. He starts with the Zakharov equation . (147).Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 45 For the case of deep-water waves. ^0 + K l .a 2 —. 371). o. . (149).9a ' 9a. the following equation is found. In Eq. /da \dx 2k0 da\ wQ dt) 1 d2a 4k0dx2 1 d2 2k0 dy2 d3a 8k2 dx3 2k0 <9$ a>(feo) dz 3i d3a Ak$ dxdy2 (151) z=0 ki\a\2a 01 ' .3 3( f c 0 + K 2 + « 3 . I is an integral which can be related to the derivative of the wave potential $ at z = 0 (Stiassnie.-3ik20\a\2~ dx 2 dx 6.da dt 1/a 2 V fo 1/2 . 1 d2a Ak0 dx2 1 9a 2k0 dy d3a 8k . (148) in Eq. .4. p. Notice that this correction is the same as the correction of Janssen (1983) of Dysthe's equation.K3) 2k0\Ki .K3 - 2A. it is possible to show that a first-order Taylor expansion of the interaction coefficient T0 12 3 m the spectral width becomes. fco + « 2 . (150) in Eq.K l . (149) and rewriting results in: . The dispersion relation used is u)2{k) = (1 + s)gk and s = 7/c2/(pg) with 7 the surface tension which is given as force per unit length (N/m). 1984) as: 4gn2 d$ 1 = 2 (150) cu (ko) dx z = 0 Substituting Eq. T CII2 A. dx3 2 3i 5 3 a Ak\ dxdy2 (149) 2uj(k0) ik$ 2 da* K\a\'a--^-a dx 3i*g|a|»- .o da kfial 1^2"' where the sign of the second term in square brackets in the right-hand side of the equation is negative instead of positive as in Stiassnie's equation (10).K2) 2 •«3) («1 .0|KI-K2| +0 \K\* k2 (148) Using Eq.

t) = Re{a(x.2 S ) 2 with (154e) 99 In variables with dimension. ((x. Otta with surface-tension effects included and then follows Stiassnie's (1984) method to obtain the fourth-order evolution equation. (154) have been used.5 ) ( l + 6 s + g2) 8(1 + 1 ) 3 ( l .9s 2 + s . . Writing. a' = koa.1 4(1 + s 2 ) ' ( l . (152) new scaled (primed) variables are introduced by t' = u>ot. x' = kox.8) 8(l + s ) 2 ( l . 'da 2l{ Xi = l + 3s q = 2(1 + s) ' 3 + 25 + 3s 2 4 ( 1 + s) 2 ' 8 + s + 2s 2 8(l-2s)(l+s) UQ (154a) (154b) (154c) (154d) 1+ 3S 9 c„ = 2k 1 + s ' 0 da\ UJQ d2a tuo d2a 2 2 • wo d3a M +Ca d-x) ^d^ 3 + 2+q e0w~ ^ Xl koHa = . The dimensionless higher-order NLS equation then is. (153). Dingemans & A. one obtains from Eq.da dx <9$ dx (153) 2=0 da d3a dxdy2 d3a dx3 where the coefficients are given by: P 3S2 + 6s . dx 2 = 0 dx "' ' dx where the coefficients of Eq. —ir—^^r 3 — lukoujoa — \-tvkouJo\a\ ^—h zfcoa— /CQ 9a. l2da d$ 2da* n. .da* dx .K'^ (155) ls UJ d a . . t)e i(kox-uJot) }.46 M. . . dropping the primes. W. K. $ ' = (2fco/w0)$ and cg' = {kQ/u}0)cg. 2i da ~di -is + C9 da dlc' + p d2a ^ dx2 +q —~XlW1 dy .s ) ( 8 + s + 2s 2 ) 16(1-2s)(l + I ) 2 ' 3(4s 4 + 4s 3 .

. the same condition for 3>x follows from the kinematic condition.\B?B > (159b) VJJ £ 2 (B) 16k3 \ IK d3 dxdy2 d^)B• " > % • (159c) (159d) z=0 Ms (5. S(B) = C2{B) + N2{B). (115). we still have Eqs. l2da . (114b) and (114c). .„ l2 „ .4.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 47 To be able to compare this equation with other higher-order equations. Hogan's result reduces to: da da\ ~dt+Cg&c) 3 .. l2 1 . These authors enhanced the extent of the bandwidth. as in Dysthe (1979). B W = ' 1 7 + ^ -712 U « . Narrow-band approximation in nonlinearity only The limited bandwidth for which the NLS and the modified equation (mNLS) as given by Dysthe (1979) are derived hampers the application to real waterwave problems as noted amongst others by Trulsen and Dysthe (1996). C\B and Af\B being the linear part and the nonlinear part of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation respectively. Both the NLS and the mNLS equations are derived under the conditions that: lAfcl k 0(s) and kh = 0(s~l) with e = ka .fdB UJ dB\ u (\ d2 <92 \ Jfe 4 . 9$ -i/c 0 w 0 |a| — + k0a—z=0 (156) Furthermore. . valid up to 0(e4) has been given in Eq.3. (158) The resulting equation.„.$) B dB* dx -£)*• dx . The extensions of the NLS equation needed for the mNLS equation are given by: S _. a7 1 d(a2) 2 W °" dx at 0. (159a) where S{B) = 0 stands for the NLS equation with S = C\ + N\. we notice that in absence of surface tension (5 = 0).« " ^. We rewrite that equation in the following form. .UJQ da 8 & dxdy2 o d2a 8/cg dx2 UJQ u>o d2a 1 . Furthermore.u0 d3a 16 & dx3 Q 1 4 2 da* dx 3. (157) 6.

C c a n also be expressed as: C(a:. 0) T and frequency U)Q — w(fco). 2 dxdy4 (161b) _ <95 dx3dy2 While Eq. Using pseudo-differential operators which capture the full dispersive behaviour. albeit wider than before. the narrow-band assumption is retained. u> ( 5 <94 32fc^ ( " 4 5 ^ li (\ <95 64 V 4 9a. Trulsen et al. (2000) start by expressing the surface displacement as: 1 r°° C(x. (162a) with the dispersion relation given by the deep-water form u = y/g\k\. el'2t and also the vertical coordinate is somewhat faster than before: e1'2z. W. lAfel k 0(e^2) and kh = 0{e~1'2). We have. in variables with dimension. The effect is seen in a further shrinking of the instability region for Stokes waves. the new slow spatial and time variables are e1'2x. Further progress is given in the paper of Trulsen et al. Supposing that the free-surface elevation may be described by a modulation of a carrier wave with wave number fco = (ho. t)el(-koX-UJ°t^ + CC . further progress is achieved.5 <9 4 + 15 A(JB) = ^W + 94 \ 3 B d?) 3d5 B. it is still an approximation for a somewhat narrow bandwidth. For the nonlinearity. S(B) = C2(B)+N2(B. (161) is derived for wider bandwidth. Otta Trulsen and Dysthe (1996) now assumed a wider bandwidth to exist. (161a) the difference being only in the linear dispersive terms. t) = \A{x. the resulting equation is.t) = a{k)ei{-k*-u{-Wdk 2 J-oo + CC.$)+£3(B). (2000) where no conditions on the bandwidth are set. (160) With e1'2 being the new expansion parameter. now up to fifth order in the expansion parameter e1'2. With a similar expansion procedure as before. Dingemans & A. (162b) . K.48 M.

Expansion up to fifth-order derivatives yields the linear part of Eq.dy)A 1 + -iuj0k20\A\2A = 0 . Trulsen et al. (164) To return to physical space. Equating the two expressions for C in Eqs.t)eiKXdK.idx)2 . we then have. (166b) = 0. (166a) By expanding Eq.dy)A with L(dx.t)=0. t) = a(k0 + K)e<["—M*o+">-«(feo»] . linear evolution equations to all orders can be obtained.d2v}l. (166b) in the derivatives. the equation considered then is: 3A — + L(dx. we thus have.+ —~ dKi{uj{k0 + K) . -oo (163a) A{K. (162). (165) In physical space. 2 at 4-7T J_00 J_00 (166c) = »{[(1 . K2)T.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 49 We now use k = ko + K as the modulation vector. oo / with A(K. (159). (163b) with respect to t shows that A satisfies. dA — +L(dx. > idx fco fco and > idv . —.tuo] / dx'eiK<x-x^A{x'. (159). dA — + i[u)(k0 + K) .dy) and thus. one obtains. we use operator correspondence where we have to account for the fact that K is the change of wave number relative to fco. Writing K = (KJ. (i 6 3b) Differentiation of Eq. (167) . Keeping the usual nonlinear term. (2000) use the exact linear dispersive equation (166b) for the linear part of the higher-order NLS-type equation instead of some power-series approximation such as Eq.i .1} .Wo}A = 0 .

Expansion of representation in Eq. Dingemans & A. for the nonlinear term.3(ko. A2dA* (168a) with 5$ 9^ 1 d 1 Al2 (168b) (168c) (168d) V 2 $ = 0 for <9$ — =0 — oz for . (2000) also consider the equation with the nonlinear terms as introduced by Dysthe (1979) and then get the system. Trulsen et al.t)=( — ') f dKB{K. dA " v .iv0]a(x'. Otto. (170). da ~dt ' 1 f°° 1 2 — / dx'dKi[uj(ko + K.t)eiK-x . Z=0 1 ..k0. (169) The narrow-band approximation of the kernel T0 i 2 3 yields. K.o o < z < 0. 2 d— k \A\ X ..k0) = ^ .d )A — + L(dxJ.50 M. (171) . 2-u = 0. W.. taking its inverse Fourier transform and applying the narrow-band approximation. Eq.) . (142) by (2u0/g)1^2. yields the following NLS-type equation with fully dispersive behaviour and narrow-band nonlinearity. (143) to leading order in the spectral width yields (cf. (170) Multiplying Eq. z —• -oo. yy ' -cj0k0AA— 1 + 2 0kl\A\2'A -iuj u 0I ' . - Equation (167) can also be derived from the Zakharov equation (142) with ( given by Eqs. Trulsen et al. 2000) expression (144) with the amplitude a given by: a(x. \-ik0A— A6i$ 3 dA + -LO0^0.t) +-iio0kQ\a\2a 4TT ^ J-oo 2 = 0. T^l2. (143) and (144) in essentially the same way as done by Stiassnie (1984).ko. .

the modulation is solely due to the frequency modulation. 432). 1998) that for the case that the wave field consists of only one dominant wave component. „ . B{k. Neglecting the variation on the slow spatial scales.^ \ ^ A N (173) (174) 0. (176) . (137b). We notice that the extra terms (compared to the original Zakharov equation) are due to the partial variation of the wave amplitudes. (175) which is called the inhomogeneous Zakharov equation by Rasmussen. B{k. p. t) = B(k'. Rasmussen (1998) derives for the deep-water case a so called Zakharov-Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (his equation (3. t)6(k — k') and also choosing k' = (fc.5.2k2x d2B y + k2 dx2 k2 dy2 + dkxdkzdk-sC1^ . introduced from outside the computational domain. Eq.3 - ^ . As Rasmussen noticed. Because the case of deep water is considered and no current is present. dB w dB + ig (dB dB\ ik3 . 8B_ — +c9-^B+8ujk = -i fff ig_ (k2x-2k2yd2B k2y . It can be shown (see Rasmussen.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 51 6.50)) which reads. . the lefthand side is similar to the linear part of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. as can be found in Stiassnie (1984.t) = BeiatS(k~k'). Extensions of the Zakharov equation By allowing for spatial variations. (172) reduces to: — + cg • VB = -i fff dfeidfeadfcaC^a . 0)T. the deep-water NLS equation results. m+2-kd-x Here is used the fact that: s5k{^-2^) = . 6kxky d2B \ k2 dxdyJ (172) where C% 2 is already defined in Eq. „ . apart from the mixed derivative term which can be transformed away by changing the x-direction into the main propagation direction.2.l. In this respect. the situation is similar as in Stiassnie (1984) in which a NLS equation is derived from the Zakharov equation for deep water. By considering a Stokes wave with constant amplitude.

see Liu. So.t) = Be<at+KXh{k . i*) c a n D e written in b o t h cases as: C(x. often the effect of the long waves exceeds t h a t of the short wind waves not only due to possible resonance of the harbour itself but also due to the mooring systems which do have resonance peaks at much lower frequency closer to the free long waves.k'). One of the generation mechanisms is due to the nonlinear effect on modulated wave trains. the knowledge of the amount . Other mechanisms of long wave generation have been discussed in Holman and Bowen (1982). 7. Rasmussen finds t h a t the solution for the free-surface elevation C( a. Otta Rasmussen poses the question how much k' may deviate from its exact value without changing the n a t u r e of the solution. (172) and (175) are fulfilled when n/k ~ O(s) and 0{e2) respectively. For horizontal bottoms. the solution is multiplied by a small variation due to a small p e r t u r b a t i o n wave number K. Generally two types of long waves exist: (1) locked (forced) long waves and (2) free long waves which propagate with their own celerities according to the linear dispersion relation. B(k. For harbours with berths for large vessels. moreover. the celerities become \fgh where h{x) is the depth. (172) and (175). Mei and Benmoussa (1984) [see also Liu. Dingemans and Kostense (1990). For shear-current regions.52 M. T h e effect of an uneven b o t t o m is t h a t free long waves are generated and. t h a t part of the locked wave energy transforms to free waves.(1 + (Ka)2)uj(K)t}. T h e importance of knowing the locked and free long waves in coastal areas is because they influence the sediment transport rates and especially the amount of free long waves is important for harbour oscillation problems. (178) where K = k + n and Eqs. In coastal areas and for a narrow-banded wave group. W. To this end. P u t in another form: what is the appropriate value of the bandwidth for application to r a n d o m waves. usually only the locked waves are generated. similar phenomenae occur. (177) By substituting this expression in Eqs. 1989] have shown t h a t the free long waves could propagate in a direction different from the wave group and the carrier waves. long waves with typical periods of minutes can be generated due to several physical phenomena. K. t) = a cos[K • x . G e n e r a t i o n of Free L o n g W a v e s In coastal areas. Dingemans & A.

(180e) and J^ = gk tanh kh. Because the length scales of the resulting wave groups are much larger than those of the carrier waves. Z)] exp[ tX (x.t)= (180a) (180b) = - i g A £ T ) C O S ^fc. Liu et al. slow variables are introduced by: X = j3x and T = j3t. Formulation of the equations We consider a train of modulated linear waves propagating over a slowlyvarying bottom. Another cause of the generation of free waves with which we are concerned here is due to the refraction of wave groups. (1990). X. t. the NLS-equation formulation is obtained. 1990).T) with x(x.1. In first instance. In this section. Liu et al. 7. (1992) and Dingemans et al.T) is also considered.X. (1991).. T) exp[iX(x. we refer to Dingemans et al.t)] + CC.t. (1991).z. In third-order. (179) When an ambient current field U{X. either due to an uneven bottom or due to shear currents. T) = l-A(X. For that case.g. Liu (1989). we also include an ambient current field in the considerations. /3«1. *(x.. C(x.z. dx'k(x')-cjQt.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 53 of free long waves at the harbour mouth is essential for a good harbour design. see e. t)] + CC .t). Bowers showed that free long waves were generated because of the difference in the strength of the bound waves across the junction between the two channels. the first-order displacements can be written in the following form (see Liu et al. (180d) . The first paper discussing the importance of free and locked waves for harbour design was the one of Bowers (1977). (180c) where the carrier wave frequency u is determined by: w = u)r + k • U and fc is given by: k = Vx{x. we primarily consider the second-order formulation for the wave amplitudes. Mei and Benmoussa (1984).

d/dX2)T. we can write the long-wave equation in terms of the secondorder free-surface elevation ( by taking the total derivative of Eq. (181) where V x = {d/dX1. gk d\A\2 2sinh2fc/i dT Vx gk\A\* 2sinh2fc/i U (183) j^L . (183) for <j> or Eq. (182a). (182b) yields the long-wave equation for the potential <> /. (182b) and substituting D<p/DT from Eq. (182b) As noted by Liu et al. Dingemans & A. Otta In the same way as derived in Liu and Dingemans (1989) for the case without an ambient current. g|+(Vx. (1990). the governing equations are the amplitude equation (181) with either Eq. Writing ( for ((2>°) and < for r^ 1 . taking the horizontal gradient of Eq.VX • (ghVxC) + ~{C^x 'x • • U) DT X hV x JA2 4 sinlr kh V 2to (184) In the case of an ambient current and an uneven bottom. (182a) and eliminating ( from the resulting equation and Eq. yielding. W.54 M. (184) for C- . K.0 ). dT \ujr Vx(Cg + U) L0r o. see Kirby (1983). = .t/)§|. Alternatively. <. an equation for the complex amplitude with current becomes.l E ± g DT where D/DT = d/dT + U • Vx dT x 4g sinh2 kh ' w (182a) and (U + hVx$+^k 2oj r = 0.9 V x . we have the following relation between > / C and 4>.( ft V„ £!vx X k^ 2 which was also derived by Kirby (1983) by using an averaged Lagrangian approach.

Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 55 In absence of an ambient current field and reverting back to the unstretched variables x and t. Notice that the coupling between the amplitude equation (181) and the long-wave equation (183) occurs in one way only. two-way coupling exists. Suppose that we have a permanent wave group with accompanying bound long wave in the region x < XQ. (82b). e. during this change also free long waves are formed. This situation is not very much different from . Upon progressing of this wave group in the region with variable depth. That bound waves become free when the wave group is progressing into a region with variable depth seen as follows.(kM)-->i-?l*£. The main attention is directed in this section towards the forced long-wave equation. see. yy YJ dt2 2 \ tor J 2sinh2A.. we then have. Eq. (184) simplifies to: d2C w LoA2 4 sinh2 kh H * £ i .W»-£v. we will only consider the case of a NLS equation with its companion long-wave equation. the carrier waves forming the wave group experience shoaling and the group itself changes and is not permanent anymore. Eq. No coupling from long wave to amplitude equation exists. Using this NLS-type equation instead of the second-order equation (181) means that the forcing in the right-hand side of the long-wave equation can be determined more accurately than is possible with the second-order amplitude equation.g. In the case of the NLS equation for restricted depth. In the present section. Therefore.. When proceeding to third order. The forcing itself is described by the amplitude equation. the accuracy of the forcing itself is not so important but the fact that a forcing is present matters. This has as a consequence that the long wave also changes. <-> (185b) v y and in terms of <j>.h <9i It is to be noted that both the amplitude and the long-wave equations are of second order and the validity of the formulations is restricted to spatial scale | X | = \/3x\ = 0(1) and similarly for the time. Suppose we have a ID situation with shelf-like region consisting of a horizontal part with h = h0 for x < Xo. a variable part h = h(x) for XQ < x < Xi and again a horizontal part for x > X\. a NLS-type equation is obtained for the amplitude. Notice that these longwave equations have already been encountered in the derivation of NLS-type equations. W-V.

no ambient currents We consider the long-wave equation (185b) in this section. .. (1991) substituted the locked wave solution <f>e in the expression for Q§ in Eq. Otta which is encountered by propagation of solitary and cnoidal waves in regions with uneven bottoms.. ID situation. . for the case of a horizontal bottom. ( dA ('*. (187a) where the operators Q and H are given by: o *=(^c-"I-*!)*• ^ dx V 2 dk 2 <8b 17 ) dx\dk and cosh4fc/i + 8 . we can integrate the long wave equation once and we obtain. (1991). is equal to the formulation (185b). In order to find an initial condition on the horizontal-bottom part of the shelf-like geometry. Eq. to2 . „ l2 A „. (185b) is also a function of x — cgt. because gk/sinh2kh — u>2/4sinh2 kh. u . 7.2. W.56 M. „„ . K.. we now use the NLS equation which reads (Dingemans et al. For the amplitude of the wave envelope. Eq. (8)). section 6. Dingemans et al.3).°irx) +c dA\ ldcQd2A + +A . 6 ( c /2 L\ & -gh)— d 1 g2k 2 u gkcg \A\\ 2sinh2fc/i (186) where cj>£ = 0 is chosen for A = 0. .. (1991. the long-wave equation as given in Dingemans et al. „ A nA . (9). as becomes clear from the amplitude equation (181) a particular solution <f>i to Eq.. (Bl) and (B2) of Liu and Dingemans (1989).„„„. see the discussion and the references mentioned in Dingemans (1997. K= -. - 2-d^ ^- * *M = ' . . 1991. (187a). As done in Dingemans et al.6. Dingemans & A. (187d) 16sinh4fc/i 9 with fi and ^ coefficients depending amongst others on the bottom slope which are given in Eqs. Koo = — and cr = cothfc/i. Because A is a function of £ = x — cgt. This leads to the NLS equation g Notice that. . Also in these situations long waves are formed.2tanh 2 kh .

{p) into T>U = 0. (1991) wanted a solution for 4> itself and not only for its derivatives. We have. (187a) and (185b). the following method was used. The omission of the reflection in the derivation of the evolution equation for the wave envelope (see Liu and Dingemans.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 57 for horizontal bottom.gh As shown in section 5. 1989) leads to the consequence that there is no reflected component of the locked-wave. (188b) + k " c A«n£kh 2 Jig sinh^ kh ' ) g . 3A with vi bJfcooC-g dA ' dx ldcgd2A 2 (188a) 2 + +k2UK. an initial condition for solution of the wave envelope follows from the horizontal-bottom equation (188a) as: kg2 A(x. The solution of <fi and A is achieved by a simultaneously numerical solution of Eqs.11 The long-wave equation (185b) can also be written in the The proof follows simply by substitution of 11 = TZ. we have both a forward (</>t) and a backward (<^7) propagating component. For the free wave. . (190) The solution of the long-wave equation is considered now. in the same way as the usual stream function for incompressible flow is determined. 4> = 4>t + 4>+ + 4>j . t) = a sech / -V2 dcg/dk a {x — cgt) (189) The corresponding bound long-wave is given by the differential equation (186). Because Dingemans et al. The solution for < is the combination of free and > / locked long waves. Divergence-like and curl-like differential operators T> and 1Z were introduced by: Vu = T> dui du2 — +— ( *£ \ and TZ(p) dx dp (191) V "at J It can be proven that any twice differentiable vector field u with T>u = 0 has the property u = TZ{p) for some scalar function p determined uniquely up to a constant.

we give the value at x = 0 and at x = L. It has to be remarked that the weak point in the analysis of Dingemans . (dtyfghdx)4>~f = 0 . these components satisfy. we give the weakly reflection condition (dt + cgdx)A = 0. The computations are performed in the interval 0 < x < L. we take the bottom to be horizontal in order to facilitate the application of radiating boundary conditions. (194a). With the special choice p = —ghip.cg \A\* . (186). it has no physical significance and ip even does not fulfill the wave equation (185b). (1991). K. (192) with < being substituted into the boundary condition. resulting in: d A_^^L ox gk Cg / to \2 = ^tl^nhfcfej_|A|2 _ M y/gh .cg ox (194b) at Similar conditions can be derived at the outflow side. (dt + y/gkdx)$$ = 0 . (193) The inflow condition for <j> is found as the sum of these equations. with ip an auxiliary function. f+!<»"*>-yy^ <9?/> <9<?f> c/fco 2 <"»•) (192b) dt dx 2tooh The set (192) now replaces the long-wave equation (185b). ox (194a) The inflow condition for the auxiliary function ip can be obtained from the system of Eq. we obtain as weakly reflective condition at the inflow boundary. For the boundary condition of the longwave potential <> distinction has to be made between the three long-wave /. For a horizontal bottom. Using also the solution of Eq. Otta form of T>u. For the envelope A. (185b) then is equivalent to the system. components: the locked-wave component §\ and the free waves 4>~t and <j>J.vV^ = -^ dt ox / W \ z ^ " " " " " ^gh . see Dingemans et al. Dingemans & A. At both the inflow and the outflow boundaries. g2k K 9 ^ .2^gh-^ .58 M. Eq. > / Eq. It has to be stressed that the variable ip is only an auxiliarly variable. W. (dt + cgdx)4>+ = 0 .

-gh 2 92k 2to + cdj l 9 u) y \2smhkh) (196b) and Ci = ^[dt$ . the mean free-surface elevation £ follows from Eq. However. Together with Eq. (1991) in this respect is that for the locked wave. The determination of the free and bound components can be performed only for a horizontal bottom. usually the wave group is split in two or more groups with their own velocity. The splitting in free and bound wave components is thus achieved for a horizontal bottom only. (1991). Theoretical aspects of modulational instability Basic ideas of Benjamin-Feir instability mechanism have been presented in the introductory section 2. (196a) with C . djj = Cu dx4>+ = C\A\2 . (193). The solutions for dtftt. Observations of Wave Modulations 8. However. (196c) and c = y/gh. Because both d4>/dt and d(f>/dx are available from the numerical computation.d .cg)C\A\2}. dtfyl a n d dt4>\ follow immediately from Eqs. This procedure is usually also used for uneven bottom with the understanding that the procedure then is not very accurate but with the hope of sufficient accuracy. This restriction can also be rephrased in the following way: the coupling between the wave envelope and the long wave should be weak or the coupling term Q4>A should be weak. At the inflow boundary. one can make sure that a single wave group is entering the computational domain. we also have. The first mathematical treatment of instability of water . From the computed results.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 59 et al.C\A\2. _ at ~df + ~W + ~~m and Tx . The solution of these six equations leads to: dx4% = dx$ . (182a). the assumption of a single wave group has been used. this is still to be proven. 8.1. (186). after progressing over an uneven bottom part.~dx~ + ~d^ + ~dx~ ' (195j The sets (193) and (195) yield five equations for six unknowns. the system is closed and can be solved. An example is given in Dingemans et al.(c .

60 M. X2K2 + 2\iVia2 < 0.T). (199) As may be seen from Eq. this condition is met only if A ^ i < 0. (1) fl2 = X1K2{\1K2 + 2u1al). the growth rate Im(fi) is: / 1 Im(fi) = K I |Aii/i \a20 .363.g. . W. (3) With kh > 1.T)=a(Z.T) in the form. A(Z. i. This is equivalent to the condition that kh > 1. use of higher-order modulation equation leads to improved results. For real solutions of K.363. 1997.T)]. the nature of which needs to be investigated.. 9311) and present some results for one-dimensional wave propagation. In an alternative approach.^ o . 931 which should have been 1/2. Otta waves was presented by Benjamin and Feir (1967). K. v\ > 0 because Ai < 0 always. > (4) Under the condition of instability. equivalently. proceeding with the equation.T)exp[iX{t. i^+\^-»M\2A = 0. the growth rate has a maximum and is therefore responsible for selective magnification of perturbation modes. p. For deep water 'An error has crept into the analysis presented in that section. r) = 6exp[i(/c£ — fit)]. (197) where the coefficients Ai and v\ are defined according to the Davey-Stewartson equation (section 3). In short.227a) on p.. one may seek solution to the amplitude envelope A(£. instability of water waves can also be analysed on the basis of modulation equations. i2 in deep water (kh —• oo).-\\K2 \ j 1 / 2 . a = a0+b(Z. ao is the amplitude of the uniform Stokes solution and b is the perturbation. (2) Instability occurs for fl2 < 0. While instability analysis based on the classical NLS equation leads to identical results as derived by Benjamin and Feir. (199). (198) In the assumed form. The origin of the error is the coefficient of the term aTT in Eq.e. (8. We skip the details of the stability analysis based on the NLS equation which may be found in several books (e. this condition translates to (n/k) < 2y/2kao. The main conclusions are that for a perturbation of the form &(£. Dingemans & A. the waves are unstable to a perturbation n such that: 1 2« 2 ^ v < . Dingemans.

the perturbation modes for instability and the maximum growth rate are: ^ < 2V2ka0\/l Im(fi)| m a x = ^(ka0)2[l K k .4 ka. The normalised maximum growth rate ( I m ( n ) | m a x / w ) as a function of steepness kao from NLS and Dysthe's theory.03 o 0 0. While the essence of the stability analysis remains the same as before. This difference is reduced by using higher-order modulation equation.. The presence of a varying current makes the medium inhomogeneous for waves.m is uj(kao)2/2. Fig. perturbations K/k < 2\Z2ka0 are unstable and the maximum growth rate occurs for K/k = 2kao at which the growth rate Q.06 0. valid only for deep water.2 0.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 61 waves. An illustrative example of this is provided by Dysthe (1979). a general analysis of the side-band instability due to the inhomogeneity introduced by a current becomes difficult. . Equivalently.09 0. From Dysthe's analyis.) as predicted by the NLS and Dysthe's theory are shown for deep water case in Fig.2(ka0)]. Exact analysis of Longuet-Higgins (1978) for deep water reveals marked differences from the preceding results based on the NLS equation. this is reflected in the coefficients of the Schrodinger equation having both temporal and spatial variation. 0. (200a) (200b) The normalised maximum growth rates (Im(fi)| max /o. 5. 5.

62 M. utilising Eq. we discuss some results. instability occurs for. 0)T. For waves with a constant dominant wave vector k = (k. To discuss the effect of an ambient current collinear to the wave direction.Q. the Stokes solution in the presence of a varying current is no longer of uniform amplitude. 0 < . Unlike in case of waves alone. the stability criterion remains . Otta Here. (201) in which case. W. Secondly. K. n2 UJ2rK2 8k2 k alexp (203) Thus. The relationship between Q. we consider the one-dimensional version of Eq. The solution to Stokes amplitude ao(x) is given by: ao (x) = a. the derivatives with respect to y are omitted. due to Gerber (1987). the stability condition 0 < ~ < 2V2ka0 k (205) becomes identical to the Benjamin-Feir condition for waves in terms of the local steepness ka. 8A 1 dcn ^7 + (c9 + U) dx ' \2 dx dt 1 LUr 82A 8 k2 dx2 1 UJr 82A 4 k2 dy2 2 . (201) where U is a slowly-varying current and wr is the linear relative frequency equal to \fgk. the current-modified Schrodinger equation used in the analysis is: dA . Thus.Q exp Jxo A y 3 dU 4 dx (202) u where oo is the amplitude at x = XQ. under the assumption that the group length scale is much smaller than the scale of current variation.— 4 dx 1 u>rk2\A\2A = 0.< 2V2ka0 exp k (204) Equation (204) is equivalent to the case of waves only if the current gradient is zero. and the perturbation mode K is found to be. Dingemans & A. (202). which are valid only for deep-water.

It is evident from Eq. explicit use of the deep water relationship in Eq. One of the sources of the background noise in the experiments is the transient front (Melville. 1999). 1998). (204) leads to: 0< ^ < 64y/2k aQ (206) [i + 4f]i(i + [i + 4f]i)5 where all the variables with the superscript "tilde" denote their initial values. (203) that the maximum growth rate occurs for. 1982. several experimental investigations of the modulational behaviour have been undertaken to date. For the specific case of initial current being zero (U = 0). 1999) except perhaps a singular case (Shemer et al. K k 2(kdo) exp Jx0 dx 1& 3 dU 4 dx (207) +u at which the growth rate 17 is given by: Im(fi) = -(kaQ) exp dx +M • u (208) 8. More experiments over finite depth may therefore be suggested to cover a broader range. Limited length of the wave flumes and energy damping due to side-wall boundary layers are two factors which make interpretations of experimental results difficult.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 63 unchanged in terms of local wave steepness. Experiments without seeding show that background noise is enough to lead to modulational instability. It follows further from Eq.2. (206) that an opposing current (U/c < 0) increases the region of instability whereas a following current has the reverse action. Almost all of the reported experiments over this pertain to deep water waves (see Table 1 in Tulin and Waseda. Laboratory observations Following the observations of instability of deep water waves by Feir as reported in Benjamin (1967). Modulation . Tulin and Waseda. Seeded experiments on the other hand make it easier to study growth in a controlled way with systematic variation of the amplitudes and frequencies of the disturbance modes. The local steepness is of course modified by the variation of the current from its original value. The other factor is the background noise or specific seeding of the input signal in the experiments.

Thus. It was construed (Lake and Yuen. they were able to record measurable growth of the side-band amplitude along the length of the tank. For the purpose of laboratory experiments. while the difference between Stokes waves and that generated by a sinusoidal wavemaker is a fact.78(fca)measuredLater work (Longuet-Higgins. 8. generated by a sinusoidally moving wavemaker. . (209) to Their measurements supported both the theoretical prediction (209) for the growth rate fl^ = (d(logS)/dx) (5 being the side-band amplitude) and the earlier observations of Benjamin (1967).9 x 12 m tank. the waves tend to return n(x) = A[2{ka0)2 .A2]H . Otta and consequent increase in local steepness may lead to breaking depending on the initial wave steepness and disturbance parameters. They observed.. W. K. From analysis of data of the side-band width A of the most unstable mode and the measured steepness. 1977) that this correction was necessary to account for the apparent nonlinearity of waves.64 M. (1977) went beyond the initial growth of instability. Their experiments were carried out in a 0.3. Deep-water modulation: initial stage and demodulation A pioneering set of experiments in this regard is due to Yuen and Lake (1975) and Lake et al. They gave evidence of demodulation.1. The exposition in Lake et al.9 x 0. (209) is also likely due to the small steepness limitation of the latter. Dingemans & A. (1977). that the wave steepness measured near (but further away for evanescent modes) the wavemaker needs to be corrected before being used as the initial steepness of the carrier waves in the theoretical expression. however. By using modulated input signals of prescribed side-bands. spatial growth rate is more relevant than the temporal growth rate for which theoretical expressions have been presented in the preceding section. the mismatch between the measured growth rate and that from Eq. We describe first the initial stage of modulation and demodulation for nonbreaking waves followed by modulation leading to breaking. being smaller than the theoretical Stokes waves (with its bound superharmonics). this correction was specified to be (fca)o = 0. i. 1978) has shown that the analysis of Benjamin and Feir shows significant deviation from the exact values (potential flow) for (fca)o > 0. The equivalent spatial growth rate fiw of the side-band amplitude based on the linear stability analysis of Benjamin and Feir (1967) is given by: 5=—.e.

As described later. The long-term behaviour in those cases is markedly different than the near-recurrence of the wave modulation. This case is perhaps the best evidence of recurrence among reported laboratory studies. there remained many questions hidden behind this evidence of near-recurrence and their data did not cover sufficient ground to clarify them. This feature. the waves evolved back nearly to the original three modes (carrier. No breaking was observed and the length of the tank allowed the completion of one modulation cycle. 17. This diagram is based on experiments and fully nonlinear . they are important in the sense that the tank length has limited such studies to a maximum of one modulational scale. waves break during modulation. At the peak of the modulation near 25 m from the wavemaker. Although the energy content of the spread is low. This observation that modulational instability does not necessarily lead to a disintegration of water waves renewed support to the recurrence of modulation exhibited by the NLS equation. Many of the issues involved have been re-examined in the recent experiment by Tulin and Waseda (1999). One key difference is that the evolved spectrum shows a noticeable (on a log-linear scale) discretised high-frequency energy spread. this down-shift was absent in Tulin and Waseda (1999) in the absence of breaking. for values of steepness and modulation band within a certain range.2 x 2. the amplitude at the carrier frequency had nearly vanished.0894. it is important to recognise that side-band instability does not lead to breaking for waves of all steepness and all modulations.1 and a "seeded" modulation of 5LU/U> — 0.1 x 50 m. corresponds to an initial steepness of 0. In spite of these deviations being small. (1977). if true. This is a strong corroboration of the near recurrence referred to by Lake et al. while Lake et al. Multi-cycle behaviour of these deviations for nonbreaking waves remains an interesting study. however. upper and lower side-bands) before the end of the tank. p. Beyond this peak modulation. In summary. One of the cases investigated by Tulin and Waseda (1999) in a wave tank of 4.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 65 to their initial state existing before modulation. 220). In the aforementioned recurrence of nonbreaking modulation. (1977) found that the carrier waves experience a down-shift of the frequency. is another deviation from a perfect recurrence. Secondly. we have used the qualifier "near" indicating that the wave system does not exactly reset back to the initial three waves at the end of the modulation. However. A rough guide to determine the region of breaking on the parameter space of e = (fca)o and 6u)/u> is given by a diagram presented by Tulin and Waseda (1999) (their Fig. this feature may be responsible for the deviation from a perfect recurrence.

Dingemans & A. The amplitude of the lower side-band remains high after breaking while for cases of no-breaking the amplitude subsides significantly almost to its original state. waves of initial steepness (ka)o smaller than 0. 6 (reproduction of Fig. In contrast. Au/w « \/kao8. the measured growth rate agrees well with the theory. seems to lie in a range from 0. Tulin and Waseda. . The end result is that the lower sideband remains most energetic after peak modulation and breaking resulting in a permanent down-shift of the spectral peak within the length of the tank. Aside from the energy loss due to breaking. Although the carrier wave recovers somewhat it stays lower than its initial value. breaking occurs during evolution.4. two processes seem to be taking place: discriminatory energy loss from the carrier and upper side-band modes.1 and modulational disturbances within a certain band. Important contributions to this field have also been put forward by Ramamonjiarisoa and Mollo-Christensen (1979) and Su and Green (1985). Roughly.4. i. For larger steepness. 18 of Tulin and Waseda.. Thus. J It is not perfectly clear whether k is the wave number of the carrier wave or the one of the modulated wave.44 for maximum steepness of stable waves. a significant difference between modulation with breaking and without lies in the relative growth of the sidebands.66 M. 1983) and Tulin and Waseda (1999). Increase in local steepness during evolution leads to breaking. expressed byj kHm/2. 1999). In the prebreaking stage. This point is best illustrated in Fig. the region of breaking is centered around the locus of maximum growth rate.1 seem to be stable to undergo a modulation cycle without breaking. 1999). For a systematic exposure on the observation of modulational behaviour during and after breaking. the upper side-band drops back from its peak towards its pregrowth value. the energy distribution over the wave components during and after breaking is drastically modified. One immediate consequence of wave-breaking is the loss of nearrecurrence described in the previous section.25 to 0. Secondly. The latter conclusion is more difficult to justify due to the length limitation of the wave tanks in the two experiments (Melville. The issue seems not to be very important since a range is denned. The local steepness. K. Otta computations over a range of e and Su>/ui. This value is lower than the theoretical value of 0.e. and an irreversible energy transfer to the lower side-band. 1982. Deep-water modulation: modulation leading to breaking For waves of initial steepness greater than 0. we turn mostly to the studies due to Melville (1982. W.

Although an important p a r t of the evolution process. From the known experimental cases. evolution of only the side-bands a n d carrier waves have been discussed.0 0. wave-breaking . prominent spikes become more numerous in the discrete spectrum appearing for example at frequencies WQ+2ALJ. Tulin and Waseda (1999) observed t h a t the generation of a continuous spectrum depended not only on the steepness but also on the bandwidth of the disturbance. Spectral evolution In the two preceding sections. V V1 40 60 20 40 '/ Breaking 1 20 40 for/271 kxlln kxlln Fig. Spatial modulation of carrier. W i t h evolution downstream from the wavemaker. Reproduced from Tulin and Waseda (1999) (Fig. 18. Melville (1982) was the first to draw attention to this aspect from his experimental results. Occurrence of discretised high-frequency spread of energy (seen clearly in log-linear plots) is another feature of importance with respect to the long-term evolution of the wave field.2 20 1 . 221).292 respectively. 6. T h e results only show t h a t under certain conditions. there seems to be a trend towards a broad-band continuous spectrum around the primary frequency UJQ. 8 . spikes appear at other frequencies. p. These spikes are first prominent at the subharmonic interaction frequency of Ao.232 and 0. it does not seem feasible to conclusively specify the conditions which lead to a continuous spectrum. He noted t h a t aside from the spikes at the side-band frequencies. n(u>o ± Aw).4 0. At locations near and after breaking. T h e initial steepness of waves used in Melville's experiments was 0. sub and super side-band modes with and without breaking.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 67 (a) 1. behaviour of the side-band modes alone does not give the complete picture of the spectral transformation.8 —^ \ \> a 0. 5 . and super harmonic modes na>o with n as a n integer.

laboratory observations show near recurrence. As mentioned in the previous section. 8. (2000) between numerical computations and experimental observation show that asymmetry during the evolution of a group may be satisfactorily produced by mNLS and Zakharov's equation. (2001) have shown in a more elaborate way that the Zakharov equation could be used for an accurate description of the modulation and the skewed shape of the amplitude envelope of a wave field (non-breaking) during its evolution along a tank. From whatever limited number of cases. Among the approximate nonlinear equations. the latter doing better. Krasitskii's equation and the fully nonlinear potential flow computations. in spite of this success of the NLS equation in reproducing the broad features of the growth of side-band modes. However. Side-band instability which is a special class of nonlinear modulation is admitted by this theory. . In an subsequent work. W.6. The cubic NLS equation is the basic theoretical model for studying nonlinear modulation. Fully nonlinear potential flow computations have been found to reproduce the experimental measurement of wave modulation up to the point of breaking (Tulin and Waseda. More importantly. (1998) have compared the evolution behaviour predicted by NLS. the computed results from an approximate equation system became closer to that from the fully nonlinear potential flow computation with increasing order of approximation.1. However. the theory predicts recurrence of modulation. for waves of initial steepness less than 0. Dingemans & A. fully nonlinear computations have been carried out seem to predict the breaking at the right location. K. comparisons between experimental measurements and numerical solutions are somewhat less exhaustive and should be extended. 1999). a phenomenon which is clearly beyond the linear instability analysis. Comparison between theory and experiment Numerical investigations have been presented by several authors based on several forms of nonlinear equations. Comparisons by Shemer et al. In consistence with the theoretical expectation. mNLS. NLS which is the simplest equation capable of modelling modulation does not reproduce any asymmetry. peak modulation and subsequent demodulation and several other features remain unanswered attracting renewed attention for more advanced analysis.68 M. In an inter-comparison study. Otta during modulation is also associated with a scattering of energy from discrete spikes to a continuous spectrum apart from the energy dissipation. Both the unstable modes and the initial growth rate may also be extracted from this theory. Shemer et al. Landrini et al. Zakharov's equation.

First. Many of laboratory and field observations are inseparably influenced by such dissipative mechanisms. Summary Wave transformation in the field involves wide-ranging processes including interactions among components and with varying depth and current. Modulation equations present a simpler framework with which both analytical and numerical insight and quantification of the processes may be achieved. This is due to the instability of groups to oblique perturbations (e. Thus. In engineering practices. the coefficients of the equation depend on the depth. the depth-averaged wave-induced current (long-wave) manifests itself in the amplitude modulation equation resulting in a coupling between the two. With an ambient current. In 2D . (48)]. 1983. the current is assumed to be of large-scale compared to the waves.. Many theoretical descriptions deal with the classical case of deep water modulation. wave number) exhibit fast variation. coherent wave groups are more readily observed in wave flumes than in the field. Because of this. Further understanding of this process is necessary to be able to enter the next stage of modelling in which post-breaking modulation may be calculated. More importantly. Analysis of experimental measurements (Melville. 1982. The simplest form of equations on finite depth is the set of the so-called Davey-Stewartson equations [Eqs. Ablowitz and Segur. This review begins with some illustrative sections to guide uninitiated readers to the nonlinear processes in deep and intermediate water. 9. 1999) indicate that energy transfer between wave components in the incipient stage of (and during) breaking happens rather rapidly in a complex way.g. Modulation equations involving cubic interactions have been presented for deep water followed by the more general cases of varying depth with or without an ambient current. An essential assumption in the derivation of the modulation equations is that length scale of variation of the amplitude envelope is much longer than that of the carrier waves.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 69 A major source of difficulty is the role of dissipation. The cubic evolution equation on finite depth differs from the deep-water version in two ways. the role of a finite and varying depth is important. validity of such equations become limited when the wave properties (amplitude envelope. We also like to draw attention to the fact that ID coherent wave groups (soliton-type solutions) are likely to become unstable in two dimensions. 1979). Dissipation arises from the wall layer of the experimental flume and due to naturally occuring processes of surface wave-breaking. Tulin and Waseda.

(168)].1. Nonlinear modulation is not an essential mechanism behind the magnitude and generation of free long waves but adds to the features. the evolution equation for the complex amplitude and the wave equation for the long-wave potential need to be solved simultaneously. Otta propagation on water of finite depth. although touched briefly in this review. Use of the Zakharov equation or a reduced form of it (where the reduction is based on the assumption of narrow-band approximation only in regards to nonlinearity) is recommended while considering a broad-band spectrum [Trulsen et al. asymmetric growth rates of the upper and lower side bands could be at least qualitatively reproduced by this set. the side-band growth rate predicted by NLS equation is in satisfactory agreement with experimental measurement and exact computations only over a low range of initial steepness (ka)o < 0. driven by the wind waves. is discussed in some length in the section "generation of free long waves". In ID. (60)]. With waves propagating over a varying depth. The equation proposed by Dysthe (1979) has been shown to be a special case of the Zakharov's equation under the assumption of narrowness of the spectrum. 2000 and Eqs. is a desired future development for the higher-order formulations. Both quantitative and qualitative changes are introduced through higher-order modulation equations. For example. an associated process is the generation of free long waves. Further. These changes agree with experimental measurements in a superior way than the cubic Schrodinger equations.70 M. Dysthe's equation (1979) is the first among the widely-known higherorder extensions of the NLS-type equation. The motivations behind modulation equations of higher-order are more than only the natural theoretical extension. Long waves are of importance in regards to harbour oscillation and coastal sediment transport. This observed feature of asymmetric growth rates is beyond the scope of the NLS equation. allowing perhaps a depth-varying profile. this is simplified since the long-wave potential can be obtained after the evaluation of the amplitude [Eqs.. Generation of long waves. Derived from the Hamiltonian principle. W. Inclusion of an ambient current. K. Conservation laws and the special solutions of the NLS equation may be used to serve as good guidelines for the validation of the numerical models. is considered outside the present scope. the Zakharov equation provides a broader basis for higher-order modulation equation. (115)]. This range is extended significantly by using the higher-order basis of Dysthe's equation [Eqs. Dingemans & A. . Both Dysthe's equation and the current-modified form given by Stocker and Peregrine (1999) are formulated for deep water only. Effect of surface tension.

Denmark. formulations of dissipation due to breaking and surface turbulence are largely absent in currently used modulation equations. References Ablowitz.. Segur (1979). Part 1. Shrira. C. I. J.. V. J. M. One area where theoretical developments are lacking is the modelling of dissipation. 164pp. E. T. Ph. On the evolution of packets of water waves. 92(4): 691-715. A 299: 59. breaking related dissipation remains an i m p o r t a n t aspect in future development of understanding the behaviour of evolution of steep waves of practical interest. 425pp. Trulsen and Dysthe. Theory. Badulin. Solitons and the Inverse Scattering Transform. Brinch-Nielsen. . Philadelphia.D. Segur (1981). Feir (1967). 1990). On the other hand. I. Kharif and M. U. M.g. The disintegration of wave trains on deep water. Ablowitz. S. 27(3): 417-430. J. 1977. Benney. D. Lake et al. Fluid Mech. Phys. Modulation for nonlinear wave in dissipative or unstable media. Fluid Mech. and H. On two approaches to the problem of instability of short-crested water waves. It is also a generally held notion t h a t dissipation is an essential mechanism behind frequency down-shift observed in uni-directional propagation. SIAM. Fluid Mech.Nonlinear Modulation of Water Waves 71 Experimental measurements have on one hand lent justification to the basis of nonlinear modulation equation. Japan 36(3): 861-868. T. there is a strong need for a better understanding of such process b o t h from experimental and theoretical investigations. Thesis. Univ. Ioulalen (1995). they have identified several gaps which motivate further developments. J. 303: 297-326. Tech. 1997). Asano. (1967). and J. Benjamin. DCAMM Report S44. J. and H. Clearly. Notwithstanding the possibility t h a t nonlinear interaction alone may cause a permanent down-shift in three-dimensional wave trains (Trulsen and Dysthe. Phys. B. J. J. and A. Roy. Soc. Apart from a few isolated a t t e m p t s (e. 46: 133-139. Soc. Newell (1967). Experiments by Melville (1982) and Tulin a n d Waseda (1999) indicate t h a t t h e down-shift may be a rather sudden process associated with breaking instead of being gradual. Slowly-Modulated. Benjamin. Math. (1988). The propagation of nonlinear wave envelopes. B. Proc. Instability of periodic wave trains in nonlinear dispersive systems. (1974). Weakly Nonlinear Gravity WavesFourth Order Evolution Equations and Stability Analysis. C. J. N. This is in spite of the fact t h a t dissipation is necessary in being able to model multi-cycle modulational evolution in many practical computations.

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Introduction Surface wave breaking occurs in deep water and shallow water zones of lakes. On the other hand. In deep water. The bubble generation and subsequent evolution are substantially different in saltwater (seas and oceans) than in freshwater (rivers and lakes). These bubble sensors make use of different kinds of optical. Bubbles of different sizes are generated by wave breaking. Thus. WESSON This review consists of two parts. The main physical parameters considered herein are the temporal and spatial variation of air void fraction and bubble size density. one sees more wave breaking events in shallow water than in deep water. these are out of 77 . even under no-wind situations. The important role of bubbles in heat and gas exchange (primarily CO2 and O2) in the air-water interface of freshwater rivers and lakes are well recognized. The second part covers the description of dynamical and statistical features of wave breaking and bubble fields in the oceanic shallow-water environment particularly near the surf zone where the special characteristics of shallow water depth on breaking waves and bubble generation are most prominent. surface gravity waves in general break only when their slope reaches beyond certain values under strong wind stress. acoustical. seas and oceans. In this review. we shall restrict our attention to the shallow water zones. The first part deals with the state of the art for various sensors for measuring physical parameters of the bubble field generated by wave breaking. and electromagnetic principles to effect their intended purposes. especially near the beach. when the slopes of incoming swells from remote areas increase to high values due to water depth decreasing toward the shore (surf zone). wave breaking occurs in shallow water near shore. and the corresponding deployment methods for some of these bubble sensors in the littoral zone. These differences will be explained more fully in the next section. but. 1.B U B B L E M E A S U R E M E N T TECHNIQUES A N D B U B B L E D Y N A M I C S IN COASTAL SHALLOW WATER MING-YANG SU and JOEL C.

1988. (2) Various types of bubble sensors for measuring physical parameters and their characteristics and suitability in the shallow water environment in Sec. whose dynamics and statistics have been studied for the past one hundred years. These bubbles affect the heat and mass transfer across the sea surface. Thus. but. Su & J. small salt particles are formed. Another important effect of breaking waves is air entrainment into the water in the form of bubbles ranging in radius from about 10 fi to several centimeters. Mei and Liu. turbulence. These salt particles are the main components of near surface aerosols that may absorb strongly in the infrared light spectrum (de Leeuw and Kunz. 1993). 1991. 1983. Svendsen and Putrevu. and sediment transport.-Y. Unlike moderate slope surface waves. 2. This is not due to the fact that wave breaking is a less important aspect of wave dynamics in general (Melville. Peregrine. if they can. 3. rather due to the fact that wave breaking is so nonlinear.78 M. 1982. The main focus of this review is twofold: (1) Bubble measurement techniques and (2) bubble dynamics/statistics in shallow saltwater coastal zones. Their principal effects are loss of energy and momentum from breaking waves to the water column that create rip currents. 1992). 1992). . 1996). that many wave investigators try to stay away from the study of breaking waves.. C. this review shall further be restricted to saltwater coastal zones. 1994. and the bubbles generated by breaking have been investigated even less (Thorpe. transient. 1971. Current practical necessity for both civil and military needs are such that breaking waves and their effects shall become one of the most important subjects in nonlinear wave dynamics investigations in the next decades. The review is divided into the following six areas for convenience sake: (1) Primary mechanisms of shallow water wave breaking and bubble generation in Sec. and may cause strong effects on underwater acoustics and optical scattering and propagation (Inman et al. Wesson our review areas. wave breaking is an extremely nonlinear process (Longuet-Higgins. As bubbles escape from the surface and burst into smaller droplets into the air above. 1996). longshore currents. Melville. Breaking waves play a very important role in nearshore dynamics especially in the surf zone and its immediate neighboring area. and complicated in its dynamics and difficult in its measurement (both in the laboratory and in the field).

1994. but only describe briefly their primary dynamical mechanisms to aid our descriptions in the next several sections (Banner and Peregrine. is the deciding factor. but also how the air content is distributed among the various sizes of bubbles. 2. we first need to know some general characteristics of the bubbles. LonguetHiggins. in the hope that more research will be addressed to these issues in the future. We shall start with . some general remarks on bubble dynamics in shallow water are in order (Sec. These variations will be reviewed in Sec. Large temporal and spatial variations of void fraction are direct consequences of the passing and evolution of each breaking wave. in which some major shortcomings in the current state of the art in each aspect shall also be pointed out.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 79 (3) Various types of sensor deployment methods in shallow water conditions in Sec. and how bubbles are generated by wave breaking. Analysis of data from these experiments allow better understanding of the wave generated bubble field in Sec. Thus. After the reviews of the above six aspects. why and how surface waves should break. the statistics of bubble size density (in terms of number of bubbles of particular radii within a unit volume of water) is a significant subject of this review in Sec. (6) For many important applications. (4) Descriptions of several field experiments conducted over the past 15 years. field observations. 1978). Primary Mechanisms of Wave Breaking and Bubble Generation In order to discuss the sensors and their deployment techniques for bubble measurements. and theoretical/numerical modeling. the investigations of breaking wave and bubble dynamics in shallow water are still in the early stages of their full development in all aspects: laboratory experiments. 7. We shall not be able to deal with all these complicated issues. 5. In a nutshell. The percentage of air per unit water volume is commonly called void fraction (VF). 1976. not only the void fraction. 1993. in which bubble measurements occupied an integral part. 8). and over a wider area under the tidal effect in shallow water. (5) Large air cavities and large bubbles are formed immediately after the breaking wave crest enters the water surface. Longuet-Higgins and Cokelet. 4. 6.

Su et al. then.. another physical parameter. (1) where H is the wave height and L is the wavelength.e. prompted by other nonlinear wave-wave interaction mechanisms. Roughly. these two types of nonlinear wave instability are fundamentally different in nature (so-called: 3-wave. This is due to the fact that the wave becomes unstable when its S reaches about 25% to 50% of Sm. These intrinsic instabilities of surface waves push the initial high slope waves even higher until the point of their breaking by highly nonlinear wavewave interaction mechanisms.-Y. which is in turn controlled by the local semi-diurnal tidal variations. most waves break again on the beach even though they have lost much of their energy from earlier breaking over the submerged bar. (a) Breaking wave mechanisms Both deep water and shallow water surface gravity waves break before reaching their highest theoretical possible form. and others). This curved bathymetry acts to focus or de-focus the waves along the . Beaches are often curved in shape. Su and Green. the effective slope S of the Stokes limiting wave o m is defined as 2u i Sm = H/(l/2L) = — ^ . a single bar. Lin and Su. Many swells break before they actually reach the beach itself. When two or three submerged bars exist. C. Su. 4-wave.. When the mean water depth (D) on which waves travel becomes a small fraction of the wavelength. 1992b. one sees two or three parallel surf zones. Moreover. 1945). i. Major growth of surface waves from shorter wavelengths to longer wavelengths is also due to their instability. 1984. Su & J. 1982. 1982a. 2000. resulting from the submerged sandbar in front of the beach head. and 5-wave interactions and their coupling effects) (McLean.80 M. The location of the surf zone is critically affected by the water depth (D). the so-called Stokes limit (Lamb. the depth ratio D/L enters into the picture of wave instabilities (McLean. 1982a. creating small points and bays along the shoreline. The commonly called "surf zone" is the nearshore area where most wave breaking occurs. Wesson (a) wave breaking mechanisms and then describe (b) bubble generation mechanisms. Finally. a wave will grow quickly in height as D/L becomes smaller as a gently sloped beach is approached. Su et al. as follows. Even with a low initial D/L. 1982b). There are various types of beaches: those with no bar. or multiple bars.

creeping. The generation of bubbles can be observed in the process of boiling water. Only small bubbles (with radii <C 3 mm) are more or less spherical in shape while larger ones can have more irregular shapes. Thus.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 81 beach to further affect the location of strongest wave breaking (Battjes. Peregrine. they are observed everywhere and quite often. the significant parameters controlling their generation are the air/water density ratio. gravity. some air is enclosed to form an air cavity which quickly breaks up as soon as the wave travels past the breaking site. 1988. 1983). For most practical applications. there is almost a four decade range in bubble radius. and/or swash type). However. or as a swimmer jumps into a pool. they move like solid particles and are carried passively by the water motion. air bubbles with radii smaller than a few fi are few in seawater. without . and of course. surface tension of the water. (ii) entrainment of some air into the water below in the form of bubbles with various radii. Because of the combined effect of surface tension and the dissolution of air into the surrounding water. we may set the smallest bubble radius at 1 \x and the largest bubble radius at 5 mm. The whole bubble-wave spectrum covers about an eight-decade range. As a comparison.3 m. Another part of the air is entrapped into smaller air pockets which in turn break up into even smaller bubbles of various shapes. the shape and velocity of the crest portion of the breaking wave itself. from 10~ 6 to 5 x 1 0 . As for our current interest in bubble generation by wave breaking (plunging. For very small bubbles (with radii < 100 fi). Once the crest portion curves inward and enters into the water surface. Once bubbles are generated. and (iii) generation of sprays from the breakup of the sharp crest and/or the impact of the crest on the surface. (b) Bubble generation and evolution mechanisms The immediate outcomes of wave breaking are (i) loss of wave energy/momentum to the water below. their dynamics are more complicated than wave dynamics in that bubble motions are driven by two separate forces: the upward gravitational force due to buoyancy and the surrounding turbulent water movement. the detailed dynamical mechanisms of bubble generation are not fully understood. presence of surfactants. opening a pressurized beer can. As a matter of fact. we note that the ocean surface wavelengths range from about 10~ 2 m (capillary waves) to about 400 m (for long gravity waves with period of about 15 seconds) which is about four decades too. the air/water temperature difference.

they are pulled back and forth. the coalescing effect is already similar to that of average seawater (Detsch. C.82 M. and lifetime may need to be taken into consideration in coastal areas where significant amounts of fresh water input from large rivers are present. Most larger bubbles follow the first route while most smaller bubbles follow the second route. up and down by these two separate external forces besides the action of surface tension in the airwater interface. Two endgames of bubbles are (i) moving up to the water surface and bursting into a series of smaller droplets and (ii) dissolution by the surrounding water. we see more smaller bubbles present in the saltwater tank than in the freshwater tank while there are fewer large bubbles in the saltwater tank than in the freshwater tank (Scott. some bubbles may collide with others and coalesce into somewhat larger bubbles. For freshwater (with zero salt content). The salinity effect on bubble generation. For bubbles with their radii in between (100 x 1 0 .-Y. In fact. Both of these factors may interact with the surface of bubbles. 1998). 1990. in saltwater with salinity 20°/ooand above. One factor that influences most the coalescing effect is the salinity (salt content) in the water. This effect significantly affects the average lifetime of bubbles in a container after they are generated by the exact same mechanisms say for example by an air pump (like those used in an aquarium). Small bubbles may attach to the . For large bubbles with radii > 5 mm. The main finding of the experiment is that the bubble size density (for 30 < r < 800 fi) is up to 10 times higher in the saltwater (20%o) than in the freshwater (Cartmill and Su. The first is solid particles (sand or other material) suspended in the water and the second is the surfactants produced by biological organisms and/or oil discharge carried from far away. The exact physical-chemical mechanism for this effect of salinity on bubble coalescence is still unknown. A controlled experiment in the large scale wave tank (12 x 15 x 450 ft) at Oregon State University (OSU) was conducted in 1989 using the computer-controlled wave paddle as the breaking wave (and bubble) generator. Su & J. Wesson significant effects of upward buoyancy. Between the generation and the endgames. 1975). 1975). Scott. evolution. strong turbulence of the velocity field of the surf zone is another crucial factor in the formulation of any dynamical model for investigating the bubble field in and near the surf zone (Lin and Liu. In short. Under the same bubble generation process. the coalescing effect is less energetically favored and occurs less often. the coalescing effect is energetically favorable and thus very common while for saltwater such as the average seawater with a salt content of 34°/oo. the buoyancy force is dominant. Two additional complicating factors are particularly important for the area close to the sand beach.6 m to 5 x 10~ 3 m). 1993).

(c) Position vector and radius of each individual bubble in a unit volume of water. and radius of each individual bubble in a unit volume of water. In fact. the first two categories [(a) and (b)] can be determined from them by integration and averaging. Physical parameters of the bubble field According to the increasing order of information content. then. One needs to further consider under what situations these physical parameters of the bubble field are to be measured: either in laboratory controlled conditions or in the field where severe weather and sea states may be encountered. . thus prolonging the bubble lifetime. 3. the physical parameters for describing bubbles may be divided into four categories: (a) Total air volume in a unit volume of water. and (c)]. limitations. the relative temperature between air and seawater also has some effects on both generation and evolution of bubbles. (b) Bubble size density in a unit volume of water which gives the statistical distribution of bubble sizes. 3.1. This is the so-called void fraction expressed in percentage. Obviously. (b). Surfactants may produce a coating on the bubble surfaces to retard the gas dissolution process. laboratory conditions are much easier to deal with than those in the nearshore under heavy wind and wave pounding.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 83 surface of these particles and vice versa. Category (a) obviously contains the least information while category (d) contains the most detailed information to describe the bubble field. The Bubble Field Description and Bubble Sensors We shall first consider what kinds of physical information one often needs from bubbles before we can sensibly discuss the types of bubble sensors available today and their advantages. (d) Position vector. Finally. velocity vector. Significant coating which increases the possibility of small particle attachment will affect the optical and acoustical response of bubbles to external excitations. and suitability for shallow water coastal environments. if the last two categories [(c) and (d)] of information are available. It goes without saying that the measurement of category (d) will be much more difficult than those of the first three [(a).

1997). not clear any more.84 M. Since the spherical interface has a different degree of reflectance toward a fixed parallel light beam.2. The effects of "dirtyness" are particularly serious in nearshore (near surf zone) water. 1980). Some general features of these principles will be explained further below. Acoustical principles Both the air (gas) inside and the water outside of a bubble are compressible fluids of different density p(pWater ~ 1000 x p air ). Sequoia Application Note.. Optical principles Let r denote the radius of a bubble. 3. Wesson 3. some portion of light will be reflected while other parts will be transmitted from the water into the gas (air) within the bubble and finally come through the air-water interface again after several internal reflections. (b) Acoustical principles. Physical principles for bubble measurements There are three main kinds of physical principles used for measuring these physical properties (parameters) of the bubble field: (a) Optical principles.2. i. But in reality. This interface is a very good reflector. Under an external excitation . The complete and complicated details of the reflectance and transmission of light rays and their intensity for clean bubbles have been worked out under Mie theory (Marston. In clear water.-Y. 1980. the light response from bubbles are affected too. 3. the air bubble has a smooth interface with the surrounding water. When the water is "dirty". (c) Electromagnetic principles. 1991.e.2.2. The nature of the external light for illuminating bubbles is also important: normal incandescent light and laser light produce significant differences in the response from the bubbles. Su & J. C. any part of the Mie theory that is related to the reflectance at given angles can be used for designing a sensor to measure bubble radius. In principle. Agrawal et al.1. The presence of a high density of particulate matter in the water medium outside of and separate from bubbles may further complicate the light transmission into and out of a bubble. only a small set of features from the Mie theory are easier to utilize (Marston. This "dirtyness" can be caused by a smooth coating of surfactant or an irregular shape of the interface due to attachment of many microscopic particles on the bubble surface.

Thus. we may see that physical principles of optics. The degree of difference in resistance and capacitance is related to the bubble size density (B(r)) and its total void fraction (VF). 1941). A more precise relationship of the sound speed (Vs) as a function of the bubble size density B(r) is given in Terrill and Melville (1998). More details are given in the next section. The smaller the bubble radius. Types of existing bubble sensors Based on various optical. the combination of a bubble and its surrounding water behave like a vibrating system.. some sensors have been designed. 3. Within a bubbly flow with many bubbles more or less uniformly distributed throughout a volume of water. Leighton. rather follows the Wood formula (Wood. However. the higher the resonance frequency. 1891). In the next section. but. acoustical and electromagnetic principles as described above. and electromagnetism are available for us to design bubble sensors for various purposes.2. we shall examine some of the existing bubble sensors and point out specifically their advantages and limitations. accurate formula for the resistance of a bubbly fluid (with B(r) not too high) has been inferred from the work of Sir James Maxwell over 100 years ago (Maxwell. acoustics. a mixture of air and water. the speed of sound is different for both pure water ( « 1500 m/s) and air ( « 330 m/s).1% to 1%. A precise. the sound speed in a bubbly flow. 3. The sound speed falls down to a minimum at about 20 m/s for an air void fraction range from 0. tested and utilized in laboratory . Electromagnetic principles Assuming that the electrical conductivity of air is almost zero or negligibly small compared with the electrical conductivity of saltwater. As in any such system. the overall resistance RB and capacitance CB of a volume of such bubbly fluid are different from those for a bubble-free fluid. This peculiar feature shows the significant impact of the presence of bubble clouds on underwater sound propagation.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 85 of pressure from some acoustic source. the air/water bubble system has its special resonance frequency (JR) near which the bubble oscillates violently (changing its radius or undulating its spherical shape circumferentially) (Medwin and Clay. does not vary monotonically from 1500 m/s to 330 m/s based on increasing air content in water. For a bubble with 10 \i < r < 1000 fj. 1994). this resonance frequency is related to r and given in Medwin and Clay (1997). 1997.3.3.

. as follows: 3. but. 2000). (a) Tri-camera system This bubble system consists of three underwater strobes arranged 120° apart and pointing to a common focus area at which a single camera is used to take a macro image of a water volume approximately 10 x 10 x 5 cm 3 in size. The method of data analysis is also (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) . 1990). Su et al.-Y. (b) CCD video imaging system This bubble sensor uses a single CCD video camera focusing on a small volume about the same size as the above system. Optical bubble sensors To our knowledge.. Sequoia Application Note. with some slight variations among them. A brief introduction for each of these follows. 1994). there have been eight kinds of optical bubble devices. under a microscope. 1990). limited to bubble radii > 50 ji. The simultaneous flashing of these three strobes generates three bright spots on film from each bubble within the focus volume.1. 1997). developed as follows: Tri-camera system (Johnson and Cooke. 1991. 1979.. Su et al. of Tech.. 1988. 1994). Linear reflectance system (Ling and Pao. the radius of the bubble can be determined. 1988). Laser scattering/transmissometry system (Agrawal et al. 1979). circa 1970). C. (g) Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV or DPIV) system (Dabiri and Gharif. Su & J. 1991. CCD video imaging system (Bowyer.3.86 M. Lippmann and Holman. We shall next introduce these sensors in three classes. This data processing can be automated. (h) Wide angle surface video imaging (Holman et al. Wesson and/or field measurements. By means of direct measurement of each tri-spot's separation on the film.. Too many particulates other than bubbles present will also cause confusion and mistaken recognition (Johnson and Cooke. 1997). Its advantage is that it is a direct and relatively accurate method.. It is most useful in the laboratory for calibrating other types of bubble sensors (Su et al. Light blocking system (Hwang et al. Laser holography (California Inst.

Obviously. It cannot be used for investigating the transient bubble phenomena immediately after one wave breaks. at which the strongest surface reflection occurs. the bubble radius can be determined from the time series of the reflectance signal (Ling and Pao. The resolution power of this system is about the same as (a) and (b). its resolution in bubble size is poorer than the above system due to the CCD resolution (Bowyer. It has been used to determine small bubbles down to about 1 /i in radius (California Inst. This bubble sensor can be used for 10 < r < 200 fi. circa 1970). which gives a means to determine the bubble radius. 1992). (c) Light blocking system This bubble system consists of one light source and one light receiver arranged in line (Hwang et al. make it more useful for laboratory use or long-time averaging in the field. 2000). Its complexity in hardware and post processing analysis does not provide much advantage above the current advanced DPIV systems. Any bubble within the optical path between these two blocks away some amount of light energy within its cross section. too high a bubble density may cause more than one bubble to be present in this path at any given time. so as to cause error in the bubble size determination. present another problem. (e) Laser holography This bubble sensor is a regular laser holograph system submerged in water with its focus volume centered around any small volume of a bubbly flow under consideration. other than bubbles. (d) Linear reflectance system This bubble sensor consists of one white light source and one light detector with their optical axes angles crossed at 125°. Through another calibrating device that makes use of the relationship between the bubble size and the vertical terminal velocity for r < 1 mm. . of Tech. 1988). Too many particles. This latter advantage is just beginning to be utilized.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 87 similar too. It has an advantage to use consecutive images for determining the velocity of bubble movement.4 mm 3 . The intersecting optical field is quite small. having dimensions 5 x 6 x 0. but its small imaging volume and the requirement of only a single bubble present at any time. However. The reflected light intensity from a bubble varies linearly with the square of the bubble radius.

Another attempt by a commercial company with some support from NRL to develop a bubble sensor was based on the Mie scattering theory. this was ended after two years of effort due to difficulties in designing a very accurate mechanical arrangement for the required multiple-angle measurement. this system may provide the most detailed information on the bubble field.88 M. a remote imaging system by a video camera from a tower at the beach or from a mast on a ship will be useful. often more than ten times higher than the bubble density. Under the restriction of small angle diffraction. During daytime. 1991). but. Clearly. (h) Wide angle surface video imaging Bubble plumes generated by wave breaking also are manifested on the water surface as whitecaps which are the sunlight reflectors from the combined surface bubbles and sprays. To detect the overall spatial distribution and temporal motion of many bubble plumes. Su & J. So far. including position vector. Its resolution of bubble size is as good as the other types of sensors [(a) and (b)] discussed here.. C. velocity vector.-Y. quantitative calibration of the surface reflectance is problematic due to varying light sources and weather conditions. In principle. while at night. the system is useful for overall imaging of movement and distributions of breaking waves and bubble plumes in the surf zone. . but. (g) Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV or DPIV) system This system is based on the holograph principle and light slicing with a sophisticated digital image recording and data analysis system. and bubble radius simultaneously. its main use is to provide the bubble velocity vector. It was found that this laser system is not suitable for use in nearshore situations due to very high density of particles present. both small particles and bubbles with radius from 1 to 100 \i behave alike. Thus. it was arranged to test in the field for small bubble determination. an artificial white and/or IR light source can be used to illuminate the breaking wave field. Wesson (f) Laser in-situ scattering and transmissometry system This system is designed for determining the solid particle sizes by means of the small angle diffraction of coherent laser light (Agrawal et al. the natural sunlight is available.

except it is installed in such a way t h a t the acoustic beam is pointed upward to the sea surface. reflected and scattered by bubbles from various depths of water below the surface. T h e bubble field normally has a m a x i m u m density near the sea surface. 1999a). such as those close to a large breaking wave. 1989. 1982. who switched to using acoustic resonators instead. 1992). is useful for detecting the motion of low density bubble plumes. W h e n the bubble density is high. 1994. It has been operated at a single frequency (Thorpe. Acoustical bubble sensors There are basically four kinds of acoustic bubble sensors t h a t have been constructed and tested as follows: (a) Sidescan sonar (Thorpe. are received by the detector and correlated with the sound source. T h e price to pay for this advantage is t h a t the acoustic signal needs to travel a much longer p a t h from the source to t h e sea surface and r e t u r n to t h e detector located a b o u t 20 to 30 m below the sea surface. the acoustic signal will be scattered and absorbed to such a degree t h a t the range gating is no longer accurate and the noise to signal ratio is so high t h a t any bubble density estimations will be erroneous. 1992). (d) Two frequency resonator (Newhouse a n d Shankar. Commander and McDonald.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 89 3. 1998). Caruthers et al. (b) Acoustic resonator (Breitz and Medwin. Vagle and Farmer. Farmer and Vagle. Several publications on the bubble size density using the multifrequency side scan sonar were later found t o be in error by their own authors. 1992) or simultaneously at four different frequencies (Vagle and Farmer. This technique is really a remote sensing technique for measuring the bubble field from the surface to 20-30 m below. A brief description of each of these is given below: (a) Sidescan sonar This bubble sensor is really a regular sidescan sonar. T h e system is time-gated so t h a t the return signals. Commander and Moritz. Its advantage is t h a t the sensor system is below the wavy surface so t h a t it encounters fewer impacts in comparison with other bubble systems t h a t must be present inside the breaking waves and the bubble field.3. 1999. (c) Sound velocity meter (Melville et al. however. Terrill and Melville. 1984). 1997. Su et al. for example under Langmuir . 1988. This system. 1991. 1982.2. 1995.

1 % . 1999).01% to 0 . Its limitation is also its in-situ operation. Su & J. the bubble density at 66 different bubble sizes can be determined simultaneously by one pair of two transducers alone. associated with each of these harmonics will undergo intrinsic bubble resonance which results in acoustic scattering and absorption. two distinct kinds of acoustic resonances are involved in this bubble sensor system. This acoustic signal will traverse the space between the two transducer plates back and forth m a n y times and some of the acoustic energy will escape from the system. it responds much quicker to the transient rapid variation of bubble size density. . as it requires a series of such acoustic resonators located at every d e p t h of interest below the sea surface. the two parallel plates actually produce a geometric resonance such t h a t t h e power spectrum at the receiver transducer will show regular spikes at approximately even frequency spacing..90 M. bubbles of particular size with their resonance. Bubbly flow can freely pass between the two parallel transducer plates.-Y. or those bubbles generated on the beach and transported offshore by rip currents (Caruthers et al. C. Its operating upper limit of V F is about 0.. It was found from laboratory tests and field experiments t h a t although some degree of solid particles (such as sedimentary particles) exist in the surf zone. Su et al. This is due to the fact t h a t the solid particulates do not resonate as bubbles do under acoustic excitations. (b) Acoustic resonator This system consists of two acoustic transducers about 25 cm in diameter and separated by about 20 cm. 1994. 1989. Su and Wesson. immediately after any wave breaking. 1998. 1999b). Since the acoustic scattering volume has dimensions of about 20 x 20 x 25 cm 3 . T h e first advantage of this system is its in-situ operation. there are 200/3 « 66 harmonics. In t u r n . facing each other to make an open parallel plate resonator (Breitz and Medwin. so for a 200 kHz system. T h e second advantage is t h a t the single pair of transducers is actually performing the work of multiple pairs simultaneously. However. T h e fundamental frequency for the above system is near 3 kHz. Furthermore. Each of these resonant peaks in the spectrum corresponds to a harmonic of the geometrical resonance. Wesson circulations (Thorpe. Thus. 1992). One transducer produces continuous b r o a d b a n d (more or less white) noise from about 10 Hz to 200 kHz. Farmer et al. thus avoiding the weak point in the sidescan sonar (a). they do not affect the operation of the resonator appreciably.

Vagle. their solution is global rather than pointwise. This method begins by initially approximating the measured attenuation at a given frequency as due to only those bubbles that are resonant at that frequency. This was done to cast the entire problem as a single matrix inversion. Prabhukumar. Their method uses an optimization rather than SVD and a modification of the B-spline approximation by using variable (rather than equal) spacing of the bubble radii at which the solution is discretized. Vagle. and Chahine (1998). This initial solution is then iteratively corrected to account for the off-resonance attenuation of the entire bubble population. These improvements were motivated by the need to resolve the bubble density at small radius and also extend its range to larger . Su and Wesson (1999) have made further modifications of these methods. the matrix thus obtained is often ill-conditioned. Thus. particularly of larger bubbles at high frequencies. Its drawback is that it may reduce actual curvature in the bubble density especially at small bubble radius. However. Prabhukumar. Improvements to this method have been developed subsequently by Commander and McDonald (1991). This is equivalent to requiring only smooth estimations for the bubble density. The estimation of the bubble density distribution from the power spectrum of the acoustic resonator is a mathematical inversion problem from the measured acoustical attenuation to the bubble size density. so. Duraiswami. Commander and McDonald formulated the inversion problem by approximating the solution as a sum of B-splines. and Booth (1998). The first inversion method by Breitz and Medwin (1989) was based on an iterative technique. Farmer. and Chahine (1998) use a constrained optimization estimation rather than regularized SVD to compute the bubble density using inverse methods. Some off-resonance attenuation. complicates the inversion problem. this initial estimate is considered pointwise and local. Thus.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 91 There are several data processing techniques for transforming the acoustic resonator spectra to bubble density which are reviewed in Su and Wesson (1999) and Vagle and Farmer (1998). and Su and Wesson (1999). although their apparatus is a source and receiver rather than a resonator system. Duraiswami. and Booth (1998) extend the analysis of Commander and McDonald by examining both the real and imaginary parts of the complex sound speed and details of the resonator physics in order to produce a measure of the quality of the estimated bubble density. it is inverted using regularized singular value decomposition (SVD) in order to obtain a realistic bubble size density. Farmer. The attenuation is determined from the difference between the spectra obtained with bubbly water and bubble-free water.

Thus. This system is operated in-situ as for (b). it needs to have more sophisticated electronics and data processing hardware in order to accurately determine the speed of sound in the bubbly medium. As explained above.92 M. (d) Two frequency resonator This bubble system consists of two transducers whose primary sound fields cross each other more or less at 90°.-Y. 3. it makes use of the bubble resonance and it also operates remotely. Wesson radius. All three are for measuring only void fraction of the bubble field. The crossing area defines the volume of interest for bubble measurement. The amplitude variation of the nonlinear mixing of the two frequencies between the bubble resonant frequency and the high frequency is used to determine bubble density. it needs to have a series of source-detector pairs located at every depth of interest below the sea surface.3. Thus. the measured sound speed can be used to infer the bubble density at several bubble radii if the frequency of the sound source is varied over the range of interest (Terrill and Melville. the sound speed is affected by the presence of bubble plumes. The first transducer transmits the resonant frequency of the particular size of bubbles (this frequency is varied sequentially to cover a range of different bubble sizes) while the second transducer with a much higher frequency and more focused sound field acts as both the sound source and receiver in turn. C. this system is a hybrid of the above (a) and (b). The optimization technique is also found to be more resistant to noise in the attenuation data. but. i. Electromagnetic bubble sensors There are three kinds of electromagnetic bubble sensor available as below.e. 1999). so far it has not been developed far enough for field measurements.3. (c) Sound velocity meter This bubble system consists of a sound source and a detector separated by about 10 to 20 cm that measure the sound speed variation through the bubbly flow between the pair of transducers. but. In terms of hardware. . It has been tested in the laboratory (Newhouse and Shankar. 1984). so. The price to pay for this advantage is the much larger spatial dimensions of the total system. this bubble sensor is simpler in construction than that for (a) and (b). suitable perhaps for deeper water depth but difficult to arrange in shallow water areas such as the surf zone. Su & J.

Maxwell (Maxwell. (b) Capacitance coil loop sensor. A brief description for each of these follows: (a) Resistance void fraction sensor This bubble sensor consists of two electrodes (either plates or wires) with their separation depending on the type of applications under consideration. the varying density of bubbles in the surrounding water will change the capacitance. the separation is about 2 to 4 cm for use in the nearshore field. { ] where Rwo is resistance without bubbles and Rw is resistance with bubbles.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 93 (a) Resistance void fraction sensor (Su and Cartmill. the VF could reach the range of 80-100% under certain conditions for a portion of the bubbly flow under wave breaking.. (b) Capacitance coil loop sensor This bubble sensor consists of a coil loop of insulated wire that is excited by a high frequency AC signal. 1891).5' . 1992). the current VF is limited to about 80% at the highest. assuming air bubbles with zero electrical conductivity (Su and Cartmill. but for VF > 30-80%. From other direct calibrations. Such high VF portion has a very short lifetime and is beyond the current state of the art to measure with any accuracy. The ratio of the two electrical resistances between the case with and without bubbles present is the quantity that is related to void fraction (VF) as follows: y p _ {Rw/Rwo) . 1994a. it is found that for VF < 30%.„. the above equation gives fairly good estimates of VF.1-0 {RV1/RWO)+0.. His theory can be approximately utilized for the special case of bubbly flow. This dependence is the physical basis for . In theory. (c) Ring shape capacitance sensor (Falmouth Scientific). The presence of bubbles between the two electrodes changes the electrical conductivity of the water between them. C. The exact calculation based on two-dimensional infinite plates separated by a layer of dieletric medium with spherical impurities with high resistance has been derived over 100 years ago by J. Su et al. In practice. Normally. 1999a. Thus. 1994a). The dielectric medium around the coil will affect the capacitance of the coil. the above equation overestimates by about 10 to 20%. Lamarre and Melville.

-Y. To the knowledge of the authors. Su & J. The shallow water zone is a very difficult location to place most types of sensors and especially for bubble sensors. are the most popular and have been tested extensively (as exhibited by the references cited above).4. Wesson measuring VF. the resistance sensor has been used most frequently.94 M. (b) The tidal effect on the mean water depth nearshore is large particularly near the surf zone and beach. The incoming and receding tide may over a six-hour period change the beach line by 50 to 100 m for a gentle-slope beach. For measuring the void fraction. the next important question is how to deploy them. The main difficulties arise from the following three factors: (a) The nearshore undulating wave surface with or without wind forcing has a vertical variability due to passing of large swells often of the same order as the local mean water depth. For measuring bubble size density. especially the acoustic resonator and the sound speed sensor. C. but. (c) Ring shape capacitance sensor This sensor has a shape of a ring with the radius of the inner and outer ring circumference about 1 cm and 3 cm respectively. 3. A brief summary nearshore zones of bubble sensors for deploying in Because of the frequent presence of a high density of sand and other solid/ biological particles in the nearshore zone especially close to the surf zone. We shall discuss this problem next. except the wide-angle remote imaging of the overall surf zone by a video camera from a platform above the sea surface. It has been tested. its response and accuracy is found not as good as the resistance sensor (No published references available). . Shallow Water Deployment Techniques Once certain types of bubble sensors have been selected for the measurement of certain bubble parameters in the nearshore shallow water zone. Its operating principle is the same as the above coil sensor (b) and it is commercially available (Falmouth Scientific). all the underwater optical bubble sensors described above are deemed to be unsuitable for field measurements. 4. the acoustic bubble sensors. no publications on its field application in the surf zone are available.

tilt. Following the tidal change. these conventionally mounted sensors cannot be located in the most desirable and ideal locations all the time and some may even be exposed temporarily above the sea surface. It was a direct response to solve the shallow water deployment problem that a new approach was invented. Some of the bubble sensors can be mounted quite near the top end of the bar in order to measure the maximum intensity of the bubble density. Most conventional deployment methods for sensors (or arrays of sensors) are bottom mounting. The location of each and every sensor on this bottom mount is fixed at certain heights above the bottom and certain fixed distances away from some reference points on the beach. As the tide changes. Beyond these two extreme water depth ranges. The length of the bar (from the bottom to the surface) and its tilt angle which is recorded with the sensor data provide the time series of sensor locations relative to the sea surface continuously. the mean surface level moves with a longer period (on the order of 6 hours) and individual passing waves move with a much shorter period (on the order of 10 s). Because of inertia and flow . All of the sensors on the bar are always beneath the sea surface and cover the entire vertical column while responding to the undulating wavy sea surface. but not in areas with a mean water depth of only a few meters and with the significant wave height of the same magnitude.5 times the mean water depth for its optimum operation during mid-tide but it could become 5 times the mean depth (or more) at the low tide period and about 1.2 times the mean depth at the high tide period. such as bubble sensors. either the VF or the bubble size density. Any number of sensors. The new technique consists of a swinging bar that is neutrally buoyant with one end attached to a small surface following buoy and the other end attached to a universal joint anchored to the sea bed. The experience by the senior author (MYS) in his first participation in a field experiment for measuring breaking waves across the surf zone at Duck 94 (1994) brought home the shortcoming of this conventional sensor deployment problem.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 95 (c) The bubble field. Thus. the whole array of sensors automatically adjust their locations. the swinging bar loses its utility. and compass may be mounted along the length of the bar. normally has its maximum value close to the wavy sea surface with a rapid decrease downward to the sea bed. Certain types of surface following arrays have been of course deployed for many years in the deep ocean or even nearshore in water depths from 10 to 20 m. temperature. The length of the bar is about 1.

Some short time deployments with an accompanying ship may even use the free-floating buoy without any bottom anchored cables. the effect of the pier-generated breaking waves and bubble field will be much less than those caused by the surf zone itself. we should mention FLIP of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Under appropriate wind and wave conditions. the conventional surface following buoy deployment can be used for bubble sensor mounting. . Wesson resistance of the swinging bar with its mounted sensors. the top buoy does not exactly follow the sea surface undulation. particularly near the sharper wave crest. with the corresponding significant wave height less than 30% of the mean water depth. Su & J. Normally. Finally. Some useful bubble (and other) measurements have been obtained using this system in 1998 (Su et al. have been used for deploying bubble sensors. the SIS is movable on a track along the entire pier. Its long arm (more than 10 m beyond the vertical buoy) has been used for suspending some bubble sensors. Field Research Facility at Duck. One interesting candidate is the Sensor Insertion System (SIS) of the US Army Corps of Engineers. C. Two or three cables attached to the buoy from different angles may prevent the buoy from excessive rotation under the forcing of the tidal current ellipse. 2000). for example the North Sea Tower in the German Bight. Nevertheless.-Y. This type of deployment is used more often in deeper water but would be almost impossible near the surf zone under heavy weather conditions. This buoy will be anchored to the bottom by one or more cables. FLIP needs at least 30 m or deeper water depth. so its range of operation is closer to offshore fixed platforms than the deployment methods near the surf zone mentioned above.96 M. NC. this swinging bar deployment technique does provide a big advance in deploying bubble sensors and instruments in the surf zone for measuring the rapid changes in void fraction produced by swell breaking. Some of the off-shore platforms (either commercial gas and oil platforms or research ones). Again. When a suitable long research pier is available. However. the pier with many pilings underneath it will often generate substantial bubbles that may cause serious bias in the measurement. On its nearly 600 m long pier. some bubble measurements may take advantage of it. At a mean water depth of 5 m or more. caution should be exercised in order to minimize the platform effects on the bubble measurements. A controlled arm on the SIS can be used for mounting sensors that will be almost 20 m away from the pier from the surface to the sand bottom.

the amount of measurements of bubbles generated by wave breaking in both deep and nearshore has been very limited. About the same period. 1992). Having used only a single frequency of 250 kHz (corresponding to the resonant frequency of bubbles with 13 /i radius). we are referring to accurate measurements of bubble size density and large void fraction close to the wave breaking event. Large Scale Shallow Water Field Experiments (1985-1999) Compared with very extensive measurements of oceanic waves or even with the less extensive measurements of oceanic breaking waves in the last 60 years. The main findings from these bubble size density measurements are (a) a very prominent peak occurs near 20-30 /j. A. Ling and Pao. The bubble sensor was lowered from the tip of a 20 m boom beyond the research platform. Extensive measurements (about 120 hours in total) were obtained in heavy weather during a six-week period in Nov. The bubble sensor (described in Sec. On the other hand. Ling (Ling and Pao. 1988) developed an in-situ optical bubble sensor under ONR sponsorship.5 to r~6 power law with the increasing . this sonar could neither determine the bubble size density nor large void fraction conditions. Medwin) with the minimum detected bubble radius limited to about 50 \i. Their device was the tri-camera system (originally proposed by H. 1985 (Su and Cartmill. the density follows a r . the effects of bubbles on acoustic and optical scattering and transmission have been observed and measured many times. S. Thorpe and colleagues in England started to use a side-scan sonar at a fixed single frequency near 250 kHz to explore the bubble clouds in lakes and nearshore.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 97 5. S. They discovered many interesting near surface phenomena resulting from surface wave breaking (Thorpe. 1982. 3) could measure bubble radius ranging from about 10 to 200 fi. This tower was located about 10 km offshore in the German Bight. even though white capping is such an obvious and ubiquitous surface phenomenon to notice in windy seas and along the beach. in radius. Its first extensive field deployment was done on the North Sea Tower at a mean water depth of 30 m. During the early 1980's. The major reason for such a scarcity of field bubble measurements is the lack of appropriate bubble sensors. 1988. The importance of such bubble fields on both civilian and military operations has been recognized as early as the Second World War.-Dec. Here. (c) for r > 80 /i. 1988). C. The maximum bubble radius observed was about 500 \±. Johnson and Cooke (1979) were among the earliest reported measurements of the bubble size density in coastal water. (b) the bubble size density for bubbles with radius 10 < r < 200 n remains almost constant even down to 15 m depth.

. the density follows a r 3 power law. a comprehensive coastal bubble system was designed. Using this device and the assumption of the bubble size density peak at 25 /x (based on Su et al. 1994b). In this period. Around 1994.-Y. . Su & J. the first bubble size density measurements by the side scan sonar were published (Farmer and Vagle. During the Duck 94 Experiment at Duck. this optical device has been used again several times for bubble measurements in both deep and coastal water.. The resistance sensor for void fraction measurements was first demonstrated by NRL-SSC in recognition of the need for measuring the rapid change in bubble VF near breaking wave events and was used in NRL-SSC laboratory tests since 1990 and in field experiments since 1992. The prototype device was further refined and improved at NRL-SSC (Su and Cartmill. Between the period 1986-1993. The essential feature of the bubble size density (having a peak value near 20-30 fi) was found to be similar. As a result. and (d) for r < 20 (i. researchers finally realized that the accuracy of the bubble size density obtained by this method is questionable due to the problems mentioned in Sec. One of the most successful designs is the acoustic resonator (Breitz and Medwin.98 M. all those void fraction data have been discarded and the urgent need for an improved deployment technique to measure bubbles very near the surface was fully recognized for the first time. 1989). Several other publications based on this multiple frequency sidescan sonar appeared later. a vertical fixed array (2 m height) with 8 resistance sensors provided by NRL-SSC was incorporated onto the instrumented surf zone measurement sled operated by the Naval Postgraduate School. 3. Also during this period. C. several other attempts to develop new bubble sensors were under way. constructed. 1988). It was found that these resistance sensors when in air above the wave trough have such high electronic impact on those still under the surface that all the sensors in the array were severely affected so that the measured void fraction is fragmentary and difficult to assess its accuracy. the single frequency side scan sonar was expanded to a four frequency system covering frequencies from about 40 to 400 kHz by D. 1989). 1993). under ONR sponsorship. 1999a. Farmer and his colleagues. During 1995-1997. This design has been followed by several other research groups with some minor variations (Lamarre and Melville. NC. and tested by NRL-SSC (Su et al. Wesson radius. particularly in cases near breaking waves with very high bubble densities near the surface.

. 1998 (during the Duck 98 Experiment). each with six resistance sensors for void fraction measurement. wave gauges. and inverted echosounders were also deployed at the same time by various teams. 1997 near the Scripps Pier. Other bubble sensors including a sound speed sensor array. It was an unfortunate fact of life that the coastal weather should have been so calm again during this two-month period for the main experiment of Sandy Duck 97 that not many interesting events occured to measure breaking waves and bubbles. acoustic resonators. All the sensors on each system have on-board data collection systems which are further connected to shore computers by marine cables for power. March. Unfortunately. as one of seven research teams involved in the joint experiment. These five buoys can be anchored to the sea bed by three cables on each buoy. temperature sensors. 1999b). the whole system is the largest coastal bubble system ever constructed. These systems can be deployed in mean water depths from 3 m to 6 m. each having 4 void fraction resistance sensors. and current meters were mounted near the tip (about 3 m from the end) of the extended arm of the FRF Sensor Insertion System (SIS). 1997b). (b) Five surface following and bottom anchored buoys (each of 4 m vertical length).3 km. The main parts of the system are as follows: (a) Three swinging bar systems. control. and vertical accelerometers (for wave height measurements). 1997a. The mean water depth is from 8 m to 15 m. 4 acoustic resonators. This NRL-SSC coastal bubble system was an integral part of a much larger field experiment for nearshore wave/current/sedimentary studies (Sandy Duck 97) in September and October. This whole system from NRL-SSC was first field tested at the Scripps Acoustics and Bubbles Experiment. NC (Birkemeier.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics _ 99 1999b). In two weeks in February. covering the surf zone. This was a joint experiment between NRL-SSC and FRF. This time. Without question. there were several days of strong wind and heavy seas that caused many interesting wave breaking events and . The offshore distances were about 1 km to 2. 1997. the wind was so calm (both near and offshore) during the two weeks of pre-scheduled experiment that the only bubbles generated were from light swell breaking on the beach and carried outward by rip currents near the pier (Caruthers et al. at Duck. the NRL-SSC bubble sensors. and data transfer on demand.

Each fixed array had two acoustic resonators mounted and a string of four resistance sensors floating at the surface in a line toward shore. Again.-Y. We have thus a very comprehensive set of bubble d a t a in the surf zone obtained during the Duck 99 bubble experiment. was laid away from the a r m tip by a cable. Another video camera was mounted at the pier level to record these same phenomena. B u b b l e V o i d F r a c t i o n V a r i a t i o n s N e a r S u r f Z o n e s As described earlier. Su & J. 1999 to deploy three swinging bar arrays of void fraction sensors and four b o t t o m fixed arrays. we thus believed t h a t there was no undesirable bias from the pier itself. we were lucky this time to have three storms passing by during the two weeks of the measurement period. the NRL-SSC t e a m went back to Duck. recording the surface whitecapping above the area where the submerged sensors are located. In view of the failure to have sufficient suitable wind and wave conditions for the bubble measurements over the entire littoral zone from the beach to about 2 km offshore during Sandy Duck 97. These seven arrays were placed in a line 200 m n o r t h of the Duck pier. Since all the wind conditions measured were from the n o r t h or northeast. A string of four resistance void fraction sensors. Wesson produced many bubble clouds within the reach of the instrumented arm. During this experiment. At the same time. It was based on the fact t h a t spray droplets from bursting bubbles on the surface are the major source for marine aerosol (salt particles) generation. NASA and several universities from the US and UK were also involved in this coastal aerosol investigation over the same coastal area. the quantitative description of void fraction and bubble size density over the surf zone from about 200 m to 400 m off the beach where the submerged bar was located. a video camera mounted on the 140 ft (34 m) high tower located on the beach was operated to cover the entire surf zone area where the sensor arrays were located. C. T N O (Netherlands). Fixed on the submerged portion of the a r m tip were four acoustic resonators for measuring bubble size densities. 6. each mounted on a separate small surface-following buoy. NC again in February and March. a video camera was mounted at about 10 m above the surface on the vertical support of the SIS. for the first time. N R A D (San Diego). T h e string of bubble sensors provided a sequential measurement of passing breaking wave events. All of these sensors did provide. a single wave breaking event produces two integral parts of air entrainment: . several other research teams from NRL-DC. t h a t such a comprehensive joint experiment was planned and executed.100 M. During the daytime.

Comparing these three (c).. ranging downward toward the bottom. the spanwise length of breaking portion is much shorter than its wavelength and its breaking duration is much shorter than its wave period as well. Figure 1(a) shows the time series (over 10 min) of two surface elevation and three void fraction time series collected by the resistance void fraction meters mounted on a swinging bar deployment located near the submerged bar at the beach at Duck. These large air pockets escape to the surface very quickly. VF2. Surface wave breaking in deep water and in shallow water do share some commonality as well as some differences. 1999a). typical of all the cases under actively breaking waves. and VF3 — are mounted from near the surface. In deep water. we shall describe the characteristics of some field data collected during the field experiments described in Sec.86. The correlation between these two surface elevations is 0.e. In order to appreciate more clearly the characteristics of shallow water breaking and void fraction. the major difference between the situation in deep and shallow water is their intensity and duration relative to the wave period. one sees the corresponding increase/decrease in their void fractions. . In contrast. NC (Su et al.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 101 (a) An initial large void fraction composed of cavities and large bubbles. generally in less than a tenth of the wave period. i. The dynamical reason for this difference is that the shoaling process (in shallow water) continuously causes the incoming waves to become steeper and steeper and induces breaking as a consequence. we shall mention. from time to time as needed. This correlation will reach 0. (b) A bubble plume with smaller bubbles that stay in the water longer than a wave period. particularly in the surf zone and close to the beach. in shallow water. So far as the generation of void fraction by wave breaking is concerned. Their locations change with time but can be precisely computed from the tilt sensor data. almost every breaking wave is short crested. and (e) time series simultaneously. Time series (a) is the surface elevation determined from the tilt angle of the swinging bar while series (b) is the surface elevation obtained by a pressure gauge located in the instrument housing on the sea bed. the process of wave breaking is often continuous in space and time. their corresponding counterparts in deep water. 3 and 4. respectively. sometimes even longer than both its wavelength and wave period respectively. In this section. The three void fraction sensors — VFl. (d). 5 by means of the bubble sensors and deployment techniques in Sees.95 and higher for the situation of nonbreaking swells.

-Y.07m. while the series (b) is the surface elevation obtained by the pressure gauge. (a) Time series of surface wave height (upper two curves) and void fraction (lower 3 curves) over 10 min. . 1999) VFSystem#2 Sensors l f 2.90s Havaa from PR Gaug* D(pr) .84m < It(pr)> 1.1.1.3. (b) The same format as (a) with an expanded time scale (by a factor of ten).5.89^/1 »(p*)4 l.62m W »10.99m Correletion(pr:tilt)> 0. 1.3. The time series (a) is the surface elevation determined from the tilt angle of the swinging bar. NC (Su et al.0.2. 1999) VFSystemtt2 Sensors 1.Blm T . Tilt [•(641). Time (min) 15:30:00-15:40:00 (a) Duck 99 Bubble and Aerosols Experiment (Feb 19.79a ' W -10.17m H«(tilt).O.70m Time (tec) 15:53:00-15:54:00 (b) Fig.102 M. Su & J. Time series of void fraction and surface wave height. collected by the resistance void fraction meters and pressure gauge mounted on a swing bar array located near the submerged bar at the beach at Duck. Tilt •(641)« 0:79m1 T -'5.84 Delay* O.84m/» Havti From Tilt D(tilt) • 1. C.lBm HB(tilt). PR. 1999a). PR. Wesson Duck 99 Bubble and Aerosols Experiment (Feb 19.

we can perform ensemble averages of many of these events with conditional sampling. Regarding the passing of a wave breaker in the surf zone as a single event. Such a conditionally sampled collection of breaking wave events over a 3-hour period is shown in Fig. The correlations between the surface elevations (a) and (b) together. We select the maximum value of void fraction variation from each event as the central reference time and consider only the ±2 s with respect to it to form the event. 3(a). The mean and its standard deviation of the void fraction at each time difference is shown o 20 Tims (sec at 4.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 103 Figure 1(b) expands the time scale ten times in order to exhibit more details of these variations. 1998). and the void fractions (c). from near the surface (VF1) to close to the bottom (VF6). This observation seems to imply that the surface elevation alone is not a sufficient criterion for detecting breaking waves in the surf zone.. Time series of void fraction from six void fraction meters from void fraction staff V F # 3 over a 30 s period near low tide. and (e) together. Figure 2 shows an even more enlarged time series of vertical variations of void fraction in the surf zone at six levels. (d). 2.404 hrs . 10/17/97) Fig. over a 30 s period (Su et al. . Since the swinging bar is installed with its floating buoy leaning toward the beach. is not obvious from this figure and many others as well. the bubble plume (with its void fraction) generated by the breaking wave actually reaches the lowest bubble sensor earlier than the top sensor as shown through the relative delay to reach their maxima for these six time series. Its maximum VF value is 58%.

The time origin is set to the time of peak void fraction for each pulse. 1998) SIS VF S t r i n g Chan: 5 "T~ _T: 10:38:09-14:00:00 Waves: s t d e v = 0 .-Y.6 (a) Duck 98 Bubble and Aerosols Experiment (Feb 24. .4 !> Time (s) (b) Fig. with one standard deviation limits shown. 3. 5 Tina 10>38:09-14|00|00 Waves: s t d e v = 0 .392 N_JPul6es= 928 T h r e s h o l d s .392 N Pul363= 928 Throshold=0 .10 miniinum=0. 1 2 . k u r t = 0. Wesson Duck 98 Bubble and Aerosols Experiment (Feb 24. Conditional sampling of void fraction plume time series. 1998) SIS VF String Chan. k u r t = 0.03 a •So. (a) Conditional sampling of void fraction plumes above 10%. 1 2 . C.104 M. 10 minimum=0 . 03 ~r •0 'go. (b) Composite void fraction time variation of plumes. Su & J.

consistent with the geometric description of breaking waves by Bonmarin (1989). Figure 5 provides another statistic of the probability density function for the peak void fraction observations from the same data in Fig.20§ Tides High . 3(b).25 0. Clearly. Each dot in Fig.20 0. Two high and two low mean water levels (marked in the figure) due to the diurnal tide caused the corresponding variations in breaking wave frequency and intensity as expressed by their void fraction. 1997. The shape of the mean VF shows slight skew toward the wave front.e. 3. by means of .0836/2100 Low . It shows that the most probable void fraction to encounter at that location is about 7% with about a 25% probability while the chance of a VF « 20% is only about 2%.0217/1506 t 0.05 0.35 0. The maximum value of the VF mean is 27% with one standard deviation nearly 12% VF.00 0. i.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 105 Sandy Duck 97 Bubbles Experiment (1997) 100 50 40£ Mean void Fraction c o •H 30« XI .9 from the contributions less than VF = 17%. there are more frequent occurences of small void fraction for VF < 25% and its cumulative contribution reaches 0. 4. Certainly this statistic is highly location dependent. This figure shows dramatically the deciding factor of the tide on the nearshore dynamics on a barred beach.50 Void Fraction Fig.30 0. 17. dependent on the positon of the bubble sensor array with respect to the submerged bar in the surf zone. The relative (+) and cumulative (x) contributions of void fraction (over 1 hour) for observations on Oct. Figure 6 shows the temporal variations of void fraction events observed over a 24-hour period with relatively active breaking waves inside the surf zone.10 0. 6 is a data point. Figure 4 shows another type of statistics for void fraction as the relative (+) and its cumulative (x) contribution to void fraction over a one-hour period.45 0.40 0. in Fig. An hourly running mean of this void fraction data is also shown.15 0.

106 M.107965 STD DEV. Sandy Duck 97 Bubbles Experiment (1997) 0. Su & J. 1997) showing the tidal effects on breaking waves. .4 Max VF Fig.40 Void F r a c t i o n # 3 .0. 17.-Y. High water is at 0838 and 2100. 6.2733 Threshold' 0. 0. 5. Temporal variation of void fraction over a 24-hour period (October 17. 1997) 20 22 24 Fig. Low water is at 0217 and 1506 local time. Probability density function for peak void fraction observations from the same period (Oct. C.1 High Tide Low Tide 0836 1506 High Tide 2100 •rt O0. Wesson (1997) Sandy Duck 97 Bubbles Experiment N_plumea.50 Low Tide 0217 0. 8 10 12 14 16 18 Hours (October 1 7 .20 io itli^ftJiJinL^ 6 iiiiiA.05 Haan> 0. 1997) for all pulses.30 '0.0680896.

Holman et al. B(r). NC in 1997-1999 did conduct some of these measurements. NRL experiments at Duck did remedy this situation by placing both the bubble sensors inside the surf zone and a video camera mounted at the top of the FRF 34 m tower at the same time. 1990. several main questions of concern are as follows: (a) B(r)'s dependence on prevailing wind speed. energy/momentum loss to the current field.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 107 its influence on both the temporal variation and spatial location of the breaking waves. In 1998 and 1999. 7. Bubble Size Distributions in Littoral Zones We now discuss the distribution of bubble size density. NC. 1991). the incoming swells vary all the time in their steepness and periods such that it is difficult to give any general statement (assessment) about their spatial variations normal to the entire beach. One useful approach to assess this variation is to analyze the video imagery of a section of surf zone based on its surface reflectance (indicating the presence of sprays/bubbles/foams on the surface) such as being done for several years by R. even for a fairly uniform and gentle beach like Duck. duration and associated wave field. there is still much local variation in the bathymetry caused by the breaking waves themselves. Analyses of such correlations have not been advanced far enough for making any definitive assessment of their quantitative correlation at this writing. Holman and his colleagues from OSU at Duck and other beaches (Lippmann and Holman. At the same time. The field experiments at Duck. (b) _B(r)'s dependence on the time lag with respect to a single wave breaking event. . In discussing this bubble size density and its distribution both horizontally with respect to the beach and vertically with respect to the water depth. The overall spatial variation (across the entire range of the surf zone to the beach) of a continuously breaking wave field with its air entrainment is certainly of much interest. and the generation/distribution of bubble fields. The objective is to establish possible correlations using the reflectance from the video images and from the direct in-situ measurement of void fraction. The drawback for such a remote sensing approach alone is the lack of quantitative estimates of associated void fraction below the surface. But. which is defined as the number of bubbles within a unit volume (m 3 ) per micron increment in bubble radius (#/m 3 //z)..

C.3 . The last is the mean B(r) over a long period. With all the above disclaimers in mind. (f) Effects of local current (longshore or rip current) on B(r). Su & J. The change shows more clearly for r > rm as shown in Fig. The dependence of B(r) on wind speed W in a more or less equivalent sea-state after a long period (> 5 or 6 hours) of wind forcing is approximately: . (g) Effects of local water qualities such as salinity and surfactants on B(r). (b). and (d)). Our knowledge on the last two items. 7. B(r) will experience a sudden increase and then decrease more gradually.•200^ / B{r) dr oc W 4 . the beach bathymetry changes substantially. are particularly lacking. These large bubbles escape quickly by their buoyancy to the sea surface and disappear. In other words. following the sequence from (a) to (b). there are additional complications of unknown (and varying) bathymetry near the surf zone acted upon by the changing tide. there are more large bubbles present immediately after a breaking wave event. As breaking waves pass by the bubble sensor.108 M. (c). In the shallow water environment. (d) The functional dependence of B(r) for r > rm. (3) This dependence changes dramatically at the initial stages of wind-wave growth. One of the earliest bubble size density measurements of considerable duration in the coastal zone was carried out at the North Sea Tower using an optical bubble sensor in the winter of 1985 (Ling and Pao.-Y. The reason for the slower change in bubble density for r < rm is due to a different phyical mechanism: the dissolution of gas (air) from inside the bubble into the surrounding water. 1988). The results of this six weeks of measurements provides some answers for the first four factors ((a). This dissolution process is enhanced . This process leads to a balanced mixing of various sizes of bubbles as shown in curve (e). The nearshore bathymetry is actually formed by breaking waves themselves. 1988. During each large storm. Su and Cartmill. we shall next make some comments on the bubble size density in littoral zones. Wesson (c) The radius range rm of bubbles that have the maximum (peak value) of B(r). These concerns are not totally independent of each other and there have simply not been enough field measurements conducted to answer all of these with certainty in sufficient quantitative detail. (e) The functional dependence of B(r) with depth. (f) and (g).

For the functional dependence of B(r) for r > rm. there is a continuous disappearance of small bubbles within the water medium. > r > 50 fi with n = 5-6.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 109 b c d Fig. the measurements show a relation as follows: B(r) oc r~n for 200 fj. a recent measurement by an acoustic bubble sensor (Terrill and Melville. the density of smaller bubbles are often higher than those in cleaner deep water. Schematic diagram of bubble density variation at different phases of a wind event. (a) is at the beginning of a storm where large bubbles are more frequent and (e) is after equilibrium has been reached. Essentially. Thus. the peak is maintained by a balance between the continuous supply of bubbles by wave breaking and the disappearance of bubbles by the combined effects of buoyant escape and the dissolution process. The higher the amount of surfactants. In other words. 7. The bubble size density also shows a clear peak in the radius range r m « 20-30 fx. This dissolution process is affected considerably by the presence of surfactants which form a coating at the air-water interface. 1999) yield a relation B(r) oc r~5-7 which falls within . The physical reason for the existence of this peak can be argued reasonably but a detailed derivation of its exact value is still not available. by the inverse of bubble radius due to increasing the surface to the volume ratio as a bubble becomes smaller. the slower the dissolution rate. in dirty coastal waters. (4) Interestingly enough.

1999). we should be very careful in stating the functional dependence (n) by giving detailed conditions under which such B{r) is measured. 1999b) for 10 p < r < 100 /x. The bubble size density B{r) can be further scaled to the air volume distribution with respect to the bubble radius as: r3B(r)dr. The bubble sensors used are acoustic resonators. Su & J.. some bubble size densities were obtained (Caruthers et al.5 and 5 away from the breaking wave surface. In many active breaking wave environments. 1999a). 2000) for bubble radii from 70 to 3000 fx shows that the value of n varies between 1 and 2 for B(r) near surface breaking waves. Farmer. For this reason. 1997. C. The interested reader may refer to the last several cited references.-Y.3 km offshore (mean water depth of about 14 m) and one within the surf zone (mean water depth about 4 m) (Su et al. the peak of B(r) appears only in one of four curves. Most of these distributions show a peak near r = 20 to 40 /j. From all the above past measurements and others. This distribution normally has a peak near r « 100 /x (Terrill and Melville. 1999b) made high frequency attenuation measurements near the beach at a depth of « 6 m when some low density bubble clouds were carried offshore by rip currents from the beach. we shall now examine the significantly different responses of the bubble size density B(r) with respect to a storm passing at two nearshore locations.. The hourly wind speed. between 3. and for the overall average of n is between 2 to 3. Using an iterative approach (Caruthers et al. Wesson the above bounds that were obtained in 1985 by a totally different optical sensor. In this recent acoustic measurement. which is consistent with the observation in the North Sea experiment and other bubble experiments. The index (n) is known to be sensitive to the presence of surfactants (as well as the wave ages and close proximity to other breaking waves. A recent bubble measurement using video imaging analyses in coastal waters outside the surf zone (Bowyer. During the Scripps Bubble and Acoustics Experiment. March. among other factors) but their exact relationship is also unknown at the present time.110 M. Finally. Several formulas to model the variation of B(r) with water depth have been proposed over the years. wind . 1999).. the index appears often to be between 3 and 4. one located 2. NRLSSC Acoustics Division (Caruthers et al. but none of them has had a sound physical basis. this review shall not put an emphasis in this respect. implying that the most significant contribution to air volume in bubble plumes is due to bubbles with radius around 100 p. Vagle and Li. 1999.

Based on the significant wave height. the wind speed is much higher than the mean phase speed of locally generated waves. The bubble density over the two hours of storm growth using 10 minute intervals (in Fig. During the period of initial rapid wind speed increase. the wind speed ranged from 6 to 7 m/s in the longshore direction. Significant changes in the bubble densities were observed by acoustic resonators from near the surface to deeper than 2 m. the wind direction shifted to an onshore direction. Tm. The significant wave height increased steadily from midnight to its maximum of about 2. wave period and wave slope are shown in Fig. An hour later. It then decreased steadily to about 10 m/s at noon on September 21. bubble density is still high but no longer dominated by the bubble density in the 30 to 300 fi range. the mean wave slope will be high under the storm wind forcing and frequent wave breaking of small to mid-size waves occurs.3 m around 0700 on September 21 and then decreased steadily. Then. These breaking waves entrain air below the surface and produce bubble plumes which are further dispersed by the wave orbital motion and turbulence generated by wave breaking.25-0. the bubble density in the radius range from 30 to 300 /J. Note that the effective slope follows closely the wind speed change (Fig. the waves consisted of swells with about a period of 13 s and with a significant wave height of only 0. 8). The initial bubble density is very low at all bubble radii. 8. an effective wave slope S is computed as follows: 5 = (5) Af = L6^%' where Am is the mean wavelength calculated from linear deep-water gravity wave theory. As the front passed through near midnight of September 20. Hs. and the mean wave period. The characteristic shape of the bubble density depends critically on the stages of wave growth and decay. . is especially elevated during the most rapid growth of the storm.30 m. The wind and wave conditions show that before the wind speed picked up near midnight of September 20. The weather had been calm in the preceeding week.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 111 direction. As such. 9) shows the characteristics of evolution of bubble size density during a storm cycle. This time lag of wave height growth with respect to the wind forcing is due to its fetch. The time lag between the two maxima of wind speed and significant wave height is about five hours. significant wave height. the wind speed reached its maximum of about 15 m/s in just one hour and it remained near that speed for about six hours.

8.-Y. can be attributed to the different dynamical mechanisms responsible .112 M. The high tide for 9/20 is 2306 while the low tide on 9/21 occurs at 0512 and high tide at 1136 (Data provided courtesy of CERC FRF). Results from the upper acoustic resonator on the array (at 2. Su & J. The bubble size density measured on the bottom mounted array (AR#5) is presented for the period during the same storm (9/20-9/21/97). and the associated time lag with respect to the arrival time of the storm. These significant differences in the bubble densities inside and outside the surf zone. 10. September 20-21. 1997. The contrast in bubble densities in the surf zone before and after the storm is large.3 km offshore at the same time. The bubble size density over radii from 25 /J. (Middle) The significant wave height and mean wave period for the same time interval. (Bottom) The effective wave slope for the wave field calculated from the wave data above. (Top) Wind speed and direction at FRF. Wesson (1997) S a n d y Duck B u b b l e s E x p e r i m e n t 00 2 Time 4 /(hr) 6 Fig. during the Sandy Duck Experiment. We now switch our attention to the bubble measurement inside the surf zone. C.5 m depth) are shown in Fig. to 500 fi inside the surf zone at the time period 0500-0600 is about 5-7 times higher than the bubble density at A R # 1 at 2.

l ^ V j J l : 0 0 .•. At AR#5. only about 200 m off the beach with a mean water depth of 4 m. the bubbles are produced mainly by local wind-wave breaking (onshore wind).3 km offshore at a mean water depth of 14 m. Figure 8 shows that the significant wave height increases only from 0. This period was midway between the high tide at 2306 and low tide at 0512. For the next two hours. In the location of A R # 1 . A summary of the bubble densities for three 10 min intervals between 0000 and 0200 on September 21.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics (1997) 113 S a n d y Duck B u b b l e s E x p e r i m e n t 1 1 1 1 ' ' r ^ ^N ^H^ a o n o \ AR# 1 Chan 1 S e p 2 1 _ 10 m i n u t e i n t e r v a l s 2 minute p r o f i l e s (*) f i r s t p r o f i l e (+) last profile \ \ \ I 10* h 6 i. 9.3 m to about 1.-' '*' "'**'•• '•'• '"• \ftW\ 'A\\WI ~~ **"-'•• ^ V » >-. the significant wave height increases to about 2 m.0 1 : 1 0 •o i o 2 • - \L H T^< "^''•Y'^a* V\. 0000-0200. approaching the low tide. overlaid in a single figure. for production of bubbles in these two characteristically different locations in the littoral zone. E v 10° 1 t 1 1 1 • 1 .'. ' \ \ X K V\ %& 01:50-02:00 N $&* %. bubbles are produced primarily by the swell breaking over a submerged sandbar together with secondary breaking on the beach.0 m during the two hours. 1 r 100 1000 Radius / micron Fig. 2. . '1 "'\ *'-U a • 00:00-00:10 ^ .

C. Wesson Sandy Duck 97 Bubbles Experiment (1997) H T~ 1 1—I—III! ^~l 1 1 1—I—I I I 10 100 Radius / micron 1000 Fig. These rather steady wave conditions result in similarly constant intensity and frequency of wave breaking inside the surf zone. The significant wave height increases to a maximum of 2. hence. the variation of the bubble densities inside and outside the surf zone. before (00:00-01:00) and after (05:00-06:00) the effects of the storm are felt in the surf zone. The hourly averaged bubble densities from an acoustic resonator array in the surf zone. more frequent and larger breaking waves are expected which produce more bubbles.3 m during the next two hours until 0600 and remains relatively high at 1. The bubble density variation observed in the surf zone followed the breaking wave height and intensity.114 M.8 m until 0900. are controlled by different aspects of breaking wave dynamics even under the same storm forcing. 10.-Y. This leads to considerable differences . Su & J. Therefore. respectively.

The averaged VF outside the surf zone (at AR#1) follows the increase of the wind speed closely to its maximum. High and low tides during the period are also indicated on the time scale. This feature of the response of the averaged VF is characteristically similar to the associated bubble size densities. The associated low frequency sound speed (c) for several void fraction values are indicated. since the current NRL-SSC acoustic resonator is limited to measure bubbles with radii r < 1200 /x. The hourly average void fraction (VF) from the acoustic resonators at both A R # 1 and A R # 5 are shown in Fig.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 115 in the bubble density and in the time lag with respect to the prevailing storm cycle and tidal condition. 11. The hourly averaged void fraction (obtained by integrating the hourly averaged bubble size density) both inside (AR#5) and outside (AR#1) the surf zone for the period from 1800 on September 20 to 1200 on September 21. We shall refer to this integrated value as the averaged void fraction over any chosen period. 1237 m/s tiio"5 (0 fa u •o •H •0 -6 £10 0) d u o 5 _l I I I High Tide 23:06 I I I L Low T i d e 05:12 H i g h Tid< 11:36 18 20 22 00 02 04 06 08 10 Time / Hours (Sept 20-21. 11. then. The void fraction and associated low frequency sound speed due to bubble plumes are two integral characteristics of the bubble field. On the other Sandy Duck 97 Bubbles Experiment (1997) to"4 n I I I I i i i i r n i i i r AR#5 Channel 1 Inside S u r f Z o n e . The average bubble void fraction is obtained by integrating the bubble density over the range of bubble radii from 17 fi to 1200 fi. decreases even faster than the effective wave slope as the wind speed decreases. 1997) 12 Fig. Such average void fraction is in fact only a fraction of the total air entrainment by wave breaking. .

the averaged VF for the smaller bubbles with radii less than 1000 fi is limited within 10 _ 4 % to 10 _ 2 % which is two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding VF from the larger bubbles (> 3000 y).5 x 10~ 2 near the water surface from these large bubbles. to determine marine aerosol levels and the low-frequency sound speed. in the bubble plume. acoustical. Wesson hand. and remain much longer in the water column. we shall refer to the average VF from the larger bubbles as "macro VF" and the average VF from the smaller bubbles as "micro VF". 8. and aerosol production.-Y.116 M. The evolution of bubble size density during a storm nearshore and in the surf zone is controlled by different wave dynamics. computed based on Wood's formula (Wood. However. C. Data from the offshore location show that the growth of bubble populations follows the increase of the local wind speed and wave slope closely rather than the growth in significant wave height. with the nominal sound speed for bubble-free water being 1498 m/s. one needs to use "micro VF" while for air-sea heat/mass transfer and energy /momentum loss by wave breaking. The peak value of the void fraction (VF) in wave breaking reaches 80% or higher within about 10-20% of a wave period. 1941). are 1220 m/s and 1440 m/s. Su & J. Smaller bubbles with radii less than 1000 y or so have smaller buoyancy and are controlled by the dispersion of wave orbital motion and turbulence. But. the deficit of the low-frequency sound speed inside the surf zone can be large enough to affect significantly sound speed dependent phenomena. the hourly averaged VF inside the surf zone (at AR#5) follows closely the growth of the significant wave height to its maximum at the same period (0500-0600). the maximum value of the hourly average VF inside the surf zone is about 10 times higher than that outside the surf zone. This is in clear contrast to the corresponding growth of bubble . For example. The averaged void fraction due to the larger bubbles may be measured by the conductivity-type void fraction meter. one should use "macro VF". (3 mm) in radii quickly escape to the surface and disappear. Hence. The hourly average void fraction can range from 5 x 10~ 3 to 1. Their associated low-frequency sound speeds. bubbles substantially larger than about 3000 fj. respectively. such as shock wave propagation from an underwater explosion inside the surf zone. In addition. air-sea interactions. Since these two types of averaged VFs have different effects and applications in littoral zones on optical. General Remarks on Bubble Dynamics in Shallow Water Both wind wave and swell breaking inside the surf zone can produce large amounts of bubbles.

The growth rate outside of the surf zone is due to wave breaking at all scales cumulatively with bubble dispersion by wave orbital motions and turbulence while the growth rate inside the surf zone is due to the direct plunging breakers which produce large bubble plumes within a small fraction of the wave period. and decay are important considerations for these applications. the growth of the significant wave height may lag the onset of wind speed increase by four to six hours. For smaller bubbles (r < 30 /x). the growth rate of bubble densities for various bubble radii are different. This suggests that larger bubbles (r > 50 fi) are generated by direct air entrainment of wave breaking while smaller bubbles (r < 30 /x) are produced by subsequent dissolution of those larger bubbles. the physical explanation why their growth is slower than for slightly larger bubbles is more complicated. to 50 \i are produced at the moment of wave breaking. most bubbles generated and visible to the eye are observed to be larger than 50 /x (about 1/20 of the jet diameter). During the rapid wind speed increase with increasing wave breaking. in laboratory experiments using a small jet (with diameter < 1 mm) from a syringe directed onto the surface of a salt-water tank with the jet angle larger than the critical angle of about 30°. Bubbles with radii from 30 to 300 // are observed to have higher growth rates than those bubbles with radius either larger or smaller than this range. In normal coastal situations. the surface tension of the salt water surface appears to cause a straining force against the impinging jets of breaking waves and consequently causes air entrainment into the surface in such a way that only bubbles with radii > 40 (J. their different responses with respect to the wind speed.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 117 densities in the surf zone. wave growth. After bubbles are generated. Differences also exist between the growth rates of bubble densities inside and outside the surf zone with respect to the same wind forcing. The high surface tension may prevent the formation of smaller bubbles. their air content will be lost by dissolution into the surrounding salt water and they will thus become smaller and smaller in time prior to reaching the surface by buoyancy and bursting into micro-droplets in the air. with wind speed around 30 knots (15 m/s). the rapid loss of the larger bubbles is visible by observation both in the field (above and below the surface) and in the laboratory. . However. because these larger bubbles with corresponding larger buoyancy rise quickly to the surface and disappear. Since the bubble size density and the bubble void fraction have different effects on acoustical and optical applications. which are closely correlated with local significant wave height. For larger bubbles (r > 300 fi). Based on these observations from laboratory experiments.

Bubble size densities were found to have a maximum near radii 20 /i to 30 fi by an optical technique in a North Sea tower in the 1985 winter season and in other investigations (Su et al. bubbles are generated by breaking of both swells (more or less constantly) and locally generated seas (whenever storms are present). and CO2). Near the ocean surface. stages of local wind and wave growth. oil spills. Su and Cartmill. Some other investigation did not find this maximum (Breitz and Medwin. the bubble size density in the surf zone does not respond as quickly to the wind speed increase as does the bubble size density offshore. Wesson Some fraction of small bubbles will disappear entirely by the dissolution process. and others) that the bubble size density has a peak near 30 /z-50 /j. 1999).-Y. Bubbles with radii about 10 /x or less may remain suspended for long times as passive particles. may further reduce the gas dissolution rate across air-water interfaces. if present. N2. However. 1988. include the relative influence of swells versus local seas. and/or land-borne sources). C. the bubble size density may be inferred to have a maximum near 40 /J to 50 \i. radius. On the other hand. These apparent differences are not caused by the resolution of the acoustic resonators but rather are related to different wave growth and decay conditions under which different bubble densities are measured. 1988. the bubble dissolution process may be suppressed to such a low rate that bubbles with radii < 30 fi to 40 /i cannot be reduced further and will remain in the water for a long time. 1989. the major feature of bubble density in the surf zone is its higher intensity due to breaking of ubiquitous swells both from distant (stormy) sources as well as nearshore wave growth. In coastal regions where sufficient surfactants are present (due to biological activities. This contradicts earlier estimates (Su et al. If bubble sensors are limited in their measurement to radii 40 \i or larger. Phelps and Leighton. Terrill and Melville. Thus. 1994b. and the local bathymetry that controls the location and intensity of wave shoaling and wave . 1989.118 M. Surfactants. Su & J. the bubble size densities at radius 10 fi are likely to be an order of magnitude higher than at 17 /i. Farmer and Vagle. 1998. bubbles with radii smaller than 15 /x which is the lower bound of current acoustic resonator systems operating to 200 kHz are expected. the bubble dissolution process may be completely stopped. Inside the surf zone. where the contribution from surf zone wave breaking is slight. as the salt water medium is saturated with atmospheric gases (O2. Based on the bubble density data presented earlier.. and others). Other factors which must be considered.

Cambridge University Press. M. . Ray Burge of NRL-SSC for his very capable assistance in bubble sensor construction. Fluid Mech. Rev. J. Peregrine (1993). School of Mathematics. (ed. given the somewhat irregular b a t h y m e t r y even for the relatively straight coastline near the F R F location at Duck. Laser diffraction size analysis. 211: 463-95. Bubbles in the close vicinity of breaking waves: Statistical characteristics of their generation and dispersion mechanisms. (1988). L. J. NC. B. University of New South Wales. J. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Wind-Driven Air-Sea Interface. Banner. P. M. H. 93: 8229-8248. pp. and D. Fluid Mech. Ann. M. Rev. Banner. 25: 373-397. For instance. Surf-zone dynamics. Riley (1991). 119-128. testing. Banner. In Principles. J. we have developed a better understanding of wave breaking dynamics and bubble dynamics in b o t h deep and shallow coastal waters through many advances in sensor development and several large-scale field experiments as well as theoretical/numerical modeling. several hundred bubble sensors would be needed to address the detailed spatial changes in the wave breaking and bubble fields. Methods and Applications of Particle Size Analysis. Much of what has been learned in the field and reviewed in this article was obtained through long time continuous support. N.) (1999). and field experiments over the past 10 years. T h e senior author would also like to t h a n k Mr. Ann. Wave breaking in deep water. (1989). Syvitski. Fluid Mech. References Agrawal. L. Battjes. I. Sydney. Geo. 20: 257-293. Because of small-scale variability. L. there is still a long way to go before the degree of understanding of bubble dynamics reaches t h a t of surface wave dynamics. ed. Hence. Y. In the past 20 years. Acknowledgments T h e senior author (MYS) would like to acknowledge the generous support by O N R / N R L . Effects from all these environmental factors are often difficult to separate at the current stage of our measurement capability and our understanding of wave breaking dynamics and bubble dynamics in the nearshore region. (1989). Baldy. The influence of wave breaking on the surface pressure distribution in wind wave interactions. C . A.Bubble Measurement Techniques and Bubble Dynamics 119 breaking. S. M. a large number of sensors and dense sensor array configurations are needed in the littoral zone. McCave and J. Res.S S C in the past 15 years for breaking wave and bubble investigations.

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wave-wave and wave-current interactions are discussed. islands and structures (jetties. This paper provides a comprehensive review of mathematical modeling procedures developed in recent years in the area of elliptic wave equations suitable for simulating waves in ports and harbors. along with the inclusion of dissipative effects like breaking.S. Physical and numerical model studies are often conducted concurrently for these projects to evaluate technical feasibility and to optimize design alternatives. We describe advances pertaining to the computing efficiency of elliptic wave models which has until recently been a major drawback for these models. Some research areas have been identified. ports/harbors currently have renovation plans in response to the expansion of ocean-borne world commerce and coastal engineering projects (dealing with wave agitation in harbors caused by expansion (landfills). Application of elliptic modeling methods to wave transformation in the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and in Barber's Point Harbor are described. we have been able to reduce the computational time for prototype-scale applications to the order of a few seconds for monochromatic waves and to less than one hour for the simulation of multi-directional irregular sea states. flaring channels for improved navigability. governmental. military activities and are closely tied to the national economy of the continental United States. Several major U. dissipative mechanisms like friction and breaking. We present a computational framework for including wave-wave and wave-current interactions in elliptic wave modeling. These improvements in the boundary conditions. Many local and state economies are dependent on waterborne commerce as a major source of transport and enhanced port capacity is vital to Nation's economy. cultural. 125 .SIMULATION OF WAVES IN HARBORS USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELLIPTIC EQUATION MODELS VIJAY PANCHANG and Z. Using advanced parallelization schemes. DEMIRBILEK Ports and harbors are the center of social. channel deepening and widening. The development of several improved boundary conditions that can be used along coastlines. Assumptions such as constant water depths outside the modeling area and fully reflecting exterior coastlines. channel maintenance and other infrastructure modifications) generally require a detailed knowledge of the wave field in the project areas. Modeling techniques and extensions of the well-accepted mild-slope wave equation to include steep-slopes. have been eliminated in recent treatments of the open boundary. etc. economic.) in the modeling domain is discussed. allow for more accurate treatment of the scattered and reflected waves throughout the model domain and lead to a realistic representation of waves in complex regions of highly varying bathymetry and boundary types. realistic boundary conditions. trade and commerce. breakwaters. which plagued earlier elliptic models.

etc. Demirbilek 1. They are important hubs for commercial. breakwaters. the methodology is based on solving the following two-dimensional . Longer waves may need fewer grids. the domain to be modeled may include completely arbitrary coastline shapes and bathymetric features as well as man-made structures like piers. In addition to these complexities. 1999 for a review of recent coastal wave modeling methods). some waves (not necessarily big waves) lead to undesirable vessel motions (resulting in operational difficulties such as broken mooring lines. The incident waves of interest may cover a wide spectrum.) or undesirable sediment movement (resulting in more frequent dredging). Harbor facilities must accommodate ever larger ships ("megaships") with increasingly demanding schedules and complex environmental regulations. about $600 billion in foreign trade passed through ports in the United States in 1997. This estimation must often be accomplished through mathematical modeling techniques. and bathymetric slopes. etc. One of the physical features that can have an adverse impact on harbor operations is the wave climate. For short waves. 1. from very short waves to extremely long period waves that cause resonance and may approach the harbor from any direction. jetties. coastlines. For instance. Geometrically. making the modeling difficult. It is therefore critical that these facilities be designed in a manner that enhances efficiency and safety of harbors operations like cargo loading/unloading. For example. Engineers must provide the infrastructure that can handle this growth. 1998). reflection and dissipation by friction and breaking to varying degrees. diffraction. In its basic form. Introduction Ports and harbors play a vital role in the growth and well-being of many nations. we describe a methodology that has become well-accepted in recent years for modeling the situation described above (See Panchang et al. These features induce wave refraction. military and recreational activities.126 V. However. as may be seen in Fig. most harbors confront the modeler with numerous complexities. the number of grids needed to discretize the domain can be extremely large. downtime for cargo handling. but require a better specification of boundary reflectivities since they are more susceptible to reflections in all directions from structures. Reliable estimation of wave conditions in and around a harbor is vital to the success of harbor operations. Panchang & Z. In this paper. etc. the modeler may also have to account for the effects of the interaction between various wave components and of tidal or other currents which can magnify or diminish the wave climate in different parts of the domain. this trade is projected to triple by 2020 (YOTO.

where. 1995). Numbers show gage locations for hydraulic model study (after Seabergh and Thomas. y) = complex surface elevation function (= <pi + ifa) i = y/^1 (i) a = wave frequency under consideration C(x. y) = phase velocity = a/k Cg{x. y) = wavenumber (= 2ir/L) related to the local depth d(x. elliptic equation. v-(ccgV(f>) + k2ccg4> = o. (2) . Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor area. <f>(x. a2 = gk tanh (kd).Simulation of Waves in Harbors 127 Fig. y) through the dispersion relation.y) = group velocity = dcr/dk k(x. 1.

(1). Panchang & Z. The integration. REFDIF and RCPWAVE described by Dalrymple et al. i. a criterion that is usually met in practice (extensions to steep slopes are described later). 2a (3) + tf = y V ^ ^ ) - Essentially Eq. Demirbilek The wave height H can be obtained from complex surface elevation function 4> as follows. For further development in this paper. Eq. Booij (1981) has shown that Eq. (1) represents an integration over the water column of threedimensional Laplace equation used in potential wave theory. V-(CCgV(/>) + {k2CCg + iCgaW)(t> = 0. 1985).g. (1) represents the complete two-dimensional wave scattering problem for the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz equation as demonstrated by Radder (1979). It hence forms a widely-used basis for performing wave simulations in regions with arbitrarilyshaped (manmade or natural) boundaries and arbitrary depth variations.. rtW)«<^dfc+*) #*.128 V. Kirby. Being elliptic.e. (5). the angle of wave incidence.. (5) in which a dissipation term W has been included. In essence. irregular wave conditions may be simulated using Eq.»)• (4) This approximation is obviously valid for a "mild slope" characterized by \Vd\/kd « l . Ebersole. (1) by superposition of monochromatic simulations. By separating the real and imaginary parts of Eq. originally described by Berkhoff (1976) and Smith and Sprinks (1975). . Eq. (1). is necessary because the solution of the three-dimensional problem is computationally difficult for harbors with a characteristic length that is several times of the wavelength. we may consider the following extended form of Eq. While it is valid for a monochromatic (single incident frequency-direction) wave condition. Unlike "approximate" mild slope wave models (e. there are no intrinsic limitations on the shape of the domain. or the degree and direction of wave reflection and scattering that can be modeled with Eq. (5) satisfies the energy balance equation in the presence of dissipation. The integration is based on the assumption that the vertical variation of the wave potential is largely the same as that for a horizontal bottom. (1) represents a boundary value problem which can accommodate internal nonhomogeneities. 1984. The term W may represent breaking and/or friction and is described later. 1986.

1.g. 1983. a creek or tributary at the backbay or down wave end of the domain) may be considered to be a fully-absorbing closed boundary. Boundary Conditions Domains on which the elliptic equation Eq. Tsay and Liu. Oliveira and Anastasiou. (1) to harbors. however. in the method used to solve the linear system of equations that results from discretizing the elliptical governing equation. These models differ in the choice of the numerical method used (e.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 129 Several computational models based on Eq. even in the best of circumstances. 2. (5) is solved are enclosed by closed boundaries (represented by coastlines and surface-penetrating structures like pier walls or pier legs. 2. 1989. A separation between the model domain and an outer water area from where no waves enter the model domain (e. the following boundary condition has traditionally been used (e.g. (5) have been developed in recent years. in the choice of boundary conditions. Tsay et al. finite element method). 1976. and in the inclusion of additional mechanisms. The application of a comprehensive finite-element model to simulate waves in the Los Angeles/Long Beach harbor complex (Fig. finite-difference method. seawalls. Berkhoff. etc.) and open boundaries (which represent an artificial boundary between the area being modeled and the sea region outside). (5). appropriate conditions must be specified to solve Eq..g. 5. In this paper. An open boundary is considered to be the one where an incident wave is specified (and may contain other radiated waves). Section 4 describes the incorporation of additional mechanisms in Eq. Sections 2 and 3 describe the various kinds of boundary conditions and numerical solution methods that have been developed in recent years. 1) and in Barber's Point Harbor is described in Sec. The layout of this paper is as follows.... d<j> (6) . 1998. breakwaters. 1994a). Li. Closed boundary conditions Along coastline and surface-protruding structures. Along all boundaries. see Dingemaans. we provide a review of the modeling techniques pertaining to the application of Eq. (1). boundary element method. only approximate boundary conditions can be developed (e.. 1997).g. (1) or Eq.

(6) as a boundary condition. (10) where x ls the argument of the complex quantity < (i. Like Pos (1985). Eq. (6) is approximate and may produce distortions in the model solutions.e. like the Snell's Law approach.. For fully absorbing boundaries (Kr = 0). It may be verified that Eq. the phase of (f>). (8) where A is the amplitude of the approaching waves. based on limited numerical tests that showed little sensitivity to f3. Kr varies between 0 and 1 and specific values for different types of reflecting surfaces have been compiled by Thompson et al.e. Kr — 1). s is the coordinate along the tangent to the boundary. For > / implementation. determined 9 from Eq. Li and Anastasiou (1992) and Li et al. (9). . (6) is strictly valid only for fully-reflecting boundaries (i. 9 and (3 are not known a priori inside the model domain and must be estimated by approximation. (1996). (9) y dn l + Krexp{ik/3y ' Unfortunately. 4> = A{exp[ik(n cos 9 + ssin9)} + Krexp[ik(—ncos9 + ssin9 + /?)]} . and (3 is a phase shift between the incident and the reflected wave. (9) as a boundary condition to perform a second iteration of the model. For other conditions. 9 is the direction at which they intersect the boundary (9 = 0 for normally incident waves).1:%. These limitations may be eliminated by describing the solution at the boundary more fully as a sum of incident and reflected waves. Isaacson and Qu (1990) estimated 9 as follows. (9) and so on. Clearly. used Eq. (10). Alternatively. it is valid only if waves approach the boundary normally. performed a third model iteration using Eq. obtained x from the results. 9 = avctan{(dx/ds)/{dX/dn)} . Panchang & Z.. they first used Eq. ^ = ikcosel-feM. (9) after estimating 9 from Snell's Law and the deep-water incident wave angle. (1993) have used Eq. Demirbilek where n is the outward normal to the boundary and a is related to a userspecified reflection coefficient as follows. they assumed (3 = 0 while using Eq. recalculated x a n d 9. For partially reflecting boundaries. Equation (8) leads to the following boundary condition.130 V.

(10) that allows nonzero Kr and /3. some fundamental problems remain. (1993)) or by two sets of plane waves (in the case of Eqs. They were able to eliminate these difficulties by estimating 9 from the following expression. ~ cos(9) ) . (8). precise estimation of Kr and /3 is still problematic.e. (10) is valid only for Kr = 0 (although problems with nonzero Kr were also considered). Efforts to incorporate the work of Dickson et al. the assumption that the total wave field near the boundary can be represented either by one set of plane waves (in the case of Eq. 2 shows a simulation of waves propagating into a rectangular harbor area obtained with Eq. (2000) using other boundary conditions. (10) or the Snell's Law approach of Li et al.. simple wave trains are not easily discernible and. In domains of complex shapes (as in Fig.. As an example.. In some ways. 1) with arbitrary bathymetry and boundaries with varying reflectivities. a complex pattern of waves can result. the definition of a single 9 (and (3) can become meaningless. Steward and Panchang (2000) analyzed these methods and noted difficulties with convergence of the above iterative methods and with the quality of the solutions obtained with Eqs. 9 = (1/fc) arcsin {dX/ds} . an iterative method with repeated model calculations were needed. 2 contains no spurious oscillations or noise. (1995) and Sutherland and O'Donoghue (1998) pertaining to (3 in models such as the one described here are lacking. To include the effect of the reflected waves (i. even when there is a well-defined train of waves near the boundary (justifying the use of the above methods). it may be best to . the second term in the right hand side of Eq.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 131 Eq.^ + —±—K-j-r7r. For a detailed comparison of results. (8)). (11) Again. Unlike the results demonstrated by Steward and Panchang (2000) and by Beltrami et al. Values of KT provided by Thompson et al. (1996) certainly do not cover full range of reflecting surfaces that the modeler encounters. dx/fdx 2Krk(cos(k/3) + Kr) . K> dsl \dn l + 2Krcos(kf3) + K? ) y(12) ' Equation (12) is a generalization of Eq. Further. (11) and (12)) propagating in constant depth. (12). Isaacson et al.e. i. (1993) suggested estimating 9 as follows. see Steward and Panchang (2000).\ n tan0=-^/ . Fig.. Despite the increasing sophistication seen progressively in Eqs. (10) and (11). Fig. nor do they cover the dependence of these parameters on the incident wave frequency. The most important one is inherent in Eq. as noted by Isaacson and Qu (1990). (6) and (9) and in the various ways of estimating 9.

however. Li (1994a. using Eqs.132 V. recognize these difficulties at the outset and use the simplest expression of Eq. 1991). 1994b). say. Phase diagram (shows cosine of phase angle). waves backscattered from within the domain will also exist and their magnitude is generally not known. Semicircle represents open boundary. ^ = ik(2<f>i . Panchang & Z. Demirbilek Fig. (9) and (12). in the y direction) constituting the open boundary. (6) by combining all the uncertainties noted above into a single parameter a which may be regarded as a tuning parameter. (1988. Along this boundary. 2. 2. Panchang et al. Modeled waves in a rectangular harbor.4>) • (13) . and Oliveira and Anastasiou (1998) have used the following condition. Open boundary conditions Along the open boundary. Kr = 0 on closed boundaries. In the context of simple rectangular domain models with one side (aligned. an incident wave fa must be specified.2.

. (13) is inappropriate. (14) where fa = the incident wave that must be specified to force the model. Eq. Harbor applications generally use model domains such as that described in Fig. Harbor wave model domain.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 133 Equation (13) is obtained by assuming that the incident and backscattered components along this boundary can be described by fa = Ai exp(ikx) and fa = B exp(—ikx) respectively (where Ai is the (specified) amplitude of the incoming wave and B is an unknown). definition sketch. For more complex domains involving multidirectional scattering. In the exterior domain f2'. Obviously. this is valid only if the incident and backscattered waves near the boundary are plane waves propagating in the +/— x direction. Fig. the potential <j> is comprised of three components. fa = a reflected wave that would exist in the absence of the harbor and Transect 2 P2 Incident Wave Transect 1 Pi e. 3 where the semicircle is used to separate the model area from the open sea. 4> = fa + fa + fa. adding the two components and differentiating. 3.

(2000). Tsay and Liu. With appropriate descriptions for these components. In field applications. (ii) the exterior coastlines Q\R\ and Q2R2 must be fully reflecting and collinear. Exterior coastlines are not always fully reflecting for all wave conditions and imposing full reflection in such cases yields extremely large amplification factors and . which is the specified input. Chen and Houston. the modeler must arbitrarily select a representative "constant" depth and test the sensitivity of the solutions to these depths. Demirbilek and Panchang. Panchang & Z. This can be extremely time-consuming. In traditional harbor models (Mei. Second. the effect of reflections from the sloping exterior bathymetry is ignored. (15). OO (15) (16) (17) <t>„ = ^2 Hn(kr)(An n=0 cosnO + Bn sinnO). 1983. and An and Bn are unknown coefficients. 1987. this eigenvalue problem in which 4>s and <j)r are coupled.. may be solved only under the following conditions. 1996. These effects are often significant especially for long periods that are of interest in harbor resonance studies. causing two problems as demonstrated by Panchang et al. where (r. (1996). 1998). a boundary condition can be developed along the semicircle. Eqs. Condition (ii) is also problematic. Condition (i) is thus violated. 1993. the exterior wave conditions are described as follows. 4>i = Ai exp[ikr cos(8 — #*)]. the exterior bathymetry is irregular and the depth generally increases in the offshore-direction. (16) and (17) result from the solution of the relevant eigenvalue problem in the traditional method. 1983. Hn is the Hankel function of the first kind and order n. 9) denotes the location of a point in polar coordinates. First. For the specified incident wave field given by Eq. Xu and Panchang. Thompson et al. Demirbilek 4>s = a scattered wave that emanates as a consequence of the harbor and must satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condition. (i) the exterior region must have a constant depth. 4>r = At exp[ifcr cos(6> + 0*)].134 V. As demonstrated by Xu et al. however. These requirements usually cannot be met in practice where the exterior geometry varies arbitrarily and the unrealistic bathymetric representation used by the modeler invariably has an adverse influence on the solution.

each obtained with an appropriate rationale. Panchang et al. (1993) have described a procedure that requires the exterior domain to be suitably divided into a finite number of regions of constant depths. the extra memory requirements and grid-generation for a larger domain are usually exceedingly demanding. their use renders the application of harbor wave models problematic in practice. It was found. etc. (18a) 2 . 2k0r where r and 9 represent the polar coordinates of a point on the open boundary and fco is a representative wavenumber for the open boundary (p and q are not unique and alternative forms. Chen (1990) also has suggested discretizing the exterior domain into a finite number of radial "infinite elements" with a prespecified shape function in each element.. (See examples in Xu et al. (One consequence of the above is that many of the models in this category cannot correctly simulate fairly simple phenomena like waves approaching a sloping beach. One may of course enlarge the interior region in the hope that these effects do not contaminate the results in the area of interest. Panchang 8kQr2 ' q (18) i 1 2r ~ . (1996) and in Thompson et al. However. have been investigated by Givoli (1991). Xu et al. there is no guarantee that these effects are confined to specific regions. (1996). however. this shape function is entirely dependent on the farfield approximation for the Hankel functions. wave-current interaction. are to be introduced into the governing equation. Other difficulties may also be expected if mechanisms such as dissipation. however. suggesting that a fairly large computational domain is still needed. (16) and (17) constitute rigorous solutions of the eigenvalue problem. A boundary integral equation is then developed for each of these exterior regions using the appropriate Green's function. To overcome these difficulties. In addition. Investing confidence in model results when applied to field situations is therefore difficult). Demirbilek et al. The boundary element formulations for these regions are then matched with each other along the interfaces and with a finite-element network in the model interior to obtain the solution. Thus. (1996). (1996)).Simulation of Waves in Harbors 135 rapid variations in the wave pattern in the outer regions of the domain. while Eqs. An effective alternative is to use a "parabolic approximation" to describe d<f>s _ dn where. that this type of model is extremely cumbersome to code and construct for general implementation.

this is often the direction in which the depths vary the most. Pa = <Pi + ' (19) may be obtained by the solution of the one-dimensional version of Eq. Panchang & Z.136 V. a second one-dimensional section shown as transect 2 in Figs. in general. If natural variations do not permit the representation of the exterior depths by only one section. (18). the quantity. However. allows the scattered waves to exit only through a limited aperture around the radial direction. Demirbilek et al. . 4. (5) since the depths along these transects vary in one direction only. it does not rigorously satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condition. using this formulation decouples <f)s from the other components. 3 and 4) may be selected. These components (fa and <j>r) may be obtained by making a compromise between a detailed exterior bathymetric representation (which as noted earlier. is difficult) and the constant depth representation (which is unrealistic). However. This is reasonable since. (2000)). This Fig. Unlike Eq. A onedimensional representation where the depths vary in the cross-shore direction only (Figs. Eq. 3 and 4 may be constructed. (17). For transects 1 and 2 with varying depths. no simple analytical expression (such as Eq. The parabolic approximation. (16)) can be found for the reflected wave (since 4>i a n d 4>r are coupled). Two ID transects representing the exterior bathymetry (do not have to be identical).

. These solutions are denoted by c/>oi and 4>02 • The desired < o along the semicircle may be obtained / > by laterally translating </>oi and ^02 via interpolation between transects 1 and 2 as follows. ^' where Kr is the reflection coefficient for the exterior coastline (i. The solution of Eq. . (23) Without loss of generality. dtp _ iy/k2-k2sm2S(l-Kr) ( } fa - YTK.^ = ik cos 0i (2Ai . for one-dimensional geometry. the dissipation factor W is considered to be prespecified). 4>o = ip{x) exp(ifcy sin 9).Simulation of Waves in Harbors 137 one-dimensional equation is (Schaffer and Jonsson. 2000). 4>i{Pi) = Ai exp(ikxcos6i + ikys'mOi). 1992. (26) . near Qi). (24) and (25). (20) using boundary conditions. Eqs. Panchang et al. 4>riP\) — -Bexp(—ikxcosdi + ikysmOi). (21) produces <j>0 along transects 1 and 2. Equation (21) is an elliptic ordinary differential equation requiring two boundary conditions. — [CCg-j^] T{CC'T ax \ ax (21) + kCCg(k cos2 0 + iW)ijj = 0. a condition at Pi may be obtained by combining a specified incident wave. (22) (where A^ = a given input wave amplitude) and an unknown reflected wave. the partial reflection boundary condition of Eq.V) • (24) At the coastal boundary point Q\.e. (20) where. and k sin 6 is constant for one-dimensional problem. It may easily be solved via a simple finite-difference scheme (for the present. Assuming that transect 1 extends out to a region of constant depth (or deep water). (9) may be used in the following form. along with Eq. the point Pi may be located at x = 0 which allows elimination of B to yield. <j>o = (1 — m)<j>oi exp(—ifc(j— y)sin#) + m0o2exp(ifc(r + y)sin0).

T h e expected bending of the crests can be observed with no spurious effects. Most studies with t h e finite-difference . . Modeled wave refraction on a sloping beach. Not only are the boundaries distorted. 1. Panchang & Z. T h e boundary condition for (/> along the semicircle T may be obtained by using the continuity of the potential (Eqs. typically 10 points per wavelength. angle of incidence 60°. 3. (2000) have demonstrated t h a t this procedure provides extremely satisfactory solutions for a large number of test cases. An example of wave refraction along a sloping beach is shown in Fig. 5. r is the radius of the semicircle. (27) to obtain t h e open b o u n d a r y condition for the two-dimensional equation of Eq. (18) and (26). (14) and (19)) and its derivative along with Eqs. (2000) and Panchang et al. y is the lateral coordinate of the open b o u n d a r y node relative to the origin of semicircle (Fig. the interpolation function m = (r — y)/2r. d</> d4>o . 3). Zhao et al. .138 V. Demirbilek Fig. finite-difference discretizations are not well-suited to represent the complex domain shapes described. In general. (20) provides </>o along the one-dimensional transects. 5. d2<f> (27) T h u s . in Fig. or the finite element method. the finitedifference method. where we have set y = 0 at the center of semicircle. . These values can be translated laterally and substituted into Eq. the solution of Eq. demands t h a t the spacing be determined from the smallest wavelength). N u m e r i c a l S o l u t i o n E q u a t i o n (5) is generally solved using the b o u n d a r y element m e t h o d . (1). for example. but the number of uniformly spaced grids may also be excessively large (adequate resolution. Phase diagram.

Tsay and Liu. allow the construction of grids with variable sizes (based on the local wavelength) and give a good reproduction of the boundary shapes. 1983. These techniques. Tsay et al. 1988. (1998) and Jones and Richards (1992) can be used to conveniently generate as many as 500. Li. (1) by the finite element method is described in detail by Mei (1983) and by Demirbilek and Panchang (1998) when different types of open boundary conditions are used. In earlier models (e. Tsay and Liu. 1989. Lennon et al. Boundary element models can handle arbitrary shapes and require minimal storage since only the boundaries are discretized.g. Pos and Kilner (1987) were able to alleviate this difficulty somewhat by using the frontal solution method of Irons (1970). Panchang et al.000 elements of varying size. 1987). 1994a. (1991) and Li (1994a) of iterative techniques especially suited for Eq. based on the desired (user-specified) resolution.. the Surface Water Modeling System described by Zundell et al. The matrix [A] is usually extremely large.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 139 method have been limited to largely rectangular domains (e. a similar system results as long as W is prespecified. on the other hand.. and modern graphical grid generating software permits efficient and accurate representation of harbors with complex shapes. Kostense et al. Tsay et al. short waves or a large domain). Most finite element models (e.g. 1972. however. (28) was accomplished by Gaussian Elimination which requires enormous memory and is prohibitive when the number of wavelengths in the domain is large (i. Chen and Houston.. 1990.g. For example.. 1994b. Lee and Raichlen. Panchang et al. Isaacson and Qu. Finite element models. 1989. (1) with appropriately chosen boundary conditions leads to system of linear equations. 1992)..e. and to specify the desired reflection coefficients on various segments of the closed boundary. 1990. 2000) have used triangular elements. they are limited to subdomains with constant depths only (e. For solving <> Eq. (5). 1982). In recent years. (1). Chen.g. Whether one uses finite differences or finite elements for discretization. Demirbilek and Panchang. 1991.. 1983. based on the conjugate gradient method. Li and Anastasiou. (28) where [ / ] represents the vector of all the unknown potentials. The solution of Eq. the solution of Eq. the numerical treatment of Eq. 1998.. guarantee convergence and have been found to be extremely robust in a wide variety . This is due to the development by Panchang et al. the solution of Eq. (28) has been obtained with minimal storage requirements for [A]. [AP] = [B].

that the elimination . However. Oliveira and Anastasiou (1998) explored the use of the Generalized Minimum Residual method and the Stabilized Biconjugate Gradient method and reported greater efficiency with finitedifference models based on Eq. (1). this method does not offer any significant advantage over the conjugate gradient schemes described by Li (1994a) and Panchang et al. When higher resolution is required. (2000) found that the GMRES method of Oliveira and Anastasiou (1998) failed to converge whereas their latter method yielded erratic efficiency. Demirbilek of applications involving both finite differences and finite elements for several kinds of boundary conditions. the ADI method) for solving such equations are used by Li (1994b). involves solving the following parabolic equation.g. Further. the presence of rapidly varying topography or of reflections in various directions will necessitate much finer resolution (say 10 points per wavelength) and the solution obtained by using the log of the potential may lead to excessive smoothing. Panchang & Z. (1). a^ = V • (CCgV<f>) + k2CCg<P..140 V. For mildly varying bathymetry with low reflections. Since /x is sometimes a less rapidly varying function than 4>. With a finite-element formulation. Another method. proposed by Li (1994b). Alternative solution techniques have also been explored by Li and Anastasiou (1992) who first express <p as exp(^x) and obtain a new equation for /J. Li and Anastasiou (1992) have used the multigrid method to minimize storage problems. Equation (29) is an approximation of the time-dependent hyperbolic wave equation associated with Eq. it may in any case be more efficient to solve instead of the "parabolic approximation" of Eq.. Equation (29) is similar to the heat equation and standard techniques (e. Li and Anastasiou (1992) suggest that as few as 2 or 3 grid points per wavelength will suffice. Hurdle et al. (29) where a is a constant. (1989) have used the biconjugate gradient algorithm. It must be noted. (1991) since at least one grid with the desired resolution must be constructed. (1) which is intended for such applications. though. Zhao et al. It is solved by marching forward in time until steady state is reached.. More recently. the multigrid method is best suited to rectangular finite-difference discretizations. however. 1997) it does not guarantee convergence for this type of governing equation. as noted by Li and Anastasiou (1992) and by Radder (1992). though. This variation is efficient when it works but (as noted by Kostense et al.

.

Demirbilek of equations. Dissipation In Eq. (1985). Dally et al. suggests that the simulation produces. Chawla et al.000 nodes in 72 hours. Massel (1992). Kamphuis. we note that they are all dependent on the wave amplitude. .1. qualitatively. Larson. and by Battjes and Janssen (1978). Similar extensions are possible to include the effects of wavecurrent interaction. Two-level parallelization schemes can use OpenMP to accelerate the solution for each component and MPI to simultaneously obtain solutions to multiple incident wave components. More details regarding parallelization schemes for harbor wave models may be found in Bova et al. shown in Fig. Eq.. (1984) and 7 is a breaking factor. W represents the combined effects of friction and breaking which may be separated as follows. Some of these parameterizations have been extensively validated against field data (e. a sea-surface that looks realistic. Incorporation of Additional Mechanisms As noted earlier. is described in this section. (5). wave-wave interaction and of steep slopes. An example from Bova et al. A problem with nearly 300 input spectral components was solved on a 25 square km domain containing 235. (1989) and Chen (1986) for friction. (1). 90% of the CPU time is spent on matrix-vector products and inner product kernels. 6. For conjugate gradient solvers. We do not repeat the parameterizations here.142 V. 4. The modeling of these mechanisms in the context of the elliptic equation. Panchang & Z. Model results for this site are discussed in greater detail by Zhao et al. 4. (1) incorporates the effects of refraction. (1998) and Isobe (1999) for breaking. These coefficients are empirical and parametrizations for these have been described by Dalrymple et al. in addition. (2000) who report a reduction in run times by a factor of 250-580 compared with serial codes for an application in Ponce de Leon Inlet (Florida).g. diffraction and reflection induced by any nonhomogeneity in the model domain. Tsay et al. 1995. W = w/Cg+j. Therefore. Equation (5) is an extension of Eq. Eq. the effects of friction and wave breaking. (30) where w is the friction coefficient defined by Dalrymple et al. (2000). (1) that includes. 1994). (2000). OpenMP (OARB 1997) may be used to parallelize the kernels. (1984). rather.

at other frequencies. It is then easy to pre-specify w while solving Eq. W is set equal to 0 and Eq. Again. the effect seems to be minimal. (28) were perturbed by upgrading W . Eqs. no details regarding the modeling technique are presented. Kostense et al.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 143 Published studies demonstrating the effects of friction in harbor models (e. the procedure is repeated for transect 2.. (5) is solved.. In general. In this event. open boundary conditions like Eqs. (5).g. (13). Cg and k are calculated. (1996) and Moffatt & Nichol Engineers (1999) have attempted to utilize W to include harbor entrance losses. especially in shallow areas.g. The resulting wave heights are used to estimate W via the parameterizations for w and 7 and Eq. (15) and (16) may not be appropriate. Since dissipation (especially breaking) occurs outside the computational domain also. nonbreaking solutions are obtained). Performing nonlinear iterations within the model domain as W varies from iteration to iteration can be time-intensive. spurious effects would propagate into the model domain. (24) and (25). Tsay et al. These studies appear to show that friction can change the magnitude of resonant peaks in harbor models quite substantially. 1986) have estimated w on the basis of the incident wave amplitude. Equation (20) may be easily solved by finite-differences using boundary conditions. (1) is solved (e. 1989. iterations are required because W is not known initially. i. (13). These converged solutions of Eq. Jeong et al. 0o along the semicircular open boundary is obtained via Eq. (20) is a more appropriate description of the exterior and may be used to develop the necessary boundary conditions. Inclusion of breaking inside the domain and its exclusion in the exterior descriptions create artificial discontinuities along the open boundary. For the first iteration. The process is repeated until convergence is obtained.. We have explored the possibility of combining the iterative conjugate gradient methods for the linear system with the iterations required for the nonlinear modeling. and consequently. A digitized bathymetry file is used to obtain the depths d(x) along transect 1. however. however. since both w and 7 are functions of the wave amplitude which is unknown a priori inside the domain. the conjugate gradient iterates obtained while solving Eq. (15) and (16) do. (26). (20) along transects 1 and 2 include. When the solutions converge. 1998. Chen. Demirbilek and Panchang. albeit in a one-dimensional sense. 1986. the effects of dissipation and hence constitute more appropriate forcing functions than Eqs. These depths are interpolated onto uniformly spaced nodes and the wave properties C. their inclusion makes the problem nonlinear and requires iteration.e. Eq.

This approach led to the initiation of breaking occurring further offshore in the case of their simulations of wave transformation around Ponce de Leon Inlet. one round of nonlinear iterations for all components must be performed. Five breaking formulations. The results were subsequently assembled using linear superposition. (1998) and Isobe (1999). With the second approach. Zhao et al. In the first approach. In general. Dally et al. each linear system. In view of this overestimation. this maneuvering destroys the robust convergence properties of the conjugate gradient solvers for Eq. Zhao et al. and two field cases in the North Sea and Ponce de Leon Inlet (Florida). (6). (20) and (27) to formulate the boundary conditions and applied it to several tests involving breaking. thereby changing the overall model numerics. At present. They found that the Isobe (1999) criterion was difficult to use within the context of the elliptic model and that the absence of a lower breaking limit generally contributed to excessive dissipation (compared with data) in the Chawla et al. For simulations involving several spectral components. (1998) and Massel (1992) formulations. a bar-trough bottom configuration. (2000) developed a finite-element model using Eqs. (1985) were found to be the most robust from the point of view of incorporation into an elliptic model based on Eq. for a specified W. (2000) examined two approaches. This approach eliminates the independence of individual component simulations. this was attributed to the individual component amplitudes being too small to induce breaking in the model. 7 for an input wave condition given by a significant wave height of 2. More effective methods to accelerate the solution need to be developed. . (1985). shore-connected and shore-parallel breakwaters on a sloping beach. North Carolina. must be completely solved until convergence is obtained and the whole procedure repeated with a new W. (28). the significant wave height is calculated at each grid point and this larger wave height is used to estimate the breaking factor (Chawla et al. the formulations of Battjes and Janssen (1978) and Dally et al.3 meters. Massel (1992). (5) and to provide excellent results compared to data. Unfortunately. Chawla et al. 1998). An example of the model simulations near the US Army Field Research Facility at Duck. given by Battjes and Janssen (1978). were examined. a second approach was considered where the breaking factor was calculated on the basis of the significant wave height instead of the component wave height. These tests involved a sloping beach. Demirbilek periodically. is shown in Fig.144 V. Panchang & Z. They found that this approach led to some overestimation compared with data. complete simulations were made one at a time for all monochromatic components where the amplitude of each component was used in the relevant breaking formula.

Modeled wave amplitudes (m) at F R F Duck. Bottom. breaking based on significant wave height. A complex pattern of waves is created in the middle of the domain due to the complicated bathymetry. no breaking. Clearly. breaking plays an important role (the dots aligned in the shore-perpendicular direction in the middle of these figures represent circular piles which were assigned full reflection). Top. These simulations were performed with 208 spectral components for a storm in 1996. The . 7.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 145 Fig.

(31).a2 + iaV • U (31) where \J(x. Demirbilek simulations took 265 hours CPU time using 41 processors and ran nonstop for about 3 days on the US Army Corps of Engineers super-computer. oy = a — k • U = relative frequency. is still elliptic and may be solved by the techniques noted previously. Several sophisticated hydrodynamic models are available nowadays for obtaining the desired flowfield information TJ(x. (2). Comparison to field data and other details are provided elsewhere. its direction is not.V • (U(U • V $ ) + (^-a2 <f> + 2ia\J • V(j> = 0 . (31) via the "equivalent uniform current" defined by Hedges and Lee (1992). (5) as follows. Wave-current interaction Many coastal regions experience high background currents. revising the wave direction. solving Eq.y). {a2 = gk tanh (kd). Further difficulties arise in the specification of open boundary conditions. Eq. However.g. waves opposing the currents become larger and vice-versa). While their results for one test-case (pertaining to waves approaching a rip current on a sloping beach) are reasonable. (31) have assumed that . This problem may be resolved by first solving Eq. Li and Anastasiou (1992). and repeating until the model runs converge. Published studies using the elliptic model of Eq. computing the relative frequency ar = a — k • U. one may incorporate currents in Eq. y).. (31) without the effects of wave-current interaction. + iCgarW + a2 .146 V. the wave vector k is needed. Eq. this quantity is obtained by vertically averaging the current over a depth eL over the water column where eL = (1/k) tanh (fed). Wave propagation is influenced by these currents (e. iterations are indeed necessary for complex flowfields. the vertical dependence may be removed for use in Eq. Such an approach has been taken by Kostense et al. 4.2. Panchang & Z. obtaining an estimate of the local wave direction. C — ar/k). however. to compute the Doppler shift in the wave frequency (oy = a — k • U). For a prespecified U(x. While the magnitude of k is known a priori from the dispersion relation. (1988). V • (CCgV<t>) . y) = current vector (provided by a flow model). (28) results. When hydrodynamic models provide three-dimensional flowfields. a linear system of equations like Eq. prefer not to calculate the direction of k in view of the computational burden. (31) again. The generalized mild-slope wave equation. Based on the derivation by Kirby (1984).

z)(j)n(kn. (20) is possible for the case of currents varying only in the cross-shore direction outside the computational domain). Expressing the potential in terms of harmonics as: N <p(x. Kaihatu and Kirby (1995) obtained an extension of Eq. with the same level of nonlinearity as that in Boussinesq wave models.y. (32) where. c r n . (1) or . 4. Wave-wave interaction By including most of the nonlinear terms in the vertical integration of the three-dimensional Laplace equation. _ coshkn(d + z) In — cosh knd (33) and performing an integration over the vertical modifies Eq.z. (1).x.3. (1) that incorporates wave-wave interactions.y.d.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 147 currents are absent on this boundary.t) 71 = 1 ^2fn(kn. Vfc • [(CCg)nV<l>n\ + "ra-l kl(CCg)n<pn+i(CgaW)n<t>n J2 2(TnV<f>i • Vcf> 1=1 n— 1 "i" Gl<j>l^ $11—1 "i" &n— l^n —1^ <Tj<T n _i(T n 2 5 (<7( + c r .ujn.* • Vcj>n+i + an+i4>n+iV24>* - (Ti(j>*V24>n+i 2 (°"/ ~ <Tl<Tn+l + <Tn+im <Pn+l (34) complex conjugate value of < in which q Similar equations were also derived by Tang and Ouellet (1997) who have further demonstrated that this type of extension provides the governing equation. Eq. (5) as follows. Research is needed to develop open boundary conditions that include the effects of currents (an extension of Eq.t). This is particularly noteworthy since models based on Eq.l + n 2 <Tn_i)<pl<Pn-l N-n ^ L i=i 2cr„V<?!>.

148 V.02 Model 0. 8.25 ( 0.005 0 20 • Data Second Harmonic • 25 0.15 m 0. . A = 0. (b) wave height comparison for wave-wave interaction. (a) Bathymetry (m) of Whalin (1971) used for wave-wave interaction study. Demirbilek / / / / f / / 0.15 \ \ V \ \ \.015 •S 0.35 ( 0.005 0 =»£*** 10 x(m) 15 20 25 • Data - Third Harmonic (b) Fig.01 0.45 ( 0.01 0.98 cm T = 3s 0. Panchang & Z.02 — Model 0.46 m t ±_ (a) Model • Data 0.015 § 0. \.

Figure 8 shows a finite element model simulation (based on Eq. (28). the equation may be extended to simultaneously include the effects of wave-current interaction also (Kaihatu and Kirby. 1995). leads to a linear system of equations like Eq. Massel (1993). 1997 and Kaihatu and Kirby. (5) simultaneously offer the computational stability and the advantages of finite-element gridding in harbors and complex coastal areas (which Boussinesq models sometimes lack).g.4. Chamberlain and Porter (1995). 1 is relatively easy. However..5. 1995). an iterative technique must be used where the values from the previous round can be used to calculate the right hand side. However. and . By rederiving Eq. Again. (34) on a moving frame of reference. appropriate tests for the enhanced model are not readily available (especially for the combination of wave-wave and wave-current interactions). the other components constituting the right hand side are not known a priori. the coupling of harmonics represented by the right hand-side of Eq. combining all the nonlinear effects in numerical simulations has as yet been unexplored. i. In that regard. 4. the numerical advancements appear to be preceding data availability. Steep-slope effects Unlike the inclusion of the nonlinear mechanisms described above. the modeling procedures for each of these mechanisms are individually nonlinear and require numerical iterations. (34)) of wave propagation and interaction over the "tilted cylinder" bathymetry of Whalin (1971). Tang and Ouellet. 4. The results match the laboratory data of Whalin (1971) very well and shows that higher harmonics can build up from zero to a magnitude similar to the linear solution and can hence contribute much to the overall solution (hitherto the coupling represented by the right hand side was included only in simple (parabolic approximation) models. e. wave-wave interactions and dissipation. if prespecified. overcoming the "mild slope" requirement discussed in Sec.. Porter and Staziker (1995). Combined nonlinear mechanisms Equation (34) contains the effects of two of the additional mechanisms described so far. As demonstrated above.e. for a given component <j)n. For systematic model verification.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 149 Eq. data isolating and combining these mechanisms are needed. From the perspective of the solution technique. (34). An efficient model must juxtapose iterations and also assure convergence. Further.

5. 1998) was used for grid generation. Demirbilek Chandrasekera and Cheung (1997) developed extensions of Eq. (1) for use in domains with arbitrary shape and bathymetry. they have little contribution for mild slopes.205 triangular finite elements was developed.1. (5) using Eqs. The Surface Water Modeling System (Zundell et al.150 V.e. we have described various developments made in recent years to construct more reliable models based on Eq. Both harbors are undergoing considerable renovation to accommodate increased shipping. Bathymetric input was obtained by digitizing NOAA chart number 18749. the model domain is quite large covering an area of approximately 120 square km. V • (CCgV(f>) + {k2CCg + dx (V/i) 2 + d2V2h)(j> = 0. they have the advantage of being "automatic". 1) and in Barber's Point Harbor (Hawaii). 5. It was based on a resolution . For numerical modeling. though. differences in the proposed definitions of these functions impact model results to a very small extent. Simulations in the Los Beach Harbor complex Angeles/Long The Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex (Fig. we describe application of one such model to the practical problem of simulating harbor resonance in the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex (Fig. A finite-element model called CGWAVE was developed to solve Eq. Reference may be made to these publications for the various definitions of d\ and d2. therefore. (20) and (27) to formulate the boundary conditions.. The steep-slope terms are fairly straightforward to include in the model because they are linear. Panchang & Z. 1) is one of the largest harbors in the world. steep slopes lead to breaking and model performance in the vicinity of steep slopes will involve iterations (an analytical model has been developed by Massel and Gourlay (2000) to include breaking and steep-slope effects near coral reefs). (18). in general. Further. (35) where d\ and d2 are functions of local depths. i. However. In this section. (1) to include steep-slope effects. do not change the solution technique and the additional computational demand is negligible. Application to Harbors So far. (6). Their extensions may be described by the following equation. a grid containing 285..

2 km beyond which the depth was assumed to be constant. Penetration through the breakwater gaps is precisely as one would expect. . The two one-dimensional transects in the exterior were extended in the offshore direction to a distance of 9. 9. the input wave was specified. Modeled phase diagram for Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex. Figure 9 shows the phase diagram for a 50 second wave.e. the geometry of the offshore breakwaters was changed. the coastal boundary was assumed to be fully reflecting (both inside the model and for the one-dimensional transects). No spurious boundary effects are seen. 50 second obliquely incident wave. 1987) and it is hence not appropriate to consider them as closed boundaries. fully absorbing) since this case is easier to examine qualitatively than the case when a large number of reflections are present. At this location.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 151 of 10 points per wavelength for a 30-second wave. For further simulations.. A reduction in the wavelength in the onshore direction is evident. These breakwaters are known to be permeable to waves (e. For initial quality control simulations.g. Permeable structures cannot be easily handled within the context of an elliptic boundary value problem. Bending of the crests as they approach from onshore also indicates a correct reproduction of refractive effects. The results appear to be quite satisfactory. Also. the coastal reflectivity was initially set equal to zero (i. Fig. Chiang..

1. 10). At each gage location. We used an alternative approach whereby the breakwater was divided into several segments so that energy could propagate through gaps in the breakwater.152 V. i. For convenience of analysis. Demirbilek One approach may be to treat the breakwater as a water area and ascribe an appropriate dissipation factor in that region. Resonance curve at Gage 56. The bathymetric data used for numerical modeling obtained from the more recent NOAA chart was a reasonable approximation of the harbor geometry described as "Stage II" by Seabergh and Thomas (1995). they partitioned the data into three groups: short period waves (30 s Gage 56 Resonance Curve 16 14 J! 12 10 8 e < a. the amplification factor was measured for several frequencies and a resonance curve was developed. for various harbor plans. These curves were found to be extremely noisy. Mississippi.e. the response varied quite rapidly with frequency at the gages (see example in Fig. 1000 . However. Panchang & Z. neither the bathymetry data nor the boundary geometries used in the two studies were identical. 50% of the breakwater length was opened up by means of numerous gaps interspersed among several solid segments. 6 4 2 0 10 100 Wave Period (s) Fig. Seabergh and Thomas (1995) performed their hydraulic model experiments for a large number of input frequency components varying from 30 seconds to 512 seconds. shown in Fig. They collected data at several gages. therefore.. 10. Seabergh and Thomas (1995) conducted hydraulic model simulations for this complex at the US Army Waterway Experiment Station in Vicksburg.

the two bathymetry sets are not identical and the high variability implies that small differences in the geometry can result in large differences in the response. 30 and 17 frequency components in the three bands. 11. For the long waves. An example of the modeled resonance curve is shown in Fig. thus. reflection coefficients and the degree of permeability of the breakwaters are not sufficiently well-known. However. for normal incidence and for 30° on either side of it. are compared against the hydraulic model data in Fig. The location of the input wave is also different in the hydraulic and numerical models. the lab data show a remarkably high amplification that the model underpredicts. It is of course possible to introduce dissipation and/or adjust reflection coefficients or breakwater closure to tune the model better so that a calibrated model for the Los Angeles/Long Beach complex would be available for future use. Finally. Further. These components are irregularly spaced and correspond approximately to the discrete frequency components used by Seabergh and Thomas (1995) in their hydraulic model simulations. possibly preventing radiation out to the open sea. the amplification factors within each group were averaged over the respective frequencies. At T = 45 s.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 153 to 42 s). In all. to account for the effects of the wave maker. The results of the three directional inputs were averaged for each frequency. . conversely. the model value is greater than the hydraulic model data. there is no assurance that the hydraulic model is the true benchmark. so results in the general vicinity of the gage as determined from Fig. although not identical. the exterior sea is bounded in the hydraulic model. for T between 300 s and 400 s. For each gage. The agreement is quite good for the short and medium period waves. In general. medium period waves (42 s to 205 s) and long period waves (205 s to 512 s). Greater discrepancy is seen for the long waves which also exhibit greater gage-to-gage variability. using the averaging described above. The high level of agreement between the hydraulic model and numerical model results for the short and medium period waves and the moderate agreement for the long period waves indicates that the performance of the numerical and hydraulic models are certainly compatible. 10. simulations were made for 10. First. 1 were extracted and averaged over the frequency bands stated earlier. These discrepancies could be attributed to several factors. The overall results for all gages. the numerical simulation predicts the response at the gages as well as the hydraulic model data. there seems to be systematic overprediction near certain gages. Numerical simulations were performed for three incident angles. The exact location of each gage was not known.

154 V. Lower Bound 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Wave Periods from 42s to 205s 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Wave Periods from 205s to 512s 10 15 20 25 30 35 Gage Number 40 45 50 55 Fig. Upper Bound -<>-Data. 11. . Wave height comparison for Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex. Panchang & Z. Demirbilek Wave Periods from 30s to 42s — Model -Q-Data.

(28) by Gausian elimination. confronts the modeler with having to select a constant exterior depth and to assume that the exterior coastline is fully reflecting. 12). (5) with Eqs. Full reflection was used on all closed boundaries. Such a model.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 155 5. As noted earlier. (20) and (27) were used to formulate the open boundary conditions. Barber's Point Harbor. this creates storage problems and hence allows only coarse resolution for some frequencies. these were used to normalize the amplification factors inside the harbor. 1987) based on Eq. (1993) were used to develop a new grid containing about 65. Field data were available at four locations inside the harbor (denoted by East. . this model solves Eq.065 elements. (1993) and Okihiro and Guza (1996). (15)(17) describing the open boundary conditions. The model was run for 136 frequency components. Data were also available at a gage outside the harbor (denoted by "offshore" gage in Fig. see Fig. Simulations in Barber's Point Harbor Seiches in Barber's Point Harbor (Hawaii) have been studied by Okihiro et al. bathymetry and gage locations. Model results are Fig. 12. Further. as noted earlier. (1993) also used a numerical model (Chen and Houston. Bathymetric data used by Okihiro et al. To overcome these limitations. North and South gages). Eqs. 12. (18).2. West. Okihiro et al.

01 0.005 0. compared against field data in Fig.015 west 0.005 0.03 Fig.156 V.03 0. For the short periods. 13.025 0. there appears to be some overprediction by the model. The .03 0.01 0.015 north 0. Wave height comparison for Barbers Point Harbor.02 0.025 0. 13. This is attributed to the fact that shorter waves experience less reflection.observations 0.02 frequency (Hz) 0. Demirbilek south + model . Panchang & Z.01 0.025 0.02 0.005 0.015 0. There is fairly good agreement between the model calculations and the measurements especially for the long periods.

the advances reduce the burden on the modeler who does not have to test the sensitivity of model results to unrealistic assumptions (such as constant depths in the exterior). Advances in the treatment of boundary conditions and of matrix systems associated with the discretized equations have made it possible to eliminate many of the difficulties that led to inferior solutions. the results at all four locations inside the harbor are a fairly reasonable reproduction of the field data. for example. Inclusion of additional mechanisms like dissipation. However. Doncheng Li and Khalid Zubier) and Dr. wave-wave interactions. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Wei Chen. In general. we have provided a review of recent developments in simulating ocean waves with models based on the elliptic refraction-diffraction equation. 1989. Concluding Remarks In this paper. They have also eliminated the need for approximations of the elliptic model. Permission to publish this paper was granted by the Chief. 1988). However. Acknowledgments Partial support for this work was provided by the Office of Naval Research.. finite element models appear to be best suited for practical applications covering the full spectrum of waves to which a harbor may be exposed. Luizhi Zhao. to publish this paper. in Tang et al. Corps of Engineers. Mattioli. 1999. wave-current interactions and steep slope effects can enhance the usefulness of these models. the Maine Sea Grant Program and the National Sea Grant Office. Further. Pos et al. (Some practical applications may be found.. Applications to the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor region and to Barber's Point Harbor presented here demonstrate that finite element modeling with the techniques described in this paper produces results that are at least as reliable as those obtained by other methods. Further research in modeling methods as well as data where some of these effects can be combined and isolated are desirable.Simulation of Waves in Harbors 157 simulations with a lower reflection coefficient for these waves and more detailed results will be presented elsewhere. 1996. 6. how a model will behave when these effects are combined is not yet clear. Kostense et al. Many of the developments described here were made with the assistance of five graduate students at the University of Maine (Karl Schlenker. Michele Okihiro of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. .

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outfall protections. However. In order to solve the wave and structure interaction. conferring the flow through this heterogeneous formation considered a very complex nature. the knowledge 163 . submerged structures. artificial fishing reefs or armor layers for the protection of seawalls or vertical structures are of great interest in coastal and harbor engineering since they provide one of the best means to induce incident wave dissipation by friction inside the structures. The modeling of wave interaction with permeable structures is therefore a key issue to determine the functionality and stability of this kind of structures. 1. it will be shown that several new equations including the resistance forces in the porous medium have been derived. Artificial porous structures such as rubble-mound breakwaters. Predictive formulae for these constants under oscillatory flow conditions require further research especially if these models are considered to be an alternative to physical modeling in the design of coastal structures.R E C E N T A D V A N C E S IN T H E MODELING OF WAVE A N D PERMEABLE STRUCTURE INTERACTION INIGO J. In most circumstances. LOS ADA Artificial and natural porous structures are of great interest in coastal and harbor engineering. In this paper. the porous flow model is matched with a flow model for the fluid region. randomly distributed. One of the main characteristics of porous media is the irregular shape and size of its pores. these models still highly depend on porous flow coefficients. constitutes one phase and the interconnected voids or pores constitutes the other. usually assumed to be rigid. Introduction A porous medium is a two-phase material in which the solid matrix. Newly developed models based on Boussinesqtype equations or direct resolution of the Navier—Stokes equations using VOF techniques have opened a new range of possible applications. an averaging process is introduced in the analysis of the flow in terms of a seepage or discharge velocity and some coefficients depending on the flow. Therefore. Our interest will be to determine the flow through the porous formation with typical length scales much larger than the characteristic pore size.

artificial or natural. the beach water table evaluation. In the last few years. one t h a t describes the flow acting on the structure and one t h a t describes the flow through the porous structures. T h e averaging process has a smoothing effect.164 /. in the coastal and harbor engineering field. special attention has been paid to the development of equations and numerical models to analyze the interaction with porous structures with very promising results. usually relying on some constants depending on the flow and finally on the matching conditions imposed. is difficult if not impossible to determine. Furthermore. However. Losada of the flow motion in and around the porous media and the corresponding pressure and force fields will be a key issue to determine the functionality and stability of these coastal structures. the stochastic approach is not considered yet in the field of coastal engineering since several additional complications have to be addressed. sand and shingle beaches may be considered as the n a t u r a l porous media and therefore the determination of wave dissipation on permeable layers. the transition to average macroscopic variables is based on a statistical approach. However. the application of these models to prototype scale has to be carried out with care. in general. our interest will be in determining the characteristics of the flow in large portions of the porous structure considered and introducing an averaging process in the analysis of the flow. to date. First. a review of the existing porous flow models is presented. In fact. J. or of how beach permeability may affect the fundamental surf zone hydrodynamic processes are also important issues to be addressed. there is a lack of interest in knowing the internal details of the structure or the microscopic flow. filtering out small scale variations associated with t h e media heterogeneity and pore irregularities. T h e accuracy of the modeling will be limited by the hypotheses and simplifications formulated for the flow in the outer fluid region a n d by the validity and hypotheses of the porous flow model. It will be shown t h a t the study of wave interaction with permeable structures has evolved in parallel with wave theories in fluids. T h e modeling of wave and permeable n a t u r a l or artificial structure interaction is based on the coupling of two models. especially in hydrology when analyzing flow and t r a n s p o r t in porous formations and aquifers. Furthermore. T h e complex internal geometry of a porous medium. This paper summarizes some of the most recent work available in the literature on wave interaction with porous structures. In several other fields. An emphasis is made on the difference between . in most circumstances. This paper is organized as follows.

Furthermore. 7. Considering potential flow inside and outside the porous medium. breaking down when the flow velocity becomes sufficiently large or when the characteristic length scale of the porous material is large. p the fluid density. 2. The time and depth-averaged equations for waves in permeable media are derived in Sec. (1) where i" = (—dpo/dy)/pg is the hydraulic gradient. po = p + pgho the effective pressure. In Sec. This expression. 1972). a model based on the Navier-Stokes equation is presented. which later has been referred to as the Darcy law. The equation is applied to wave interaction with submerged permeable breakwaters including wave breaking.1. This model. that the ID steady flow in sand or other fine granular material can be described by the following formula (Bear. 5. g the gravitational acceleration. 6. called COBRAS is able to simulate wave interaction with permeable structures including wave breaking and turbulence. 3. the derivation of an extended mild-slope equation for wave propagation on permeable layers is presented. I = K-lud = apud . ud the discharge velocity and K = 1/a. 4. In Sec. using a vertical permeameter.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 165 stationary and nonstationary flows. in Sec. A certain critical Reynolds number . Porous Flow Models 2. ho the vertical distance from the selected datum. is esentially valid for laminar flows. Finally. solutions in terms of eigenfunction expansions are formulated to analyze wave interaction with vertical permeable structures. the linearized problem is shown in Sec. The study of the flow in porous media can be traced back to 1856 when Darcy found empirically. Some preliminary applications are shown to model mean water level variations in permeable submerged breakwaters. the most recent developments for shallow water equations are indicated. the general governing equations for flow in porous media are derived. In order to formulate simple solutions.p (m/s) the permeability coefficient and ap an empirical coefficient. Stationary flow The success of the theoretical formulation of the wave and porous structure interaction largely depends on the accuracy of the empirical formulas and coefficients used to describe the frictional forces exerted by the porous media. The Darcy law is often written in the form I = (v/gKp)ud where Kp (m 2 ) is the intrinsic permeability. Wave diffraction and transmission by a permeable vertical breakwater is modeled using Boussinesq-type equations.

several expressions were proposed. J. the turbulence effect becomes apparent and the flow resistance appears to increase. Above this critical number. Forchheimer (see Bear. Some of them were obtained based on various analogies. / = 150 { i z £ > ! » n% u ' + 1. the combined efforts of Kozeny (1927) and Carman (1937) lead to: / = 3 6 « < ^ . Losada Re = ucDc/v above which Darcy law becomes invalid can be defined in terms of a characteristic discharge velocity in the porous media uC: a characteristic length scale of porous media Dc and the molecular viscosity v.166 /. (l-ne)2 v ap=iap ^^g^!> (6) . Considering nonconvective laminar flow in a number of circular capillaries with diameter dc. 1972). n% gdz (4) where ne is the porosity defined as the fluid volume divided by the total volume d is the diameter of spheres with equivalent geometry to the pores and K is a coefficient which is taken to be 0.75 i i Z ^ l n% gd VI- (5) gd1 In general. (3) Applying the pipe analogy. the following expressions for the ap and bp coefficients can be used.^ « ' . Darcy's law compares to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation yielding to the following relation. (2) where bp is another empirical coefficient with dimension (s 2 /m 2 ). 7= 3 2 ^ . In order to describe the coefficients ap and bp.5. at the beginning of the century extended Darcy's law to include a quadratic term accounting for the frictional force induced by turbulence such that: I = apud + bp\ud\ud. Ergun (1952) extended the work by Kozeny and Carman for the linear flow resistance applying the pipe analogy to the Forchheimer flow regime and introducing a new constant for the quadratic term arriving at the following expression.

(8) does not include a possible resistance force due to the presence of a convective term. dud I = apud + bpud\ud\ + cp— . (8). Such a resistance term. 2. Relative importance of the resistance forces Gu and Wang (1991).1. Nonstationary flow Wave action on structures induces a nonstationary flow. This formula can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equation (van Gent. The concept of added mass is associated with the fact that in order to accelerate a certain volume of water. To accelerate the same volume of water in a porous medium. (1995) discussed the relative importance of the three contributions to the total resistance force for nonstationary flow in porous media represented in Eq. an additional amount of momentum is needed. Polubarinova-Kochina (1962) added a time-dependent term to the Forchheimer equation as Eq. (8) where cp is a dimensional coefficient (s 2 /m). j3p and the characteristic length-scale for the porous media Dc proposed by several authors can be found in van Gent (1993). The resulting equation including the inertia term accounting for the acceleration is referred to as the extended Forchheimer equation.2. 1991).Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 167 6P = / 3 P ^ 4 r n% (7) gDc A summary of the different values of the nondimensional coefficients ap. (9) neg where 7 is a nondimensional coefficient that accounts for the added mass. a certain amount of momentum is needed. 1991). (2). .2.^ ~ . probably important for flow through porous media with considerable large-scale convective transport. 2. Please note that Eq. This is called added mass since the extra amount of momentum suggests that a larger volume of fluid has to be accelerated. Gu and Wang (1991) and van Gent (1991) found an expression for cp after a theoretical derivation. namely the cP = . could be incorporated into the bp term because it would be quadratic in the velocity (van Gent. van Gent (1993) and Losada et al.

vanGent(1994) Losada et al. Kl <10) ~ v ~l KC' where uc is a characteristic velocity. that is. whereas in Ri. however. J. Dc is the characteristic particle size of the porous material. a-^-. 1 El 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1 El 1E0 Fig. 1. and N are dominated by one resistance force only. (1995) 1E-S 1E-4 1E-3 IE-2 A. the resistance force arises locally due to the change of velocity at a specific location of the porous structure. Losada resistance due to laminar flow f^. h > 10fH L Region 1 El Q i ~ 1E0 1 El 1E-2 1E-3 1E-4 1E-5 1E-6 IE-6 f. the inertia is of convective nature and the resistance is due to velocity changes in space. v is the kinematic viscosity and KC is the Keulegan-Carpenter number and to is the angular wave frequency. . 1. Both Reynolds numbers give the relative importance of the inertial forces to the viscous forces. regions with different dominant resistance components are shown. Regions / . Following Gu and Wang (1991). Relative importance of the resistance forces (after Gu and Wang. resistance due to turbulent flow /jy.3.. the importance of the resistance forces can be analyzed in terms of two different Reynolds-type numbers. in Rf. the dominant force is at least one order of magnitude larger than the other two. Kf = D ucDc . In Fig.168 /. 1991). 1E6 1E5 IE4 1E3 1E2 fN > 10fL fn > 10f./. and the inertial resistance / / . L. N Region h > JN k > I Of. > 10fH /Region Smith (1991) • .>10fL f.

Furthermore. 2. Considering several characteristic parameters under coastal wave conditions. Gu and Wang (1991) gives an illustration of dominant force components for bottom material of various sizes. Smith (1991) provided a set of friction coefficients obtained experimentally in an oscillating water tunnel through different arrangements of prepared packing spheres. 1995).002 0. Hall et al.0 > 1.01 uc (m/s) < O(10~ 3 ) O(10"2) O(10_1) O(10°) > O(10°) Rf < O(10°) O(10 2 ) O(10 4 ) O(10 6 ) > O(10 6 ) Rt < O(10°) O(10 2 ) O(10 4 ) O(10 5 ) 0. 1995) carried out permeability measurements in a U-tube tunnel to study flow through five samples with various types of stones with D50 = 0.2. turbulence and inertia . Until the work by Smith (1991). This table is only orientative but it is a general guideline of practical interest. 1 and Table 1 are important for analyzing possible scale effects in physical models. van Gent (1993. 1991). One sample of rock material was tested.0202 — 0. the three resistance forces are of equal importance while there are three intermediate regions where two out of the three forces could be important. The differences between stationary and oscillatory flow were studied and the contributions of laminar.0 > O(io6) In one region.0610 m. no available data for the determination of the friction coefficients under oscillatory flow were reported. Determination of the parameters for nonstationary flow The friction coefficients ap and bp from the Forchheimer equations were measured in tests with stationary flow.10 0. (1995) and van Gent (1993.2. Dominant force components under coastal wave actions (Gu and Wang.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 169 Table 1. Material description Coarse sand or finer Pebble or small gravel Large gravel Crushed stone Boulders Crushed stone Artifical blocks Large rocks Dominant force Laminar Laminar Turbulence Inertia Turbulence Inertia Turbulence Inertia Turbulence Inertia D(m) < 0.3-1. the results in Fig.

2000). Figure 1 shows the range where the experimental work by Smith (1991). shape.. It is recommended to take the maximum discharge velocity as representative of the flow. . Lynett et al. 1999. the friction coefficients for the extended Forchheimer equation should be expressed as: (l-ne)2 v gDl0 ' '5 Ml v \ + T i ^ ^ . the discrepancies appeared in the application of the formulae by other authors (see.85 neg uc 0. 3. „„ — where 7 = 0. the following values are recommended. the limited range of existing experimental data and the importance of an accurate prediction of the coefficients on the modeling of wave and structure interaction seem to be important reasons to do further research on this topic in the near future especially if the modeling is to be applied to prototypes. Equation (11) represent a significant contribution to the modeling of wave interaction with permeable structures.1. van Gent (1993) and Losada et al. However.015 — Ac ^ ne-^50 eD where (11) 1 + 7 ^ . Governing equations The flow in porous media can be described by the general Navier-Stokes equations.170 /. General Governing Equations and Matching Conditions 3. ap = 1000 and j3p = 1.85 ' where uc is a characteristic velocity of the flow. new expressions for nonstationary porous flow friction coefficients were formulated.015 negT > j ^ + 0. According to van Gent (1995). (1995) were carried out. Liu et al..1. aspect ratio or orientation of the stones. Although the coefficients ap and j3p may still depend on parameters like grading. Losada terms were determined.k KCJ n\ gD50 where KG 0. T is the wave period and D$Q is the median grain size diameter. Further work on unsteady flow equations can be found in Burcharth and Andersen (1995). J. Based on the experimental results.

Likewise. (16) . (14) and the analogous expression for the pressure field in this equation. 1972). Expanding the total derivative in the NavierStokes equations. u* is the ith component of the instantaneous velocity in the pores and p* the instantaneous effective pressure. As already stated using the macroscopic approach. where (A) denotes time average in a period of time smaller than the wave period. u* = Ui + u\ + u\. To replace the actual velocity with the seepage velocity. Proceeding in the same way in the continuity equations leads to: V . substituting Eq.( U i + u ? ) = 0. perturbation in the field due to the presence of individual particles and pore irregularities can be ignored. and u\ is the time perturbation accounting for local transient fluctuations within the pores" (Sollitt and Cross. that is.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 171 du* * ^ i _ _ l ^ a2< s where v is the molecular viscosity. and performing the time averaging for a period much smaller than the time scale of the macroscopic unsteadiness yields. The effect of the transient or turbulent and spatial perturbations on the mean flow in the pore can be determined by substituting these definitions in the Navier-Stokes equations. based on averaging over a small but finite volume with a representative length scale larger than the typical pore size but smaller than the characteristic length scale of the problem. "the average velocity within small but finite and uniformly distributed void spaces. Sollitt and Cross (1972) resolved the local instantaneous velocity field u* into three components. — (Ui + u\) + {ut + u\) • V(Ui + u\) + = — <j> + p"+iz)+vV2(ui P vfiv\ (15) + u\). u\ is the spatial perturbation accounting for local velocity components due to pore irregularities or boundary layers. (14) where Ui is the seepage velocity. the pressure field may be split up into analogous components.

vneUi Crrr (19) where s = necpg is introduced as a co-factor in the local acceleration term to account for the added mass and the following additional assumption has been made. Sollitt and Cross (1972) established the following equivalency. where ne is the porosity. these two terms may be interpreted as stresses with respect to the mean motion. Losada Integrating the equations of motion over a small but finite volume. Cf a dimensionless turbulent coefficient and uf the discharge velocity which is related to the seepage velocity by the following relationship uf = neUi.172 I. The following equation is obtained. the following set of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are obtained. . it is necessary to find closure equations. dui 1 .^ + UiVui + uyVut and V«i = 0 . (17b) + < • VM| = — V(p + 7-z) + vV2Ui (17a) where (A) denotes spatial average. J. Finally.[ u p V u ^ + u f . Due to the nonlinearity related to the convective terms. In analogy to turbulence analysis. for which wave length is much greater than pore diameter.V u * ] = . the effect of spatial fluctuations within the pore may be isolated. Based on the work by Ward (1964) for steady and nonconvective flow conditions. In order to solve the equations. (17a) have been included in . (20) Sollitt and Cross (1972) claimed this assumption to be valid for problems of practical importance.vul u-t\uf\ (18) where Kp is the intrinsic permeability. vV2Ui . Please note that the viscous terms in Eq. the terms associated to the spatial and turbulent fluctuations uf • Vuf and u\ • Vu* remain in the equations after the averaging process. UjVuj < usj • Vut + uyVul.

. and the convective terms associated with each of the components. There is no unique way to decompose the instantaneous velocity. (1999) by a combination of linear and nonlinear frictional forces as follows. Losada et al.gbpucUi. the time and space-averaged velocity. convective terms associated with fluctuations are more important than those associated with seepage flow. (1995) considered dividing the fluid variables into two parts only. The correlation of spatial velocity fluctuations. while the second term represents the nonlinear turbulent force.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 173 the equivalency. viscous force. (22) in which uc = y/uiul so that the first term on the right side represents the linear. The analysis points out two important results: (1) spatial fluctuations are always more important than temporal fluctuations since temporal fluctuations are confined by the pore size. The resulting spatially-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are: 1 + cA duf ne dt ufduf_ nl dxj I dp p dxt v d2uf ne dxjdxj 1 duiuj n% dxj ' (21) where CA = 7((1 — ne)/ne) is the added mass coefficient. 2000) supported by the experimental results by Losada et al. Liu et al. (1999. I duluSj 2 TT~ = ~gaPUi . the latter should not be neglected. assuming the temporal fluctuations to be negligible. (1995) performed a very comprehensive set of measurements inside and outside the structure including free surface and water particle velocities using Laser Doppler Velocimetry and pressure records. and (2) even if under certain circumstances. Instantaneous measurements at 9 points at each pore were processed in order to calculate the instantaneous and spatial fluctuations. Both ap and bp are empirical coefficients which are functions of Reynolds number and the geometric characteristics of the porous media. One could have assumed this term to be negligible compared to the fluctuations. (21) is modeled by Liu et al. a spatially-averaged component and a spatially-fluctuating component. Using a vertical-lattice type porous medium made of rectangular wooden sticks nailed together producing uniform pores. the last term on the righthand side of Eq.

Matching conditions Matching conditions are necessary to guarantee the continuity of the solution for the interface between the fluid and porous regions. In general. 1972. Linear Solutions 4. 4. the second (viscous) term on the right-hand side in Eq. replacing the nonlinear terms in Eq. J. (23) results in a Bernoulli-type equation for unsteady flow within the porous medium. 3. (25) . the matching at the interface has to be carried out with caution. Madsen. (19) may be linearized on the basis of Lorentz's hypothesis of equivalent work (Sollitt and Cross. (23) \P J Taking the curl of this equation shows that the flow in the porous medium is irrotational and therefore can be described by a potential $ that satisfies. s^+ -+gz + fuj<S> = 0. 1974). Losada Please note that Eqs. However. However. (1999) since this term is responsible for transferring shear force and may become increasingly important near the interface between porous media and outside flow for smaller scale problems. is retained in Liu et al. continuity of free surface. velocity and their derivatives are usually enforced. Linearized problem Assuming a simple harmonic wave of frequency to. (19) by an equivalent linear term fuJUi where / is a dimensionless friction coefficient. (17).174 /. This yields a linearized form of the equation. (24) into Eq. m = V$ . Wave Interaction with Structures. continuity of mass flux and pressure are the matching conditions considered. generally much smaller than the third term for problems of engineering interest. For long wave models.1. when the models in the fluid region or inside the porous structure include the modeling of turbulence or boundary layers. (22) and (18) are similar.2. istoui — —V • I —h gz ) — tofui. Eq. (24) Substituting Eq.

Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 175

Finally, substituting Eq. (24) into the continuity equation in Eq. (17b) yields Laplace's equation, V 2 $ = 0. (26) At the free surface 77, the Bernoulli equation in Eq. (25) can be combined with the linear kinematic free surface boundary condition,

to yield, ?l-u>2(s-if)-=0. (28) dz g Furthermore, the following linear complex dispersion relationship has to be satisfied by the waves propagating inside the porous medium, to2(s-if)= gTtanhTh, (29)

where T is a complex wavenumber. Solutions to these equations depend on the values of the porous material parameters, s, ne, Kp, and Cf, known for a given material and the linearized friction coefficient / . Therefore, an additional condition is required to evaluate this coefficient. Following Sollitt and Cross (1972) and Madsen (1974), / is evaluated from the following equation,

**Jo Jv ' ^ l^l 2 + ^ l"il3 ^ f=^"r — "
**

1

w

dtdV

>

30

Jo

JvnelutfdtdV

for a porous structure of volume V under a wave-cycle of period T. Please note that Uj is taken to be the real part of the seepage velocity and therefore, an interative procedure is needed to evaluate / . 4.2. Solutions based on eigenfunction expansions

Based on this irrotational and linear approximation, Sollitt and Cross (1972) presented a model to analyze wave interaction with vertically sided porous structures. This work was later extended by Dalrymple et al. (1991) to include oblique incident waves. Dalrymple et al. (1991) considers the interaction of a gravity wave train with a single homogeneous, isotropic, porous structure of width b between two semi-infinite fluid regions of constant depth h. The wave

176

/. J. Losada

field outside the structure can be specified by velocity potentials $ ! in the seaward region and $3 in the leeward region of the breakwater by specifying the well-known linear boundary-value problem for water waves in constant water depth. In the rigid porous medium, region 2, a boundary value problem can be defined using Eqs. (24), (28), and (29) and adding the kinematic bottom boundary condition 8<&2l'dz = 0 in z = —h. Each of the boundary value problems is formulated in terms of linear homogeneous equations. Separation of variables leads to Sturm-Liouville problems where the potentials may be expressed in terms of an eigenfunction expansion. Since the solution in adjacent regions must be continuous at each interface, continuity of mass flux and pressure at x = 0 (interface between regions 1 and 2) and at x = b (interface between regions 2 and 3) is required. These conditions may be expressed as: $ix = ne$2x , and ®ix = ne$2x , $1 = (s - i / ) $ 2 at x = b, (31b) $1 = (s - i / ) $ 2 at x = 0 , (31a)

where the continuity of pressure is derived from the Bernoulli equation Eq. (25). Substituting the potentials into the matching conditions in Eqs. (31a) and (31b), a system of equations is obtained. Unknowns are the complex amplitudes of the progressive and evanescent modes in the potentials $1, $2, and $3. Applying the orthogonality of the eigenfunctions over the water depth in the 3 regions results in a simpler system. Once the system of equations is solved together with Eq. (30) and the corresponding dispersion relationships, the potential and therefore, the flow is completely defined. Dalrymple et al. (1991) presents the variation of reflection and transmission coefficients for several rectangular geometries, finite, semi-infinite and infinite breakwater with an impermeable wall considering several relative water depths and analyzing the influence of wave incidence. They found that a minimum reflection coefficient occurs for different angles of incidence depending on the / value. It has to be pointed out that results in this work have been obtained assuming a given constant / . The eigenfunction approach has also been applied to crowned breakwaters (Losada et al, 1993) or to submerged porous steps (Losada et al., 1997a). The complex nature of the dispersion equation as Eq. (29) leads to two particular difficulties when Sollitt and Cross (1972) model is used in conjunction

Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave

177

with eigenfunction expansions technique. First, it is difficult to locate the complex roots of the dispersion relation by standard numerical methods. Second, the vertical eigenfunction problem is not self-adjoint and standard expansions theorems do not apply. These problems have been discussed by several authors (f.i. Dalrymple et al., 1991). Mclver (1998) presents a method that allows the explicit calculation of the roots of the complex dispersion relation and uses the theory of non-self-adjoint differential operators to show how the formal construction of eigenfunction expansions can be carried out for the interaction of water waves with porous structures. In order to consider different geometries generalizing the theory of Sollitt and Cross (1972), Sulisz (1985) developed a boundary element method to investigate wave transmission and reflection from a multilayered breakwater with arbitrary shape. Based on a linearized long wave theory, Massel and Mei (1977) and Massel and Butowski (1980) were the first to consider random wave interaction with permeable structures. Following Dalrymple et al. (1991), Losada et al. (1997b) considered the interaction of directional random waves with vertical permeable structures. Using an eigenfunction expansion, Losada et al. (1997b) simulated the transformation of a given incident spectrum in the vicinity of the partially reflecting structures. The influence on the results of the structure's geometry, permeable material characteristics and incident wave spectrum is analyzed. Further information regarding linear solutions for monochromatic waves based on a linearized version of Sollitt and Cross (1972) equations can be found in Chwang and Chan (1998). 4.3. Mild-slope equation

Within the framework of linear wave theory, Berkhoff (1972) proposed a twodimensional theory which can deal with large regions of refraction and diffraction. This new equation, the mild-slope equation, has been extensively used for wave propagation modeling. In order to consider wave propagation on porous slopes and wave interaction with trapezoidal permeable submerged breakwaters, Rojanakamthorn et al. (1989), Losada et al. (1996a) and Mendez et al. (2000) present extended versions of the mild-slope equation. The extension of the mild-slope equation for permeable layers is derived by multiplying the Laplace equation by its correspondent vertical eigenfunctions,

178

/. J. Losada

Fig. 2. Schematic description of the submerged permeable structure geometry.

MQ{Z) and Po(z), expressed in terms of the propagating mode only, neglecting evanescent modes and integrating over depth. Following Losada et al. (1996a), the new governing equation is: /

J-h+ah r-h+ah

M0(z) (v2h§2 +

\

dz2

dz + ne(s — if)

p 0 (z)(V£$ 4 + ^ | d z = 0,

where $ 2 = (p(x,y)M0(z) and $4 = ip(x,y)PQ{z),

(32)

(33)

and $2 is the velocity potential in the fluid region above the permeable layer or submerged breakwater, $4 the potential inside the permeable region, y is > the complex amplitude of the water surface and V/, = (d/dx, d/dy). The boundary and matching conditions for variable depth are: • Combined free surface boundary condition, r-ll dz • Bottom boundary condition, <9$4 dz Continuity of mass flux, <9$4 oz + Vh-hVh-$>4 at z = - / i + a/i. (36) Vh • W - $ 4 = 0 at z = -h.

(35)

$ 2 = 0 at 2 = 0. g

(34)

Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave

179

• Continuity of pressure, $2 (s - i/)$4 at z = -h + ah .

(37)

Integrating Eq. (32) using the boundary and matching conditions and finally the mild-slope assumption, the following equation is obtained, V h • (XVfc • <p) + (rgx " *>xfD)>P = 0, where X (38)

J-h and where the term iu>fifD<p has been added to account for wave breaking, fo being an energy dissipation function, g the acceleration of gravity, and i the imaginary unit. MQ(Z) and Po(z) are the vertical eigenfunctions. The expressions of the vertical eigenfunctions, dispersion equations and complete potentials can be found in Losada et al. (1996a) and Mendez et al. (2000). The energy dissipation function due to wave breaking on a submerged permeable breakwater takes into account the processes of wave decay and recovery and is expressed as (Rojanakamthorn et al, 1990):

SD =

(£) [£

M$(z)dz +

ne(s-if)

-h-\-a.h

r

h-\-cth

P*(z)dz

(39)

(40)

where Cg is the group velocity, TR is the real part of To, tan£ is the equivalent bottom slope at the breaking point which is defined as a mean slope in the distance 5heftb offshore the breaking point and, v

hef

vs =0.4(0.57 + 5 . 3 tanC),

vr = QA-,M

(41)

h.ef

where the subscript b means the value at the breaking point. hef is the effective water depth over the porous layer as defined in Losada et al. (1997a). To solve the problem, a finite difference scheme and proper boundary conditions at the domain boundaries are used. The resulting system of equations

(1990). 3. Applying Eq. porous material properties and wave characteristics including oblique incidence. Losada including Eq.02 * = 4 5 ° . Assuming a breaking criteria.3. (2000).4. . The incident irregular wave characteristics are given by 0. (11) and with ne = 0. an iterative procedure has to be carried out.„. Wave transformation by a permeable submerged breakwater.3 _ f=2. J. The resulting linearized friction coefficient is / = 2. (30) can be simultaneously solved.396 m T„=4. In front of the structure. The structure is placed on a 1:15 rigid slope bottom. Losada et al. the rest rmsi of the permeable material characteristics are: Kp = 2.0s _ rms.180 /. The influence of structure geometry.io H. Wave ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 1 • 1 ' 1 1 1 ' 1 ' *^^\ i —* — ^ /• •\ _ - o. 1998).= 0. fo is calculated using the expression in Rojanakamthorn et al. (1996b) extends the model to consider the interaction of directional random waves with submerged breakwaters. 1996b) and Mendez et al..5 x 10~ 5 m 2 . (1996a. Figure 3 shows root-mean-square wave height Hrms evolution in a submerged permeable breakwater. Results show very good agreement even under breaking conditions. In order to arrive to a solution. wave reflection induces a modulation of the wave height. Comparison of experimental and numerical results.49.5 slopes on both sides has a crown width of 0.5E-05 m2 Cf= 0.396 m and Tp = 4 s.61 m is constructed on an impermeable core and an armor layer of quarrystones with a mean weight of 25 kg. The numerical model results obtained in Mendez et al.K^ 2. s = 1.5 |R 1=0. The submerged breakwater with 1:1. on the kinematics and dynamics over and inside the breakwater is considered in Losada et al. (2000) are compared with experimental data (Rivero et al. Models are validated against experimental data.49 s=l Fig. Cj = 0..1 p - a =1.

After determining the governing equations and boundary conditions for the three-dimensional wave motion. Nonlinearity is an important feature in the process on wave interaction with most coastal structures usually located between intermediate and shallow water depths. Shallow Water Models 5. Cruz et al. Cruz et al. (1991) for impermeable beds. A review on shallow water models can be found in van Gent (1995). (1992) derived a set of time-dependent nonlinear equations for one-dimensional wave transformation on porous beds.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 181 breaking takes place on the crest. vertically-integrated equations is . A modulation of the wave height is also visible leewards the submerged breakwater due to the reflection induced by the bottom slope. the inherent dispersivity is weak and consequently the frequency-dependent wave decomposition beyond submerged breakwaters cannot be reproduced. Mase and Takeba (1992) extends the mild slope equation. they are able to generate higher harmonics on the shallow water region. 5. Recent developments Using a perturbation method. in order to model the generation of higher harmonics on regions of abrupt depth variations such as crowns of permeable submerged structures (Losada et al. 5. assuming incompressible and irrotational flow in both the fluid and permeable layer. the Bragg scattering is examined in a one-dimensional case showing that energy dissipation in the porous layer contributes to smaller reflected and transmitted coefficients than those in the case of an impermeable rigid rippled bed.2. Since these models include the leading order of nonlinearity. However. (1997) derived a set of Boussinesq equations over a porous bed of arbitrary thickness with an underlying solid bottom of arbitrary depth. Following the approach by Madsen et al.1. a set of time-dependent. the mild-slope equation is limited by the use of linear theory.. Introduction There are numerous situations where accurate computations of the wave field on permeable beaches or around permeable structures are not possible using the mathematical models presented in previous sections. deriving timedependent and time-independent wave equations for waves propagating over porous rippled beds. For example. By using the time-independent equation. 1997a).

1988) observing an excellent agreement.182 /. Numerical results are obtained for wave propagation on a horizontal bottom of uniform thickness with good agreement. In this first work. Yu (1995) developed a porous breakwater diffraction model. This model was extended to waves of arbitrary incidence (Yu and Togashi. the role of breakwater porosity on the wave diffraction process has not been addressed until recently. weakly dispersive transient waves propagating in both variable-depth open water and porous region. Lynett et al. 1999). Numerical results are compared with experimental data (Vidal et al. Based on the linear potential wave theory. the one-dimensional equations are used to study the tide-induced free surface fluctuations in a porous region and the transmission and reflection of solitary waves by a rectangular porous breakwater. but requires that the breakwater be thin compared to the incident wave length. The equations are expressed in terms of the free surface displacement ( and the depth-averaged velocity potential <j>. Using analytical perturbation solutions as well as numerical solutions. In the open water region. The equations of motion inside the porous layer include resistance terms following the approach by Sollitt and Cross (1972). the model is applied to analyze solitary wave interaction with vertically-walled porous structures in a horizontal bottom. diffusive and weakly dispersive set of equations for long wave propagation in a shallow porous medium. Liu and Wen (1997) derived a two-dimensional fully nonlinear. J. Losada derived containing the leading order of nonlinearity.3. 1996. However. (2000) presents a model based on depthintegrated equations suitable for weakly nonlinear. Mclver. The weak dispersivity of Boussinesq-type equations is corrected by adding dispersion terms to the basic momentum equations and matching the resulting dispersion relation with that of appropriate theory. Diffraction by porous structures Diffraction of waves by a solid breakwater has received a considerable amount of attention. The permeable material parameters were extrapolated from values tabulated in Sollitt and Cross (1972). In dimensional form. 5. The last is calculated considering the Boussinesq approximation carrying out a linearization process inside the porous breakwater to convert the nonlinear resistance formula to a Darcy-type resistance. the equations are given as: . the model employs the generalized Boussinesq equations presented originally by Wu (1981).

This model is coupled with a specific model for the porous region. ( W ) + where /i is the local water depth. In the porous region. u\+=u\-. the governing equation can be expressed as: A _ _ V [ ( C + / l ) . where A/h is a nonlinearity parameter and (kh)2 a dispersion parameter. The matching conditions are given as: C|+=CI-.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 183 ^ | + V. ne as the effective porosity of the porous material. h? Velocity in the porous region is given as: u = -KViP .V ^ = 0.[(C + W ] = 0 . (48) (49) V-(n-u)|+ = V-(n-il)|_. (43) K .y ^ v 2 C = o. the depth-averaged velocity u can be calculated by: u = V<j>. (46) and (47). g is gravity and V = (d/dx. (45) (46) (47) The resolution of the problem requires reflective and radiation conditions at the exterior boundaries and matching conditions along the interface between the fluid and porous region. K as the hydraulic conductivity. Denoting -ip as the depth-averaged piezometric head. Velocities are evaluated using Eqs. Using 6.v c ] . (44) These equations are valid only for weakly nonlinear and dispersive waves. .d/dy) the horizontal gradient. where the sign denotes opposite sides of the interface and n is the unit normal vector..^ V . n-V<|+=u-VC|-. limiting the application to waves satisfying 0{A/h) = 0(kh) <C I. ^ + 2 ( W + (42) . Consistency with the water region model requires the truncation of the equations retaining only weakly nonlinear effects and depth averaging. a truncated version of Liu and Wen's (1997) Boussinesq-type equations is used.

184

/. J. Losada

Using a high-order finite difference scheme, the numerical model is used for both ID and 2D problems. Considering solitary wave interaction with a permeable vertical structure considerably simplifies our understanding of the wave diffraction-transmission process. To validate the model and compare the different mechanisms, a comprehensive set of experiments was performed in a wave tank with a porous and impermeable breakwater perpendicular to solitary wave incidence. Water depth, wave height and gravel diameter were varied and free surface was recorded in a dense grid covering the region in front of the structure and in the shadow zone. Results show that the model predicts wave height, wave form and arrival time excellently. Furthermore, the model and experimental results are useful for evaluating the differences between the wave field in the shadow zone comparing the porous breakwater case with the solid breakwater case. Figure 4 presents the results of the numerical simulation of the interaction of a solitary wave passing a solid (left) and a porous (right) detached breakwater. The snapshots correspond to spatial profiles of a normally incident solitary wave with A/h = 0.1 interacting with a breakwater, with a length of 5 water depths and a width of 80 water depths. For the porous breakwater, the scaled rock size has the following characteristics Dso/h = 0.2, ne = 0.5 m ap = 1100, and (3p = 0.81. The first two snapshots (a) and (b) show the solitary wave approaching the detached breakwater. In Figs. 4(c) and 4(d), the wave height at the front face is at a maximum, while Figs. 4(e) and 4(f) show the reflected waves at the beginning of diffraction behind the breakwater. The analysis of the shadow zone in Figs. 4(e), 4(f), 4(g), and 4(h) shows that less energy is diffracting to form a wave with a circular crest line in the porous breakwater case than in the solid breakwater case. The main difference between both cases is that most of the energy that diffracts in the solid breakwater case to form this circular wave, diffracts into the transmitted wave front in the porous breakwater case. This is due to the fact that in the shadow zone of the porous breakwater, wave diffraction occurs in two ways. A wave with circular crest lines is created since part of the wave energy is diffracting into the calm water behind the transmitted wave in the same form as diffraction occurs behind a solid breakwater. The second part of diffraction takes place because wave energy diffracts into the transmitted wave front from the incident wave front due to the discontinuity of wave amplitude. The relative importance of each of the mechanisms will depend on the incident wave characteristics, breakwater geometry and permeable material characteristics.

Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave

185

(a)

n

(b)

m

JJ

)

(c)

(d)

•

1

in

(f)

m

Ijj

Fig. 4. Numerical simulation of solitary wave interaction with detached impermeable and permeable breakwaters.

186

/. J. Losada

6. Short Wave-Averaged Flow 6.1. Introduction equations

6.2. Time and depth-averaged

The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow may be written in terras of the instantaneous vertical velocity component w* and the viscous stress tensor r,*.- as: du* dxi du* dt d(u*u*) dxi d(u*w*) dz dw* _ dz di-P^ij+rti} dxi d[-p* + pgz] dz ^ dr* jz dz dr* dxi J = 1,2 dr*zz dz (51)

dw* , d(w*u*) , d(w*2)] dt dxi dz

where the viscous shear stress tensor can be expressed in terms of the instantaneous velocity field,

Inside the porous medium, the velocity and pressure fields can be decomposed according to Eq. (14). Each of these components can be resolved in a mean component (depth and time-averaged value) and a deviation from the mean,

Uj

«i

=

Ui+Ui,

(54)

= Ui + ui, A = Ut + u\,

where Ui is the seepage current, \n is the seepage oscillatory flow, U? is the spatial fluctuation of the current, U\ is the temporal fluctuation of the current, u\ is the spatial fluctuation of the oscillatory flow and u\ is the temporal fluctuation of the oscillatory flow. In order to derive the time and depth-averaged equations, Losada (1996) carried out the following operations, • The continuity equation, Eq. (50), is averaged over a finite volume of porous medium and in a time scale smaller than the characteristic wave period resulting in a continuity equation in terms of the seepage components.

Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 187

• This equation is integrated from the bottom z = — h to the phreatic surface z = j). Applying Leibniz's rule using the kinematic boundary conditions and averaging over a wave period yields,

on

dt where

dim±m

=

dxi

'

K

'

"'-TC {ah £«*)"•

d[pUj{fj + h)} dfj

=

<6 5)

Following a similar procedure with the momentum equations (see Losada, 1996 for details) and assuming that no correlation exists between the seepage flow and the fluctuations and that the correlation between the mean and oscillatory flow is also very weak, the following equations can be obtained,

d

{Sij+5 +5

— m —

~"{T]+h)dVi-d^i

d

t

« «>

(57)

dx,

p(fj + h)(U!U° + U*U*) +TJ+Rj,

where

P

S^ = /

J —h

1 _

(58)

(59)

S^ = / (pSij + puiUj) dz- - pg(rj + h)2Sij , 2' J-h pufuj dz ,

%,= T pS$dz,

J —h

(60)

Sij is the (i,j) component of the stress tensor representing the excess of momentum flux due to seepage magnitudes. S*j are S\j the stress tensor components due to the spatial and temporal fluctuations. These two terms may be considered lateral mixing mechanisms induced by the temporal and spatial fluctuations due to pore irregularities. The horizontal force term due to the oscillatory motion T; is given as: Ti = (pU-pg(n + h))^-Pg(h + n)§^. (61)

188

/. J. Losada

**The frictional terms on the free surface F(x,y,z) z) = 0 have the following expression,
**

R

= 0 and bottom

B(x,y,

o = -^-.fnjdz

+ Vf\VF\+^\WB\.

(62)

Equations (55) and (57) may be simplified under certain circumstances to obtain other equations that are important for practical applications. Assuming horizontal bottom, neglecting viscous forces (Rj = 0), and using Eq. (55), the momentum equations can be expressed as: d f dfj\ dxi) + S^+Slj d2fj dt2 1 d2

dxi \ S^Sij

p dxidxj + lUfUj + UUJl}. (64)

Equation (64) governs the forced long wave motion in a porous medium. 6.3. Applications

The application of the time and depth-averaged equations requires expressions for the wave-averaged quantities, mass flux, radiation stress, etc. in terms of wave height, wave period and water depths. Assuming irrotational flow and based on the potential <j) derived from Sollitt and Cross (1972) theory, expressions correct to the second order have been derived for porous media flow in terms of the seepage velocity. Mendez et al. (2000) provides general expressions of mass transport, radiation stress and energy flux for wave propagation inside or above a porous layer in terms of some shape functions defined accordingly. Using an approximation, Mendez et al. (2000) applied a simplified ID version of Eq. (57) considering the forcing of the radiation stress of the seepage component in order to analyze the mean water level variations induced by the presence of a submerged permeable breakwater. Figure 5 presents numerical and experimental results of wave height and mean water level variation for a submerged permeable breakwater. A description of the experimental conditions can be found in Rivero et al. (1998). Results show a modulation of the mean water level in front of the structure imposed by reflection. A set-down can be clearly observed at the front slope or above the breakwater crest just before the maximum wave height is reached before breaking. After breaking, a slightly modulated set-up is clearly observed leewards the structure in both the experimental and numerical results. Results

dissipation of energy inside the pores produces a radiation stress gradient which is balanced by the frictional and the diffusive terms in .0 x(m) Fig.34 9. In general.07 V -60° .0 s r\ = -1..20 Hr= 0. point out that the set-up induced by a permeable submerged breakwater is due to radiation stress gradients induced by dissipation associated with both breaking and friction. (55) and (57) to analyze how dissipation inside an infinitely long vertical breakwater in a constant water depth generates an along-breakwater current inside the structure.60 •J»«L» ^ * ^ = * ^ * 0.00 4. f=1.07 V 0°.0.80 189 0.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 0.30 .00 L <V 1 0 V 2.00 0. For an obliquely incident wave train.24 mi 0. the relative magnitude of the different contributions requires further exploration due to the lack of roller effects. the set-up due to breaking is much more important than the one produced by the porous material..• --. f=1.435 m T = 4. Wave height and mean water level variation in a submerged breakwater under breaking conditions. flow separation or turbulent effects in this first approach to the problem.5 cm 0. Baquerizo and Losada (1998) used Eqs.00 2.3 S=l 0.5E-05 m 2 C f 0. f=1. 5. However.• |R| 0..

Losada the equation. Streamlines and mean horizontal velocity profiles in a finite breakwater. Using an analytical approach based on Sollit and Cross (1972) theory. Losada et al. *F in a vertical rubble-mound breakwater |m|=0.20 _ z/h Mean horizontal velocity profile -m V :*#* Return flow M3 If •*•••• n i -|m|=0. 6.50 -]m|=p. J.- Fig. reflected and transmitted waves. The higher the reduction in mass flux. Approximate expressions for these terms need to be explored further. and ne = 0.U. over the mean velocity. b/h = 1.4. (1998) analyzed the mean flows in vertical rubble-mound structures. .20 -•|iii=0. kh = 0. The current driven inside the porous medium is transferred by turbulent diffusion seawards and leewards the structure. The solution of the equations requires an expression for the radiation stresses associated with the fluctuations. of the turbulence induced by the spatial and temporal fluctuations respectively. Baquerizo and Losada (1998) based on a Boussinesq approach give approximated expressions introducing eddy viscosity coefficients which take into account the effect. It can be shown that the rapid decrease in the Eulerian mass transport results in a mean vertical velocity that capable of inducing a mean flow that exits mainly at the toe of the structure. the stronger the mean return current.34.190 /. The mean flow is expressed in terms of a mean stream function which is analytically derived and is based on the mass flux balance between the incident. it is shown that waves impinging on rubble mound breakwaters and seawalls induce a mean flow within the breakwater analogous to the so-called undertow within the surf zone.

p= (p)+p' (65) in which i = 1. the influence of the presence of the structure on the mean velocities is almost negligible. Thus. The admittance m = neT/(s — if) where V is the complex wave number in the porous medium takes into account the hydraulic characteristics of the structure. all based on 2D Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid and porous regions and making use of the VOF method to track the free surface. the turbulent velocity and pressure u\ and p'. the mean flow field is governed by the Reynolds Averaged . important efforts have been made in the last few years to develop a tool capable of successfully simulating the free surface of breaking waves on permeable structures. Modeling Based on the Navier. Increasing friction results in diminishing admittance. COBRAS (COrnell BReAking wave and Structure) has been initially developed to track the free surface movement and to describe the turbulence generated by the wave breaking process on slopes (Lin and Liu. 6 shows the calculated streamline patterns for a finite porous breakwater. For 177i| = 0. 2000). Ui = (ui) +u'i. The results indicate that for \m\ = 0. If the fluid is assumed incompressible. 1998b). the velocity profile presents a large curvature and showing a net flux in the direction of wave propagation near the top of the structure. the complete three-dimensional formulation will be given herein.5.Stokes Equations In order to overcome most of the limitations associated with previous models. However. The breaking waves numerical model is based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. 1998) and COBRAS (Liu et al.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 191 The upper panel of Fig.3 for a three-dimensional flow.14. the velocity field and pressure field can be divided into two parts: The mean (ensemble average) velocity and pressure and (u$) and (p). For a turbulent flow in the fluid region. 1995). Although the model has only been applied to two-dimensional problems. Three succesful examples are the models SKYLLA (van Gent. The lower panel presents a qualitative plotting of the horizontal mean velocity profiles for different admittances. 1999. VOFbreak (Troch and de Rouck. 7. 1998a.2. decreasing admittance turns out in higher return flow due to increasing mass flux decay in z =0. the smallest friction considered.

C2. 1998b). (67). ld{rtj) p dxj djuty) dxj (66) dt %) = _19(p) + dxj p dxi { l (67) in which p is the density of the fluid. In the momentum equation as in Eq. Losada Navier-Stokes equations. J. ande v((d^L)2) ^ n e dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. 5 lJ + C. where v = p/ p is the molecular kinematic viscosity. 1996. (68) in which Cd. the nonlinear Reynolds stress model in Eq. Many second-order turbulence closure models have been developed for different applications which have been summarized in a recent review article (Jaw and Chen 1998a. the influence of the turbulent fluctuations on the mean flow field is represented by the Reynolds stress tensor /o(w^u'). Lin and Liu (1998a.Compared with the conventional eddy viscosity model. the Reynolds stress p(u^u') is expressed by a nonlinear algebraic stress model (Shih et al. It is noted that for the conventional eddy viscosity model C\ = C2 = C3 = 0 in Eq. dxk 1 d(ui) djm) 3 dxk dxf. and mean molecular stress tensor (r^) = 2p{<7ij) with p being the molecular viscosity and (cr^) = \{ ^ " ' ' + QJ ) the rate of strain tensor of the mean flow. and C3 are empirical coefficients. . C\. 9(uj) dxi (uj) 0. k = ^{u'iii'i) the turbulent kinetic energy. gi the zth component of the gravitational acceleration.. (68) and the eddy viscosity is then expressed as« ( = Cd — .192 /. In the present model. (68) can be applied to general anisotropic turbulent flows. 1998b): It2 (d(m) -Capdxi d(ui) d(ui) dxi dxj 9{UJ) p(uiuj) = ^pkSij dxi d{uj) d(ui) dxi dxi 2 d(ui) d(uk) 3 dxk dxi ~P~2 Ci + C2 d(uj) d{uj) _ 1 d{ut) d(ui) dxk fd(uk) V dxi dxk d{uk) dxj 3 dxf. Sij the Kronecker delta.

and Cie are empirical coefficients.e. Lin and Liu. C l £ = 1.3.5 + D ^ ' C 2e = 1. 1998b): dk dt de . .92.4 + D ^ x ' <7e = 1.. <7fc = 1. §^ = | p = 0. C2 = - C. Ci 1 185. the recommended values for these coefficients are (Rodi.44. The coefficients in Eqs. dk dxj de d dxj _d_ dxj vt i\crk + v vt_ dk dxj de dx-j d(uj) « « . the log-law distribution of mean tangential velocity in the turbulent boundary layer is applied so that the values of k and e can be expressed as functions of distance from the boundary and the mean tangential velocity outside the viscous sublayer. Eq. where 5.2+ D2 (71) 370. For the mean flow field. (69) are the production and the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy respectively.4 + 5 m a x 1 58. the no-slip boundary condition is imposed on the solid boundary and the zero-stress condition is required on the mean free surface by neglecting the effect of airflow.0. (69). 1998a.maxf! Appropriate boundary conditions need to be specified. A low level of k for the . the zero-gradient boundary conditions are imposed for both k and e . 1998a. • > dxj (69) 8(UJ) dxi m+ ^dx- •Cu\rH d(ui) dxj djuj) dxj -a 2e k (70) in which o^. i. (68) to (70) have been determined by performing many simple experiments and enforcing the physical realizability.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 193 The governing equations for k and s are modeled as (Rodi.max — 7 max | 1^1 (repeated indices not summed) and Dn . On the free surface. The second and the third term on the right-hand side of Eq. a£. the left-hand side term denotes the convection while the first term on the right-hand side represents the diffusion. 1980. 1998b): Cd = 1 3 V 7. For the turbulent field near the solid boundary. In the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy. Lin and Liu. C\e. 1980.

1998b). Fig. (1991). The central difference method is employed to discretize the pressure gradient terms and stress gradient terms. In order to couple the flow inside and outside the permeable structure. as previously explained. 1998b). In Fig. 1998b). the outside mean (ensemble-averaged) flow is not equivalent to the spatiallyaveraged flow in porous media since the latter may still contain turbulent fluctuations. Liu et al. the evaluation of the turbulence kinetic energy needs a special treatment. these turbulent fluctuations are in general negligible. The forward time difference method is used to discretize the time derivative. Reasonably good agreements are obtained. Please note that the turbulence model is not solved in porous media. The overall agreement between numerical solutions and experimental data was very good. both for breaking or nonbreaking conditions. For details. The model is suitable to analyze wave interaction with emerged or submerged permeable or solid structures. In the numerical model. The mathematical model described above has been verified by comparing numerical results with either experimental data or analytical solutions. Strictly speaking. and (11). However. The transport equations for k and e are solved with the similar method used in solving the momentum equations. J. (21). Both experimental and numerical results show that because . (1999).194 /. the RANS equations are solved by the finite difference two-step projection method (Chorin. The VOF method is used to track the free surface (Hirt and Nichols. 7(c). Liu and Lin (1997). 1968). The flow in the porous domain is described using Eqs. Detailed information can be found in Kothe et al. The convection terms are discretized by the combination of central difference method and upwind method. (1999) applies continuity of the mean and averaged velocity and pressure across the interface of porous media and outside flow. (22). see Liu et al. 7(a). Therefore. Figure 7(b) shows the comparison of calculated and experimental time histories of free surface displacement before and after the wave passes a trapezoidal porous structure. The detailed descriptions of the numerical results and their comparison with experimental data can be found in Liu and Lin (1997) and Lin and Liu (1998a. and Lin and Liu (1998a. The justification for this approximation can be found in Lin and Liu (1998a. Losada initial and inflow boundary conditions is assumed. the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity at two locations are shown. 1981).

5 -1 -0. Location of the free surface gauges. Comparison between experimental and numerical results. 7. . (a) Wave transformation above a trapezoidal submerged breakwater.1 measurement sections -3 -2.24 m (e). (c) Horizontal and vertical velocity time histories at x = 0.33 m (f).4 195 It 0.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 0.42 m (h) E u 10 0 -10 20 E o 10 0 (f) / (g) \ i\ -10 20 E o 10 0 A -10 20 E 10 (b) Fig.24 and at different depths.42 m (g). (b) Free surface displacement at different locations.5 0.5 x(m) 0 0. 0.6 0.2 0.5 -2 -1.3 0. Experimental and numerical results.5 1 1. and 1. 0.5 (a) free surface displacement at x=0.

16 m (b).30 m (a). 0. (Continued) of the presence of the structure. The accuracy of the modeling of wave and permeable structure interaction relies greatly on some constants depending on the flow. the horizontal velocity near the structure is enhanced while the vertical velocity is reduced. The modeling is based on the coupling of two models describing the flow acting on the structure and through the porous structures.5' 4 ' 6 ' 8 =—' 10 t(m) (c) 3 12 ' 14 -=> Fig. Several new equations including the resistance forces in the porous medium have been derived covering an ample range of applications.12 m (c). the .08 m (e) -0. uncertainty is still present especially if these models are considered to be an alternative to physical modeling in the design of coastal structures.196 /.24 m and y=0. Losada u & v at x=0. 8.10 m (d) and 0. 0. The agreement is again quite good. J. Even if some progress has been carried out to determine predictive formulas for these constants under oscillatory flow conditions. 7. Modified Boussinesq equations or other kind of shallow water equations are currently available. 0. Equations for wave and structure interaction have evolved in parallel with equations for wave-propagation in fluids. Conclusions Very important progress has been achieved in the field of modeling wave and permeable structure interaction in the last years. However.

.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 197 application by the engineering community is limited. COBRAS should be improved in several aspects. References Baquerizo. This could be the case for the development of structure stability models where the forces on individual units have to be determined. Coastal Eng. C. 35: 211-230. J. there is still additional work to do in order to include the effect of permeable structures in the wave propagation modeling. the flow forms turbulent jets and wakes that in most practical applications will be quickly mixed within a short distance. Computation of combined refraction-diffraction. Proc. different turbulence closure models need to be considered. The extension of COBRAS to three-dimensions would imply a considerable improvement to the current model. Berkhoff. 9. . Therefore. models solving the Navier-Stokes equations have an enormous potential to analyze wave and permeable structure interaction. models based on the RANS equations seem to be the most suitable. New York. From the engineering point of view. For wave and permeable structure interaction where the numerical domains are relatively small. (1972). American Elsevier. and M. J. Future Work Further research on the determination of predictive expressions for the porous flow parameters under oscillatory flow conditions is needed. Bear. 13th International Conference on Coastal Eng. 471-490. However. the modeling of turbulence inside the structure should be explored. It is clear that in the near future. Longitudinal current induced by oblique waves along coastal structures. Therefore. A. Vancouver. The enforcement of the continuity of the mean and averaged velocity and pressure across the interface results in unrealistic velocity information just outside the porous media. (1972). Furthermore. W. Losada (1998). Just at the porous media surface. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Acknowledgment The financial support from the Spanish Comision Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CICYT) through grant MAR99-0653 is gratefully acknowledged. this kind of model requires further work and validation before being useful for engineering applications. If detailed velocity information at locations very close to the porous surface is needed. A. the present approximation results should be improved.

M. Dalrymple. Watanabe (1997). Present status of second-order closure turbulence model. Chen (1998b). Wang (1991). and D. Liu (1998b). and P. A numerical study of breaking waves in the surf zone. Fluid Mech. van Gent. 22: 745-762. Eng. M. Smith. F. J. Mech. Coastal Eng. Porous flow through rubble-mound material. Eng. Fluid Mech. Carman. R. C. T. Gravity waves over porous bottoms. A. Port. J. Formulae to describe porous flow. M. Sitzungber. P. E. TU Delft. TU Delft.. D. Kothe. Chem. J. C. Gu. Lin. Progress 48(2): 89-94. Inst. Cruz. (1968). Liu (1998a). Mech. LA-12007-MS. Coastal Eng. J. On the one-dimensional steady and unsteady porous flow equations. Lin. Hall. Rev. T. 124: 485-501. Report 93-9. Turbulence transport. J. II: application. D. K. 30: 53-84. M. J. RIPPLE: A Computer Program for Incompressible Flows with Free Surfaces. H. S. W. J. M. R. Coast. 24: 217-232. Isobe and A. and C. J. Jaw. R. and H. 15: 695-524. M. Akad. J. I: overview. Chem. 224: 625-644.. Los Alamos National Laboratory. A. S. L. C. H.. 30: 125-154. J. J. Torrey (1991). Math. Reflection and transmission from porous structures under oblique wave attack. S. 121: 181. Z. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. A. Ergun.-F. (1937). 15: 150-166. (1991). van Gent. Communications on Hydraulic and Geotechnical Engineering. Hirt. ISSN 0169-6548. R. and M. Martin (1991). D. Trans.. Chwang. Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse porous media. Losada and P. Uber kapillare Leitung des Wassers im Boden. Phys. A. ASCE. P. (1993). A. 359: 239-264. R. Report 92-2. Wiss. (1952). Wtrway. Kozeny. Eng. Fluid flow through granular beds. 136: 271-376. Andersen (1995). Eng. and B. L. Mjolsness. Fluid Mech. Coastal Eng. A. 124: 502-512. Eng. P. A. and A.. J. Nichols (1981). Comparison of oscillatory flow and stationary flow through porous media.198 /. Chen (1998a). 39: 201-225. Communications on Hydraulic and Geotechnical Engineering. Numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Geophys. Present status of second-order closure turbulence models. Y. (1995). and Oc. Losada Burcharth. Ann. Fluid flow through packed columns. and P. and C. Chan (1998). 103: 15677-15694. Y. (1927). and O. Jaw. Comput.-F. R. Comp. G. Coastal Eng. Boussinesq equations for wave transformation on porous beds. Chorin. 24: 233-257. van Gent. J. B. . Interaction between porous media and wave motion. ISSN 0169-6548. and solute mixing under plunging breaking waves in surf zone. Turcke (1995). vorticity dynamics. Res.

. Losada (1997b). R. and M.-A. Coast. Department of Civil Engineering. and C. Liu. Liu. 333-346. Losada (1996b). R. R. Hsu. S. (1996). Wtrway. J. P. Takeba (1994).. L. P. J. Losada. Wave transmission through porous structures. Losada. ASCE. I. Losada. Kobe. Eng. Liu. (1974). 230 pp. ASCE 126(6): 314-322. Port. 28(1-4): 248-265. and M. Journal of Engineering Mathematics 34: 319-334. 26(1-2): 77-98. Silva. DE. T. J. (1998).. S. A. P. J. 3D nonbreaking regular wave interaction with submerged breakwaters. Wtrway. . J. and M. Eng. Thesis. S. Losada. Wtrway. and F. Massel. Losada. P. P. and Oc. Bragg scattering of waves over porous rippled bed. The Cornell breaking wave and structure (COBRAS) model. P.-F. P. 1(1): 63-78. Dalrymple. Vidal (2000). The dispersion relation and eigenfunction expansions for water waves in a porous structure.Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 199 Liu. A.. and P. 17th Coastal Engineering Conference. Losada. A. Patterson. Newark.. L. R. M. I. 347: 119-139. Liu. H.. Wave-induced mean flows in vertical rubble mound structures. R. Coast. and Oc..-Z. Journal of Waterways. Port. Lab. Coastal Eng. Ph.-F. Proc. Transmission of random wind waves through perforated or porous breakwaters. Coastal Eng. Madsen. Wtrway. J. 3 1 : 281-304. Port.. Coastal Engineering Division.. Martin (1995). and M. P. and K. A. Losada. I. J. R.-F. New York. A. 635-649. ASCE 125: 322-329. I. Losada (1996a). A. and T. Sakakiyama (1999). Losada.-J. Losada. Eng.. Center for Applied Coastal Research. J. Wen (1997). University of Delaware. Nonlinear diffusive surface waves in porous media. Coastal Eng. Lynett. Effects of reflective vertical structures permeability on random wave kinematics.. Research Report No. A. University of Delaware. Silva. CACR-97-02. Port. L. Losada. C. J. Losada. A Numerical Model for Breaking Wave: The Volume of Fluid Method. Losada (1998). Silva. K. Interaction of nonbreaking directional random waves with submerged breakwaters. ASCE 123(6): 347-353. M. J. P. I.. in: Proc.. Coastal Eng. Ocean Eng. L. ed.. and Oc. Wave Interaction with Permeable Structures. A. Numerical modeling of wave interaction with porous structures. Vidal. J. I. J. I. R. In: Proc. Dalrymple. Lin. Experimental study of waveinduced flow in a porous structure. C. Harbours. Sakakiyama (2000). and P. Solitary wave interaction with porous brealwaters. 84th ICCE.-F. and T. Massel. I. I. and J.. Losada (1993). Wind waves transmission through porous breakwatwers. Mei (1977). and M. L. Lin. I.D. Butowski (1980).. J. ASCE 119(4): 367-380. and Oc. 169-175.-F. Losada. ASCE 100(WW3): 168-188. Lin (1997). Eng. Losada (1997a). 35: 251-281. A. and C. Mase. Coastal Structures 99. L. Coastal Eng. Coastal Eng. Water waves on crown breakwaters. Fluid Mech. Chang. O. 28(1-4): 229-248. J. and M.. I. J. J. J. Coast. D. Coast. Harmonic generation past a submerged porous step. Mclver.

and J. M. Proc. Polubarinova-Kochina. Large-scale hydrodynamic experiments in submerged breakwaters. Cross (1972). J. Mech. F. and M. Va. Coastal Eng. Journal of the Hydraulics Division. ASCE 127(1): 1-9. J.. Canada. Numer. HY5. W. ASCE 2063-2076. Proc. Int. A. 107: 501-522. Turbulent flow in porous medium. Eng. P. Losada.. Corrons (1998). Losada (2001). (1962). Port. Diffraction of water waves by porous breakwaters. R. JSCE. Comparison of Stationary and Oscillatory Flow Through Porous Media. C . Troch. Modeling of wave transformation on submerged breakwater. J. S. Zhu. J. A. Wave reflection and transmission at permeable breakwaters of arbitrary cross-section. C. X. M. and Oc. Coastal Engineering in Japan. and A. Wave transmission through permeable breakwaters. 1638-1846. J. Togoshi (1996). Wu. Proc. L. Coastal Dynamics'97.200 /. Gironella. Conf. Yu. J. Proc. 1827-1846. 1060-1073. M. C. J. ASCE. Rodi. X. S.-H. H. Losada. (1964). Medina. and Oc. Div. ASCE 121 (6): 275-282. J.. de Rouck (1998). 21st International Coastal Engineering Conference 1073-1083. IAHR Publication. Ward. Proc. X. Vidal. and A. Eng.Sc. 25th Int. Wtrway. M. Wtrway. F. Theory of Groundwater Movement.. Queens University. Y. Isobe. Meth. Reston. 13th. (1995). T. (1985).. J. J. ASCE. Watanabe (1989). Turbulence models and their application in hydraulics — a stateof-the-art review. Rojanakamthorn. ASCE 90. K. Fluids 23: 1133-1144. A. Eng. Princeton. Long waves in ocean and coastal waters.. Calculation of wall-bounded complex flows and free shear flows. (1981).. I. J. 26th. Coast. 754-762. . W. (1991). Wave-induced mean magnitudes in permeable submerged breakwaters. and R. A mathematical model of wave transformation over a submerged breakwater. 22nd Coastal Engineering Conference. Coastal Eng. Virginia. N. Coast. Proc. Sulisz. New York. Losada Mendez.. Sollitt. and H. G. New York. Development of a two-dimensional numerical wave flume for wave interaction with rubble mound breakwaters. Solitary wave transmission through porous breakwater. Watanabe (1990). Isobe. 9: 371-386. ASCE. P. Coastal Engineering Conference. International Conference on Coastal Engineering. Princeton University Press. and J. (1980). and A. Yu. S. Combined diffraction and transmission of water waves around a porous breakwater gap. Smith.-Arcilla. ASCE. Rivero. 32(2): 209-234. Rojanakamthorn. Thesis. T. 1-12. Y. Lumley (1996). Shih. Rubio (1988). Port.

Recent Advances in the Modeling of Wave 201 List of Symbols / p g po ho ud K ap Kp (m 2 ) Re = ucDc/v uc Dc v bp ne ap (3P cp 7 fl fff // KC u* p* Ui u\ u\ Cj s / u> h b $ fo = hydraulic gradient = fluid density — gravitational acceleration = the effective pressure = the vertical distance from the selected datum = discharge velocity = l/ap (m/s) permeability coefficient = empirical coefficient = intrinsic permeability = Critical Reynolds number = characteristic discharge velocity = characteristic length scale of the porous media = molecular viscosity = empirical coefficient with dimension (s 2 /m 2 ) = the porosity = nondimensional coefficient = nondimensional coefficient — empirical coefficient (s 2 /m) = nondimensional coefficient accounting for the added mass = resistance force due to laminar flow = resistance force due to turbulent flow = resistance force due to inertia = Keulegan-Carpenter number = ith component of the instantaneous velocity in the pores = instantaneous effective pressure = ith component of the seepage velocity = ith component of the spatial perturbation = ith component of time perturbation = dimensionless turbulent coefficient = co-factor accounting for added mass = linearized friction coefficient = wave frequency = water depth = porous structure width = velocity potential = energy dissipation function associated with wave breaking .

202 I. J.R + iTi = complex wavenumber in the porous medium C = free surface displacement Hrms = mean-root-square wave height Tp = peak period hef = effective water depth 4> = depth-averaged potential u = depth-averaged potential tp = depth-averaged piezometric head 5ij = Kronecker delta k = turbulent kinetic energy £ = dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy Ui = seepage current Ui = seepage oscillatory flow U* = spatial fluctuation of the current U\ = temporal fluctuation of the current u\ = spatial fluctuation of the oscillatory flow u\ = temporal fluctuation of the oscillatory flow Sij = components of the radiation stress due seepage magnitudes Sfj = components of the radiation stress due to the spatial fluctuations Sjj = components of the radiation stress due to the temporal fluctuations . Losada To = T.

i. the flow is called an internal bore. observing the sudden expansion of the current to open environment. i. by lifting a partition gate that initially separates fresh water from salt water. the established current is let off to spread from the end of the channel to open environment. Gravity currents and internal bores are investigated in a horizontal laboratory tank with a lock-exchange device.e. The spreading flow pattern and mixing around the end of the channel is examined and interpreted based on vortex dynamics.e. and the differences between the two flows. by lifting a partition gate that initially separates fresh water from salt water. qualitative characteristics and behaviors of the flows are examined. Using laser-induced fluorescein-dye illumination in the laboratory. gravity currents and internal bores are first generated in a channel of finite breadth to establish its quasi-steady condition... 1. Then.D E S C R I P T I V E H Y D R O D Y N A M I C S OF LOCK-EXCHANGE FLOWS HARRY YEH and KIYOSHI WADA Salt-water gravity currents and internal bores are created in a horizontal flume with a lock-exchange device. the three-dimensional flow patterns and resulting mixing mechanisms are described. Based on the assumptions of an inviscid fluid and a two-dimensional flow field between a pair of infinite parallel horizontal plates (no free surface 203 . Furthermore. In the second set of the experiments. Introduction Gravity currents are gravity-driven flows by the fluid-density difference from that of its surroundings. What we wish to present here is the clarification of features and mixing mechanisms associated with gravity-current and internal-bore phenomena. Many researchers have investigated the fundamental flow characteristics of gravity currents and internal bores. When a similar flow advances into a quiescent twolayer fluid of which the thinner layer has the same fluid density as the advancing current and distinct wave breaking is formed at the leading wave. Features and hydrodynamics of such flow phenomena are discussed particularly in terms of vortex dynamics.

turbulence that intrinsically generated must cause mixing of two fluids that make up the gravity currents. which is the spacing between the two parallel horizontal plates. and g is the acceleration of gravity. Benjamin derived that: ^=(2^i)(l-§) g'h (1 + 1) (1) where. where p\ and p2 are the fluid densities of the ambient and the current respectively. the only possible solution to satisfy Eq. which is basically the Stokes 120° corner flow. These models ' ' * •> ' ' £ <f r S * £ £. Not only for that. Figure 1 summarizes the features of an inviscid gravity current. Benjamin (1968) established the lowest-order theory for gravity currents flowing on a horizontal bed. Benjamin (1968) ironically found that the inviscid theory breaks down except for in a very special case. Combining the depth-integrated linearmomentum equation and continuity. For the inviscid model. -» -* ' ' ' 1 h /7I/3 • / / i /—7—7—7—7—7—7—7-7-7—7—?—r Fig. (1) and the Bernoulli theorem is h/d — 1/2 and F = 2 . Wood and Simpson (1984). and Klemp et al. 1. Wada involved). (1994). as shown in Fig. the height of gravity current is one-half of the channel height and the leading edge contacts at 7I"/3 with the bed. while the condition of h/d < 1/2 requires energy dissipation by wave breaking. U is the speed of the front. h is the current depth. Several extensions of Benjamin's work by incorporating energy dissipation are proposed by Wilkinson and Wood (1972). Yeh & K. F is the densimetric Froude number. The steady-state condition of h/d > 1/2 is not possible. g' = (p2 — Pi)d/P\ is the buoyant acceleration. Denton (1990). . 1. Chu and Baddour (1977).204 H.1 / 2 . d is the total flow depth. Benjamin's solution of this very special case implies that energy dissipation associated with turbulence must play an essential role in determining the dynamics of gravity currents. A schematic of inviscid gravity current that is equivalent to the model made by Benjamin (1968).

and the ambient flow conditions (Note that in the Reynolds number. 2. which causes the formation of flow pattern "lobes and clefts" on the front face of the head. 2. Jirka and Arita (1987) showed that the head formation of a gravity current becomes a density wedge (without a head formation) in the case of momentum deficit relative to the inviscid case. The model by Wood and Simpson assumes that energy dissipation occurs only in the lower layer. the lighter fluid can be entrapped under the nose. approximately 1/8 of the total height of the head. The head profile is sensitive to the Reynolds number (R = Uh/is). velocity of the advancement. as depicted in Fig. the densimetric Froude number (F = U/y/g'h). He also indicated that the formation of "lobes and clefts" develops from the lighter fluid that is overrun by the gravity current's foremost leading edge. Using a perturbation analysis. and its profile. A sketch of a typical gravity current in a laboratory channel. Because of this feature.. Simpson (1987) summarized that. a characteristic head is formed at the leading edge of the gravity current. Hence. as a gravity current advances. which is approximately twice as deep as the following flow. The broken line indicates the location of laser sheet used for Fig. The forefront nose is approximately 1/8 of the total height of the head H.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 205 are based on the mixing-layer formation. 6. mixing. . The characteristics of the head are considered to control the entire flow behavior.g. In his book. The foremost leading edge of the current is located slightly above the bed. e. H « 2/i. some ambient fresh water is trapped under the head and Fig. A steady gravity current can be maintained only if there is a momentum surplus. Simpson suggested that the billow formation on the upper surface of the head is similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. There are according to Simpson (1987) two types of instabilities that are responsible for mixing associated with gravity currents: (1) billows which roll up in the region of velocity shear above the advancing front and (2) a complex shifting pattern of "lobes and clefts" located on the face of the head. whereas Denton's model assumes energy dissipation in the upper layer. v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid).

the mean variations in the horizontal direction perpendicular to the current direction were neglected.9 m long and the back chamber is 7. First.2 in long. three-dimensional mixing characteristics associated with sudden expansion of gravity current and internal bore in a two-dimensional channel into open environment are examined. Throughout a series of experiments. jetties. Investigation remains insufficient for the mixing processes of two-layer flows disturbed by "vertically intruding" objects which evidently cause three-dimensional disturbances. 2. 1988). Then. the total water depths of both front and back chambers are set at 36 cm. and the fluid density of the thin layer was identical to that of the salt water in the back chamber. 1979. at irregular estuarine side boundaries. For the gravity current experiments. 0. It is noted that locally created vertical mixing often causes horizontal density gradients which may drive a transverse circulation in the entire water body (Fischer. For the internal bore experiments.3 m long.206 H. et al. piles and the like. and 0. while fresh water filled the front chamber. traditional experiments for lock exchange flows were performed in a 16. Yeh & K. uniformly mixed salt water filled the back chamber. This trapped lighter fluid is advected upward through the denser fluid due to buoyancy to form a complicated shifting pattern of "lobes and clefts" on the front face of the head. Wada entrained into the current from the bottom. Strong three-dimensional disturbances are observed with flow visualization and the dominant flow characteristics are identified.61 m wide. i. In this paper. The tank was initially divided into two separate chambers with the aluminum gate: The front chamber is 8. The majority of previous work was to investigate the phenomena in a two-dimensional channel. for example. A gravity current or an internal bore .. this process could potentially be dominant for mixing in some estuaries. Flow behaviors associated with the expansion should be similar to the disturbance caused by "vertically intruding" objects. A sharp interface was established by introducing salt water slowly through the diffuser along the bottom against the side wall.45 m deep tank. Such a mixing process occurs.e. we first discuss fundamental features of gravity currents and internal bores. Maxworthy and Monismith. Experimental Facilities Two different experimental apparatuses were used to examine a variety of flow behaviors associated with gravity currents and internal bores. a thin layer of salt water was placed beneath the fresh water in the front chamber. and appears to be effective and efficient in mixing.

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was created as the lock-exchange flow by lifting the aforementioned aluminum gate vertically to 20 cm from the bed. This partial gate opening is a similar generation scheme as that used by Wood and Simpson (1984), which minimizes free-surface disturbance created at the gate and controls the current depth to approximately 9 cm. Horizontal and vertical laser sheets were employed to resolve the flow behavior of gravity currents and internal bores. A 4-watt Argon-ion laser beam is shone onto the oscillating mirror, which produces a laser sheet. The laser sheet illuminates the fluid dyed with disodium fluorescein (C20H10O5N2) in the flow. The dye is previously mixed with the saltwater. The Argon-ion laser operates in the 457.9-528.7 nm wavelength range, i.e., the green spectrum. Fluorescein dye is excited by the green spectrum and becomes a brilliant yellowgreen. This flow visualization technique is often referred to as the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Observations by the LIF technique were made in the front-chamber area 4.5 m downstream of the gate, approximately 50 times the average saltwater flow depth. All the transient disturbances caused by the gate motion should have sufficiently subsided in the area of the observation and measurements. It is also noted that the length of the back chamber is long enough so that flows in the observation area are not disturbed by the reflection from the back-chamber end wall. The conductivity-temperature instrument was used which measures the electrical conductivity and temperature of a solution. An estimate of the spatial resolution is a 1 mm diameter sphere. There is 1 mm separation between the conductivity sensor and the thermistor bead, which implies that the two sensors are reading nearly the same parcel of fluid. The traversing system was used at its maximum traveling velocity in order to obtain an "instantaneous" profile of the flow. At the maximum velocity, the traversing system takes about 2 s to travel down and up through the water column. With the data-scanning rate of 400 scans/s, the spatial resolution of the probe is approximately 1 mm. More detailed discussions of this laboratory apparatus are given in Grandinetti (1992). The second set of experiments was designed to examine the flow behaviors and characteristics associated with flow expansion of established gravity currents to a much wider reservoir. This series of experiments was performed in a 3.0 m long, 1.2 m wide, and 0.9 m high glass-panel water tank. Within the tank, a false partition wall was placed parallel to the tank sidewall to form a

208

H. Yeh & K. Wada

**(a) Elevation View (A-A Section)
**

. . . . . ; • • ' • ' ' .

Scanner I Mirror |

V

vyZtCvyA Q I » A I > fa,

W.

Laser\

(Unit:cm)

Gate

J8

f^Laser \ -/~jsheet^\.

X

Iho

z ' Fresh Water

J Salt Water [

II •o

,

t

(b) Plane View

300

t

180

CM

i

Partition Wall

n

II

9°

»

Not to scale

Fig. 3. Schematic views of the experimental set up: (a) elevation view and (b) plan view. Note that the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system with the right-hand rule is taken at the end of the intersection between the partition wall and the channel bed.

0.22 m wide and 1.80 m long confinement as shown in Fig. 3. Gravity currents and internal bores were also generated by the lock-exchange mechanism, i.e., by lifting the gate to form a flow pattern guided by the confinement. The generated currents were then expanded into open environment at the end of the confinement. Note that the expansion took place on only one side of the channel. In order to describe the locations and directions, we define the coordinate system as shown in Fig. 3. The origin is taken at the bottom of the channel at the tip of the partition wall. Taking Cartesian coordinates from the origin with the right-hand rule, the x-axis points horizontally in the direction extending the partially confined partition wall, the y-axis points horizontally in the direction toward the opposite wall and the z-axis points upward. We conveniently term the partition wall (at y = 0) the "right" wall and the fully extended wall (at y = 0.22 m) the "left" wall. The tip of the partition is identified by the location (x = 0,y = 0). The directions of fluid rotation are described based

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on the right-hand rule of the coordinate system. We also set the time origin (t = 0 s) when the leading edge of the current passes at the position x = 0. The resulting flow patterns were visualized using the laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) technique. 3. Basis for Interpretations of Flow Images The primary interest of hydrodynamics associated with gravity currents and internal bores is their ability to generate turbulence at the interface and subsequently to induce mixing. Hence, it is necessary to review briefly the mechanisms of turbulence generation. Turbulence is rotational flows although the inverse may not be always true: There are many examples for laminar rotational flows. On the other hand, there is no turbulent flow that is irrotational. On this basis, there are two possibilities to generate turbulence associated with gravity currents. First, the fluid is initially rotational (vortical) by some reason, and turbulence is generated by stretching and bending of pre-existing vortex tubes. Under the condition of lock exchange flows, both fluids (saline and fresh water) separated by the lock are considered to be quiescent and initially irrotational. The other possibility is that fluid rotation is created within the fluid domain during its propagation. The fluid rotation then leads to turbulence by stretching and bending the created vortex tubes. For Newtonian mechanics, there must be a force to accelerate a fluid parcel, which is the statement of the conservation of linear momentum. Likewise, the conservation of angular momentum requires torque to create rotation of a fluid parcel when it is initially irrotational. In other words, if there is no torque, then fluid remains irrotational. From this fundamental point of view, we pay careful attention to torque that arises from lock-exchange flows. Fluid rotation can be conveniently measured by flow circulation T, which is defined by:

T= fudx=

Jc

fuj-dA,

Js

(2)

where u is the fluid velocity, u> is the vorticity (curl u), x is the position vector of a closed integration contour c, and A is the area vector of the surface s whose boundary is a single closed curve c. The rate of change in circulation T following a fluid parcel that make up the curve c can be found to be (e.g., see Lighthill, 1987):

ft -Liix)-*1-!.&•*')•*•

(3)

210

H. Yeh & K. Wada

where r^- is the stress tensor, p is the fluid density, and D/Dt is the material derivative. In Eq. (3), we used the Cauchy equation with the conservative body force (e.g., see Serrin, 1959). For incompressible Newtonian fluids with uniform viscosity, using the Stokes theorem, Eq. (3) can be written as: DT

Dt j

s

|_p' '

— (Vp x Vp) + - V2w - — (Vp x pV 2 u)

' •' p (f

dA,

(4)

where p is the pressure and fi is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. The second term on the right-hand side of Eq. (4) represents the diffusion of vorticity from fluid parcels adjacent to the boundary of the integration surface s. Hence, this does not represent vorticity creation within the fluid domain, but represents vorticity transfer from the surroundings (or the boundaries) due to viscous diffusion. In the case of inviscid fluids, flow circulation can be produced within the fluid domain whenever the fluid is displaced from a state in which the pressure gradient Vp and the density gradient Vp are parallel, i.e., Eq. (4) can be modified to be: f = /

s

> P x V p

W

A .

(5)

This is often called Bjerknes' theorem (see, for example, Lamb, 1932, Article 166-a). Equation (5) represents the time rate of change in circulation by torque acting on a fluid parcel: This torque is often termed "baroclinic torque": Physical interpretation of baroclinic torque was discussed in, for example, Yeh (1995). The last term in Eq. (4) represents net viscous force acting upon a fluid particle. It is emphasized that, under the influence of a conservative body-force field, rotational motion can be produced from an initially irrotational state only by two mechanisms: Baroclinic torque and the interaction of density gradient and viscous shear force, and both mechanisms require the existence of density gradients. The latter rotation creation mechanism is termed as "viscous-shear torque" (Yeh, 1991, 1995). If we further assume the fluid to be inviscid and homogeneous, then Eq. (5) is reduced to the Kelvin theorem:

Equation (6) states that flow circulation T around a closed curve c moving with the fluid remains constant.

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Now at this point, it is evident that fluid rotation can be created within the fluid domain only by the action of baroclinic torque or/and viscous shear torque. Consider a typical flow pattern resulted from a lock-exchange flow moving with the velocity U. To compare the two mechanisms of fluid-rotation creation associated with lock exchange flows, first, we note that the gradient of fluid density Vp always points in the direction normal to the interface. Hence, the order of magnitude of the ratio of viscous shear torque l/p2Vp x /xV 2 u to baroclinic torque l/p2Vp x Vp along the frontal interface is:

/uV

Ma_b Va_6p '

2

l

>

where the subscript a-b indicates the component in the direction along the interface a-b as shown in Fig. 4.

*

A /—7—7

7

7—7—7—7

7—7

7

T—f

T

L

Fig. 4. A definition sketch for the front of an internal bore. Fluid rotation is induced at the front due to the presence of sharp density gradient at the interface by baroclinic torque.

Since the divergence of viscous-shear stresses, /xV2u represents a net viscous force per unit volume acting on a fluid parcel and the force must be continuous across the salt-and-fresh water interface, the value of /iV 2 u at the interface can be evaluated either in the fresh or salt water domain. We estimate this value based on the assumption of thin-boundary-layer analogy in the domain of fresh water; the velocity outside of the boundary layer can be considered to be small at the front in the stationary reference frame (the same is not true in the salt-water domain and the thin-boundary layer analogy cannot be justified. Consequently, it is difficult to estimate the values of /LtV2u by using the saltwater velocity field). The Laplacian of the water velocity along the interface

Along the frontal interface (a-b in Fig.^f pU U2 U2 W gL sin a cos a gh* cos2 a ' (11) where h* is the height of the front. It is emphasized that g is the acceleration of gravity but not the reduced gravity g ^ g' = gAp/p. (9) \ L cos a J The gradient of pressure field along the frontal interface may be estimated based on the assumption of hydrostatic pressure field. For example. that often arises from the analyses of stratified flows. the ratio of viscous shear torque to baroclinic torque is extremely small. It . the time scale t can be estimated by t « L/U in which L is the length of the front as shown in Fig. (11) demonstrates that with the exception of forced flows such as a jet by maintaining the interface slope very small. _. Our estimate in Eq.001 kg/m-s. the densimetric Froude number U/yfgH is approximately unity. Yeh & K.212 H. and we used the boundary-layer thickness to be 0{y/vi) where v is the kinematic viscosity of the water {y = p/p).6 » O -f . 4). £ points in the direction normal to the interface as shown in Fig.002. \icosa/ where u a _b « U/ cos a is the water velocity parallel to the interface in the coordinates moving with the current. = 0.002. 4). (10) where r] is the elevation of the interface and £ points in the direction along the interface a-b as shown in Fig. If the interface slope is less than 25 degrees. h* m L tan a (see Fig. Wada can be estimated by: / i V ^ a _ 6 « P~-^ » O (-^— ) . which is: dri Va-bpK. 4. (8) a.000 kg/m 3 and fj. . 4. a is the angle of the front face from the horizontal. 4.e. hence Eq. (8) can be written as: pU2 / J W . it can be argued that the magnitude of viscous shear torque is usually small at the interface. U is the propagation speed.d2Ua-b _.. the front face of typical lock-exchange flow with Ap/p = 0. The ratio of baroclinic torque to viscous shear torque is then written as: MW-6 Va-bp W 72 . i. pg—tt pg sin a. p = 1.. hence U2/gh w U2/gh* is 0. Even without the aforementioned quantitative estimate. the baroclinic torque is more than 400 times greater than the viscous shear torque.

For the images shown in Fig.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 213 is because the inflection point of the velocity profile of a two-layer flow is often located at or very close to the density interface. V 2 u = 0. the Reynolds number R = 1450 and the internal Froude number F = 0. the billows (a) (b) Fig. Time interval between (a) and (b) is 5. created by a splitter plate. 6 where the front's pattern in the horizontal plane is irregular. This can be verified in Fig. 2.995. Note that the faint horizontal band inside the gravity current shown in the photographs is the reflection from the diffuser. Only the salt water (p2 — 1002 kg/m 3 ) was dyed with fluorescein and appears as bright regions having been illuminated by the Argon-ion laser sheet. there is no viscous shear torque. . This is different from the features of a typical Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a plain shear flow that is.5 cm above the bed respectively. 4. i. for example.6 s. F e a t u r e s of G r a v i t y C u r r e n t s Figures 5 and 6 show our laser-induced-fluorescence flow images in a longitudinal vertical plane at the center of the tank and in a horizontal plane 10. 5 show the formation of billows on the front face. the location of the laser illumination plane is depicted in Fig. The Reynolds number and the densimetric Froude number of this flow are R = 1450 and F = 0. The flow images in Fig.995 respectively. 5. hence. 6. The flow characteristics and behaviors that we will present in this article will be primarily interpreted based on this concept.. Gravity-current flow structure in the longitudinal vertical plane. It is now fair to say that the dominant mechanism for the creation of fluid rotation for free lock-exchange flow is baroclinic torque at the salt-fresh water interface.e. these small-scale billows are found to be three-dimensional. (a) Laser-induced fluorescence shows the irregular front face and the ascension of entrapped fresh water and (b) the inverted roll-up under the nose of the leading front. At the inflection point where the curvature of the velocity profile vanishes.

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Figure 7 shows that the thinner the initial front layer. the inverted roll-up and entrainment of the ambient fluid under the "nose" can be identified.995 and (b) R = 1440 and F = 1.5 cm for Fig. the steeper the front face and the earlier the formation of billow roll-ups. 5 and 6 that need to be addressed. the roll-up features of billows are long-crested.861 respectively. the three-dimensional front formation observed here is consistent with the "lobes and clefts" pattern indicated by Simpson (1987). Features of Internal Bores Our experimental results in Fig. The flow pattern of the internal bore (the case shown in Fig.e.. 5. 8.e. The leading edge is irregular as seen in Fig. 6. Note that the Reynolds number and the densimetric Froude number of the flows shown in Fig. The underside entrainment of the lighter fluid at the front of the gravity current is clearly seen in Fig.00. In the flow following the front (see Fig. It is evident from the time sequence of . the pattern is irregular. the front face of an internal bore is smooth. 7(d)) is further examined by introducing a small red dye (Rhodamine) patch in the initial salt-water layer as shown in Fig.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 215 associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are at least initially twodimensional. which appears to be two-dimensional at least initially. 7(b). including the formation of counter-rotating. 7 show that the flow characteristics of the gravity current and internal bore are significantly different from each other. 7 are (a) R = 1450 and F = 0. 5. although it appears to be an alternating pattern of salt and fresh water rows in the propagation direction indicating periodic formation of large-size eddies. mushroom-shaped eddies (Fig. i. Contrary to the case of gravity currents. There are several intriguing features in Figs. which are presumably associated with the formation of U-shaped vortex loops on the front face. 7(c) and 7(d) are 1 cm and 2 cm respectively). 5(a). Unlike a gravity current. i. (c) R = 1730 and F = 1.. even when the pre-existing front layer of the denser fluid for the internal bore is thin (0. In Fig. the dark streaks being flared near the very front along the bed show the ascension of entrapped fresh water due to its buoyancy. i. 6(a)).4 percent of the total depth while Figs.e. and turbulence is generated at the rear side of the head. approximately 1. Figure 5(b) shows an underside entrainment. 6(b)).. the billow formation of an internal bore resembles that of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. the flow pattern is uniform in the direction transverse to the flow.29 and (d) R = 1230 and F = 0. Instead.

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the rotationality is advected with the fluid motion (Helmholtz's theorem) and diffuses by viscous effects. 8. fluid parcels along the interface are originally vortical. 5). Yeh & K. (11) by an order-of-magnitude analysis that viscous-shear torque plays an insignificant role compared with the role of baroclinic torque. Further explanation can be given based on the vorticity creation mechanisms given by Eq. it looks like the dyed fluid is coating the advancing bore head. (b) entrapped fresh water under the leading edge or nose (see Fig. i. the fluid parcels along the interface are initially quiescent and irrotational. and/or (c) the bottom (no-slip) boundary condition. The fluid within the current is already vortical due to turbulence induced by (a) wave breaking behind the head.. 9(a). Also note that it was shown in Eq. Hence. This vortically perturbed flow is affected further by the creation of fluid rotation by baroclinic torque at the front interface. (4) represents the transfer of fluid rotation by vorticity diffusion from fluid parcels adjacent to the boundary of the integration surface. which results in three-dimensional .e. 9. the fluid parcels along the interface are advected from inside of the advancing current as shown in Fig. in the case of the internal bore. Fluid rotation must be created at the interface by baroclinic torque: The pressure gradient must be close to that of hydrostatic condition while the density gradient is normal to the interface as shown in Fig. Once fluid rotation was created by baroclinic torque. Wada photographs that the initially undisturbed fluid of the thin layer moves along the front face (saline and fresh water interface) and the bottom boundary. the leading bore front consists of fluid parcels previously located in the quiescent thin layer in front of the bore. for a gravity current.218 H. Recall that there are only two mechanisms to create fluid rotation within the fluid domain (excluding at solid boundary surfaces). By following the red-dye fluid patch shown in Fig. Hence. Such formations are not possible in an internal bore because ambient fresh water cannot be trapped along the bottom where the denser fluid already occupies. and does not represent creation of fluid rotation within the fluid domain. On the other hand. This property manifests itself in the formation of billows behind the ridge of the bore front. (4)) and viscous-shear torque (the last integrand term) both of which require the presence of density gradient. (4). These are baroclinic torque (the first integrand term in Eq. The distinct differences in the features between gravity currents and internal bores might be explained by Simpson's (1987) "lobes and clefts" formation at a gravity current's foremost leading edge. It is emphasized that the second integrand in Eq.

It appears in Figs. then the next roll-up is created. A sketch of flow patterns at the front of (a) gravity current and (b) internal bore. and this process is repeated. 5 and 6. 7 and 8 that the vortex formation behind the head of the internal bore resembles that of a separation eddy associated with sudden flow expansion of the fresh water along a fictitious saline wall (i. 9. The nature of inherently vortical flow at the gravity-current head can be an explanation for "lobe-and-cleft" formations as well as the reason for three-dimensional small-scale billow formations. the saline-fresh water interface). As soon as the roll-up is formed. Yeh and Mok (1990) demonstrated that turbulence-patch formations behind bores at the air-water interface also result from the generation-advection cycle.Descriptive Vp Vp Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 219 -7—7—v—7—7—r(a) Vp Vp -?—s / s s > / / -r—r (b) Fig. It is conjectured that turbulence patches are formed by the "generation-advection" cycle of the roll-up formation.. and complicated patterns at the interface of the head as shown in Figs. In order to test this hypothesis. the periodic turbulence-patch formation is quantified by the frequency of its . roll-ups form a periodic pattern of turbulent regions at somewhat constant intervals. Fluid-rotation is induced along the front face by baroclinic torque due to misalignment of the density gradient Vp that is perpendicular to the interface and the pressure gradient Vp that is approximately vertical for hydrostatic condition. Furthermore.e. The periodic features of turbulence patches might be related to the intermittent nature of the flow. the large vortex of the roll-up is advected behind the head.

0 1 I T I I I 0.0 cm (Fig.0 Fig. then the time scale for roll-up is found to be Tr w irS/U. Computed frequencies l/Tr shown in Fig. 0. The prediction is based on the hypothesis that each eddy is formed and advected at the rate of the excursion time for a fluid parcel travelling around the roll-up. o. The error bars represent 90% confidence limits. gravity current (Fig.8 o > t3 'S a > a.5 cm (Fig. This measured frequency should be related to the frequency associated with the excursion time of a fluid parcel traveling around the vortex.4 0. 10. internal bore with ho = 0. . 7(a)).220 H. 7 and 8) and the propagation speed U were measured directly from the time-lapse flow images.2 0. 7(b)).8 frequency (Hz) measured 1. note that the error bars in the figure represent the 90% confidence limit for the frequency measurements. Wada generation.0 cm (Fig. internal bore with ho = 1.4 c ID 3 CT 0) * 0. 10 are in a very good agreement with the measured frequency from the video images.0 •o 0. The excellent agreement in Fig. 9(b) (the actual length scale of the vortex is somewhat smaller than this estimation as seen in Figs. and using the vortex-velocity scale to be the bore propagation velocity U. Predicted and measured generation frequencies of the large-scale eddies: O. Yeh & K. A. The vortex size S as indicated in the sketch shown in Fig. 10 supports the conjecture that the periodic behavior of the turbulence patches 1. 7(d)).2 0. x. 7(c)). internal bore with ho = 2.0 0. the generation frequency can be measured directly from the video images of our experiments.6 0. Assuming the vortex size 5 (say the diameter of the orbital motion) is comparable with the difference in height between the head and the current depth behind the head.6 f? & 0.

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The buoyancy time scale TJ. This rough estimate demonstrates that the order of computed magnitudes of the buoyancy-effect time scale and of the vortex-motion time scale is comparable. can be estimated as the traversing time for a fluid-parcel to ascend through the vortex length scale S by the buoyancy force: Tb « y/5/g'. Yeh & K. Assuming the vortex size 5 is comparable with the difference in height between the head and the current depth behind the head (see Fig.8 s. which supports the explanation for three-dimensional variations discussed the above. indicating that fluid mixing at the head is immediate and efficient in comparison to mixing in the current far behind the head. Using the vortex velocity scale to be the bore propagation velocity U. At this point. Approximately 10 s after the passage of the head.e. Figs. w 1. The results in Fig. To see this more clearly. 9(b)) and using the buoyant acceleration g' = (p2 — Pi)g/pi. the small-scale density inversions in the figures can be interpreted as the presence of small active eddies. In the second gradient. the time scale for roll-up is found to be Tr « nS/U = 3. the mixing process is attributed to the continual shear flow created by the fast-moving dense water under the nearly stationary mixed-fluid region. 13(d)). 13(b)). consider the time scales of the vortex motion and the buoyancy effect. 12. The roll-up time scale can be estimated as before: An excursion time for a fluid parcel to travel around the vortex. the region of overturning billows is considered to be mixed. The upper portion of the profile has a uniform density gradient caused by largescale mixing of overturning billows. the gravitational instability is more likely the one that causes the transverse perturbation of vortices that appears in Fig. this mixing process takes place directly behind the head. 12. As mentioned. i. In fact. appreciable fluid mixing has already taken place in the vicinity of the head. which gradually erodes the layer.. 13(a) show the mixing phase caused by overturning billows. as . these small-scale density inversions are diminished (Fig. Rather than the manifestation of longitudinal (streamwise) vortex formations in the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This fast-moving fluid layer is vortical due to the boundary-layer effect. Wada the three-dimensional variations appears to be plausible for the present case. Note that two separate mixing processes are represented by the appearance of two distinguishable gradients in the density profile plot (Fig. 13(c) and 13(d) show no density inversion that means no significant fluid entrainment being taken place. the time scale for the buoyancy effect is found to be T(. Typical density-profile data of an internal bore are presented in Fig.2 s for the case shown in Fig. The results appear to be consistent with our discussion made earlier. 13.224 H.

R = 1230.. 5- ^ 0 997 998 999 1000 p (kg/m3) (b) Fig. (b) t = t 0 + 11 s. 8. This indicates that appreciable fluid mixing took place quickly. (a) t = t 0 . The small-scale density inversions shown in (a) due to active eddies are diminished in 11 s.861. and (d) t = to + 32 s. as shown in (b). 1001 1002 1003 . F = 0. .c a 10 S *. 13. the density profile remains relatively unchanged.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 225 is- le- v«' V* s' n997 998 999 1000 3 1001 1002 1003 p (kg/m ) (a) 15 3. Time sequence of the density profile for an internal bore shown in Fig. Thereafter. (c) t = t 0 + 21 s.

. • 0 ^ 997 998 999 1000 3 1001 1002 1003 p (kg/m ) () c 15 -4—' a* o 5- v. {Continued) .226 H. — 1 1 1 1 1 1 "N ^ 1 1 1 I 1 1 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 p (kg/m3) (d) Fig. Yeh & K. T3 io- \ . Wada 15 V ? a.. 13. *-.

11. Note that the features are similar to those shown in Fig. It is also emphasized that the immediate mixing appears to take place for the fluid initially placed in front of the internal bore. . F = 0. we first repeat the experiments in the second apparatus for the gravity current and internal bore in the confined narrow channel by blocking the expansion.15 m) and the location of x — 0 is indicated with the mark T in the figure (see Fig. Effects of spreading of gravity current and internal bore can been seen clearly by comparing the longitudinal flow profiles in Figs. 7. In order to demonstrate the effects of expansion. Figure 15 shows the flow patterns at y/d = 0. The leading face of the gravity current has a complex flow pattern. 3). It is evident in Fig.73 for the gravity current and (b) R = 1800 and F = 0. Flow E x p a n s i o n of Gravity Currents and Internal Bores Three-dimensional mixing characteristics associated with sudden expansion of a gravity current and an internal bore into open environment are examined using the second experimental apparatus (see Fig. Note that the Reynolds number and the densimetric Froude number of the flows shown in Fig.78 for the internal bore respectively. While the difference in the head characteristics between the gravity current and the internal (a) •trKv (b) Fig. Longitudinal profiles of (a) gravity current (R = 1700.73) and (b) internal bore (R = 1800. 7. while the internal bore has a smooth front face followed by the formation of roll up.17 where d is the total flow depth (0. 3 for the coordinates used in the discussion). 14 are (a) R = 1700 and F = 0. 14 that the similar flow patterns are obtained as those shown in Fig. F = 0. 14.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 227 do the combined effects of shear instability and small-scale eddies within the lower layer fluid.78) in a channel with a uniform width. while the fluid in the core of the internal bore tends to remain unmixed as shown in Fig. 14 and 15. 6.

1. 17 and 18 respectively. The reduction of the depth occurs first near the confined wall (y m 0) and the effect propagates toward the left wall of the channel.e. The variations of the depressed flow depth behind the head are plotted in Fig. Behind the leading head. Wada f * * /JTP? * * T (a) (b) Fig. On the other hand. 16 for the gravity current (the results for internal bores are similar and not shown here). the reduction is gradual without the overshoot.17. bore remains the same. 15). while along y/d = 1.nd presented in Figs. The depth of the two-dimensional gravity current in the confined channel remains constant at hm\n/d « 0. Longitudinal profiles of (a) gravity current (R = 1700.. i. 15. once the gravity current spreads into open environment (x > 0).27 are visualized a. the depth decreases less than hm\x\/d ~ 0. the depth behind the head decreases substantially to hmjn/d w 0. overshooting the reduction.4.30. The flow patterns of the gravity current and internal bore in the horizontal plane at z/d = 0.17 when they spread out into open environment. near the left wall.228 H.1. Note that the location of the end of the false partition wall is marked by V in (b). F = 0.1 and gradually increases to 0. Along y/d — 0.78) along the vertical plane at y/d = 0. . Yeh & K. F = 0. the flow depth is grossly depressed and then the mixed fluid is lifted up to the free surface at the location near x = 0 (Fig.73) and (b) internal bore (R = 1800. the leading head heights are substantially reduced due to spreading.

The location of the end of the partition wall (x = Q. f=1.73) in the horizontal plane (the X-AJ plane) at the height z/d = 0.9 s Fig. Time sequences of the flow patterns of gravity current (Fig.y = 0) is marked by • .27. R = 1700. 15(a).8 s f = 7.3 2-D (y/d=0.2s f = 11.73 0. as identified in Fig.3 O • © + ffl (y/d) 1. which is plotted against the location of the leading head.30 0. Variations of the depressed water depth behind the leading head of the gravity current. 16. Note that the time origin (t — 0 s) is set at when the leading edge of the current passes at the position x = 0 (the end of the false partition wall).17 -0.6 *^ the tip of thei partition wall (x=0)\ 0. F = 0. is normalized with the total flow depth d. 15.73) 0 0 £i JC Jbl C&- Fig. .1s t= 18.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 229 0. 17. The depth /i m i„.

15. F = 0. the fresh water and salt water are simply exchanged within the confined channel just like the flow in a two-dimensional channel as shown in Fig. the fresh water inflow is introduced from the region y < 0 into the channel. This fresh water intrusion from the side around the end wall causes the sudden flow-depth reduction behind the leading head as well as inducing the strong three-dimensional mixing and upwelling near the end wall as shown in Fig. Observation of the time evolution in Fig.27. Yeh & K. the fresh water intrudes from the side (y < 0) around the end of the right wall to supplement the volume loss due to the saline current outflow into open environment. Recall that the roll-up and the front are usually parallel in a two-dimensional channel as shown in Fig. While the current is advancing within the confined channel (x < 0). 17. For the internal bore. On the other hand.16. but the direction is oblique to the spreading current. 15(b). R = 1800. the roll-up (wave breaking) behind the head manifests itself as a white streak line in Fig. In Fig. the leading front of the internal bore is smooth as shown in Fig. Wada ( = 0. 18 suggests that the roll-up is not aligned to the direction of the front. The location of the end of the partition wall (x — 0. 18. Note that the time origin (! = 0 s) is set at when the leading edge of the current passes at the position x — 0 (the end of the false partition wall).78) in the horizontal plane (the x-y plane) at the height z/d = 0. Time sequences of the flow patterns of internal bore (Fig.7 s A r = 8.0s t~ 13. 18. 12). 18 (also see Fig.1s Fig. . 17 and 18 clearly show that once the front leaves the confined channel. Time sequences of Figs. 14. 6. the gravity current shows the complex leading front pattern just as in Fig.0s t. 12.230 H.y = 0) is marked by • . Once the front escaped from the confined channel (x > 0).

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o. the frequency 0. This creation-advection cycle may have caused the distinct fluctuation of the side slope.5 cm o for internal bore with ho = 1. The slope (3 for both cases fluctuates at comparable rates. Yeh & K.B. D. • .Scm) 50 60 70 ?(S) 80 Fig. 40 i O. unlike the front slope of the gravity current being much steeper than that of the internal bore. This pulsating side slope might be related to the eddy formation due to baroclinic torque on the side face. Temporal variations of the side interface slope f3 as indicated in Figs. the process repeats its creation and advection.BJ0\=lcm) . the values of /3 for gravity current and internal bore are comparable. 14. 25. The time variations of the side slope (3 at x = 2 cm as shown in Figs. (5) and based on the flow-visualization results described herein. The peak locations of dominant oscillations are marked by: — • — for the gravity current.1 ~ 0. i 45 \l. the side interface is nearly vertical and the fluid there appears to be vortical due to advection of fluid from the boundary layer along the tank's side wall (Figs. i. The eddy formation process is not continuous but discrete. gravity current. D for internal bore with ho = 0. Near the exit point x w 0. internal bore with ho = 1. Note that the side slope (3 is much steeper.. 23 and 24 are plotted in Fig. 25. 23 and 24): The initial vorticity at the .C. Wada 90 • d G J---0 Q----H-Q -o 75 o A 1 G. Using Eq. Also noted that. 3 60 •'": .(*„ = 30 30 .0 cm. the effects evidently first appear near y « 0. the following flow patterns can be inferred for the gravity current and internal bore when they spread out from the confined channel. t \ I. internal bore with ho = 0.15 Hz. 23 and 24.236 H.0 cm. It is partly because the location of the measurements is right after the end wall (x = 2 cm) and its outflow momentum disallows the flow to spread at this point.e.5 cm. than the front slope as shown in Fig. Once the current exits the channel into open environment. (3 > 45°.

the creation of vertical salt and fresh water interface at the exit induces fluid rotation in the negative x-direction due to baroclinic torque. Hence. which influences the roll-up pattern of gravity current and internal bore as shown in Figs. which creates the vorticity in the negative ^-direction and causes slump of the interface in the negative y-direction and induction of fresh-water intrusion in the positive y-direction. 26. . once the current exits from the channel. Such fluid-rotation patterns near the exit (x = 0 and y = 0) is depicted in Fig. At the same time. At the same time. the vertical side interface induces strong baroclinic torque l/p 2 Vp x Vp. sidewall must be in the negative z-direction. The created fluid rotation is stretched and bent by the fresh-water inflow to form a vortex tube. 17 and 18. the created vortical flow at the side interface due to baroclinic torque is advected with this fresh-water intrusion.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 237 Fig. 26. While the vortical flow along the side-wall boundary is advected to the open environment. Generation and transport of fluid rotation near the exit to open environment. the flow pattern near the exit becomes three-dimensional. The induced freshwater intrusion from the right provides the dominant supply into the channel to compensate the saline loss.

19. resulting the substantial reduction of the saline depth behind the head (see Figs.238 H. instead of the roll-up from the leading head (Note that in the two-dimensional channel. and 20). 18 and 22. Hence. This upwelling must be due to the Fig. 27. and 20). This bending causes the roll-up behind the internal bores shown in Figs. 15. then is bent inward (in the y-direction) and accelerated due to the flow convergence into the channel. Schematic flow pattern near the exit. and also the rotation causes the fresh-water down welling. because the roll-up is caused by the fresh-water intrusion from the right-hand side. . the initial fluid rotation in the negative ^-direction is bent and stretched toward the negative y-direction as depicted in Fig. 15. Yeh & K. This can explain why the roll-up and the depth reduction propagate toward the y-direction. we observed strong mixing and upwelling (see Figs. 19. 15 and 16). Wada and then vortex tubes are being bent and stretched. This fresh-water advection adjacent to the saline interface is initially in the positive ^-direction due to the initial saline-flow momentum. Inside of the channel near the right wall. The upwelling of the mixed fluid occurs by the secondary current generation due to the fresh-water separation eddy formation (see Figs. the roll-up is caused by the accumulation of baroclinic torque generated along the front face). 26.

while that of the internal bore is smooth. P. Similarity of the primary vortex structure. the separation eddy is larger near the surface and smaller near the fresh-water-and-saline interface as depicted in Fig. (1981). The leading front of the gravity current is complex. The flow divergence of the upper fresh water causes the upwelling of the lower fluid. Secondary streamwise vortex structure. References Benjamin. The vigorous mixing and upwelling near the flow exit within the confined channel must be caused by the fresh-water inflow. (1968). 26. Nonetheless. Bernal. et al. The inflow velocity is fast near the surface and it decreases in depth: The inflow velocity must diminish just above the saline outflow.Descriptive Hydrodynamics of Lock-Exchange Flows 239 formation of the secondary current caused by flow separation of fresh-water inflow around the tip of the right wall. T. The complex flow pattern associated with the spreading appears to be influenced significantly by the upper fresh-water inflow to the channel and by the fluid rotation generated by baroclinic torque at the flow exit. 27.. Gravity currents and related phenomena. just as the separation flow pattern in an openchannel flow (Yeh. Conclusion It is reconfirmed that the gravity current near the leading head is significantly different from that of the internal bore. Wada. When the gravity current or internal bore spreads from the two-dimensional channel into open environment. Hence. J. 1988). . 31: 209-248. 7. S. Fluid Mech. Grandinetti. B. II. Acknowledgment The photographs presented herein were taken at the University of Washington by C. The coherent structure of turbulent mixing layers. I. the mixed fluid that appears in the upwelling must be originated at the side interface near the exiting point. The support from the Washington Sea Grant Program is acknowledged. Such mixed fluid may be transported by the fresh-water inflow to the area of the upwelling. the flow pattern of each case is similar except at the leading front. Note that active mixing near i/fsO can be seen in Figs. L. 23 and 24: The mixing is due presumably to baroclinic torque as well as the advection of vortical fluid from the side wall as depicted in Fig. Lingel and K.

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