390

Reinforced Step 5

Concrete Carry out local analysis Find out-at-plane internal forces in wall panels (follow Section 8.1.2.2). After analysis the following internal forces are reported:

Wall no.

Line

Load case DL

MOH

(kNm/m)

VOH (kN/m)

Mav (kNm/m)

Vav (kN/m)

A

LL WL DL

28 20 to 32 3
1

26

B

LL WL DL
LL

30

C

WL
0

28 10 5 32 3
1

26

DL LL WL

30

8

F

,

I

8 IA ;:::!
o
I

JE
I

I
G
1

K

I
I

I
L

I
0
'///

I

j

LI
M

I

I
H

I
, 10500

SK 8/46 Elevation

- Wall S.

Wall 1 only will be designed as an example. Wall 5 panels are shown in sketch to illustrate the location of lines where results should be available for out-of-plane bending. Note: The example shown uses only one value of bending moment and shear per line of interest. In practice, more values along the line will have to be considered.

Step 6 Carry out combination of loading Most computer programs used for the analysis will automatically carry out the combination according to principles described in Step 6 of Section 8.2. Reproduced below is the result of one combination of Wall 1. Load case LC}
=

1.4DL

+

l.4WL

Design of Walls Wall 1 subject to WL (y-direclion) In-plane forces (see Step 4 in Section 8.2): N MI VI

391

= 4452kN

Q, =

=

=

28000kNm 2380kN 1440kN (97 x 10.6 x 1.4) forces (see Step 5 in Section 8.2):

Out-of-plane

At line D (WL in y-direction),
MOH =

VOH

=

14kNm/m (dead load x 1.4) 42kN/m (DL x 1.4)

On flanges (part of Wall 5 and 6),
MOH =

VOH

=

39kNm/m 36kN/m

(WL in y-direction) (WL in y-direction)

Step 7 Check slenderness of wall Follow Section 8.1.1.2.1. Type of wall

= unbraced,

reinforced

in the in-plane direction

'---'

@
600

'§f

~

§

SK 8/47 Section through Wall 1.

t

CD

feu =
He Ho

30 N/mm2

fy

=

460N/mm2

= ~ u; = clear height

=

12.0m

Monolithic construction at top and bottom of wall. Assume thickness of slab al top is 400 mm. End conditions are 1 at bottom and 2 at top. .'. He He {3
=

1.3
=

=

1.3 x 12000 15600 600
=

15600mm

h=

26

> 10 < 30 (limit for unbraced reinforced wall)

Design as slender wall.

:>n Reinforced Concrete
. Step 8 Find effective width of flanges

600

SK 8/48 Plan of Wall I showing

effective flange widths.

Follow Section 8.1.1.3. Assume the shear wall behaves as a cantilever. b

=-

8500 2

=

. 4250

H = 12000

H
'P

b

= 0.35
=

0.53
'IjJ

for loading at top of wall

be =

b

= 0.53

X

4250

=

2250mm

Step 9 Find additional out-of-plane moments Wall is assumed braced in the out-of-plane
au =

direction. 9600

P

Kh, He

=

13 H;
256

=

0.8

X

12000

ee

Assume K j3 1

= 1 for

conservatism.

= 2000 h
= Na;

(He)2

=

2000

=

0.1.28

au = O.128h = 76.8 mm
Madd

(out-of-plane) = 4452 X 0.0768 = 342kNm
=10.6

342

=

32.3kNm/m

Step 10

Design stocky braced reinforced wall Not applicable.

• Ash-------' Ash--------' 2 § · . • I" _. · . C-. 16·2 Out-ol-Plane Madd Step 11 Determine cover to reinforcemem Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm Condition of exposure = mild Grade of concrete == C30 Minimum cement content = 275 kg/rn3 Nominal cover = 25 mm Step 12 Design of reinforced wall ._ ..__. • 2550 _I Ask---------~ . . Ash-----' 2 !!:! C-' 2 ~ ~ SK 8/50 Elastic stress analysis of Wallt. • 8 £t § -._ c-. ~I' .Design of Walls 393 16·2 SK 8/49 Moments due to slenderness. ~s--------_J c-. . c-.rigorous method H N.-'---- § -. 2 ~ ~ '" 0 I~ · ._ '~--A '---.1 ..

699 108.374 1.76 ac AS! a1 C1 (x 109) (x 1012) 4.862 19. x = 3000mm assumed.642 1.392 9.62 0.53 0.76 0. (4) Divide tension zone into convenient layers of steel.198 109 == 3. = 1735mm mLAst +:rS M N =.X) (AT .553 52.042 4.394 Reinforced Concrete (1) Assume 0. .40% reinforcement . (2) Assume a value of x for depth of neutral axis from compression face.= 28000 x lW 4452 = 6289 mm Ie = Nx( e + AT .348 117.147 24.456 1.198 x 109 = 653mm x e = mLAsttll + 1:Sac .407 24.952 48.72 0. (3) Divide compression zone into convenient layers of concrete.14 6120 24360 6 Totals 6.x)atA.259 I 2 3 1.094 C2 CJ (X 10(.1)A~1 (x . = per metre length 600 X 1000 x 0.Qc)S 4452 X 103 X 3000 X (6289 + 9201 X - 1735) (9201 .) 2.048 X 1012 6.653) X 6.368 0.772 8.198 4.ac>acS (at .658 C4 (x 1010) 1. (5) Find the following in completing the table: S = Ac + (m .312 1.317 13.X)ASI (ar .97 11880 3.426 16.72 6120 2880 2880 300 1200 2400 4 5 3648 3648 3648 3648 3760 5280 6800 8320 9840 10900' 3648 2.048 A c = ____1 LC Lei = 4.Ac) L (X .aclS C] C2 C3 C4 = = = = (x .t Number Ac (x 101'1) A~t S (x 101'1) 1.40 100 = 2400mm2/m Use 1200 mm2 on each face per metre length.467 Nrmnr' . Reinforcement in wall.

. I f$=183N/mm2 .)AJ[(~) (11100 .3~) 117.198 x 109 4452 x Ifrl] = 186..8) = 3.7 + 2.stress diagram..lysis .25 N/mm2 N1 r _---.6N/mm2 (6) Check x = --.7 N/mm2 2·8 Nfmm2 SK 8151 Elastic ana.467) x 6.658 xl· d mfc L (x 3000 . reinforcement in compression flange due to out-of-plane bending Average compressive stress in flange = ~(3. Assume x = 2700 mm After carrying out the same tabular exercise as before it is found that: Ie = fSI = 3. 1----- lc=3.4 Nfmm2 Check x = 2570mm.Design of Walls 395 fSI = L:(: = ..66N/mm2 182...1 = 24t9mm +~ Second approximation for x is halfway between first approximation and the check result. No further iteration is necessary.Qc)S - N] - = x [(3. -. Check.

8.047 For p = 0. N ~ 3.3 2 (see Step 9) = 55.25 Nzmrrr' :.25 x 15 for m = 15 = 48.87 X 460 4OON/mm2 A vailable tensile force in bars per metre length of wall per face of wall = (400 ~ 183) x 1200 (area on each face) == 260.53 > 3. - N bit from chart IS . Material strengths chosen: feu k = 30N/mm2 =- fy == e 460N/mm2 =- =- d /1 565 600 = 0.87fy 0.75N/mm2 Over a unit length of wall. Nominal steel is required as per chart.25 x 600 = 1950kN Out-of-plane bending moment due to DL due to slenderness + WL(y) + additional moment =39+- 32.396 Reinforced Concrete Average compressive stress in reinforcement in flange == 3. compressive force. 13.028 m See Table 11. ~= e h 0. Check' reinforcement in tension flange for out-of-plane bending Maximum tensile stress in bar due to in-plane bending moment = 183N/mm2 Maximum allowable ultimate tensile stress in bars = = = 0.4.95 M N = 0.4kN/m Maximum out-of-plane bending moment = 55.2kNm/m SK 8/52 Section through wall for out-of-plane analysis.2 kNm/m .

.2 .2 X 397 106 X 30 x 1000 5652 = 5. Step 14 Design of short and squat cantilever waU . Step 13 Design of reinforced wall .95d = O.2.Design of Walls M K=-fcubd2 55.----0 0 I-I s 52 0 II 600 ~ " SK S/S3 Shear check or Wall 1.simple method Not required.deep beam approach Not required.300 = 10900mm below neutral axis in web ignoring do = (approx.8kN/m This is less than 260. The design principle is exactly similar to beam design and has not been illustrated.3210 .5 + J( 0.25 - O~9)]~ 0. no additional reinforcement is required in tension flange.76 Z X 10-3 = d[ 0.95d = Required 537mm M tensile force in bars = - z = 55. Hence.600 x 10900 .4 kN/m available.2 X 103 537 = 102. because HI L > L Step 15 Check shear . = = = available tension reinforcement flange (11.0.6) x 2400 20640rn2 11200 .) Pi - _ lOOAsi _ 100 x 20640 _ 0 hwd. As.

4 x 0.58 N/mm 2 A"o do = = available tension reinforcement 1200mm2/m (each face) for out-of-plane direction bending = = effective depth in out-of-plane lOOAso bd.2 to 11. .5. Increase of design concrete shear stress due to presence of axial load has been ignored in these calculations but may be allowed as per formula on page 160.398 Reinforced Concrete f~u = 30 N/mm2 From Figs 11. hW~i Vi = = VI = 3820kN Vi = = 0.47N/mm2 combined in-plane shear + Q.47 0.25 >1 Shear reinforcement Note: is necessary for in-plane shear." = (1 V. 1 From Figs 11.= (0. CI 0.4 kN Vi = 3820 - 3008.-Vo. Step 16 Calculate shear reinforcement Case 1: y" = I V"h < V.46N/mm2 Vi = v..6kN Shear reinforcement is required to resist 811.4N/mm2 = = VOH out-of-plane 4.2 to 11.007) -_. Vci = 0. Vci VL'Q 0.2 kNfmm bdo shear coacting with Vi on the web 2 Voh V = --OH = 0.007 N/mm voh -Vi + .hwdi = 3008.47 = 0. = 2380 + 1440 V.) Veo y.. ( 1 .6 kN.4 = 811.5.007) 0. Veo = 0.58) + (0. = = 565 mm Po 100 x 1200 = 2 % 1000 X 565 0.4 = 1.

= Ah - Sh = 0. In the web 2400mm2/m vertical bars are available at a maximum average stress level of.6 x HY 0.4 x 28 39.87fyd. then Ah = 300 x 0.87 x 460 x 10900 = 0.87 x 460 -160 = 240N/mm2 Modified AviS v to take into account the residual capacity = 0. 811. say. or.19 = 57 rnnr' which is 29 mm2 of horizontal bar on each face at 300 mm centres.32 = Av for shear required per metre length of wall Available vertical bars 320mm2 (modified) = 2400mm2/m in web Hence no additional vertical bars are necessary to resist shear in web. Av Sv .87 x 240 460 = 0. bending • • • (see Step 5) Mov Vov = = 1.19 for fy = 460N/mm2 Vertical shear reinforcement additional to vertical bars provided for bending is required if available vertical bars have no residual capacity.4kN/m . 16ON/mm2 (see Step 12).4 x 26 36. Step 17 Check out-oj-plane bending about vertical plane 50 I ~ ~ 550 I • • SK 8/54 Out-of-plane about vertical plane.Design of Walls Ah = Vsi 399 Sh O.2kNm/m = = 1. Hence residual capacity available in vertical bars in web = 0.19 If Sh = 300. 97 mm2 per metre on each face.19 x 0. No shear reinforcement is required in out-of-plane direction.

Check containment of wall reinforcement Vertical reinforcement is Jess than 2% of gross concrete area.87 x 460 x 522 . 39.07 N/mm 2 Shear stress is negligible.25 .400 Reinforced Concrete M K = -- fcubd2 ==.13% (/y = 460N/mm2) = on each face 600 0.4% (fy = 460N/mm2) This has been provided. Step 22 . This reinforcement will be adopted. Minimum horizontal tension reinforcement == 0. Step 18 Design of plain walls Not required. This has been provided.2 x HI' = 187. Step 21 Check maximum reinforcement Not required.95d A M =: -- = 522mm s 0.6mm2 required in Step 16 Add to this. Step 19 Shear check of plain walls Not required. the horizontal reinforcement Total horizontal reinforcement WL is reversible in direction) = 187.2 X 106 Z = d[ 0.0~9)] ~ 0. reinforcement for in-plane shear.6mm2/m Vuv required on each face (assuming the load = Vov bd = 1000 x 36.5 + J( = 30 x 1000 x 5SOZ = 4.4 x loJ 550 = 0.3 X 10-3 0. 39.25% in both directions on each face.87 fyz 0.95d == 0.13 x 1000 x 780mm2/m 100 = on each face This amount is greater than horizontal reinforcement found in Step 17.6 + 97 = 284. Step 20 Check minimum reinforcement Minimum compression vertical reinforcement in wall = 0. Minimum anti-crack reinforcement is 0.

3mm Check I1erlica/bars for horizontal cracks Assume 20mm diameter bars at 250mm centres vertically (1256mm2/m each face). Assume R = 0.8 = e. Vertical bar diameter Horizontal Step 23 = 20mm = 401 equal to 0.r. T. = = 32"C 0.2% bar diameter 10mm > ~ (20mm) Check early thermal cracking Crack width limitation = 0. .7 .Design of Walls Hence requirement is to provide horizontal reinforcement of gross cross-sectional area.a:R 2. = 0. This is provided.3).45) 300 OK O. • Qc.7 .04mm < O.3 mm (see Step 14 of Section 3.8T.7 x 2.5 = 65.8 at base.65. Ocr = 65.7) take x = hl2 3 x 65..8 x 32 x 12 x 10-6 x 0.=:=1100 ===:1100 Assume lOmm diameter bars at lOOmm centres (785mm2/m).46 x 10-4 1 = + 2(65.7mm (1.414 X 50 .46 x 10-4 Check horizontal bars for vertical cracks • • • SK 8/55 Crack width for horizontal bars 10mm @ 100 c/c.

402 Reinforced Concrete -hrl--:J~~ I I 125! 125 250 I 1250 SK 8157 Sketch to lind a~r' SK 8156 Crack width for vertical bars 20 mm @ 250 c/c.3. Connections Follow Chapter 10.25) 300 OK 0. Qcr = 120mm 3 x 120 x 2. These spacings satisfy the requirements according to Step 13 of Section 3.05 mm < 0.46 x 10-4 1 = + 2(120 .3 mm Step 24 Clear spacings of bars in tension Reinforcement provided is 20 mm diameter at 250 mm centres both faces vertically and lOmm diameter at 100mm centres both faces horizontally. Step 25 .

The columns may be with. II 12 M' Mt Mt•max n Qk Vt Vert WI:. or without. column heads. 403 . or without.m.x 9. be Area of column or area of effective column head Area of steel in tension Effective width of slab for transfer of moment to edge column Size of a rectangular column in x-direction Size of a rectangular column in y-direction Effective depth of tensile reinforcement Depth of column head Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days Effective diameter of column or effective column head Characteristic dead load Dimension of column in direction of Lh Effective dimension of column head Shorter span framing onto columns Longer span framing onto columns Actual dimension of column head Maximum dimension of column head taking 4Y dispersion Centre-to-centre of column in direction of span being considered Centre-to-centre of column perpendicular to direction of span being considered Design limit moment at he/2 Moment transferred to column by frame analysis Limiting moment between Hat slab and edge column Total ultimate load per unit area on Oat slab Characteristic live load Calculated shear from analysis Effective shear at column/slab interface Characteristic wind loading Length of side of a perimeter parallel to axis of bending Cx Cy d dh fy feu he Gk t. drops.1 DEFINITIONS Flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported by columns with.'. lh ([ l.Chapter 9 Design of Flat Slabs 9.v Lho [h.0 NOT ATION A As. Drop is a local thickening of the slab in the region of the column. .

section. ly --l.2.-. The analysis for uniformly distributed vertical load may be carried out by using Tables 9.2 ANALYSISOF FLAT SLABS -j---r--. The properties of the flat slab for analysis are similar to those already discussed for solid slabs in Chapter 3.max tho = lh = . SK 9/3 Rat slab . When using the equivalent frame method the ratio of the longer to the shorter span should not exceed 2. The analysis may be carried out by an equivalent frame method or by the use of a finite element computer code.section.1 Effective dimension of column head effective dimension of head actual dimension of head lh.max = Ie + 2( dh . 9. 9.6. Column head is a local enlargement of the column at the junction with the slab.404 Reinforced Concrete WITHOUT DROP AND NO COlUI1N HEAD SK 911 Flat slab .- J L\j > Lx SK 9/4 Typical plan of flat slab._____J.section.1 to 9. Flat slabs are usually supported by a rectangular arrangement of columns. WITH DROP AND NO COL UHN HHO WITHOUT DROP AND WITH COLUMN HEAD SK 9/2 Flat slab .40) Ie = dimension of column in direction of lb dh = depth of head Ih = is taken as the lesser of Iho or lh._ I I I I --t--i-I.

3 Drops Drops will be effective in the analysis if the smaller dimension of the drop is at least one-third of the smaJlest span of surrounding panels.6Qk 1. ...2. l Note: This means that the maximum dimension is limited by a 45° dispersion of column up to 40 mm below the slab.________ .4Gk 1.definitions.c.0Gk Gk = = + + 1. __ ._.2. where Qk characteristic characteristic 9. For the checking of punching shear.5 Effective width of slab for analysis For vertical loading assume full width of panel between columns for frame analysis._-.2.--_.. _ . 9. 9.2. 9._.6QI: on all spans on alternate spans and other spans loaded with dead load live load.2 Effective diameter of a column head he he A = = = = Lx (4Aht)I:S: O. Design of Flat Slabs 40S SK 9/5 Flat slab . For horizontal loading as a frame assume stiffness of half width of panel.25Lx effective diameter of column or column head area of column or area of effective column head as defined by lh shortest span framing onto column of shortest span of slab I he should not be taken greater than one-quarter framing into column.4 Load combinations for analysis Lei t. this limitation does not apply. = = lAG!: 1.

6. . 9. The analysis may also be carried out for uniformly distributed vertical loads using Tables 9.406 Reinforced Concrete fULL PAtiEL WIDTH t------+----fOR VERTICAL LOAOING --+- SK 9/6 Plan of flat slab showing panel widths for analysis. LeI> the ratio of Qk/Gk does not exceed 1. The analysis may be carried out using Table 3. and there are at least three rows of panels. Qk does not exceed 5 kN/m2.13 of BS8110: Part 1: 1985(1] provided the lateral stability is not dependent on the slab-column connection and loading on the flat slab for the design is based on a single load case. SPAN A Ll .1 I SPAN 8 SPAN C SK 917 Negative moment limitation for flat slabs .25.e.3 DESIGN OF FLAT SLABS The design may be based on the negative moment at he12 from the centreline of the column. i. The analysis should be carried out using a computer program or a moment distribution method.1 to 9.section.3nthe following expression: M' : (~2)(ll . But this negative moment will have to be modified if the sum of the positive design moment and the average negative design moment is less th_.2~cr I.

--+-t t-tt.5 (M. ")( --' -. To give an example: For Span A 0. etc.-..J COL lxl2 STRIP -Lxi COLUMN OF COL STRIP Ly > Lx x COL Lx/2 SK 9f9 Flat slab . Slabs 407 SK 918 Typical plan of ftat slab ~ negative moment limitation. "--> -1_l-_j-t.division of strips..1 Divisionof panels Lx/4 .. where I.::: M' For Span B O.• I I I !_~I4'ljtl4 Lx/4 COLUMN OF COL TRIP MIDDLE STRIP .:::M' Increase negative moments satisfied..3...Design of Rat.-~ .. M3..5(M3 + M4) + M7 . "'" )( --' )( _j l+.l--t-. = centre-to-centre 12 = n = of column in direction of span being considered centre-to-centre of column perpendicular to direction of span being considered total ultimate load on slab (kN/m2). M2. <. )( --' . + M2) + M7 . Mj. until these conditions are 9. r~~-~I_j--+-t_. COLUHN HIDDLE COLUHN STRIP STRIP .

2 Division of moments between columns and middle strips The moments obtained from analysis of frames should be divided as follows (these percentages are for slabs without drops): Column strip Negative Positive 75% 55% Middle strip 25% 45% Note: Where column drops are used and column strips are determined from the width of the drop. olumn strip is the size of the drop. Ignore drop if the size of the drop is less than Ix13. In that case the moments in the middle strip will be proportionately increased and those in the column strip decreased to keep the total positive and negative moment unchanged./4 wide on either side of the centreline of column.division of strips. . 9. Panels are divided into column strips and middle strips as shown.408 Reinforced Concrete PlAN OF SLAB WITH DROP IGNORE DROP IF DROP WIDTH < Lx/3 SK 9110 Flat slab . For slab without drop the column strip is (. For slab with drop the c.3 Design of Oat slab panels The design is similar to the design of slabs and the worked examples are in Chapter 3. it may so happen that the middle strip is bigger than the middle strip in a slab without drop.3.. where (" is the shorter span. 9.3.

Design of Flat Slabs 409 1/6 Ast SK 9/11 Detailing of reinforcement in Hat slabs. See sketches above to find effective width of slab be for transfer of moment between Hat slab and edge column.1 I I ~' be = Cx.3.. be = Cx-Cw .y I~ COLUMN STRIPi I SK 9/12 Effective width of slab for moment connection to edge column. This moment should be limited to .4 Moment connection to edge column I I. 9. Column Internal panels and edge panels Two-thirds of the negative support reinforcement in the column strip should be placed in haJf the width of the column strip centred over the column.

The shear to be considered is increased from the calculated column the moment transferred to the column For internal column connections. VI ( 1 + 105Me) -v. The moment Me. the edge of the slab should be reinforced by an edge beam or an edge strip.- .3.max should not be less than half the design moment from an equivalent frame analysis or 70% of the design moment from a grillage or finite element analysis.5 Shear in flat slabs Punching shear around columns should Section 3. SK 9/13 Insufficient moment transfer capacity at edge column.:. REDISTRIBUTED MOMENT TO ACCOUNT FOR . The structural arrangement may be changed if Mt•max does not satisfy the above condition. The edge beam will be designed to carry the additional moment by torsion to the column.Mt. mi!lk.3. to transfer moments in excess of Mt•max to edge column. redistribution of moment may be carried out to reduce the design moment to Ml•max' Otherwise. Ve(r = be checked according to Step 7 of for the punching shear calculation shear by an amount dependent on by frame action. 9.410 Reinforced Concrete Mt•max where = O. Where the design moment is larger than Mt•max.15bed2fcu d = effective depth of top reinforcement in column strip.

Alternatively. SK 9/15 Definition of dimension x.) VtX for bending about axis perpendicular to free edge Alternatively. = calculated shear from analysis M. for bending about axis parallel to free edge Veff = VI ( 1.25 V. For edge column connections. Vert 1. Veff = 1.Design of Flat Slabs 411 +I tj) I __ Mt I I I I tI x _.15 V. for simplicity For corner coLumn connections. may be reduced by 30% where the equivalent frame analysis is used and both load cases LCI and LC2 have been considered. The shear reinforcement win be calculated according to Step 7 of Section 3.3._--+~-+J I I I I I PUNCHING SHEAR PERIMETER SK 9114 Moment diagram at an internal column of a flat slab.4V\ The moment M. . Vcff = = 1. where V. = moment transferred to column by frame analysis x = length of side of perimeter considered parallel to axis of bending.25 + -- lo5M.

Divide moments between column strips and middle strips as per Section Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 9.2.3.3. Sup 16 CalculaJ.3. Carry out design for flexure as per Step 4 of Section 3.3. .1. Step 17 Design of connections Follow Chapter 11. Step II Step 12 Step 13 Spacing of bars Follow Step 13 of Section 3.3. Find moment connection to edge column as per Section 9.3 by 0. Distribute reinforcement as per Section 9. Check punching shear stress Follow Step 7 of Section 3.3.3.3. Step 7 Determine Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 cover to reinforcement (see Step 3 of Section 3. Check limitation of negative design moments following Section 9.3. Curtailment of bars Follow Step 12 of Section 3. Draw bending moment diagrams and calculate moments at he/2 following Section 9.4 STEP·BY·STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR FLAT SLABS Step I Step 2 Carry out analysis as in Section 9. Step 14 Check early thermal cracking Follow Step 14 of Section 3. Step 15 Calculate minimum reinforcement Follow Step 9 and Step 15 of Section 3.4 and redistribute moments if necessary.2.412 Reinforced Concrete 9.9.3.3.3 for slabs with drops.3. Carry out division of panels as in Section 9.3. For slabs without drops follow the same step but multiply Ie_! d from Table 11.eflexural crack width Follow Step 16 of Section 3.3). Check span/effective depth ratio Follow Step 11 of Section 3.3.

. " .. edg loOO" 600 deep beam 400 " 400 columns --"I'- - -- -.._Staircase and Lift Block SK 9116 Plan on first floor.. --ifi------j+-++-+~:.----:r I I e 0 r[ZJ(-.Design of Flat Slabs 413 9.5 WORKED EXAMPLE Flat slab construction for a sports hall 400 " 800 deep edge 400 " 400 columns Example 9. I 1-- I -_ __ _ __ ~I~ _ _-.. " I 0 8 If) r-.- ~I .. ~"'i I e e an 0 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 f'. : I. l....I I 10 ~~6~OOO~ __~_6~OOO~~ __+-~6~OO~0 __~~60~00~_4-~6~O~00~~~~~1:~~and _ SK 9117 Plan on roof.: 1+'00~r"+· I I I r ". I I .:.1 ~eal'lll .

. = 1...- . Two-storey building plan size: 15 m x 30 m Column grid: Sm x om Column size: 400 x 400 Height of building = 10 m overall Topography factor..- .5 kN/m2 Live load on floor = 5 kN/m2 Floor slab has 2000 x 2000 drop at columns Thickness of roof and floor slab = 200 mm Thickness at drop of floor slab = 400 mm Continuous perimeter edge beam 400 wide x 800 deep Centre-to-centre height of floor = 4.1141 Live load on roof = 1.25Lx = = .7 and -0.. he A •• = 4A)! ( -.2Slx = 400 x 400 C - = Jt 160 IX)!)mm2 ) h _ (4 x 160000)2 = 451 mm < O..2Slx SOOOmm 12S0mm Lx O.414 Reinforced Concrete ~- r f 200 .= 1 kN/m2 C"e = +0.0 Ground roughness factor. O.. S2 = 0. (400 ~ 4- rn 1rl 2000 8 '" 4- SK 9/18 Section through building.0.S m Step 1 Carry oia analysis Only one frame in the short direction of the building will be analysed. r2lJO ~ .-. Column head has not been used. S.0 Basic wind speed = 42 mls = V Design wind speed = S IS2S3 V = 40 mls q = kV.3 (four faces equally permeable) The above wind pressure coefficients are obtained from CP3: Chapter V Wind loads ..3 Cpi = -0.9S Statistical factor for wind. S3 = 1. Effective diameter of column.

2G" + 1.4Wk + 1.dead load B2 to B7 .2Qk + 1.live loads on members 9 to 14 respectively Bs . The wind loading analysis will be carried out separately and combined later with the vertical loading because the stiffness of the slab to resist horizontal loading is half of that to resist vertical loading.)3 1667 mm.Design of Flat Slabs Drop of 2000 mm in floor slab is greater than 1.4kN/m = 56. Column size 400 x 400 Slab size 6000 x 200 (deep) Load cases: B I .4G + 1.6Qk spans loaded with LCI and dead load only LC2 = alternate Columns Horizontal load on columns is due to wind load at the rate of 1 kN/m2 which is equivalent to 6 kN/m on the column.6Qk = 9.5 kN/m2 k dead load = 0.4kN/m and 30kN/m spans on alternate spans Floor slab Gk = = = 5 kN/m2 10kN/m2 30kN/m at slab without drop at slab with drop (area 2m x 2m) or 30 + 5 x 2 = 40kN/m Qk = 5 kN/m2 = 30kNfm LCI = 1.4G" 1. Drop will be effective in the distribution of moment. 7 and 10 rigidly fixed.2 x 25 = 5 kN/m2 LC2 or LCz = 1.2Wk Frame analysi$ using a computer software E = Young's modulus = 28 x 106 kN/m2 12 joints 14 members Joints 1.wind load . Roof slab Gk Qk LCI 415 = = = characteristic 1.4 kN/m2 and 5 kN/m2 on alternate 2 = 56. Load cases with wind load W" are as follows: LC3 LC4 = = l.4kN/m = 9.4G" + 1. 4. Loading Frames in short direction are 6 m apart.

416 Reinforced Concrete J 5QQQ ® J sooo ® Member Numbers ~I ® :J 6 8 sooo 0 ® @ CD 7 SK 9119 Frame diagram for analysis.).6(B:.4B.6(B2 1.: 1. 65 "I 67 "I SK 9/21 Basic live loads B2 to BI. Combinations: C) = 1.4B 1 + C4 = l.4BI + C3 = 1.. + 1.6(82 + + + + B3 B4 B6) B3 + B4 + B5 + B6 + B7) + 85 + B7) + 84) . SK 9/20 Dead load on frame (B.6( 83 1.4B) + Cz = 1.

-._ .3 \ ... ".... . -..-." " II ® " 7.0 Combination 6 9 Midspan C) C1 C3 .4BI + 1. f .0 C4 C4 C3 Shear 130.. \ '~ I I I I I I .0 82..no redistribution Combinations: Cs =: 1.-_ __ . .9 112.0 141._-_ . 10: Envelope of load cases (vertical + horizontal loads) (The analysis of horizontal load is carried out with half stiffness of slab) Elastic analysis . _ .... / -5 : \ \ .. . . 9 .4BK C6 = 1.0 239. \ .5 258... " @ 12 -7 J I I I . Design of Flat Slabs Output from analysis Envelope of load cases (vertical loads) Elastic analysis . /1'" ..·_. / I I .w<i' .. . .0 Member 13 Maximum BM 121. ". _. I '...0 153. .2B1 + 1. ..2B8 .~---.. -__ - . ... .8 129.. .. ...4 Shear 228.3 121.80 215. \ II ". \ .. " 1 .I II r t .2 Combination C2 C4 C2 Combination Shear 239. .3 60. SK 9/22 Combination C) bending moment diagram.2 Member 10 Maximum BM 199.5 Combination C2 C1 Midspan Roof slab Joint C2 Shear 141. (9) 4 ® 7 .5 131. ..no redistribution Floor slab Joint 2 5 Midspan Floor slab Joint 5 8 Midspan Roof slab Joint 3 6 417 Member 9 Maximum BM 130...2 . ® '. ' . \ @ .5 Member 12 Maximum BM 67.9 199..- 6 ..2(B2 + B3 + B4 + Bs + B6 + B7) + 1....

0 112. Set plastic moment capacity at joint 5 Similarly maximum bending moment at joint 6 Assume 20% redistribution. = 0.2 Combination C6 C6 C6 Combination Shear 198.9 215.4 95.1 108.6 198.5 kNm Assume 20% redistribution.4 kNm = 129 kNm t.8 119. .0 176.1 Member 13 Maximum BM 108.418 Reinforced Concrete Floor slab Joint Member 9 Maximum BM 121.bmcnt Envelope SK 9/23 Shear and moment envelope for member 9.8 C6 C6 Midspan c.8 x 215.5 = 172.1 45. Carry out redistribution Maximum bending moment at joint 5 = 215.9 C6 C6 C6 Combination Shear 119.2 67.4 of moment: 2 5 Midspan Floor slab Joint 5 8 Midspan Roof slab Joint Shear 185.4 Member 12 Maximum BM 57.0 71.8 Member 10 Maximum BM 176.9 191.6 C6 C6 C6 Combination 3 6 Midspan Roof slab Joint 6 9 Shear 108 128.

F2 FJ F4 Fs 3 = = = = = no member member in member in member in member in end releases F. The following tables become useful if a non-linear finite element computer package is not available. e '1 J9 SK 9/26 Frame type F2• ~" "J." 12 2 @) ~I". . Plastic moment capacity of members on first floor is 172. Step 2: Release joint where plastic moment is reached and increase loading until plastic moment capacity is reached at another joint. Step 4: Find cumulative effect of all incremental live load on structure. 10 ends released at joints 5 and 8 9 Plastic Hinges e CD 6 @ 5 ® ® .Design of Flat Slabs 419 199·9kNm 199-9kNm SK 9/24 Shear and moment envelope for member 10_ Set plastic moment capacity at joint 6 = 0. Frame types: F.8 X 129 = 103.2 kNm The following steps of reanalysis of frame are carried out: Step 1: For one combination at a time increase live load on span until plastic moment is reached at a joint in a member. SK 9/25 Frame type r. Step 3: Progressively release joints and increase live load until full complement of live load is on structure. 13 ends released at joints 6 and 9 F4 no..2kNm. nos 12 and 14 ends released at joints 6 and 9 F2 nos 9 and 11 ends released at joints 5 and 8 FJ no.4kNm and member on roof is 103.

+ 87) I kN/m 0.6 1... c. B4 85. 6~-=::---4')~-:::::---.2 0 0 -0.. q C..6 0 0 0 q q q F2 F" F4 f<.4 3.420 Reinforced Concrete Plastic Hinges 3 _.'. F! F2 F3 F4 f.5 3.2 0 0..5 0.".5 lO Member 12 Joint 3 Joint 6 Member 13 Joint 6 Joint 9 Joint 8 C7 Ci Fl CI C..---.3 3.8 0 0 -0.7 3.5 2. C.6(B..5 1.0 1.lo 10 ...8 0 0 44.0 91.4 2.3 kN/1Il ® ® ® SK 9129 frame type F~.1 q Ci 3.1 0 0 0 0 0. Combination C7 = 104 x dead load or 1AB1 C. SK 9(30 Unit live load on frame.l 0 1.' + 87) + B4 + B. 87 Combination frame type Member 9 Joint 2 Joint 5 102.1 3.2 0.4 3. B3.--=----i .l 1.s ') ® 6 ® 12 2 5 @) ~~ ®" n:.--::::: .9 1. 3. f-=.7 0.8 95. 8.r.8 0.3 2. = 1.9 97.1 3.2 0 0 0 2.8 0 0 0 0 0.1 91. and The method is illustrated for combinations C2 only.6 0 0 0 3.12 ® 3 6 ® ® r Plastic Hinge.2 0 J.7 0.5 0.0 0.5 2.8 0 0 0 0. = = + B3 + B4 + B.7 2...._.1 3.12 B6 ') 61 12 0.2 0 0. Fl 62..6(82 = 1..0 l. + B.7 2.8 0 0.&1"" "~ SK 9127 Frame type F3Plastic Hinges SK 9/28 frame type F4.0 0 .5 Member end bending moments (kNm) Member Joint 5 95.0 2..4 2.1 0..l l..6 l. BS 3 6 3..8 0..1 2..3 kN/m Bi.

6 = 171.5 1. . B3 and B4 and 9/30kN/m of 85.2 + 14 x 0.6 kNm *plastic Joint 5 of member 9 and joint 6 of member 13 have gone plastic simultaneously at 19 units of combination Ct.2 kNm Dead load moment at joint 6 = 97.1 = 5 urnts. 86 and B7.9 = 60.0kNm + 5 x 3. 86 and 87 is 9kN/m.2kNm = 72.l is not considered.4kNm "plastic 112.7 = 48. 83 and 84 is 30kN/m and of 85.5 = 103.7 102. After 5 units of combination C I the bending moments at joints are as follows: Frame type F 1 Member 9 Member 10 Member 12 Member 13 Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint 2 5 5 62.6kNm "plastic Units of live load in combination CI to form second plastic hinges at joints 5 and 8 in members 9 and 11 172 .1 = + 5 x 1.6 + 5 x 1.5 kNm r.Design of Flat Slabs 421 CI = 1 unit of live load combination in combination C1 i.1 = 102.5 95.7 = 121.5 kNm + 5 x 0.0 = 103kNm 96.5 91. Ci = 1 kN/m of B2.5 44.7kNm 97.e.6 + 14 X 0.5 = 161.2 . Frame type F2 has joints released at joints 6 and 9 for members 12 and 14.0 3 6 6 + 5 x 3.97.1 kNm 121 + 14 x 3. say . the bending moments at joints are as follows: Frame type Fz Member 9 Member 10 Member 12 Member 13 Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint 2 5 5 3 6 6 72.4 = 112.7 + 5 X 2. Full compliment of 82. After 19 units of combination CI.6 = 14 units of combination CI Total number of units of C I to cause plastic hinges at joints 5 and 8 in members 9 and 11 is 19.5 + 14 x 3. Therefore frame type F.5 kNm 48.1 kNm at joint 6 for frame type units of live load in combination C1 required to form first plastic hinges at joint 6 and joint 9 in members 12 and 14 ----~ 103. Plastic moment at joint 5 is fixed at 172 kNm Plastic moment at joint 6 is fixed at 103.7 + 14 x 2. Therefore Each unit of combination C1 produces 1.121 3.8 kNm plastic = 103 kNm *plastic 96.

(20% redistribution) Midspan moment = 9O. the bending moments at joints are as 117.9kNm End shear 3 = 134.1 plastic plastic = =:: =:: =:: =:: = 117.8 + 5 x 1.0kN 126.4kNm 172.5 + 6 x 3.2 60. (F2) + 5 units of C.1 + 5 x 3.6kNm x 5 + 2.2kNm 171.7 kNm End shear 6 = 141 kN .0kN = x 5 + 4.4 x 5 + 3.1 + 3. (20% redistribution) Member 9 .0kNm I03.6kNm *plastic Frame type Fs After 30 units of combination follows: Member 9 Member 10 Member 12 Member 13 Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint 2 5 5 3 6 C).3 = = = 6 136. the bending moments at joints are as Member 9 Member 10 Member 12 Member 13 Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint 2 5 5 3 6 6 102.5kNm 72.6 + 6 x 3.3 x 14 + 3.6kNm Formula for calculating midspan bending moment and shear C7 + 5 units of of C.5 kNm "plastic 66. joint 5 Similarly Member 10 .9 kN End shear 6 = 147.6 x 5 + 4.5 = x 5 + 3.2 x 14 + 5 x 3.422 Reinforced Concrete After 24 units of combination follows: Frame type F-I C].combination Midspan moment End shear.1 plastic 161.5 + 5 x 2.4 x 6 C} (20% redistribution) Midspan moment = 115.6 x = = 111.combination = 56.7 kNm End shear = 239 kN Member ]2 .7 6 = 232.3 kNm 103 kNm *plastic 103.4 kNm *plastic 172.9 + 4.3 + 2.3 246.combination C.1 + 6 x 1. (F4) + 6 units C.9kNm 103.combination C{ (20% redistribution) Midspan moment = 72. (Fs) q (Fd + 14 units of C. joint 2 End shear.1 = = = 66.7 x 14 + 4.2 136.1 kN Member 13 .6kNm 171.

Design of Flat Slabs 423 c:C"'!C"'!~~C"'! on.. 000000 o\-..l ..<'"l M z u ..... o .0 <'"l N .t-.i-........!.:i-.i N ..iMtri ..! 0\0"'........!"1"! -ONN on ._ 0 '" C o.. o .i-... r--v>or-. 000000 ::i-.i c_ -l9 S . '-0 _.....:s ..NN....C :...O .:i-..i-..:i ..9 ~ r: o c e .:i-. - ONC"'!~f'!f'! ~"""... <'"lNN...n O'<'"l<'"l"<t"<t"': -O-..... 00 '" ..:i-...<u r-~on'-Oooo ~e ~ "'. N - -:t-:r-->D'-O'-O <'"lM-..:i-..:i-.<u on>D-:C:C:C: ..._ 0 -l9 e o.i-... c_ .J:: V Vl ..i-..~'1"""'4_ .....

Note: Only one combination C[ has been fully analysed to demonstrate the procedure for redistribution of moments in a frame structure. max "" transfer.15 X 800 X 1752 X 40 147kNm > 136. It is conservatively assumed in this analysis that the depth of the slab at the column is 200 mm. The moment MI. i.2 kNm at roof level. joint 2) The column slab connection at the edge can transfer the applied moment and no further redistribution is necessary.2kNm (member 9. For all combinations of loads the plastic hinges will form at the same moment.424 Reinforced Concrete IOJ·6kNm 103-6kNm SK 9/31 Bending moment diagram combination CI (20% redistribution ). . max is greater than the design moment obtained from an equivalent frame analysis.15bed fr:u = 800mm 2 be d feu = ex + C~v:=: 400 + 400 assumed = = 175 mm 4ON/mm2 MI. 172 kNm at first floor level and 103. In practice all combinations of loads should be similarly processed to get an envelope of moments and shears. rna. = :=: 0.e. ignoring the drop. O. Check moment connection to edge column Step 2 8 OD II E E s SK 9/32 Effective width of slab for moment MI.

232 x 0.Design of Flat Slabs Step 3 Find bending moments at hel2 and at edge of drop JOINT 425 ® 172'OkNm MEMBER 9 SK 9/33 Bending moments at critical points .225 + (56 + 48) 2 X 0. similarly: · Bending moment at he/2 = 136.246 x 0._:~____:_:2:_':_______:_:- = -22 kN m (bottom tension) Joint 2.combination 86.2 .225 m · Bending moment at he/2 = near SUppOTt near support (56 172 .combination C.2252 2 = 119._.2252 = Member 10 .3 kNm (top tension) Edge of drop = 1000 mm from centreline of column Bending · moment at edge of drop == 172 .225 + + 48) x 0. MEMBER 10 Member 9 .6 kNm (top tension) -43.8 kNm (bottom tension) Bending moment at edge of drop = C.246 x1 (56 + 48) X 12 + _.4 x 40 = 56kN/m Live load: 1. (20% redistribution) .combination C I (20% redistribution).6 x 30 = 48 kN/m hc/2 = 0. (20% redistribution) Joint 5: Bending moment == 172 kNm Shear = 246 kN Dead load: 1.

= (nl.5 kNm (bottom tension) Member 12 .22Sr (floor slab) 264.2)(l _ .combination Cl (20% redistribution): limitation of negative design moment. M'.225m 6. = = Average n on span on first floor 1.3 kNm (top tension) 0/ negative design moment 136·6kNm JOINT 2 JOINT 5 1 Column SK 9/34 Member 9 .0) (5.4 x 30 + 1.0 _ 2 x ~.0m he 0. .0 kNm 2 = 71.426 Reintorced Concrete Joint 5: Bending moment at h.6kNm . (20% redistribution) = 72 9 _ 134 9 .6 x 9) x 0.22 5 +.225 = 44.4 x 5 + 1. x 0 .combination Joint 3: Bending moment at he/2 C.)2 = 121.4 kNm (top tension) Bending moment at edge of drop = -14.6 x 5 = 15 kN 1m2 M' = = Cs ~ 12 = 6.combination Joint 6: Bending moment at he/2 Sup 4 Check limiklJion (top tension) C] (20% redistribution) = 73. (1. 8 1 2hc)2 3 where n = loading per unit area on slab.3 kNm 2 Joint 6: Bending moment at he/2 Member 13 .

239.6kNm < M' = 264.6 + 25.3 kNm Member 10 Joint 5 at he/2 = M'j 121.6) 25.5kNm = Joint 5: Revised negative moments: 121.1) 27.6kNm = + 115.0kNm Revised negative moments: Joint 2: 86.7 = 237.3 + 25.4 kN/m2 = (9.0 = 111.6 + 119.6 .2 = 88.7kNm Average of negative and positive = 121.0 + 17.2kNm will have to be increased = Revised negative moments: Joint 3: 44.6kNm Joint 5: 119. 6.0kNm Joint 6 at h.3 kNm Midspan moment = 136.6 = 239./2 M6 = 71.3) + 136.3) + 90.0 _ 2 x ~.5 (44.2kNm Joint 6: 71.4 + 27.5SkNm < by (165.5 = 9.3 kNm Midspan moment = 72.8 148.3 + 17.5 kNm Joint 6 at he12 = M6 73.4 264.0 M' 165.9 kNm = = Average of negative and positive = 0.225)2 (roof slab) = Check negalil1e moment limitation Member 9 Joint 2 at hel2 = M2 = 86.2 = 61.3kNm Midspan moment = 90.7 kNm Member 13 = .5 (86.6 .4 .6 x 1.Design of Flat Slabs Average n on span on roof M' 427 = 1.237.6) The negative moments 17.6kNm (see Step 1) = Average of Mz and Ms plus midspan moment = 0.9 = 148.6kNm The negative moments will have to be increased by (264.0) 165.0 = 144.8kNm (5.9kNm Member 12 Joint 3 at he/2 M3 = 44.1 kNm < M' = The negative moments will have to be increased by (264.6 kNm (see Step 3) Joint 5 at he/2 M5 = 119.8 kNm = + 71.4kNm Midspan moment = 115.4 x 5 + 1.5 = 148.

_ I _ ---'-_ I _..__..J.....L...--'-..8 = 93. 4000 Middl~ Sirip 2000 Column Strip -.. First floor slab Size of drop = 2000 mm i: = 5000 ..2000 = 3000mm = 6000 ....J.-... J .3 + 72.....--..2000 4000mm (y-y) (x-x) Middle strip in a slab without drop = 6000 .--'-" - o o ~ g o -~-*~-..---r _ J...8kNm The negative moments 19..._ I - -'---""T -~I --r---1.8 146) will have to be increased = Revised negative moments: Joint 6: 73._ __ .... _ f-""'_- I r 5000 SOOO 5000 SK 9/35 Plan of Hoor slab .14 = = . -r- .__ i_ I ..L._ ---1.__...2500 = 4000 3500 1.428 Reinforced Concrete Average of negative and positive 165..~r~ r 2000 Drop (typical) 2000 I L_ __ l_ 2000 CoIunTI Strip 4000 Middl~ Strip 2000 Column Strip ._ I .. -...8kNm 73.L.. ...7 = 146kNm < M' by (165.3 + 19.L.......__.division of strips.Ixl2 3500mm Proportion Roof slab of middle strip with drop and without drop = 6000 ..-3 3 = 1667mm < 2000mm Column strip = 2000 mm With drop middle strip and = = 5000 ....-1.J.... ._ I I J..1 kNm Step 5 Carry out division of panels ._ ..-r-._ I I ..

Lx 5000 2 2 = 2500mm (x-x) (y-y) Middle strip == 6000 .8kNm (top tension) Middle strip moments Joint 2: 111. ~ 3500 Middle Strip . Column stnp == .5kNm (top tension) = 41. 2500 Coil.S x 0.3kNrn (see Step 4) 31.division of strips.25 x 1.14 = 12. I .3 kNm (top tension) .75% column strip 25% middle strip Positive moments .25 x 1.2500 = 2500mm For slabs without drops.14 (see Step 4) Edge of drop Edge of drop Joint 5: 144.3 x 0. .' ~ ~ .-1=$~ .== -- .. Plan of roof slab .25 x 1.2500 == 3500mm = 5000 .25 x 1. . ..14 6.mn Strip .6kNm (see Step 4) 144.1 kNm (top tension) = = 22. 2500 Column Strip 1-----. r------ :-..55% c-olumnstrip 45% middle strip Floor slab: design moments Member 9: negative moments Step 6 Divide moments between column strip and middle strip Joint 2: Joint 5: 1l1.14 = = 43. ---- -- 3500 MktJle Sirip 2500 Column Strip ---- ---- ~---~-~-- r------r----j~--- . Negative moments .6 x 0.Design of Flat Slabs 429 5000 5000 5000 ~=F*--J .0 x 0. SK 9/3(.

5 = 31.5 kNm Member 10: negative moments Joint 5: 148. .12.45 x 1.4204 = (bottom tension) 106.8 kNm (top tension) 43. The increased slab thickness at drops may be considered for the determination of reinforcement provided all reinforcement is properly anchored.8 := 79. Note: In this example the reinforcement is found for the flat slab spanning in the short direction only.6.2kNm (top tension) 22 .14 = 4.41.6 .1 kNm (top tension) Column strip moments Joint 5: 148.25 x 1.3 := 15.7 kNm (bottom tension) = 5904kNm (bottom tension) Column strip moments Midspan: Note: 115.31. Step 8 Design jor flexure See Step 4 of Section 3.4 = 56.1 = 103.3 of drop: .7 .6 of drop: 5: 144.7 x 0.3.3 kNm = (top tension) (top tension) Edge of drop: 14.45 x 1.5 x 0.14 "" 42.59.70.8 .1 lOo4kNm Member 10: positive moments Design midspan moment Middle strip moments Midspan: 115.1 kNm (bottom tension) = J36.14 =.9 .3.6kNm (bottom tension) Column strip moments Midspan: 136.3 kNm (top tension) .5 . Exactly the same method of analysis and design should be used to find the reinforcement in the long direction. Step 7 Determine cover 10 reinforcement See Step 3 of Section 3.1 := 66.430 Reinforced Concrete Column strip moments Joint Edge Joint Edge 2: 111.4.14 = 115.6 x 0. Check reinforcement also at edge of drop.3 kNm (bottom tension) Similarly calculate moments in column strips and middle strips in roof slab.7 kNm (top tension) Member 9: positive moments Design midspan moment Middle strip moments Midspan: 136.9 x 0. 70.25 x 1.4 kNm (top tension) Edge of drop: 14.9kNm (see Step 4) Middle strip moments Joint 5: 148.

Design of Flat Slabs 431 Step 9 DelaiUng of reinforcement Two-thirds of the negative support reinforcement in the column strip should be placed in half the width of the column strip centred over the column. .NO REDISTRIBUTION LOADING CONDITION Clo >( To Join-t"'2'" --t----.r b Joint 8 '" '" 1000 1000 255 N SK 9/38 Punching shear perimeters . MEMBER 9 MEMBER 10 SK 9137 Moment transfer to column for punching shear calculation. BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM ELASTIC ANALYSIS . Step 10 CalculaJe punching shear and shear stress Punching shear at floor slab Check joint S.plan of floor slab.

v U = Verf Ud 4 x 1510 = 6040 = v = 508 x 10.25 N/mm2 < reinforcement for minimum percentage of No shear reinforcement is required at internal columns of floor slab.n 508 kN .SMt) ( 1 + -V~ 508 X = = 497. .Sd = 1. V.2 xx 10.5 x 370 = 555 mm x = 400 + 2 x 555 = 1510mm V"ff = VI l.6kNm A 30% reduction is allowed if frame analysis is carried out.9kNm = 258.5d from face of column.6kNm MI = 15.5+ 497. M! Vt = 0.(load on the area of drop) =508-4x22 = 420kN = Perimeter of slab at 1.86N/m2 < 5N/m2 Shear stress. Maximum column moment at joint 5 := 215.2 (1. Similarly check for an external column and a corner column.6 = = 10.2 + 239. Punching shear perimeter d = 400 .0 497.432 Reinforced Concrete Use results of elastic analysis of frame before redistribution.510 (Uo = L510m = Vdl 508kN Maximum shear stress at column perimeter =- 4 x 4(0) OK Uod = 16' 4 x 400 x 370 = = O.9 = 15.9 ) 1 1.5d (d = 170mm) = 4 x (2000 + 3 x 170) = lO040mm Shear stress.2 kN at 1.7 x 15.> 6040 x 370 reinforcement 0. v = = 420 x 10:' 10040· x 170 Vc 0.30 = 370 mm 1.199. For slab outside drop consider that loaded area is perimeter of drop.5 .23 N/mm2 < Vc for minimum percentage of No shear reinforcement is required in slab with drop.

. T·5d ~: x < T'ScI 1- T'5d C..+ 6d EDGE COLlt1N ON EDGE OF SLAB x EDGE COLUMN INSIDE SLAB c" "Set 1- "5d ~~ x > T·5d C. 1-5d 1·5d -+----1 C. "5d 1-Sd P= lesser of :2( x +C.+Cy).v~~ depth effective of slab CORNER COLUMN INSIDE p" lesser of :C•• Cr.AB.Design of Flat Slabs Rules for calcufolion of perimeser« of external and corner columns x 433 c.+Cy+x+y+3d 1·5d ~y. d = A. x and Y :iii "5d P= C.2Cx+C~+6d P:: 2( x +C. . ~~ >1·5d COONER COLUMN INSIDE S1.'2d s. x +y+ 3d OR 2«(.+ Cy) + T2d COONER COLUMN 00 ON EDGE OF SLAB EDGE COLUMN INSIDE SlAB x ex 1·5d y C. 1·5d Cx 1'5<1 P. The illustrations show the different column configurations with respect to a free edge and the corresponding perimeters for the calculation of punching shear stresses.>+ C.) + Cy+6d OR 2(C.!M SK 9/39 Punching shear perimeters for fiat slab..

edge column.5 X 103 1200 x 170 = 0. . Step 11 Check spanle//eetitle depth ratio Follow Step 11 of Section 3.43N/mm2 of tensile reinforcement in slab.5.434 Reinforced Concrete When the column face is more than 1.5 x 170 = 255 mm Shear stress at column perimeter =- (Vo = 3 x 400 = 1200) Vett Vod = 162.3 Step 12 Curtailment 0/ bars Follow Step 12 of Section 3. VI = 130kN The frame action considered is in the x.Sd U = = =v= Vd (2 x (400 2220 + 255)] + (400 + 510) v= 162.25 x 130 = 162. Step 15 Calculate minimum reinforcement Follow Step 9 and Step 15 of Section 3.5d = 1.3. Step H Spacing of bars Follow Step 13 of Section 3.x direction as explained in Section 9.25V. Step 14 Check early thermal cracking Follow Step 14 of Section 3.3.48N/mm2 for Grade 40 concrete and an effective depth of 170mm. Veff = 1.3.3.5kN d = 170mm assumed 1.5d away from a free edge of slab. then there are two alternative perimeters possible as illustrated. Assume minimum percentage Vc = 0. Punching shear aI roo/ slab Check joint 3 . Take the least of these two alternatives for the calculation of punching shear stress.3.5 x 103 2220 x 170 = 0. No shear reinforcement Now: The punching shear check should also be carried out for the flat slab spanning in the long direction and the worst result should be used.8N/mm2 Veff < 5N/mm2 OK Shear stress at 1. is necessary. = 1.

'_ column hinged"'\. 0'1 0-5 0'3 + : T Iy Iy ty 0"3 0-50·' .6.' to 9'6 SK 9140 Sketches to be used in conjunction with Tables 9.1-9. . f • h TY2icai section . '~. First floor.3.1 to 9. 1-5 3 il~. OH1"5 Plan showing points for which coefficients are in tables 9.6 [ OC=l'O] Intermediate floor.. 2L IOC=4'O! TmiCQ1 sectio n Ix Ix Ix .6 TABLES AND GRAPHS FOR CHAPTER 9 How to use Tables 9. Step 17 Design of connections Follow Chapter 11 9.Design of Flat Slabs Step 16 Cakulale flexural crack width 435 Follow Step 16 of Section 3. Typical section h column fixed IOC::2<67! first floor.

(7) The moment triad (M.Oly l.-_-~l-----____.I ..Sly C 3 SK 9/41 Zones of stiffness correction factors to be applied 10 points of interest.t-+---'-i I I 6-f--~I-7-L..L. -+t--r~-----1-+_____....-a:cis ~M. an edge panel with a free edge in the lv direction and an internal panel... ~M~y . no redistribution of moments should be carried out. (5) For horizontal loading a separate frame analysis should be carried out and the appropriate moments will be combined with the vertical load moments.I H---l'-'t-----'--'t--+-r-M-+---1-+-""-i I 1 1.._-'-+--t-+.lly '.... (6) The coefficients are applicable to a corner panel. flat slab construction should be fully braced and the horizontal load should be carried entirely by a shear-wan system._ _ C I ooi. Un~widlh M Note: A positive moment convention.. (2) The coefficients are valid for equal spans in the Ix and ly direction.L. Points to note: (1) The flat slab system should have at least 3 spans in the Ix direction and 3 spans in the i. Mv and Mxy) obtained by this method of analysis should be combined using the Wood-Armer method as described in Section 1...3ly o-si.Sty .Armer combination as per Section 1..-+------<4~____+_'I-.__-_1 J II I II I._-+-.436 Reinforced Concrete r-l I.... denotes hogging. (4) To account for the possible increase in moment due to variation of live loads in different panels of the flat slab. 0·7Ly 1 __.12... This sign convention is opposite to the Wood-Armer Reverse the signs of the moments before carrying out Wood.7ly .Sty-1 1- -- --.. direction.. They may be used up to a maximum variation of 20% in the span lengths.. . an edge panel with a free edge in the Ix direction.12.0LY- I O. ~M... Sign convention for bending moments (+ ve in directions shown) Ben(ing moment Bending moment Torsional moment about y·axis abool ... 0·3 LyO·Oly- r'f---f--++--=-t--+t-i-+.. (3) The tables can be used only for uniformly distributed loads with all spans loaded simultaneously with the maximum load... ..-+--.. In general.. 1 Q._.._~ _ II I O. C2 I 1·31y .

Corresponding to the zone of influence. Similarly if the point of interest lies in the zone of KF then to find Mx use KFX as in Graph 9. Multiply the moment obtained by analysis at edge and corner columns with the effective width be to find the slab-to-column connection moment.kNm/m Mxy = nCxyKxyl. Step 9: Find column reactions corresponding to ["fly (see SK 9/41 for column locations). The benefits of using these tables and graphs are that the analysis can be done very quickly and the necessity of carrying out the two analyses for the two orthogonal directions may be avoided. Step Jl: Calculate total column moments using Table 9.max as defined in Section 9.1 to 9.7 and divide the total moment between the columns at the junction depending on their relative stiffness. etc. find appropriate stiffness connection factor K depending on S from Graphs 9. . The stiffness of a column may be calculated as III where J is the moment of inertia and I is the effective height.3. Reaction at column C2 Note: = = nCtlxlv nC2lxly. The stiffer the column.1 to 9. Step 10: The moments obtained using these coefficients are in kNm/m. Step 5: Find moment coefficients from Tables 9.r Step 8: Carry out Wood-Armer combination. Reaction at column C.(see SK9/40 and find (. Step 4: Select a point of interest from SK 9/40 or SK 9/41 where the moments have to be found.1. Step 6: Find the ultimate uniformly distributed load on the Hat slab nkN/m2• Step 7: Find moment triads: = nCxKxl~ kNm/m My = nCyKyl. as shown in SK9/40. If in the zone of KA (as shown in SK 9/41) the point of interest is located.4. and the location of the point of interest.18.3. determine S = a:-d3Uh4.3 corresponding to lxll. as in Graph 19. Find the effective width be as in Section 9. These tables can also be used for the analyses of raft foundation where the loading n may be assumed to be uniformly distributed over an inverted Hat slab. the more moment it will carry.Design of Flat Slabs 437 Step-by-step analysis procedure Step J: Determine value of a:.4.16. This transfer moment should be less than Mt. The total loads from a structure will be assumed uniformly distributed at the underside of the raft.kNm/m M.)iy)' Step 2: Assume d is the thickness of slab and h is the dimension of a side of a square column. then to find Mx use stiffness correction factor KAX corresponding to Sand lx/l. Step 3: From available L.

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l = average storey height PlAN Of FLAT SLAB
SK 9/42 Column number identification. Table 9.7 Bending

SECTION THROUGH SLAB

moment

coefficient

for design of columns

in flat slab construction.

t.u,
Column

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Moment coefficients

no.
I 2 2 3 3
4

4

0.01175 -0.01175 -0.00244 -0.02280 0.02280 0.00244 -0.00376 OJK>3 6 7

0.01345 -0.01792 -0.00233 -0.03271 0.02765 0.00441 -0.00393 0.(10659

Om526 -0.02594 -0.00224 -0.04525 0.03301 0.00706 -0.00418 0.01028

0.01717 -0.03603 -0.00218 -0.06073 -0.03885 0.01040 -0.00454 0.01484

0.01916 -0.04836 -0.00216 -0.07939 0.04513 0.01445 -0.00506 0.02031

0.02123 -0.06307 -0.00218 -0.10147 0.05184 0.01919 -0.00571 0.02667

c;
C"l Ccy Ccy Cez C"y

eel

eel

Column total moment

=

Cc

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lj

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Design of Flat Slabs
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'" .Design of Hat Slabs 447 <... .J ...... I' ~ .... ... i"-... / \ ~ ~ • . ~\ I .... \ <.... . \ ~ '" N ~<> i ri '" '" N ri .. l\\ <:~\\ ~ ~ -.c ~ CI ~ \~ ...

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~ -. ~ ~ - ~ r-----_ . ... ~ <> . . r-.Design of Flat Slabs 449 ~ ""'~ <. ~'11 <. 0: '" d '" '" P I /11\ ~ ~ ~ ~ »: N~= V .. r-.: . ~ 8 <> ~ S YO... .... e-. N ~ o N ~ C! Ci .. '~ r-... .. . '" '" d :::i • • ~ • ~ '~ S d N I -.. .....J '" 'II II ... ~ '" .: .. '" d N C> '" d ...

.>:~ ...450 Reinforced Concrete <> '" to .. .. !V ... d N .. ... CD '" . "II .." . '" '" '" 0 AlIQ)! ..... .~ 1:1 • .. N V ~ .•. .... 1$ ~ 0 . . ~ __..... "II '" .. ......... '" .... . .. <> 0 '" ~ ~ / V / Iii //_ ......

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