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JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES
Chief Editor Rukhsana Kausar Editorial Board Najma Najam Yasmin N. Farooqi Naumana Amjad Rafia Rafiq Shazia Khalid Afsheen Masood Afifa Anjum Shahnila Tariq
Charles D. Spielberger,USA John Pickering, UK Ronald P. Rohner, USA Sandra Neil, Australia Iftikhar-Un-Nisa Hassan, Pakistan Anna Laura Comunian, Italy Christian Rossangel, Germany Chris Fife-Schaw, UK Thomas Oakland, USA Graham Powell, UK Evanthia Lyons, Ireland Irene Frieze, USA Ana Guil Bozal, Spain Herbert H. Krauss, USA Hamid Sheikh, Pakistan Abdul Khaleque, USA Ghazala Rehman, UK Nagina Parveen, Pakistan Ryutaro Takahashi, Japan Paul M. Salkovskis, UK Rafia Hassan, Pakistan Regina Pauli, UK Rosalind Kalb, USA Jorg Huber, Germany Illias E. Kourkoutas, Greece Istiqpmah Wibowo, Indonesia Seemeen Alam, Pakistan Lisa Firestone, USA Ashraf Khan, USA Choc Hui, Canada Naseema Vawda, South Africa Roswith Roth, Austria Alex Wood, UK Mah-Nazir Riaz, Pakistan Daniel J. Christie, USA
Aims and Scope The Journal of Behavioural Sciences is an official publication of the Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan and is published biannually since 1990. It is interdisciplinary journal and the contents include work on a wide range of topics in Psychology and allied disciplines. JBS aims to bring together researches from different specializations in Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Education, Gender Issues, Organizational Behaviour, Life Sciences and Psychiatry. Though JBS prefers papers based on empirical work, review articles and case studies are also considered for publication. JBS has double blind peer reviewing policy. JBS is cited & indexed in EBSCO HOST Annual subscription rate: 500 Pak Rupee and 30US$ (for foreign subscribers) (Price does not include postal charges)
Journal of Behavioural Sciences (JBS)
Volume 18 Number 1-2 2008 Contents Original articles Using Different Feedbacks in Formative Evaluation and Their Effects on Achievement in Iranian Elementary School Students Naser Shirbagi and Bahman Kord Executive Cognitive Functioning, Visual Motor Functioning and Working Memory Deficits in Schizophrenics Najma Najam and Fatima Abdullah Factors Influencing Customers’ Willingness to Buy in the Context of PC Peripherals Nadim Jahangir, Shubhankar Shil and Noorjahan Parvez Normative Beliefs about Aggression and Retaliation: Association with Aggressive Behaviour and Anticipatory Self-censure Naumana Amjad and Martin Skinner Psychosocial Correlates of Excessive Computer Use among Pakistani Adolescents Shazia Khalid and Afsheen Masood 1
The validity and reliability of the instruments was calculated in the shape of pretest and posttest. E-mail: NShirbagi@uok. Faculty of Arts. Naser Shirbagi* Department of Education.ir . Given this. the teachers employ this kind of evaluation.Journal of Behavioural Sciences Vol. oral and written feedback. written and a mixture of the two i. University of Kurdistan. Feedback. This type of evaluation which has been almost neglected by teachers is used to improve and enhance the achievement of the learners. Findings of this research indicated that there was a significant difference between those formative evaluations which involve various method feedbacks including oral. and 11 formative tests were run for 11 weeks.Mahabad Branch Evaluation is one of the activities. Postal Code: 66177-14461.e. Even though. Key words: Formative evaluation. which has a pivotal role in the process of teaching and learning in any system of education. One essential and substantial aspect of evaluation is formative evaluation. Iran Bahman Kord Islamic Azad University. 18 Number 1-2 2008 Using Different Feedbacks in Formative Evaluation and Their Effects on Achievement in Iranian Elementary School Students Dr. Achievement in Science *correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. they rarely attempt to correct or improve the shortcomings of the students’ learning through feedback. The implications of study are discussed and suggestions are given for using feedback in a constructive way to improve achievement. Also there was a significant difference between the students who received written feedback and those who received only oral feedback concerning science subjects’ achievement. Iran. the current study aims to address the effect of various methods of feedback including oral. Sanandaj. Department of Education. Naser Shirbagi. oral-written feedbacks on science subjects’ achievement. The sample consisting of 140 fifth grade primary school students' subjects was divided into three experimental and one control groups.ac. Tel: +98 -8716622709/+98-9181711855. written and mixed (oral-written) and those lacking these feedbacks. University of Kurdistan.
Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. 2001. is strongly favored in current educational literature. Torrance & Pryor. formative evaluation is described as a composite practice. Hastings & Madaus. Formative evaluation has been championed by evaluation specialists (e.2 Shirbagi and Kord There are many factors that can contribute to improving the learning experiences of students. 2005. 2005. or formative evaluation. Stiggins & Chappuis.. 2005) and it is increasingly endorsed by professional organizations (e. It is a technique that has become well developed in the education and training evaluation literature. 2003. 1999. and e) the active involvement of students. the use of evaluation in guiding instruction has long been advocated. 2001). including questioning and observation. Center for Educational Research & Evaluation. With roots in Tyler’s curriculum rationale (1949) Skinner’s behaviorism and programmed instruction (1953. involving: a) clearly communicated learning goals and evaluative criteria. Long-standing theory and research suggest the critical role that formative evaluation can play in student learning. 2005. 1963) Bloom’s concept of Mastery Learning (Bloom. There is considerable focus on giving feedback to students. Crooks.g. Several recent definitions detail the characteristics and elements of formative evaluation (Assessment Reform Group. Cowie & Bell. d) the adjustment of teaching and learning as a result of the evaluation. 1960) Glaser’s seminal work in criterion referenced instruction and testing (Glaser. In synthesizing these. Thompson & Wiliam. According to Scriven (1991) formative evaluation at its most basic. Lyon. Those that are of interest here include: formative evaluation and various methods of providing feedback.. b) varied approaches to elicit information about learning. c) balanced and descriptive feedback in varied forms. 2005. Leahy. is an assessment of efforts prior to their completion for the purpose of improving the efforts. 2005). 2002. The element of feedback to students is central to the concept. Shepard. Classroom evaluation that supports student learning. 1971) Ramaprasad (1983) and Sadler's (1989) works.g. McTighe & O’Connor. Miller. Various .
Van der Schaff. form. Lee. For example. Formative evaluation was first used by Scriven (1973) as the term to describe the evaluation of a curriculum while it is still under development. and only one study attributes increased student achievement specifically to feedback.. Jaspers. Hunt. such as comment-only marking by teachers (Wiliam. Improving length and quality of the feedback and the successful outcome of the teaching can. feedback is rarely considered in isolation from other elements of formative evaluation. 2004) oral feedback offered informally and responsively during classroom activities (Bell & Cowie. Stokking. 2000). and quality of feedback. noted a wide range in the type. However.g. Feedback is described as an effective means of scaffolding learning (Hodgen & Marshall. especially for learning purposes. be associated with the teachers’ pedagogical skill. and they observed that some of the reported practices were less than ideal. Formative evaluation has since been widely adopted as the term to describe "systematic evaluation in . Several studies conclude that teachers need guidance in this area. 2001) the nature of formative evaluation must be considered. Also with evidence of cultural differences in how learning and evaluation are perceived (e. therefore. 2006). & Minstrell.FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 3 methods of feedback are discussed. 2001) written and computer generated feedback that is tailored to specific errors (Thissen-Roe. and encouraging greater student autonomy (Kirkwood. Methods that are effective in one academic subject or geographic location may not be so in another.298). While these studies do not give indication of the relative merits of these different methods of feedback. positive consequences are generally seen. Yung. Harrison & Black. and Erkens (2004) in their survey of evaluation practices in the Netherlands. Yung (2001) argues that teachers in Hong Kong should be provided with professional development on the use of feedback to motivate students and support learning. Hickey and Zuicker (2005) encouraged greater use of feedback by students and pointed out that “the improved learning outcomes over time appear to be mostly due to continued enhancement of participation in the feedback conversations” (p. 2004).
p. teaching. . However it is also clear that feedback is rarely considered in isolation from other elements of formative evaluation and there is only one study focusing specifically on feedback. oral. which can be explicitly indicated by comments and sometimes with an indication of the level of mastery such as a temporary grade. Hastings.4 Shirbagi and Kord the process of curriculum construction. It is clear from the above literature survey that formative feedback is used in academic settings and has been linked to improved achievement in some cases. 1971. and mixed (oral-written) on the achievement of the students who receive the feedbacks in formative evaluation. b) comparing the effects of the various methods of feedback i. In short formative evaluation is used to determine whether a learner has achieved an adequate level of skill or mastery of some subject content before the opportunity to learn that subject content has passed. Secondly most of the studies on this subject have been conducted in Europe or USA. The major goals of the research were: a) comparing the science achievement of the students who receive some feedback with those who do not receive it in the formative evaluation and. 2 There is difference between achievements of students who Ho receive written feedback with those who receive only oral feedback. Providing feedback requires a judgment about the quality of the work.117). providing little information about use and effect of feedback and formative evaluation in other societies across the world. In this study we attempted to test three hypotheses as follows: H o 1 There is difference between achievements of students who receive feedback in the science subject with those who do not receive any feedback.e. and Madaus. written. Formative evaluation involves providing feedback and an opportunity for improvement to take place. which may operate diverse educational systems. Bloom and colleagues went further by describing the use of formative evaluation to improve the teaching and learning processes. and learning for the purpose of improving any of these three processes" (Bloom.
Thus. . Their specification is depicted vide Figure 1. Figure 1 Research Design: A Multi-group Pretest Posttest Design with Control Group Group 1 observation1 X1 X2 observation2 Group 2 Group 3 Control Group observation1 observation2 observation1 X3 X4 observation2 observation2 observation1 Observation1= pretest for all groups Observation 2= posttest for all groups X1= formative evaluation with oral feedback X2= formative evaluation with written feedback X3 = formative evaluation with mixed feedback (oral . three experimental groups and one control group were studied.written) X4 = formative evaluation without feedback Feedback (three types) was independent variable and formative evaluation measuring achievement of students was dependent variable. the quasi-experimental research method was used. Method In this research.FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 5 H o 3 There is difference between achievements of students who receive written feedback in the science with those who receive mixed feedback.
The formative tests used for the experimental and control groups were the same. the intelligence factor was included as a strong effective variable in the educational achievement. The cluster random sampling method was used for sampling. 1938). It should be mentioned that these tests had face and content validity.83 and .6 Shirbagi and Kord Sample The statistical population of research was all 5th grade male students in the primary schools of Sanandaj. and group 3 [received formative evaluation with mixed (oral-written feedback) and a control group (formative evaluation without any feedbacks). c) standardized intelligence test (Raven's Progressive Matrixes. Each formative test comprised 8 openresponse questions and totally consisted of 88 open-response questions. We asked the teachers of these four groups to participate in an instructional program to . Procedure An intelligence test (Raven's Progressive Matrixes) was administered to each participant to make sure that the groups are homogenous. The total number of the sample was 154 students. First. and the reliability values of . Each one consisted of 35 students. b) standardized summative tests. Standardized summative tests (educational achievement tests) were performed after making them valid and reliable to using as pretest and posttest. leaving 140 participants in the study. in Kurdistan province of Iran. group 2 (formative evaluation with written feedbacks). 14 participants were removed from the analysis due to having outlier scores. Based on the results of intelligence test. then four classes were selected randomly from among them.86 that were achieved using Split-half procedure. They cover all themes of educational units according to the educational goals. Group 1 (received formative evaluation with oral feedbacks). For this purpose. four schools in the city were randomly chosen. Instruments The instruments used for the research were: a) formative tests. These 140 participants were assigned to four groups.
FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 7 become familiar with the research process.52 2.04. The feedback was given by the teachers.17 2.05 SS 0.60 df 3 136 139 F 0.05 level.54 M 8. Table II.58 2.77 8. ANOVA Summary Table for Pretest Source of variation Between Groups Within Groups Total *p<0.94 8.45 15.97 8. All formative tests were marked by the corresponding teachers but the final summative tests were marked by external examiners to avoid any biases.829 933. administered over 11 weeks. among all four groups.65 16.04* - Results obtained from ANOVA regarding posttest based .66 2. That is. Results The data achieved through pretest and posttest was analyzed to study the effects of various methods of feedback in formative evaluation on science achievement among four groups.91 M 13. The formative tests contained 11 sub-tests. The F ratio for pretest was not statistically significant at 0. the means of scores of pretest did not significantly differ.58 2.54 2.49 12.74 Posttest SD 3.77 934. Analysis showed that these groups were at the same level in term of basic knowledge in science.94 Table II shows comparison means of four groups in pretest using ANOVA. Table I Mean scores and Standard Deviations for All Groups in Pretest and Posttest Groups (In each group n=35) Group1(oral feedback) Group2(Written feedback) Group3(oral-written) Control Group Pretest SD 2. F (3) =0. Mean scores and standard deviations with respect to all groups in pretest and post test are listed in Table I.
Table III ANOVA Summary Table for Posttest Source of variation Between Groups Within Groups Total *p< 0.94* - As Table III shows the F ratio for posttest was significant at . Having established that the ANOVA for posttest was significant. Hence. therefore. .8 Shirbagi and Kord on various methods of formative feedback are reported on Table III. F (3) =12. it indicated a significant difference among the four groups on the posttest scores.30 06. That is.47. being statistically significant.01 SS 62.01 level.13 df 3 136 139 F 12. as well as. Effect size of significant Fvalue for formative feedback variable was r = 0. the hypothesis H o 2 was accepted.94.50) and represented substantive finding. hence a Post Hoc test using Tukey's HSD procedure was done and presented vide Table IV. this effect was large (because it was close to Cohen's (1992) benchmark of 0. The effect of formative feedback accounts for 22% of total variance.10 68.
96 0. group (2) was compared to other groups.27 Groups G2 -2.50 -2.49 0.000* It is clear from the Table IV that each group of participants was compared to all of the remaining groups. In the last part of the table.81 -2. the standard error of that difference.67 G1 -0.99 1.56 0. First group (1) was compared to the other groups and revealed a significant difference between groups (1 and 2) as well as groups (1 and 3).67 * p< .06* 0.06* 0.67 Group3 G2 -0.67 CG 2.27 1.90 1.71* 0.67 G3 -3.44 4.21 3. **CG= Control group Group1 .79 -1.33 2. All of the comparisons were highly significant except the comparison between groups 2 and 3.96 -4.005* .67 C3 -3.FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 9 Table IV.54* 0.50 -1.71* 0. Hence.21 -4.000* .000* .24 0.90 4. the control group was compared to all other groups.888 .67 Group2 G3 -0.000* .005* . Multiple Comparisons of Four Groups Using Tukey's HSD Procedure Mean Difference S.05 . .23* 0.56 5.67 CG 0.23* 0.67 CG 3. For each pair of groups the difference between group means is displayed.607 . null hypothesis H o 3 was accepted.000* . the significance level of that difference and a 95% confidence interval.99 -1. again all comparisons (except the comparison between control group and group (1) were significant.67 G2 CG** -2.888 .79 2.24 -0. which was nonsignificant.67 G1 3.E p 95% confidence interval Upper bound -0. In the next part of the table.607 .44 -5.83 0.83 0.49 0.54* 0.81 Lower bound -3.000* .33 -0.67 G1 2.
2-taild=. sig.05 1 2 12.000.43 15.04 2.10 Shirbagi and Kord Table V The Homogenous Subsets from Tukey's HSD Test (N=140) Subset for alpha = .01 level. .66 16. Results obtained from Two Independent samples t-test regarding testing the hypothesis H o 1: that stated "There is significant difference between achievements of the student who receive feedback in the science with those who do not receive any feedback" is presented vide Table VI. Table V that reported means for groups in homogeneous subsets shows that means of groups (1 and 3) do not differ from each other significantly.30).31 (it is close to Cohen's benchmark of . was found to be statistically significant at the 0.88 0. namely a sub-sample comprised of three experimental group and second one consisted of control group in respect of feedback in formative evaluation.92 t 3. Table VI Comparison Means of Experimental and Control Groups Using t. On the other hand. differ significantly from the other two cases. It indicated that hypothesis H o 1 was accepted.82.82* df 138 Table VI shows that the value of t-ratio for difference between the means of the two sub-sample under study.49 0. t (138) =3.94 SD 3.19 12.test Variables Formative Evaluation with Feedback Formative Evaluation without Feedback *p<0.94 13.01 M 15. the control group and group (1). Effect size of significant t-value for feedback variable was γ= 0.60 Groups Control Group Group1(oral feedback) Group2 (written feedback) Group3(oral-written) Sig.
2 % of total variance. written and mixed (oral-written) and those lacking these feedback. One essential and substantial aspect of evaluation is formative evaluation. Furthermore. It was also found that overall there was significant difference between students' achievement who received feedback and those who did not receive feedback in the science. formative evaluation along with these feedbacks is more effective. this effect was medium and represented a substantive effect. being statistically significant. scores mean of students in posttest who received feedback was higher than those who did not receive the feedback in formative evaluation. Even though. Discussion In this study effect of types of formative feedback was tested experimentally. We concluded that there was significant difference between students' achievement who received feedback in the science with those who did not receive the feedback. as well as. it can be inferred that formative evaluation can only achieve its educational strategy if the aforementioned feedbacks are included in the teaching process. Evaluation is one of the activities which have a pivotal role in the process of teaching and learning in any system of education. teachers employ this kind of evaluation. The other conclusion is that there was a significant difference between the students who receive written feedback and . There was a significant difference between the achievement of students who received written feedback and those who received only oral feedback. Thus. That is. This type of evaluation which has been almost neglected by teachers is used to improve and enhance the achievement of the learners. The effect of feedback explained 9. Findings of this research indicated that there was a significant difference between those formative evaluations which involve various method feedbacks including oral. Studies of Bloom and colleagues (1971) and Fuchs and colleagues (1991) are consistent with these results. they rarely attempt to correct or improve the shortcomings of the students’ learning through feedback.FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 11 therefore.
Havaezi (1995) also came to the same conclusion. In other word. It is suggested that university teachers and faculty members who set up in-service training programs and new method of teaching highlight the significance of formative evaluations along with oral-written feedbacks or written feedback for the primary school teachers. They should try to improve and rectify shortcoming of the learning of the students through proper feedbacks. In his study. teachers should give short test (quizzes) under the title" formative evaluation" to assess learners' amount of input they receive. However. The oral feedback of teacher is merely oral. As students refer to the questions and formative questions. Finally the research showed that there was not a significant difference in educational achievement between the students who receive the written feedback and those who receive mixed feedback (oral-written). Teachers should be familiar to effects of mixed (oral and written) and written feedback on formative evaluations-teachers should use various methods of feedback in formative evaluation because it creates some motivation. The reason is that formative evaluations without feedbacks are likely to de-motivate the students and de-value the results of the tests. It can be concluded that these two methods had high covariance. Means and variances of these two methods prove these conclusions. the written feedback and mixed feedback had same effects on educational achievement of students. and there is the likelihood that through time the students forget it. The following suggestions regarding formative evaluation and feedback should be kept in mind. they can acquire the right answer. Teachers should try to provide students with feedback while carrying out formative evaluations and avoid any formative evaluations without feedbacks. and it may not be as useful as written feedback. After teaching any educational unit. it should be noted. the grades of achievement of students who receive written feedback are more than those who receive merely oral feedback. In addition. . that nature of science subject necessitates written feedback better than oral feedback on learning and educational achievement.12 Shirbagi and Kord those receive only oral feedback concerning science achievement.
J. Feedback should be offered constructively and received positively. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. cam. Bloom. Cowie. however. Crooks. Handbook on Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning.html Bell. Retrieved March 2005 from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Web site: http://www. Retrieved July 28. Moreover. & Cowie. 85 (5). B. B. 101116. 536-553. The validity of formative assessments. The characteristics of formative assessment in science education.asp?sf1=ident ifiers&st1=962005021P1 Cohen. has some limitations. J. September). Formative assessment: Improving learning in secondary classrooms. A model of formative assessment in science education. B. T.oecdbookshop. Psychological Bulletin. This does not mean that credit should be given where none is due but too many negative feedbacks are not productive in creating an environment in which student feel safe in taking risks and trying new ideas. 6 (1). thereby only one class per condition was employed. T.. It has a small sample size. Science Education. F. Assessment for learning: Beyond the black box. it should be accompanied by suggestions or guidance for making progress. 155-159. (2005). B. The emphasis should be positive wherever possible.ac. (1999). Hastings.. (1971). (1999). and students should be able to expect regular feedback from the teachers.uk/ publications. McGraw-Hill. & Madaus. (1992). (2001. B.FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 13 Finally it should be noted that. A power primer. References Assessment Reform Group. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the . Assessment in Education.arg. G. both oral and written feedback are essential. New York. 2004 from the Assessment Reform Group Web site: http: //www. The current study.educ. 112(1). & Bell. the assigning of children to classes was not random. (2001).org/oecd/display. It has not been replicated so generalization and application is difficult. S.
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Cognitive impairment is characterized by difficulties which include memory loss. 18 Number 1-2 2008 Executive Cognitive Functioning. visual motor functioning and working memory in patients with schizophrenia using various neuropsychological protocols. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Mazes test.Journal of Behavioural Sciences Vol. Pakistan. Rawalpindi The present study aimed to assess the deficits in executive functioning. Quaid-e-Azam Campus. E-mail: najamnajma@yahoo. Participants were 25 schizophrenia patients who were referred by senior psychiatrists from the outpatient psychiatry departments of Rawalpindi General Hospital & Military Hospital Rawalpindi.com . Pakistan. Dr. Najma Najam. Visual Motor Functioning and Working Memory Deficits in Schizophrenics Najma Najam* Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab. visual motor and working memory as compared to patients with less than 3 years illness. Stroop Color Task and Stroop Color Word Test (SCT & SCWT) and Controlled Oral Word Association test (COWA). Schizophrenia. University of the Punjab. *Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Prof. Pakistan Fatima Abdullah Alumnus Fatima Jinnah Women University. impaired concentration. Lahore. Lahore. Visual motor functioning was assessed by Trails A. Visual Motor Functioning. Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) and Digit Span. Patients with more than 3 years of history of illness performed poorly on tests of executive functioning. poor attention. All patients were clinically stable for the administration of neuropsychological tests and maintained their daily medication protocol/intake. The Mall. Working Memory. Working Memory was assessed by subtests of Wechsler Memory Scale: Word-List I. Department of Applied Psychology. Key words: Executive Cognitive Functioning. Executive functioning was assessed using Trails B.
& Duncan. Jayathilake. Goldberg & Green 2002) Marked cognitive abnormalities are reported at the onset of the illness in patients during the first episode of schizophrenia. Puri. Terry. Studies using Trails Making Test (requiring visual search and motor speed) on patients with schizophrenia have reported that patients took more time and commit more errors on the test (Crowe & Trobe. Mahurin. & Meltzer. working memory & motor functions among patients with schizophrenia (Schwartzman. Vecchio and Gargiulo (1992) in their study found more errors such as distortion and dispersion on Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test among schizophrenics. Arndt. and slowed learning (Lezak. 1998. & Gur. Impairment of neuropsychological and basic information processing abilities is an important feature of schizophrenia (Censits. Lis and Gallhofer (1997. motor speed. 1997. 1999). 2002. However. Howieson. Rund. Ragland. Roderick. It has also been reported that patient with less illness duration commit less errors as compared to those with longer illness duration (Hutton. 1998. immediate memory span and verbal learning (Susan. there is evidence showing neuropsychological profiles of patients with first-episode similar to those with chronic schizophrenia (Censits. & Nopoulos. Velligan & Alexander 2006. Krieger. 2004).18 Najam and Abdullah language difficulties (recognizing and using appropriate words) and perceptual skills. McGurk. and executive function. verbal fluency. & Green. Gold. the degree of impairment differs. 2003). . Longitudinal studies across premorbid and morbid periods found significant decreases in the performance of executive functions. Douglas 1962 as cited by Terry. 2004. 2001) using the Mazes Test found patients with schizophrenia taking longer time and committing more errors. & Gur. Similarly. & Loring. Goldberg. They also reported positive relationship between duration of illness and errors committed. 1998). Ragland. 1997) however. 2002). Wolver & Gaebel. and moderate impairments occurs in working memory. Some studies suggest that most severe cognitive impairments occur in measures of attention.
Deficits in executive control have been classically associated with acquired damage to the prefrontal cortex. 1997 as cited by Terry. planning and organization of behavior. & Frackowiak. Nelson. Goldberg. Lauterbach. 2002). Rummans. 2002: Pantelis. Frontal lobes play a major role in executive functioning. verbal and nonverbal memory. Researchers using Stroop to test report problems related to attentional fatigue and disturbances of alternative pattern related to color and words in patients with schizophrenia (Bench. Kaufer. internalisation of speech and self-description (Barry. Grasby. Executive deficits are present from the beginning of the disorder. Kosmidis. (Morice & Delahunty. (2006) examined executive functions/abstraction. role acquisition. & Green. incorporating feedback and making adjustments along the way (Stirling. Reeve. and selecting relevant sensory information (Lezak et al. & Coffey.EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 19 Executive Functioning It includes the ability to initiate and stop actions. Frith. . 1996). Paulesu. 2004). 2000. sequencing of behavior. visuospatial ability. verbal and spatial working memory. Stenger. Kiosseoglou and Karavatos. self-regulation of emotion and motivation. It sustains one’s behaviour towards some goal. LaFrance. 2002). They reported that patients performed poorly in all tests. fluency. response inhibition. MacDonald.. Barnes. The severity of orbitofrontal atrophy has been reported to correlate with negative symptoms in schizophrenia (Stirling. but recent findings showed its association with the damage to interconnected cortical and subcortical brain areas. and exhibited significantly poor mental flexibility and concept formation. Executive functioning is regarded as one of the primarily disturbed cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients. attention. These functional domains are self-regulation. such as planning. and to plan future behaviour when faced with novel tasks and situations. n. sequence. Bozikas. & Carter. abstract thinking. Cummings. flexibility. and psychomotor speed of patients with schizophrenia. cognitive flexibility. even among drug-naïve. 2002).d). initiating appropriate actions and inhibiting inappropriate actions. Cohen. firstepisode cases (Royall. Friston. 1993. to monitor and change behaviour as needed.
impaired eye movements may interfere with visuomotor coordination directly (Rosenberg. Greenstein. Zemon. initiation and regulation of goal-directed behavior is a common cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Bokat and Goldberg. 2002) which is presumably disturbed in schizophrenia (Frith. Shlomo. Alexander and Miller (2006) assessed executive-frontal abilities in hospitalized schizophrenic patients using a wide range of tests and found significant deficits in patients. Sweeney. 2000). . Chan. well documented in schizophrenia. Janer & Raichle. 1995. eye tracking. Mahurin. Schroeder. Roderick. & Wheeler. affecting the planning. 2002). & Lieh-Mak. dysfunctional eye movement as well as difficulty detecting simple visual stimuli (Pamela. 2004).20 Najam and Abdullah Pardo. Schwartz & Hocherman. Velligan. Lam. 1997 as cited by Silver. & Daniel. Schwartz & Hocherman. Since controlled eye movements are needed to guide hand movements for effective and coordinated effort. 2002). spatial localization. Impairment of executive-frontal lobe functioning. Salo. Chen. Gordon. Shlomo. Schwartz & Hocherman. 2001). Patients with schizophrenia are also reported to have impaired motion perception. Turken & Swick. Impaired control of eye movements. Schwartz. 1996 as cited by Silver. Eye–hand coordination requires intact frontal-parietal-temporal connections (Schwartz. Duration of illness badly effects verbal production of the patients (Chen. Schwartz & Hocherman. A. Charles. Butler. 1999 as cited by Silver. Liddle. 1990. could be contributing to visuomotor deficits. 1999 as cited by Henik. Similarly. 2002). Shlomo. Stephen. Squires. 1994 as cited by Silver. Shlomo. (2003) in their study found that Letter and Category Fluency had been impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Visual Motor Functioning Investigations have reported impaired visuomotor function in the ability to control movement direction when tracing simple patterns and in keeping pace with a moving target in tracking tests (Krauzlis & Stone.
Goldman-Rakic (1994) state that deficits in the ability to guide behavior may be leading to schizophrenia thought disorder. which is processed via modality-specific subsystems for verbal and visuospatial working memory. a construct first introduced by Baddeley (as cited by Baddeley & Hitch. whereby the central executive oversees maintenance and manipulation of information. which serve processing of visuo-spatial ("visuo-spatial sketchpad") and language-based information ("phonological loop" or "articulatory loop"). .1992. Keeping in view existing researches. Patients with longer duration of illness are more likely to show poorer performance on executive functions as compared to those with shorter illness duration. 1974. Hypotheses 1. Working memory involves storage of relevant information of immediate and recent events and identified as a neuropsychological function of the temporal lobe (GoldmanRakic 1987. Baddeley. 1996) provided a twotier model of working memory.d). Patients with longer illness duration are more likely to show poorer performance on working memory as compared to those with shorter duration of illness. visual motor functioning and working memory in patients with schizophrenia using neuropsychological tests. even among drug-naïve. 2 Patients with longer illness duration are more likely to have poor performance on visual motor functioning as compared to those with shorter duration of illness. manipulation and utilization of mental representations to guide future motor and cognitive behavior. 3.EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 21 Working Memory Working memory. 1986) is defined as the maintenance. the present study was conducted to examine executive functioning. Researches indicate that working memory and executive deficits are present from the very onset of schizophrenic disorder. There are different domains of information that can be held in working memory. This central executive is assumed to use slave systems. 1997 as cited by Narayanan. n. 1994. first-episode cases (Royall et al 2002). Baddeley (1986.
head injury and substance abuse) which could affect cognition. Majority of the patients was up to 30 years of age (53.Najam and Abdullah 22 Method Research Design Between subject design was used to examine executive functioning. and case notes and DSM criteria (APA. central nervous system disorder. disorganized (n=5). Schizo-affective (n=7). Pakistan.8%) and were educated up to matric and FA. . The patients had maintained their regular atypical antipsychotics (risperidone=5. and clozapine=256. 2002). Participants The participants for the present study comprised of twentyfive (25) right handed schizophrenic patients (paranoid (n=6). visual motor functioning and working memory in patients with schizophrenia.e. undifferentiated (n=7). a) those who had been diagnosed for less than three years and those who had been diagnosed for more than three years. mental retardation. The exclusion criterion was that the patients with other medical conditions (neurological problems. Patients were recruited using purposive sampling technique from the outpatient settings at the department of Psychiatry of hospitals in Rawalpindi. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of illness duration i.8 mg/day. The patients had to meet the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia that all patients should be clinically stable for the administration of neuropsychological tests. observations.2 mg/day. olanzapine=15. The patients were clinically diagnosed by psychiatrists using clinical interviews.2 mg/day) daily dosage of medications.
9 26.9 The data indicates that majority of the patients were males and educated up to matric and FA (secondary school). etc) and also measures “ability to learn an .1 19. sequencing and attention. Variables Gender Male Female Education Able to recite Quran (Muslims’ Holy Book) Five Years of Education 10 – 12 Years 14 Years >14 Years Age <=30 Years >30 Years Duration of Illness <=3 Years >3 Years Diagonosis Paranoid Type Disorganized Type Undifferenciated Type Schzoaffective Disorder F 20 5 1 7 13 2 2 14 11 12 13 6 5 7 7 % 19.2 26. psychomotor speed. Most of the patients had undifferentiated type and schizo-affective disorder.EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 23 Table 1 Demographic characteristics and illness related information (N=25).g. 1. Trail Making Test (Trails B) was used for assessment of cognitive flexibility. not only numbers but also letters in ascending order (e.7 53. 1-A. TMT B involves connecting circles. 3-C.8 26.9 3.2 50. and divided attention. visual search.0 7. 2-B. Assessment Measures Assessment of Executive Function For the assessment of Executive function.3 46.7 7. impairments in set shifting.9 50. identification and detection of frontal lobe deficits.2 76. scanning and visuomotor tracking.0 23.8 42. the following tests were used.
3. Form of errors like lifting the pencil. serial retention and integration. 4. 1935 as cited by Lezak. verbal problem solving. If the patient had any difficulty in indication of different patterns of color and sequences of numbers then the patient had to be excluded from the study. 2004). Patients had to read the word printed on the C stimulus sheet as quickly as possible. green. Urdu version of the test was used in the present research (Laminis. Before administration of the test. retracing and omitting error were also considered. These skills have implications for the performance of everyday tasks that involve focused attention. cognitive impulse control. & Duncan. It measures cognitive processing and provides valuable diagnostic information on brain dysfunction. form color word (CW) stimulus sheet. Then another C-W stimulus sheet was provided to the patient to read out the colors only in which the words were written. 2004). and decision-making. and psychopathology. Puri. The forms (C) stimulus sheet and form (C-W) stimulus sheet consist of 100 color names (blue. It is a test of selective attention and interference susceptibility. 2004-2005). The test includes five color plates in which different alphabetical numbers are written with different colors.24 Najam and Abdullah organizing principle and apply it systematically. and planning. Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) is a standard measure in neuropsychological assessment.” (Lezak et al. COWA evaluates the spontaneous . Ishihara Test (Screening for color blindness) was used to screen out patients for color blindness as a pre requisite for administration of Stroop Colour-Word test (Lezak et al. Poorer TMT-B performance in schizophrenia patients seems related to impaired planning strategies (Hutton. Adopted form of Stroop test consisted of color (C) Stimulus sheet. red and yellow-in Urdu) arranged in four columns of 25 names but no color was printed with its own color on this sheet. Higher scores on time & errors indicated the higher impairment in executive functioning of the participant. Controlled Oral Word Association test (COWA) a standardized instrument for the assessment of executive functions was developed by Benton. which are key components of executive function (Stroop. it was ensured that the patient knew color’s names used in the test. 2. 1998). 2004). cognition.
This test involves clustering (the production of words within semantic or phonemic categories) and shifting (the ability to shift to a new category). W” are commonly used as alternatives (Lezak. requiring production of as many words in 1 minute beginning with the given letter of the alphabet (excluding proper noun. visuomotor tracking. F.EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 25 production of words beginning with a given letter or belonging to a given category within a limited amount of time. . 1. 2004). and visual perception in patients (Neil & Woodward. Assessment of Visual Motor functioning For Visual Motor functioning. The examiner also notes visual-perceptual skills. and cognitive flexibility numeric sequencing. The most commonly used letters are “F. R. the following tests were used. and perseveration. A. attention. as a result patient's ability to accurately perceive and then reproduce figures. TMT A is a simple pen-and-paper task which requires the patient to connect the series of circles containing numbers in ascending order. Scoring is based on accuracy and organization of figures and interpretation depends on evaluating the figure for their rotation. The tests involve visual-motor skills in which hand-eye coordination is needed. numbers and the same word with the different suffix). Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT) consists of nine geometric designs (numbered A and 1-8). although “C. moving out. 2003). 2. retracing are noted. Trail Making Test (Trails A) was used to assess visual motor scanning. 3. L” and “P. Errors like touches the line. the capacity of the mind and the eye to "see" something as it objectively exists. moving in. visuomotor speed and visuospatial scanning and it evaluates the process of rote memory. Mazes subtest (WISC-R/III) was used to measure the fine motor control. 1938). divided attention. distortion. symmetry. It contains ten trails of mazes and total time taken to trace the mazes is recorded using stopwatch. Higher scores on time and errors indicate the impairment. S”. Each design was presented sequentially to the patient whose task was to reproduce them on a blank sheet of paper (Bender.
3 trials each) of alternating sequence of letters and numbers. 1991 as cited by Lezak. 1985. The patient was required to repeat the strings so reorganize the numbers together in ascending order and letters in alphabetical order. Pakistan with the help of senior psychiatrists. . Kaplan. & Terry. To reduce and allay anxiety of the participants. Word List I (subtest of WMS) was used to assess the working memory in patients with schizophrenia. Daniel. working memory and short-term memory. Total scores of digit forward and backward and sum of both forward and backward were taken. backward & sum of both indicate deficits in working memory (Wechsler. 2. 2004). interference list recall of the first list is requested. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with working memory problems (Elvevåg. Informed consent was taken from the patients meeting inclusion criteria. followed by a single trial of a second i. This consists of 12 words that have no semantic association presented over 4 learning trials. Letter Number sequencing (subtest of WMS) consists of string (7 items. 2001).. Digit Span (subtest of WMS) measures attention. using Digit Span forward & Digit Span backward task each of which involves different mental activities and are affected differently by brain damage (Banken.e. The purpose of study and ethical guarantees were fully explained to them and it was assured that all the information will kept confidential and will be used only for the research purposes. Procedure Twenty five patients with schizophrenia were recruited on the basis of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria from outpatient settings of hospitals in Rawalpindi. 3. Goldberg.26 Najam and Abdullah Assessment of Working Memory 1. et al. the neuropsychological instruments were clearly stated as research tools rather than part their medical examination. Tests were administrated in the same sequence to all patients and individual assessment was carried out in single session at the premises of the hospital. Weinberger. 1997). Low scores on forward.
Mazes test (WAIS-R subscale). Trials A. Stroop Color and Color-Word Test (SC-SWT).EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 27 Tests were administered according to the prescribed procedure in the manuals of respective tests and assessment was carried out in the following sequence: 1. frequencies and percentages were computed. Controlled Word Association test (COWA). 4. 2. those with illness duration of less than or equal to three years. Socio-demographic and illness related information. . b.Assessment of executive functioning: Trails B. patients were categorized into two groups: a. On average. those with illness duration of more than three years. Letter Number Sequencing test (subtest of WMS). Ishihara's test for color vision. Digit Span (subtest of WMS). Assessment of visual motor functioning: Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test. A series of independent sample t-test was used to compare two groups on executive and cognitive functioning. Assessment of working memory: Word List I (subtest of WMS). Results For demographics information. it took about two hours to complete assessment. In order to examine executive and cognitive functioning in relation to duration of illness. All tests were administered per prescribed method of administration and behavioral observation was also made where required. 3.
69 136.08 4.44 21.75 4.50 474.07 4.23 83. gave more incorrect and less correct responses compared to those with shorter duration of illness.92 49.87 29.14** The table indicates significant differences in two groups on executive functioning.69 SWT Time Correct Responses SCWT Correct Responses Incorrect Responses (Stroop-Inter of Time) COWAT Correct Words Errors COWAT Category Correct Words Errors *p<0.46 15.56* 10.50 477. no significant difference in two groups was found in performance on Stroop .64 11.24 2.33 34.28 Najam and Abdullah Table 2 Comparison of executive functioning of patients with less than 3 year of illness (n=12) & those with more than 3 year of illness (n=13) Duration of M SD t illness Trials B Time < 3 Years 218.62 57.08 11.83 1.69 2.10* 6. Patients with longer duration of illness showed more deterioration in executive functioning compared to those with shorter duration of illness.90 9.72 0.23 4. patients with longer duration took longer time.28 53.19* 23.01.53 13.74 16.48** 4. On Stroop color test and Stroop color word test.28 47.92 18.99* > 3 Years 421. However.001 < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years 191.11 1.90 < 3 Years 11.58 42.80** 1.90 1.42 66.57** 19.27 17.99** Errors > 3 Years 23.28 87.42 6.67 347.41 1.66 2.85 819. ** p<0.60 3.54 292.68 12.46 6.63* 6.30* 6.08 252.
11 1. Patients with chronic condition took significantly longer to complete the task.54 5.49 1.97 2. less correct words and committed more errors as compared to patients with lesser duration of illness. Similar results were found for Mazes test.91* Analyses pertaining to visual motor functioning revealed that patients with longer duration of illness significantly differed from patients with less duration of illness.92 30.00 2. ** p<0.69 1104. patients who had illness for more than 3 years spent more time and committed more errors as compared to patients with lesser duration of illness.01.42 1785.78** 9. Patients with longer duration of illness also performed poorly on Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test. On Trails A test. . Table 3 Comparison of visual motor functioning of patients with less than 3 year of illness (n=12) & those with more than 3 year of illness (n=13) Duration of illness Trails A Time Errors BVMGT Errors Mazes Time < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years M SD t 16. committed more errors as compared to patients with lesser duration of illness.38 20.85** 6.00 29.04 0.82 0.16 1.62 4.EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 29 word interference task.19* < 3 Years > 3 Years Errors < 3 Years > 3 Years *p<0.62 3.23 16. COWA and COWA Category Test scores indicate that patients with more than 3 years illness duration gave less total words.33** 26.58 34.75 11.001 13.65 12.89 84.
00 0.30 0.71 0.97 2. .00 5.67 1.93 0.48 1.11** The results indicates a significant differences between the means of total recall score on list A. Similarly. Moreover.69 3.85** 6.58 2.92 1. digit span backward and total digit span score.33 4.51 13.92 3. patients with longer duration of illness attained low score on Letter Number Sequencing test as compared to patients who had shorter duration of illness.75 11.38 0.04 0.62 6.76 14.00* < 3 Years > 3 Years df = 23.001 11.54 5.01.**p<0.83** 5.58 3.65 1.44 0.55* 15. total recall score on list B and on short delay recall score of List A in two groups of patients. *p<0. significant differences were found on means scores on digit span forward.30 Najam and Abdullah Table 4 Comparison of working memory of patients with less than 3 year of illness (n=12) & those with more than 3 year of illness (n=13) Duration of illness Word list I Recall List A Recall List B Short Delay Recall LNS Digit Span Digit forward Digit backward Total of Digit Span (Forward & Backward) < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years < 3 Years > 3 Years M SD t 20.91* 6.25* 6.11 1.33 1.00 2.46 7. It indicated that patients with more than 3 years of illness duration scored less on total recall of List A and short delay recall of List A as compared to the patients with shorter duration of illness.13 1.
Roderick. & Alexander 2006. Findings of the present study supported research hypotheses and significant differences in various executive and cognitive functions were found in relation to the duration of illness. and Duncan. Executive functioning problems assessed using Stroop Color and Word Test (SCT & SCWT). blunting of affect) as well as disorganization (e.. 1998. & Gaebel. 2003). Mahurin.g. correct responses and incorrect responses.. omitting L) and perseveration (difficulty shifting from number to letters (Golden. Crowe & Trobe. Streit. Falkai. During test there was also psychomotor difficulty among all patients (e. These findings are consistent with several previous studies (Hutton.EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 31 Discussion The present study aimed to assess executive functions. Wolwer & Gaebel. lifting pencil. & Alexander 2006. visual motor functioning and working memory in patients with schizophrenia relation to illness duration using various neuropsychological assessment tools. accurate responses and difficulty in inhibiting over learned tendencies (of reading the word) compared to patients with less duration of illness. & Wacsler-Felder 2002). Velligan. Further. COWA and COWA Category test were pronounced among those with longer illness duration. patients with longer duration of illness exhibit more errors like retracing. Velligan. Espe-pfeifer. Patients with more than 3 years of illness duration also showed abnormalities of language due to which their words are generally halting. since TMT B requires visual scanning & eye movement. Wolwer. 2002. Patients with chronic schizophrenia are reported to take longer time in sequenced searching ('planning') and connecting targets and they also committed impulsive errors (jump from 12 to 13 on trails B. Mahurin. difficulty of speech. and mispronounced.g. Patients with more than 3 years of illness duration had longer reaction time. lack of spontaneous movement. inappropriate affect and thought disturbance) that resulted in general slowness . tracking which suggests difficulties in cognitive organization (Roderick. Patients with longer duration of illness committed more errors and took longer time to complete the task on Trails B. slurred. 1998). There were significant differences on the time taken. Puri.
& Barch. 2002). These findings are consistent with previous findings (Bokat. visual scanning & hand-eye coordination led to more errors such as lifting pencil. Trobe. Performance of patients with chronic schizophrenia on Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test also complemented their performance on Trails A. Goldberg. 2004). Similar findings have been reported in earlier research (Curtis et al. Hutton. patients with longer duration of illness showed of errors (rule violation such as non words. proper noun and numbers) and repetitions (there were also the signs of true perseverations & variations on the just previously given word) that are the evidence of their impaired ability to generate words and keep track of earlier response simultaneously Patients also exhibited more perseveration on this task. & Isaacsa. 1998. Espe-pfeifer & Wacsler-Felder. Lam. 1998). Schwartz. 1998. Patients having schizophrenia for more than three years showed poorer performance on Trails A test. 1983. Slow processing speed. Our findings are in consensus with previous studies (Crowe. 2003. Cherie. Perlstein. Carter. & Duncan. They also showed deficient in remembering the instructions which hindered in their performance. They struggled to name words beginning with a particular letter and it was problematic for them. Findings pertaining to visual motor functioning also supported research hypothesis. LiehMak. as this task required for patients to organize concepts in a novel way. On COWA. Keren.32 Najam and Abdullah and hesitation in vocal production. Chen. Chen. retracing and more time taken due to longer fixations. In COWA category test. Puri. Marvel. Kolb & Wishaw. Patients with longer duration of schizophrenia had more problems in the visual scanning of the whole design. Chan. even when they know the alphabetical series so overall they lacked visual-motor scanning speed. 1998). Patients with schizophrenia are reported to have difficulty shifting to another appropriate response (Golden. Barbara. It showed patients’ inability to connect the series of circles containing numbers in ascending order.. patients with chronic condition in the beginning said that this task of animal naming seems simple. They continuously used erasure to improve lines and they had more . 2000.
2005. Some patients closed their eyes while responding by using the visualization strategy or attempting to increase attention and focus by blocking out visual distractions (Glahn. patients having illness for longer duration had reduced repertoire of words. as per instructions. Working memory was also influenced more in patients who had schizophrenia for longer time. Performance on all subtests used for assessment of working memory was in the same line. 1992). Espe-pfeifer. Cannon. Peretti & Cuervo. retracing. & Davis. 2000. Friedman. Coleman. The findings on Letter Number Sequencing Test (subtest of WMS) were also consistent with research hypothesis and previous researches (McGurk. & Gur. & Wacsler-Felder. Iacono. & Gur. There was a greater number of wall touching. Weinberger. 2003. patients with longer duration took longer routes of mazes as well as longer time. They exhibited the difficulty of attention and on the execution of movements. 2002). 2001. but getting all the numbers correct) which indicate their stimulus overload or an advantage for processing the letters or numbers (Golden. Silver & Feldman. White. . 1998. 2004). In line with earlier research by Sabah and Najam (2007). 1996). & Goldberg. Glahn. splitting. Parrella. Silver. On mazes test. Curtis. 2005. & Ron. Nathaniel-James Brown. Their figures also indicated disturbance of splitting expressing itself by a dissociation in the gestalt figures. Harvey. 2005). Cannon. These patients also have the pattern in the error like (by missing only the letters. and also in irregular behavior (entering deadends and going back towards the starting area).EXECUTIVE CONGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 33 distortions. & Gur. Feldman. Our findings are substantiated by existing research on schizophrenia (Elvevåg. and in trying to avoid wall touching. as well as gave responses in the opposite pattern. Conklin. which often distorts them fundamentally so that the gestalt principles are spilt. Bilker. Reichenberg. They recalled the last words in the start and forgot the first sequence numbers. It was seen that the integration of the gestalt involved many fields of the experience including the central problems of the personality (Vecchio & Gargiulo. Katsanis. Patients with chronic condition showed the loss of set. Salamé. lifting the pencil. and dispersions in figures. Danion.
Clinical factors. There were significant differences on digit span forward & backward and total of DSF & DSB. The future research should be carried out with large sample with longitudinal studies which would allow examine long-term effects of schizophrenia. DB and LNS.34 Najam and Abdullah On digit span. Taylor & Heaton. Gold 1992. Moreover. Bilker. future studies should control . some studies have found differential impairment in working memory (Elizabeth. Howieson & Loring. Conklin 2000. During test they also used the strategy such as writing on an imaginary piece of paper or closing eyes for increased concentration. These findings are consistent with several previous studies (Silver. a working memory test among the schizophrenia patients (n=267) and normal comparison subjects (n=82). The effect of medication may also be a significant confound. which minimally affect and may even improve cognitive function in schizophrenia. There are limitations in the present study which one needs to be cautious of. Working memory impairment is common in schizophrenia patients. somewhat all patients scored low on this (Weinberg & Diller 1972 as cited by Lezak. Jeste. 2006) assessed by using the Digit Span forward (DF) and backward (DB) Span tasks and Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS). and lack of motivation. Heather 2005. They concluded that the results reflect working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia (Stip & Lussier. McKenna. whereas DF scores did not. distractibility. Peretti & Cuervo 1998). Feldman. Palmer. These variables must thus be taken into account. 2004. 1996). as all patients received atypical antipsychotics. Twamley. 1990). Salamé. Worse negative symptoms were associated with worse performance on DF. Digit span backward related to mental tracking that involve some perceptual tracking or more complex mental operations & visual scanning. The selected nature of the study group limits generalization to all types of schizophrenia. Danion. preservation to previous items. They analyzed that the DB scores predicted LNS performance. sequencing errors. could be at play in diminished performance. patients with more than 3 years of illness duration had more omissions. & Gur 2003. such as withdrawal.
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Keywords: Brand name. product quality.S. especially over the last few years. they are not significantly influenced by the brand name. 9884498/988197. Associate Professor. The computer hardware and peripherals market is worth approximately $25 million and is increasing by 20-25% per year (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.000 desktop PCs in Bangladesh now. computers points to good prospects for increased sales. Bangladesh. Taiwan. Independent University. share of this market was about 55%. In context of Bangladesh. and South Korea.bd . The stepwise regression analysis discloses significant statistical relationship between product quality. Willingness to buy The computer peripherals industry has turned out to be a booming sector for Bangladesh.edu. Shubhankar Shil and Noorjahan Parvez Independent University. Bangladesh This study investigates the relationship between brand name. with sales dominated by locally assembled clones (85%). 18 Number 1-2 2008 Factors Influencing Customers’ Willingness to Buy in the Context of PC peripherals Nadim Jahangir*. As the study focuses on PC peripherals and not the PC itself. Strong customer preference for U. brand name is not significantly related to willingness to buy.S. According to the statistics of year 2003. The reason being they are merely peripherals and not PC’s hence. 2005). and promotion with willingness to buy. and promotion with willingness to buy in context of personal computer (PC) peripherals. Industry experts opine that there are approximately 6. Phone No. the study explores a few unique dimensions of buying behavior and it aims at finding the magnitude of the above noted relationships. the hardware and peripherals market is largely dominated by U. Email: njahangir@iub. price sensitivity. Price sensitivity. A large number of computer assemblers import motherboards and other components from Singapore. brands. The *Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nadim Jahangir.Journal of Behavioural Sciences Vol. Product quality.50. the U.S. However. price sensitivity.
42 Jahangir. 1989. A brand name which contains words. pronounce. be distinctive and free of any negative connotations. brand name associations are very important information linked to memory and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers. most vendors are targeting small offices and home users. numbers or letters is the component of a brand which can be spoken or verbalized (Bennett. 1986). Quality is most commonly described as providing superior value and confirming the stipulation through meeting or exceeding customers’ expectations. Montoya-Weiss & Calantone. Product quality has been selected as one of the independent variables of this study. On the basis of those characteristics a product can be designed which will have the ability to provide satisfaction at a reasonable price (Deming. 1994). need. People generally prefer short crispy brand names rather than lengthy or complex ones. and purchasing attitude resulted in . According to this model. Dobni and Zinkhan (1990) came up with a network memory model to measure brand. Shil and Pervez June 1998 elimination of duties as well as a 2002 withdrawal of a plan to impose a 7. A number of literatures have identified quality as a core substance variable (Adam & Swamidass. Generally. 1994). A good brand name should be easy to spell. During the 1980’s the rapid changes of customers in terms of their number. a growing number of businesses and individuals have been buying computers for their communication needs. brand name can be defined as a name linked to the perceptions of the consumers about a brand which occupies a permanent place in their memory. Defining quality is very difficult as it involves translating the need of the user into measurable characteristics. Different definitions have been derived from different viewpoints. Since the introduction of the Internet services in 1997. 1988). A necessary ingredient for improvement of quality is the application of profound knowledge (Deming. brand name suggests benefits or qualities associated with the product.5% duty has boosted computer imports and led to a drastic reduction in retail prices. Nowadays. remember. A principal component of branding is the selection of a brand name. Thus.
Price sensitivity defines the way individual consumers react to price levels due to the changes in them. the price conscious consumers have relatively narrow range of acceptable prices (Link. 1966). Simkin. In this sense. Peter. and managers’ perception of the customers’ views about the firm’s product quality. Through promotional activities firms communicate with customers in making them aware about the products and benefits they are serving to the market. & William. Consequently. promotion is one side of the communication process with customers. 1988). If the price goes up the highly price sensitive consumers will exhibit much less demand and vice versa. 1997). Price consciousness has been defined as the degree to which an individual consumer is unwilling to pay a high price for a product and willing to give up from buying a product whose price is unacceptably high (Monroe. Ferrel. whereas consumers low in price sensitivity will not react as strongly to the price change. Price sensitivity is referred to be related to the price acceptability level (Lichtenstein. People consider the quality of the products offered by the firm as the most important of all the tangible factors that affect their opinion about a firm. price sensitivity seems to be equivalent to the concept of price consciousness. 1997). Hence. the managers should start thinking that product quality should be a major focus and customers’ view of the firm’s product quality will be equal to the managers’ perception of their firm’s product quality. Market research is the complementary part of the . 1990).FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO BUY 43 the intense emphasis on quality. Furthermore. Pride. Firms use sensitivity as a valuable strategic tool in pricing (Tucker. At the individual adopter level and for a potential buyer of any product. price sensitivity is often used as a synonym for price elasticity (Link.1994) plays an important role in market success. At an aggregated level. Sensitivity of demand refers to how much sensitive the volume demanded of a product or a service is to its price changes. Promotion being one of the key 4Ps in the marketing mix (Dibb. two constructs were identified to test prevalence of this attitude of managers towards their organization’s quality as perceived by the managers (manager perceived product quality).
& Grewal. Furthermore. It also refers to their willingness to pay higher prices for PC brands to enjoy the benefits of social image. the aim of this research is to aware the management personnel about the influence of the four very important factors over the customers’ willingness to buy PC peripherals products. Factors related to brand name. price sensitivity. Levy. 1995). buy products. product quality. and promotion) will assist PC peripherals selling brands to plan and execute marketing strategies that will maximize their customers’ willingness to buy as well as profits.44 Jahangir. sound strategies can eventually help firms become more profitable and help them sustain a competitive advantage in their served markets (Hampton. 1992). 1993). price sensitivity. It is not necessary that the respondents professing their willingness to buy PC peripheral products will react in the same manner in case of other products (Lampe & Gazda. product quality. . At present. It is the assurance to measure the consumers’ willingness to buy user friendly PC peripheral products. product quality. and promotion. Shil and Pervez communication process in which suppliers seek to extract the information from consumers regarding their needs and wants. and recommend the store to others. PC peripherals manufacturers are coming up with new technologies and want their customers to buy their products and familiarize themselves with it. In this research. Hence. These four very significant variables (brand name. In this study. price sensitivity. The purpose of this research is to explore the aspects of customers’ willingness to buy PC peripherals products. and promotion will provide those manufacturers with the strategic and financial insight on the buying patterns of customers. the researchers will reveal which dimensions of willingness to buy are important to customers and will provide an insight into their expectations and perceptions of willingness to buy PC peripherals products in context of the Bangladeshi market Growing evidences support that willingness to buy is influenced by the brand name. willingness-to-buy consists of the customers’ likelihood to shop. These measures are similar to those used throughout the service literature (Baker.
There is a relationship between product quality and willingness to buy in context of PC peripherals industry in Bangladesh. 3. the following hypotheses are proposed for this study: 1. and promotion are important in context of their relationships with willingness to buy. product quality. product quality. the conceptual framework (figure 1) depicts the measured variables and their relationships in the presents study. In line with the conceptual links proposed between brand name. Based on the preceding literature review. 4. Brand Name Product Quality Price Sensitivity Promotion Willingness to Buy Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of Research Variables and their Relationships . There is a relationship between brand name and willingness to buy in context of PC peripherals industry in Bangladesh.FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO BUY 45 Conceptual Framework It is proposed that brand name. price sensitivity. 2. price sensitivity. There is a relationship between price sensitivity and willingness to buy in context of PC peripherals industry in Bangladesh. promotion and willingness to buy. There is a relationship between promotion and willingness to buy in context of PC peripherals industry in Bangladesh.
80. The items of product quality were developed by Garvin (1988) and have reliability of 0. 82% of total respondents were male and 18% were female.72.75. Data was collected from 205 university students belonging to universities located in Baridhara. Mohakhali. Shil and Pervez Method Sample The sample consisted of private university undergraduate students who had desktop PC’s at their home.94. Banani. After obtaining required permission from the University authorities. The items employed to measure price sensitivity were developed by William and Anuchit (2002) and the reported reliability was 0.46 Jahangir. The participation was voluntary. Among them 71% were undergraduate students and rest of them were in the graduate program. they were free to do so at any time without providing any reason. To collect the data from the respondents. If the participants wished to withdraw. the researchers went to different classrooms and distributed the questionnaires to the students who were willing . a self-administered questionnaire was used. 23% belonged to 26-30. The researchers applied convenience sampling technique to collect the data. Survey Instruments The items employed to measure brand name were developed by Jacoby and Chestnut (1978) and the reported reliability was 0. and Dhanmondi. The items of willingness to buy were developed by Dodds et al. (1991) and the reported reliability was 0. areas of the metropolis.86. In terms of age 71% belonged to the group 20-25. and 6% belonged to 31-40. The items of promotion were developed by May (1971) and has a reliability 0. Procedure A total of 205 university students were surveyed to collect information for this study.
34 (SD = .69 0.75 0.46 Correlation Analysis A correlation analysis was conducted on all the variables to explore the relationship between the variables. Product quality.46). Six questionnaires were deleted from the final study because too many answers were missing in those deleted questionnaire.80) (Nunnally. Price sensitivity. and Willingness to buy (N=205) Scale Brand name Price sensitivity Product quality Promotion Willingness to buy No. Results In this study.38 4. The mean score for Promotion is 4. On a five point scale mean score for Brand name is 4.64 0. It examines the correlation among Brand name.72 M 4. The results of the correlational analysis are depicted in Table 2. Product quality.70 0.64). Table 1 indicates that the reliabilities of most constructs in this study fall within the acceptable range (0. Table 1 Descriptive statistics and Reliability Coefficient of Brand name.34 4. The researchers applied test-retest method to determine the reliability of the scale.38 (SD = . The variables .40 (SD =. Price sensitivity.58 0.54 0.40 SD 0.26 (SD =.54).23 (SD= .58). of Items 4 3 4 3 5 α 0. and Willingness to buy. The mean scores have been computed by equally weighting the mean scores of all items.60-0. From there 205 questionnaires were used for the final study. The mean score for Product quality is 4.60) and the mean score for Willingness to buy is 4. Promotion. 1978). The mean score for Price sensitivity is 4.60 0.61 0. A total of 230 questionnaires were distributed to the students among them 211 students returned the questionnaire.FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO BUY 47 to participate in the survey.26 4.0). Promotion.23 4. the coefficient alphas for the different constructs were computed using the reliability procedure in SPSS (version 12.
price sensitivity (p <.54. Price sensitivity (γ =.63** . p<. which indicates it was not significantly related to consumers’ willingness to buy like the other variables.56** - Product Quality .01).57.57** - Stepwise Regression Analysis Stepwise regression was conducted to asses the relationship between variables.01).48** . . Brand name failed to enter into the regression equation.51** .51. and product quality (p <.49** - Promotion . Promotion. and Willingness to buy Variables Brand name Price Sensitivity Product Quality Promotion Willingness to Buy **p < 0. independent variables are individually admitted to the model according to their marginal ability to explain the response variable.63. Table 3 depicts that in PC peripherals industry.32** .01).05). These results provide a partial support for hypothesis. p<. If the F value and T value associated with any independent variable within the model is found to be insignificant.43** - Willingness to Buy . and promotion (γ =. promotion (p <. the associated variable is removed from the analysis.05) were found to be statistically significantly related to willingness to buy.54** . Price sensitivity. Shil and Pervez which significantly correlated with Willingness to buy were Brand name (γ = . p<.57** . the stepwise regression procedure is both a selection and an elimination algorithm. Thus. Table 2 Correlation Matrix for Brand name. Product Quality.01).48 Jahangir. In this analysis. p<. product quality (γ =.001). Hanushek and Jackson (1977) suggested that stepwise regression is a useful procedure in determining the variable which is most significant in explaining the behavior of the dependent variable.01 Brand name - Price Sensitivity .
06 . if the companies can reduce price without compromising on the quality. and product quality were found to be statistically significantly related with willingness to buy. Price sensitivity.06 .50 SEB . longevity. firms selling PC peripherals should concentrate only on clone products. and product quality explained about 40%.29** .22 . ***p<. According to the finding.47*** . which indicates it was not significant enough to influence the consumers’ willingness to buy.52 Step 3 Price sensitivity Promotion Product quality *p<. brand name does not differentially add to the best prediction equation in consumers’ willingness to buy PC peripherals products. In context of Bangladesh. then the demand for that PC peripheral will increase. price sensitivity seems to be a very important factor. promotion.31 .34*** B . 9% and 3% respectively of the variance in willingness to buy.01.06 .06 . Study results indicate promotion to be an indispensable factor for buying PC peripherals product.06 β . Hence.13 . promotion. Firms producing PC peripherals need to improve performance. .001 Discussion and Conclusion The results of stepwise regression analysis depicts that in PC peripherals industry price sensitivity. **p<.FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO BUY 49 The three predictor variables together explained 52% of the variance in willingness to buy. Table 3 Stepwise Regression on Willingness to buy Variable Step 1 Price sensitivity Step 2 Price sensitivity Promotion R2 . Therefore.07 .64*** .37 .49 ∆R .26 .08 .05.40 .02 .19* .40*** . Brand name failed to enter differentially into the regression equation. and range of color of the products.
Productivity and Competitive Position. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2005). J. P. incorporating a wide range of variables which are also relevant to the willingness to buy aspect of PC peripherals. Out of the Crisis: Quality. MIT. An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions. 15. E. 445-60. Sectoral Statistics: Trade & Industry. It can also be useful for further research in a comprehensive context because this study is restricted to only a small group of PC peripheral buyers within the Dhaka City only. References Adam. & Swamidas P. E. American Marketing Association. Dictionary of Marketing Terms. Do brands benefit consumers? International Journal of Advertising 16(3). (1994). Journal of Retailing. (1989). The present study is significant in various aspects as the findings can be useful for the vendors of PC peripherals in devising a strategy which will capitalize profits. (1986). D. Thus. (1997). 297-334. The System of Profound Knowledge. Newspapers). Levy. J. D. L. there are not that many promotional activities on the part of the PC peripheral sellers. Deming. Chicago: IL. This study will trigger future researchers to conduct research in the similar area and beyond. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. E.. Assessing operations management. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2nd edition. Ambler. J. Psychometrika. (1951). Consumers obtain PC peripherals promotion related information only from the print media (Magazines. 167-198. (1992).50 Jahangir. T. Cronbach. PC peripheral sellers should come up with promotional activities which will induce the consumers’ to buy more PC peripherals. Cambridge: MA. E. Jr. Shil and Pervez At present. Management. . W.. 16 (3). 68. & Grewal. in The New Economics. Bennett. 181-203. Deming. M. Baker. M.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1988). Centre for Advanced Educational Services.
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S.52 Jahangir. (1966). Applications. . Service Quality in the Thai Telecommunication Industry: A Tool for Achieving a Sustainable Advantage.. & Anuchit. William. 4 (1). Management Decision. Method. S. Pricing for Higher Profit: Criteria. NY: McGraw-Hill. Shil and Pervez Tucker. C. (2002).
Self-censure mediated sex differences in these specific acts. Mediation analysis were carried to test the hypothesis that effect of beliefs on aggressive behaviour was mediated through self-censure. University of Warwick. UK The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anticipatory role of self-censure in regulating aggressive actions as proposed in Bandura’s social cognitive theory. Lahore.com . Assistant Professor. 18 Number 1-2 2008 Normative Beliefs about Aggression and Retaliation: Association with Aggressive Behaviour and Anticipatory Self-censure Naumana Amjad* Martin Skinner Psychology Department. Department of Applied Psychology. normative beliefs about aggression and self-censure was examined in a sample of adolescents girls and boys (N=118). general aggression) were significantly and positively associated with aggressive behaviour confirming earlier research. Association between aggressive behaviour. justified retaliation. Quaid-e-Azam Campus. Naumana Amjad. Pakistan.Journal of Behavioural Sciences Vol. Normative beliefs with their sub-types (extreme retaliation. University of the Punjab. Self-censure mediated effect of excessive retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour but did not mediate the effect of equal retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour. E-mail: naumana_a@hotmail. slapping and swearing. Self-censure was significantly and negatively associated with retaliation beliefs as well as aggressive behaviour indicating that higher the beliefs about aggression and aggressive behaviour lower the feelings of self-criticism for one’s aggression. The findings are discussed with their theoretical and practical implications *Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Females reported more self-censure than males and reported significantly lower frequency than males for certain types of aggressive acts such as hitting.
beliefs about legitimacy of aggression and their association with aggressive behaviour (Erdley. 1991). 1988. Lochman. The anticipated negative circumstances e. 1996). Perry. Slaby.. Zelli. There is a distinction between general aggression beliefs. 1997.g. & Laird. “It's O.g. Parke. 1989. Perry.54 Naumana and Skinner Two essential psychological mechanisms implicated in regulation of harmful behaviour towards others are (a) moral beliefs or standards of conduct and (b) self-censure (Bandura.. It has been suggested that moral beliefs exert an influence on behaviour through negative self-reactions such as self-censure and self-reproach (Bandura. 1988. 1990). 1991). children also learn to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable standards of behaviour and to regulate their actions accordingly (Bandura. 1989. Dodge. & Guerra. A possible mediating or moderating role of self-censure also needs to be investigated. and retaliation beliefs. Association of these types of beliefs with aggressive behaviour and self-censure has not been extensively examined..K. to hit someone if he/she annoys you”) (Bandura. It has been proposed that children and adolescents have multitude of opportunities to adopt for themselves as standards of conduct the belief that aggression is an acceptable response in a variety of situations (e. 1973. external sanctions and punishment are particularly salient in guiding the behaviour of younger children whereas with age people learn to refrain from behaving aggressively even in the absence of external sanctions merely . 1998. Bandura. & Asher.g. & Guerra. Barbaranelli. 1990. Guerra & Slaby. Intervention initiatives for aggressive behaviour can benefit from an exploration of these aspects. It also aimed to examine gender differences in aggressive behaviour and self-censure. Huesmann. Caprara..g. 1999) role of self-censure has received less attention (e. & Boldizar. & Slaby. This study aimed to investigate association of sub-types of normative beliefs about aggression with aggressive behaviour and self-censure as well as verify the proposed anticipatory role of self-censure in regulating aggressive actions. On the basis of anticipated negative or positive consequences. Huesmann. 1983). & Pastorelli. Although there is substantial evidence on standards of conduct e.
Muncer. negative selfevaluations and feeling bad (Bandura. self-censure. Bandura. 1996. Crane-Ross. Perry. & Woodhouse. Crane-Ross. 1998). According to Bandura. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 55 through the self-generated reactions of self-censure (Perry. Barbaranelli. Campbell.censure means criticising oneself for an act one has done. Negative selfreactions are sometimes called guilt. Tisak and Tisak. “If children see that certain forms of aggression in certain situations and towards certain targets are inappropriate (e. & Pastorelli. Caprara.g. (1998) found that beliefs that aggression was a legitimate response were highly correlated with positive self evaluations following aggression and aggressive behaviour was predicted by beliefs and values about aggression. Caprara and Pastorelli (1996) found that the tendency to feel guilt and remorse was moderately associated with justifications of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. & Boldizar. Although an anticipatory and deterring role of self-censure has been suggested by both Bandura (1989) and Perry and colleagues (1990) it is not yet operationalzed.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. Caprara. Anticipatory selfcensure would be an expectation of self-criticism if one acted in a certain way (Bandura. 1989). & Tisak. They pointed out. Tisak. Self.. Cermak and Rosza (2001) found that negative affectivity following one’s own aggression was a key factor in enhancing need for reparation which was positively associated with pro-social behaviour. they may avoid acting aggressively under these circumstances for fear of self-censure (p. Some studies indicate that feeling bad about one’s own aggression (expressive beliefs) and having a positive view of aggression (instrumental beliefs) are . this ability or function underpins self-regulation and monitoring of behaviour. Hence there is hardly any measure of self-censure in literature. 1990). McManus. Bandura and Walters (1959) found that assaultive delinquents expressed little or no self-censure about their violent conduct. There is also empirical support for the proposed association between beliefs about legitimacy of aggression and negative self-reactions. physical aggression towards females or aggression against someone whose frustrating behaviour is not intentional). 1999. Barbaranelli.136). Pastorelli. Barbaranelli.
& Guerra. 1984). 1989. Terave. KeltikangasJarvinen. 1999. 1990. & Ferguson. Huesmann. Empirical studies also provide evidence that acts of retaliation are seen as more appropriate than acts of unprovoked aggression (Forgas. Archer & Haigh. Expressive beliefs about aggression.56 Naumana and Skinner negatively associated (Archer. Huesmann. 1998). “It is generally okay to hit others” (Huesmann.e. & Menyhart. & Slaby. 1988. Brown. 1984). such as feeling bad and upset about one’s aggression are also negatively associated with trait aggression (Archer. & Pakaslahti. Zelli. & Haigh. Guerra. 1980) and unprovoked aggressive acts evoke more negative reactions such as anger and counteraggression since they violate norms of proper conduct (Rule. 1984.. 1980. Zumkley. Normative beliefs can be situation-specific e. Lochman. 1987). normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behaviour. (1999) found that retaliation was approved more than general aggression. It has been suggested that they serve to regulate aggressive behaviour by defining the range of allowable and prohibited actions and play an important role in screening inappropriate behavioural scripts and stimulating use of appropriate scripts. The situation-specific beliefs are related to retaliation. & Weston. Script model of Huesmann (1998) suggests a direct link between knowledge structures i. The internalized norms or normative beliefs are seen as cognitions that an individual holds about acceptability or unacceptability of certain types of behaviour (Bandura. 1999). 1995. self-censure and aggressive behaviour. Legerspetz. it can be assumed that selfcensure may be differentially related to beliefs about aggression . Combining the information both strands of literature and proposed links from two theories. 2004. situations in which one is provoked.. Dodge.. 1997a.g. Zumkley. “It is okay to hit others if they hit you first” or general e.g. & Muncer. & Hanish. Campbell. & Laird. This review indicates that negative self-reactions are associated with aggressive behaviour as well as with attitudes and beliefs about aggression though very few studies reviewed have specifically addressed the interaction of beliefs. They may also affect emotional reaction to provocations (Guerra. 1997). Huesmann. There is also scant empirical evidence for anticipatory role of self-censure.
in line with Bandura’s model. Dodge. Crane-Ross. In view of earlier evidence that females report more negative self evaluation as a result of aggression as well as higher expressive beliefs about aggression than males (Archer. Graham. Laird. However association between anticipatory selfcensure and these types of normative beliefs and their combined or unique effect on aggressive behaviour has not been examined before. 1997. 1998) it was expected that females would report more anticipatory selfcensure than males. aggressive behaviour and sub-types of normative beliefs about aggression were also examined. 2005.. Guerra. and there is little evidence from other countries on normative beliefs about aggression among children and adolescents (e.g. Lochman. 2004b. & Lochman. VanAcker.S. Huesmann. 1999). it was hypothesized that retaliation beliefs. & Eron 2000. Dodge.g. Literature shows that normative beliefs are associated with aggressive behaviour (Bellmore. Zelli. 2004). It sought to verify two different theoretical stances. Werner. 2002. Tisak. & Laird. The present study examined association of normative beliefs about aggression with aggressive behaviour and anticipatory self-censure among children and adolescents in the UK. 2005. The review of empirical studies on normative beliefs indicates that most of earlier studies have been conducted in the U. Sex differences in normative beliefs about . Huesmann & Guerra.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. In line with script theory of Huesmann (1988) it was hypothesized that selfcensure will not mediate effect of equal retaliation beliefs and excessive retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour. Archer. and general aggression beliefs will be associated with anticipatory self-censure as well as with aggressive behaviour and the effect of normative beliefs on aggressive behaviour will be mediated by anticipatory self-censure. & Nixon. Finally gender differences in self-censure. & Tisak. Elsea. Henry. 2004 b) There is a need to investigate normative beliefs about retaliation among children in the UK since the school concerns with aggression in schools are increasingly being voiced (e. & Juvonen. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 57 in general and beliefs about retaliation or provoked aggression. Tolan.. Witkow.
Method Participants One hundred Eighteen children and adolescents (60 boys. Pakistani and Latin American). Sex differences on all variables were analysed to add to the existing literature. A wider age range was taken so that interaction of age and gender could be explored. 58 girls) participated in the study. fifteen percent were Indian British. M = 17. Bangladeshi. 1996). Beliefs about retaliation include items such as “Suppose a girl shouts at another girl it is ok for her to shout back” and “suppose a boy hits another boy it is ok for him to hit him back”. Arab.g. 27) were studying in a primary school in West midlands.5. Russian.. SD = . & Guerra. Sixty percent of participants were white native British. SD = 0. The response options in this 4-point scale are. Sixty-eight adolescents (age range 16-19. Gender differences in aggressive behaviour have been reliably reported in aggression research. Six percent were classed as international (Chinese. M = 10.85) were studying in A-level (equivalent to intermediate in Pakistan and high school in America). Half the items are worded in the negative (it is wrong to…) and half the items are worded in positive (it is ok to…) to control effect of positive response bias. 2000). Measures Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) is a 20-item scale developed by Guerra and Huesmann (1997) measuring beliefs about retaliation (12 items) and general beliefs about aggression (8 items). 1 = completely . though they are not large. Fifty participants (age range = 9-11 years. England.76. ten percent were Pakistani British. The schools’ student population represented the ethnic mix in west midlands. Huesmann.4. 2004a for review) and are attenuated by presence of provocation (Bettencourt.. and seven percent were of Caribbean origin. 1997. Henry et al.58 Naumana and Skinner aggression and retaliation have been reported before (e. vary according to age and tend to vary according to method of assessment (see Archer. & Miller.
Amjad has performed principal components analyses (2006. & Guerra. Germany. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient= . Direct aggression scale Ten items were used to measure physical and verbal aggression. Oommen. These three sub-scale scores were used in present study. and threatening). Equal retaliation beliefs indicate approval of retaliation.82 and . 1997). USA.80 for retaliation and general beliefs items respectively (Huesmann. NOBAGS has been reliably used with children. 2001). 4 = very often) how often they carried . Excessive retaliation beliefs have items. Amjad. swearing. Britain. The scale has been used in non-western countries like India (Björkqvist. & Möller.80 for retaliation and general beliefs items respectively (Huesmann. 2000. it is ok for John to hit him. 2007) on this scale and argues that the retaliation beliefs items can be further divided into equal retaliation beliefs (Seven items. & Kaukiainen. pulling hair and slapping. & Guerra. Österman. rude gestures. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 59 wrong.K. & Guerra.86 for the overall scale and . The Cronbach alpha coefficients reported are. Five items measured physical aggressive acts (hitting. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = . 1997. These were a modified version of physical and verbal aggression items in Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale (Bjorkqvist. & Basheer. 1992).82 and . “it is ok to hit a girl if she hits you”). The children indicated on a fivepoint scale (0 = never. 2= somewhat wrong. 2005. and “it is ok to hit back if someone hits you”). adolescents and adults in the USA and other countries (Archer. which matches the provocation (“it is ok to shout if someone shouts at you. 2004.82) and excessive retaliation beliefs (Five items. throwing something.78).K. Bender. name-calling. Shechtman.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. 3 = somewhat O. Higher score indicates beliefs more approving of aggression.) and five items measured verbal and non-verbal aggression (shouting. which suggest that it is acceptable to retaliate in excess of original provocation (if a boy shouts at John. and. Krahé. Pakistan. Österman. 2006). 4 = completely O. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients reported are . 2004. pushing. 1997). Huesmann. & Lagerspetz.86 for the overall scale and . Israel. .
Naumana and Skinner
out these acts. Higher scores on the scale show higher frequency of aggressive behaviour. Anticipatory self-censure Since no measure of anticipatory self-censure was available in previous studies, a new measure was developed. The definition of self-censure given by Bandura and other authors (e.g., Perry, Perry, & Boldizar, 1990) was used to develop the items. In addition the items used to assess feeling bad or guilt (retrospective negative feelings about one’s act) used in previous studies (Crane-Ross, Tisak, & Tisak, 1998) were also used for as guidance for phrasing items for new scale. The items for this measure were also drawn from responses to open ended questions given to 20 individuals who belonged to same age range as the participants of this study but were not included in this sample. They were asked to indicate how they would feel about themselves when they thought of behaving aggressively (hitting someone or shouting at someone). All the responses were turned into items (15 in total) and pilot tested with 15 persons obtaining lowest scores on a measure of aggressive behaviour given out in a group of students. Some items were deleted due to ambiguity indicated by participants and some were repetition of the same idea. The final 6 items were; I would feel bad and upset with myself if shouted at someone. I would feel bad and upset with myself if I hit someone. I would tell myself off for saying nasty things to someone. I would be unhappy with myself for having pushed someone. I would tell myself off if I got into a fight. I dislike the thought of getting into an argument. Response options ranged from 5 = completely agree to 1=completely disagree. Higher scores represented more negative feelings.
NORMATIVE BELIEFS, AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE
Procedure Written consent from school was obtained and school administration then obtained consent from the parents. Children and adolescents were also asked for their consent and were assured that no names were required, their answers were only required for research purposes and they could decline to take part if they desired. The children were tested in their classrooms in a relaxed atmosphere. All measures were given together and order of each measure within the set of measures was counterbalanced. All participants were thanked for their participation. Correlation analyses were used to test the association between variables. Partial correlations were additionally used to test the mediation hypotheses. Regression analysis was used to test the prediction of aggressive behaviour from types of beliefs. Results Reliability estimates For normative beliefs three scores were computed for each participant: general beliefs, excessive retaliation, and equal retaliation. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the three sub-scales are given in Table 1.
Table 1 Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficients of Normative Beliefs about Aggression sub-scales by gender and age group (N = 118) Total Sample Aggression Equal retaliation Extreme retaliation Self Censure DIAS .82 .80 .81 .75 .78 Girls (n=58) .79 .85 .72 Boys (n=60) .84 .84 .86 Younger People (n=50) .84 .88 .89 Older People (n=68) .80 .75 .73 -
Naumana and Skinner
Table 2 Correlations between aggressive behaviour, normative beliefs sub-scales and self-censure (N = 118) Excessive ret. Gen. Beliefs Equal ret. .32** .38** Self Censure -.19* -.03 -.23** -
Excessive ret. .46** Gen. Beliefs Equal ret. Self Censure *p<05, **p< .01 Key: Excess. ret = beliefs about excessive retaliation, equal. ret = beliefs about equal retaliation, gen. beliefs = general beliefs about aggression, agg. beh = aggressive behaviour.
Correlations between variables and mediation analysis Correlations between normative beliefs, self-censure and aggressive behaviour are presented in Table 2. Equal retaliation beliefs, excessive retaliation beliefs and general aggression beliefs were significantly and positively associated with aggressive behaviour. Equal retaliation beliefs and excessive retaliation beliefs were inversely correlated with anticipated self-censure. Beliefs about general aggression were not associated with self-censure. The study tested the hypothesis that self-censure would mediate the effect of normative beliefs on aggressive behaviour. Kenny, Kashy, and Bolger (1998) described four steps to determine whether mediation occurs. Step 1 is to show a significant correlation between predictor and outcome (here between retaliation beliefs and aggressive behaviour). Table 2 shows a significant correlation between equal retaliation beliefs and aggressive behaviour excessive retaliation beliefs and aggressive behaviour and general aggression beliefs and aggressive behaviour. Step two is to show a significant correlation between predictor and mediator (here between beliefs and self-censure). Two sub-types of normative beliefs, excessive retaliation beliefs and equal retaliation beliefs were significantly and negatively correlated with self-censure. General aggression beliefs were not correlated with self-censure
AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 63 therefore they were not used in mediation analysis. Step 4 determines whether partial or complete mediation has occurred. The data failed to meet this criterion of mediation as the partial correlation between excessive beliefs and aggressive behaviour remained significant when self-censure was controlled.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. Therefore it can be concluded that self-censure partially mediated the effect of excessive retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour but did not mediate the effect of equal retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour. The correlation between the three types of beliefs and self-censure was no longer significant when aggressive behaviour was controlled. This result showed that self-censure mediated effect of excessive retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour but did not mediate the effect of equal retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour. . Consistent with Step 3. However self-censure was no longer associated with aggressive behaviour when equal retaliation beliefs were controlled. Step 3 is that the mediator affects the outcome when predictor is controlled. Complete mediation is indicated when effect of predictor (here excessive retaliation beliefs) is completely removed when mediator (self-censure) is controlled. This finding suggests that beliefs evoke anticipation of self-censure only if people behave aggressively. It was also tested if association between beliefs and self-censure would remain significant controlling for aggressive behaviour. partial correlation between self-censure and aggressive behaviour remained significant when excessive retaliation beliefs were controlled for.
001.30 .70 Older (36) 1.56 1.74 1.36).34 3.42 3. beh = aggressive behaviour. and aggressive behaviour.32 3.56 2.76 (60) 1.112)= 21.43 . excessive retaliation beliefs and self-censure.001.77.51 2.112)= 10. p< .64 Naumana and Skinner Sex differences Table 3 Descriptive analysis (means and standard deviations) for all measures according to age and sex (N=118) Self Censure n M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD (58) 1. p< .87 .79 Older (32) 1. Females reported more self-censure than boys (F (1.02 .59 Male Younger (24) 1.41 .80. equal retaliation beliefs.83 . ret = beliefs about equal retaliation.60 .05.44 2.46 3. beliefs = general beliefs about aggression.87.95 .43 .54 .78 1.59 1. d = -.40 . gen. ret = beliefs about excessive retaliation.ret Equal ret Gen.84 2.42 . Examination of means indicated that .49 .61 .41 . aggressive behaviour and self-censure. There was also a significant sex and age interaction on combined dependent variables.69 1.46 .Beh A two-way analysis of variance was carried out to examine sex and age differences in sub-types of beliefs. agg.06 . F (3.54 2.98. However.47 1.001. Females also reported less approval of excessive retaliation than boys (F (1.60 .57 .53 . F (3.22 3.34. There was no significant difference in overall aggressive behaviour. The multivariate tests showed that there was a significant main effect of sex on combined dependent variables.33 . p< . when the results for dependent variables were considered separately. two significant differences between males and females appeared to be in selfcensure and excessive retaliation beliefs.Beh Agg.40 .68 1.38 .41 . Excess.40 1. equal retaliation beliefs.61 1. There was also a significant age and sex interaction in excessive retaliation beliefs.45 Key: Excess.72 1. The dependent variables were aggressive behaviour.44 1. equal.46 2. Wilks’ Lambda= .46).117)= 5.69 2. d= -. Wilks’ Lambda= .70 1. The independent variables were sex and age group.63.35 .30 .35 .61 .38 . 117) = 5.77 Female Younger (26) 1. p<.56 .
78 1.60 0.07* 2.57 0.114) = 5.47 1.52 0.22 1.33** Younger males were significantly higher in excessive retaliation beliefs than all other groups (younger females.05.58 0.65 0. **p<0.76 0.71 0.19 0.14 1.14 1.2*** 9.50 0.66 0.05).35 1.28 1.71 0.66 0.47 0. Younger males were also significantly higher in aggressive behaviour than all other groups (F (1.51 0.67 0.67 0. They were also higher in equal retaliation beliefs than older males.60 t 4.50 1. males =60) Aggressive Act Hit Female Male Push Female Male Throw something Female Male Swear Female Male Name-calling Female Male Threaten Female Male Show Finger Female Male Shout Female Male Slap/Punch Female Male *p<0.07 2.79.53 0.38* 0.20 10. d = . . older females and older males).48) and older females (d = .001 M 1.43 1.41 0.20 2.NORMATIVE BELIEFS.36).01.4*** 19. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 65 Table 4 Sex differences in types of aggressive acts (females = 58.09 1.16 1.33 SD 0.58) younger females (d = .93 1.38* 0.70 0. ***p<0.40 1.38 1.37 1. p < .
The analysis carried out so far showed that females reported more self-censure than males and were significantly different from males in certain types of aggressive acts. Two types of aggressive acts. Discussion The present study was conducted to understand the relationship between anticipated self-censure. The results show. two types of aggressive acts.16 Swear . sex differences in various types of aggressive acts (represented by individual items on DIAS) were analysed next through an independent t-test.19* . showing finger and shouting were not mediated by self-censure as they remained significantly related to sex even when self-censure was controlled. aggressive behaviour and three types of normative beliefs about aggression (Excessive retaliation beliefs. Further correlation analysis was carried out to test the hypothesis that sex differences in specific aggressive acts was mediated by selfcensure. standard deviations. The item-wise mean. Slap/punch .01.14 Show finger . swearing and showing finger whereas girls reported more shouting.22* .26* As the Table shows.66 Naumana and Skinner Since there was no significant sex difference in overall aggressive behaviour. and t-values are presented in Table 4.22* shout -. equal retaliation .25* . This supports the hypothesis that self-censure mediates sex differences in these specific acts. Table 5 Correlations between gender and specific aggressive acts (N = 118) Sex Partial correlations controlling for selfcensure * p < .24* -. slap/punch and swearing were no longer significantly related to gender once self-censure is controlled. An overall correlation between gender and types of aggressive acts as well partial correlations between gender and aggressive acts controlling for self-censure is given in Table 5. the boys reported more slapping/punching.
& Laird. analysis also revealed that self-censure was no longer significantly associated with beliefs about aggression if aggressive behaviour was controlled. 1999). self-censure is anticipated and therefore regulation of aggressive responding occurs to some extent. All three subtypes of normative beliefs were positively associated with aggressive behaviour. 1984). This suggests that people only anticipate self-censure if they behave aggressively and contrary to their beliefs. This indicates that higher the beliefs supporting aggression and retaliation lower will be the anticipated selfcensure. It has been suggested that retaliation is underpinned by the conviction that culprit ought to be punished and a retaliation norm is exercised when people react to provocation (Zumkley. Bandura (1991) posited that standards of conduct regulate aggressive behaviour through negative self-reactions such as self-censure and self-reproach. The results revealed that aggressive behaviour. It may be the case that self-censure is disregarded when retaliation is believed to be justified. Lochman. Self-censure was negatively associated with beliefs as well as with aggressive behaviour. Mediation analysis showed that self-censure partially mediated the effect of excessive retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour but did not mediate at all effect of equal retaliation beliefs on aggressive behaviour. Huesmann. normative beliefs about aggression and self-censure were associated. Guerra.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. On the other hand. Dodge. 1998. This supports the assertion in Bandura’s theory that negative self-reactions are experienced only if one thinks that aggression is wrong. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 67 beliefs and beliefs about general aggression). Zelli. Huesmann. Huesmann. . This finding is supported by Huesmann’s theory of normative beliefs and confirms earlier research findings (Henry. Further analysis showed that beliefs completely mediated the effect of self-censure on aggressive behaviour. VanAcker. & Eron. 1997. Tolan. & Guerra. This suggests that even when an individual holds the belief that excessive retaliation is legitimate. This does not support the anticipatory role of self-censure but rather a retrospective function. 2000.
. This was also found in an earlier study by the author (Amjad. 1997) and negative self-evaluations after aggression (Crane-Ross. He states that fear of external sanctions as well as fear of self-censure work in anticipation (1991. & Howes. A partial correlation between gender and specific types of aggressive acts showed that self-censure mediated sex differences in two aggressive acts. Muncer. Campbell. slap/punch and swearing but it did not mediate sex difference in shouting and showing finger. & Boulton. Sapochnik. the items specified that respondents were to indicate how they ‘would’ feel if they behaved aggressively. 1998). 2002). An interesting age and gender interaction was also observed. On the other shouting for girls and showing finger for boys may be milder acts that do not cause enough self-censure for them to inhibit these acts. This indicates that with age boys may become socialized to exhibit less overt aggression and hold milder aggression supporting attitudes. This may . 1989). However the relation between beliefs and self-censure was no longer significant when aggressive behaviour was controlled. & Coyle.19) in a constant self-monitoring of social action in accordance with ones moral beliefs. This measure correlated negatively with beliefs about aggression. The younger boys were more aggressive and reported more excessive retaliation beliefs than all other groups. loss of control in an aggressive incident and subsequent negative self-reactions (Archer. 1992. p.. This lends support to Bandura’s assertion that one’s moral standards may evoke self-censure in anticipation when aggressive action is considered (Bandura. Campbell. Tapper.68 Naumana and Skinner Females reported more self-censure than males. This is also in line with earlier research. It may be the case that swearing and slapping is seen as gender normative for boys but not for girls (Crick. The self-censure measured in this study was supposed to be anticipatory.e. 2006). & Tisak. 2004.g. In previous studies women were typically found to be higher on expressive beliefs than men (e. Tisak. 1996) and therefore may be regulated through self-censure i. Expressive beliefs represent a person’s negative evaluation of aggressive actions. girls anticipating feeling bad if they slapped someone. Bigbee. & Muncer.
2007. Which attitudinal measures predict trait aggression? Personality and Individual Differences. (2004a). Bandura’s concept of anticipatory self-censure may be reflected in people known for their peaceful and non-violent ideology such as prophets (e. The flip side of this idea is that people who rarely behave aggressively may have a high degree of anticipated selfcensure. March. In Contemporary Research on Aggression. Do beliefs about aggression predict self-reported levels of aggression? British Journal of Social Psychology. Lahore. in which case the self-censure is retrospective rather than anticipatory. 36. 240-251. Pakistan. Amjad. Jesus Christ. The common individuals who are exceptionally peace loving and non-aggressive may also exercise a high degree of selfcensure. J.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. A. Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. References Amjad. & Haigh. and Dalai Lama who refrained from retaliation and were quick to reprimand themselves for thoughts of revenge. Archer. 291-322. Library. (1997a). Unpublished PhD dissertation. N. 8. (2007). Archer. 36. Finland: Abo Akademi University. Ghandi. (2004b). Review of General Psychology.. J. 47–60. Empirical studies have rarely studied non-aggressive individuals and future investigations should address this gap. This can also be due to covariation of the three variables and needs to be addressed in future studies. Role of moral beliefs in aggression-an investigation across two cultures.g. . Do normative beliefs about aggression follow a moral rationale? Paper presented at Symposium on Cross-cultural Psychology. 72-75. Eye for an Eye-A cross-cultural investigation of Normative Beliefs about Aggression. Amjad. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 69 be due to the fact that people only anticipated self-censure if they behaved aggressively. Government College University. (2006). N. International Society for Research on Aggression.. J. (2007). 83-105. N. Archer. Muhammad). University of Warwick.
. Physical. Bandura. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Björkqvist.. Bandura.. Pervin (Ed. Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency. Barbaranelli. R. Gewirtz (Eds. and indirect aggression among Hindu. Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. Campbell. NJ: Erlbaum.). M.70 Naumana and Skinner Bandura. & Pastorelli.). M. Österman.. (1973). 19-85).. (1992). K. V. Hillsdale. K. & Walters. Englewood Cliffs. Österman. S. Journal of the Theory of Social Behavior. The Development of Direct and Indirect Aggressive strategies in Males and Females. & P. G... A. K. Björkqvist. (Eds. Of mice and woman: aspects of female aggression (pp. 17... & Coyle. 453-472. K. Toronto: Academic Press. Bellmore. Niemelä. C. Models of anger and aggression in the social talk of women and men. A.2-10). J. 71. & Kaukiainen.. research and applications (Vol. 364-374. & Muncer. (2005). Prevention and control of aggression and the impact on its victims (pp. 71-129). H. Björkqvist. Handbook of moral behaviour and development: Theory. Caprara. Aggressive Behavior. R. verbal. 1. (2001). NJ: Prentice Hall. Graham. (1996).). New York: Ronald Press. In L. K. Muslim and Sikh adolescents in India.). Social-cognitive theory of moral thought and action. M. Campbell. Hillsdale. & Lagerspetz. 31. Social representations of aggression as an explanation of . A. A.. A. Witkow. D. A. (1992). & Juvonen. (1989). T. S.. L. From beliefs to behavior: The mediating role of hostile response selection in predicting aggression. Kurtines & J. A Social Learning analysis. In K. K.. A. (1959). 489–511. In Martinez (Ed. NY: Kluwer Academic Publisher. pp. Adolescent aggression. In W. Bandura. Muncer. 51–64). J. Oomen. S. A. (1991).. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. A. E. A. Bandura. (1987).. C.
R. Pastorelli. S. Bullied at school. (2001). P. . 1003-1014. & Menyhart.. Facing guilt: Role of negative affectivity. Sex differences in aggression: Does social representation mediate forms of aggression? British Journal of Social Psychology. A. European Journal of Personality. B. Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders: 2. Sapochnik. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.. A. (2002). 60-73. Barbarnelli. J. (1999). Laird. 219-237.. R. Aggression and conventional rule violation among adolescents: Social reasoning predictors of social behaviour. Child Development. (1996). McManus. Aggressive Behavior.. Instrumental and expressive representations of aggression. 36. J. 95–108. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 71 gender differences: A preliminary study.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. C.. Caprara. 25. Cermak.. Brown. G. Aggressive Behavior.. 269-277.. C. C. D. 26. M. M. 19. 347-365. N. & Lochman. V. K. Dimensions of aggression: The perception of aggressive episodes.. & Howes.. 15. Paper presented at XVI World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression. J. & Tisak. S. 14 (1). scared on the streets.. (1998). R. Crick. Guerra. Developmental Psychology. 24. (2004). 18. (1980). M. Intervention.. and fear of punishment in leading to prosocial behavior and aggression. C. Multidimensional Latent-Construct Analysis of Children's Social Information Processing Patterns: Correlations with Aggressive Behavior Problems. I. 161-171.. Gender differences in children's normative beliefs about aggression: how do I hurt thee? Let me count the ways. & Rosza. A. 435–444.. Elsea. & Woodhouse. Dodge. J. Forgas. Greece.. 215-227. (1997). Aggressive Behavior. Campbell. I. Campbell.. E. Tisak. Crane-Ross. Bigbee. S. 67. G. G. (1990). N. Psychological Assessment. & Slaby. need for reparation.. A.. & Muncer. L. D. Muncer. S. M.
73-108). & Hanish. 59-81. research and implications for social policy (pp. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms. 14. N.... Tolan. development and social psychology: The interface (pp. Huesmann. 72. L. Thousand Oaks. Huesmann. Huesmann. N. (1988). Guerra.72 Naumana and Skinner Guerra. The role of normative beliefs in children’s social behavior. (1994). L. L. G. CA: Sage. In R. London: Academic press. M. (1995). L... Review of personality and social psychology. Journal of Personality and social psychology. Stability of aggression over time and generations. Fraçzek (Eds. Eron.). L. Lefkowitz. & Eron. Guerra. T. 267-290. Journal of Cross cultural psychology. A. R. . 28. R. R. New York: Springer. L.. D. L. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.). L. In H. O. Socialization and Aggression (pp. L. 1120¯1134. Eisenberg (ED. P. L. Huesmann. 20. The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition of habitual aggressive behaviour. Donnerstein (Eds. (2000). L. Keltikangas-Jarvinen. R. Developmental Psychology. Aggressive Behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology. theories. 140-158). L. (1992).. 408419. L. Moral Reasoning among Estonian and Finnish Adolescents: A comparison of individualistic and collectivist settings. R. & Walder. M. R. R. & Zelli. R.. & Guerra. Huesmann. Huesmann. Huesmann. Huesmann. VanAcker. Zumkley & A. G. N. D.. (1998)... 13-24. L. Henry. In N. Geen and E. 30.. The role of social norms in the development of aggressive behavior.. (1997). Miller. Terave. (1984). (1999). N. R..). Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives. Human aggression... New York: Plenum press. An information processing model for the development of aggression. & Pakaslahti. 139-152). G.
& Westman. In A. C. New York: Oxford University Press. & Boldizar. J. M. G.. (1990). (1984).. & Laird. Normative beliefs and relational aggression: An investigation of the cognitive bases of adolescent aggression. (1998). 229-243. T. Learning of aggression. Lindzey (Eds. Mummendey (Ed.. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Journal of personality and social psychology. A.. The distinction between beliefs legitimising aggression and deviant processing of social cues: Testing measurement validity and the hypothesis that biased processing mediates the effects of beliefs on aggression. & Boulton.. Berlin: SpringerVerlag. New York: Plenum. G. & S. & Slaby.. Perry. In E. Tapper. N. L. Gilbert. A. K. D. Lochman. Aggressive Behavior. 233-265). (1980). D. (2002). Social Psychology of aggression: from individual behaviour to social interaction (pp. K. Aggressive Behavior. & Ferguson. L. Zelli. Perry. Miller (Eds. M. 26. J. 34.M.. A. & G.NORMATIVE BELIEFS. A. Rule. E. & Guerra.. In M. G. AGGRESSION AND SELF-CENSURE 73 Kenny. N. Social representation of physical.. Fiske. C. 6. P.. (1988). T. Lewis. G. S. Parke. 77. R. & Nixon.. Data analysis in social Psychology. E. verbal and indirect aggression in children: Sex and age differences. (Ed.). Dodge. J. R.). J. D. 442-454. Assessment. B. & Bolger.). Individual differences and aggressive interactions. 150-166 Zumkley. In D. Slaby. G. D. Moral evaluation of aggressive interactions. Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp 135-146). Journal of youth and adolescence. 33-49).. Moral Approval of aggressive acts: a preliminary investigation. .142-151). (1999). J. Kashy. Werner. Mummendey. Social Psychology of aggression: from individual behavior to social interaction (pp. R. The development of aggression. 24. T. (1984). Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders: 1.. Lagerspetz. H. M. 580-588. K. (1983). N. Developmental Psychology.). (2005). 119-130. The handbook of social psychology (pp.. In A.
Based upon the cut off scores of section I of CRAB. The participants included 300 school students of grades 6 – 9 and were taken from public and private schools of Lahore city.com .5. Lahore. Lahore.Journal of Behavioural Sciences Vol. University of the Punjab. Psychosocial functioning. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org %). Quaid-e-Azam Campus. Their ages ranged from 11. CRAB (1990) contained two sections. Department of Applied Psychology. SD=1.42). alterations computer-induced behavioral *Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Afsheen Masood. Pakistan This study aimed to investigate the relationship between excessive computer use and its impact on psychosocial functioning of high school students. i. Keywords: Computer Addiction. The data was collected using a self constructed Computer-Related Addictive Behaviors Questionnaire that probes issues about the computer use. 43. 18 Number 1-2 2008 Psychosocial Correlates of Excessive Computer Use among Pakistani Adolescents Shazia Khalid* and Afsheen Masood Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab.to-14 years (M=12.3%) and excessive users 60–100 (105 students. Lecturer. computer-induced behavioral alterations and symptoms.e. the participants were divided into three groups of users: minimal users 20–39 (65 students.2 %). 19. 38. first section aims at analyzing the extent of computer use while the second section assesses the symptoms that are produced due to the excessive use of computer. moderate users 40–59 (130 students. Pakistan. The findings indicated that computer-induced behavioral alterations occurred most frequently in excessive computer users and it was significantly correlated with total CRAB scores section II that measured subjective psychological complaints.
such interaction was said to take place at the expense of other important tasks such as their work related duties and their social lives. it has become more convenient option for almost everyone (Kuiper. computer holds a significant place in the life of modern man.However. Almost people from all ages are found preoccupied in computer dependency these days (Shearer. Weinberg (1971) discussed the computer users to be so much preoccupied with the computer related activities that they start drifting away from their daily routine activities and consequently impair their daily functioning. Our society is becoming more and more computer dependent not only for information but also for fun and amusement. Among such technological advancements that breed the capacity of addiction. and with the increased use of computers for solving day to day problems. . technology has made people’s lives easier. 1996b).76 Khalid and Masood In today’s world. only interacting with the computer when the problem-solving process demanded it. 1992). Weizenbaum (1984) has contrasted 'compulsive users with routine users. compulsive users were said to treat problems as a means towards interacting with the computer. Their compulsive behaviors come under the parasol of computer addiction (Weinberg. 1971). 1996). Such users are attributed as the computer dependent and computer addicts (Young. but there are risks that the people should be aware of and that risk is from technology and its addictions. Computer use could be for various academic purposes as well as for various entertainment purposes. The latter were said to perceive computer usage as just one stage in the problem-solving process. Similarly. 2001). Together with a sudden increase in computer access in recent times. Existing literature on over-zealous computer use behavior is mainly anecdotal and it has laid greater emphasis on the negative effects of such behavior. Again. They view the computer as a means towards the end of problem-solving. It has become increasingly common in Pakistan and its users have massively multiplied in number since its inception in 1980 (Khan.
77 PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF COMPUTER USE According to Ferris (2000) Computer addiction refers to the use of computer for a prolonged period of time that makes the person so much preoccupied in computer based activities that the ones involved in this can not resist from staying away from it. Whereas. 1999) social segregation (Kraut. 2005). this damages their academic performance (Kershaw. Computer addiction can have a devastating impact on peoples' lives. 2004). some (e. Especially in early teens. 2005. 2001. 1997. 2005) hold quite optimistic view about “Computer-based addiction” as they believe that this behavior is correctable. Kiesler. and unsuccessful efforts to control computer use etc. McLean (2000) has found out the reasons of why people become computer and Internet addicts.. p.g. benign condition and it is possible that it compensates for a lack of satisfaction in other areas of life” (Hall & Parsons. Lundmark. to reduce their loneliness. p. . As far as the vulnerability of getting into the computer addiction is concerned. 214). Mukopadhyay. and are treating it as “a dependency that can be as destructive as alcoholism and drug addiction” (Roberts. There are multiple potential negative outcomes of the excessive computer use in the existing literature that points out a lot of physical and psychological health hazards (Brenner. 6). and has described it as a form of Cyber addiction. 1998). 1996) and poor school performance (Wiegman & van Schie. Patterson. Some mental health professionals recognize computer addiction as a disorder. 1998) lack of involvement in prosocial (Funk & Buchman. Hall & Parsons. to deal with depression. This includes attempting to change moods. Anxiety levels become more pronounced in social situations in which the addicted user's peers are Internet illiterate (Suler. It was recognized that persons with computer addiction turn to the computer due to different reasons. Ferris (2000) has used the term “computer Addiction Disorder” (CAD) which includes such factors like increasing tolerance of long computer spent hours. marring their lives from personal to social selves. withdrawal.& Scherlis. Griffiths. 2005 cited in Kershaw. to overcome anxiety.
or disrupts school or work life. the addicted person spends more time playing video games or exploring the computer and the Internet.78 Khalid and Masood to distract themselves from the overwhelming problems and sometimes just to have fun. With the explosion of excitement about the computer. some people seem to be a bit too ambitious and spend too much time on computer based activities (Brenner. It has been categorized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. and irritations in such compulsive users. Elderly as well as children and adolescents become computer addict because they may not realize the extent of their dependency but this dependency is much greater among adolescents Computer addiction and Internet addiction has been identified more or less synonymously by many professionals and the media. to feel good. 1996a). 1993). Time away from the computer or internet causes moodiness or withdrawal. Increasingly. A heated debate is rising among psychologists about the extent and intensity of the problem of excessive computer use. 1994) as a condition affecting control of impulses and not as a problem of dependence. Regardless of how they are classified. Like other addictions. Clinical psychologists have reported increasing complains related to computer use. the computer or internet has replaced friends and family as the source of a person's emotional life. When the time spent on the computer. One behavioral addiction that has received considerable media attention is the pathological use of certain information and . Behavioral addictions such as computer addiction are an emerging phenomenon whose existence. that person may be caught in a cycle of addiction (Young. Family therapists hear about those behaviors frequently in family therapy sessions. playing video games or cruising the Internet reaches a point that it harms a child's or adult's family and social relationships. the study of behavioral addictions is interesting and as a way of gaining an increased understanding of the psychological aspects of substance addiction. is questioned by the psychologist’s community. except for pathological gambling.
The males (n=50) students ranged in ages between 11to 14 years (M =12.02 years).g. SD 1. Internet set ups are not available in all schools of the city Lahore but some schools have well-equipped labs and these schools are working under private and public sectors and have permission of internet facility. such as the Internet. Method Participants Participants included 300 school students equally divided across the educational levels and gender e. between 10 to 14 years (M = 12.PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF COMPUTER USE 79 communications technologies (ICT). These students included those who had been using internet and were identified through initial screening of number of hours they spend on internet. SD 1.42 years) while the females (n=50) were also in the same age range. 6th and 7th grade including both girls and boys. there has been an attempt to investigate behavior addiction known as computer addiction among school students in the Lahore city. Researchers briefed the parents and school teachers about the objectives of the study and obtained their informed consent. i.8. These participants gave informed consent to participate in the study on volunteer basis. children from 5th. 2) Excessive Computer users are more likely to experience social problems. Of . and video games. In the present study. Hypotheses Following hypotheses were purposed. The predominant aim of the research study is to explore the excessive use of computers in daily life and its impact on daily life functioning of the school students. 3) Male students use more computer as compared to female students.e. Pakistan.5. 1) Excessive Computer users are more likely to experience psychological problems.
001. Questionnaire for computer-induced behavioral alterations. 300 students met criterion of excessive internet use.85. gender and age of sample Grade 5th grade 6th grade 7th grade Total (age distribution) (11-12) (13-14) (14-15) Male Students Female Students Total n 30 50 70 150 % 9 15 26 50 n 30 50 70 150 % 9 15 26 50 n 60 100 140 300 % 18 30 52 100 Assessment Measures Computer Related Addicted behavior I was used in the current study. performed biweekly. problems in family . and the symptom Checklist about computer use and related problems. the word ‘internet’ in survey of study habits was simply changed to the word ‘computer’ and the author referred to it as CRABI Section I. n=60). CRABI consisted of 3 sections in total and a graded response was to be selected. The questionnaires were designed by the researches and were based on the indicators drawn from the general survey of Internet habits (Griffith. Consequently. the Computer-Related Addictive Behavior Inventory. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) of CRABI was 0. computer induced behavioral alterations in daily life.80 Khalid and Masood 375 students. p<0. they were included in this study. The Questionnaire comprises of five sections: a brief personal profile of the respondents. Therefore. describing ‘1=not at all’ to ‘5=always’. Table 1 Distribution of Grade. poor academic performance. comprised of CRAB II was used to get information about the extent of problems in five areas of daily life. Computer-related Addictive Behavior (CRAB) was used with the view that minor problems existed with changing the word ‘internet’ with ‘computer’ in the questions of the Internet. 1949).92 and its test–retest reliability. was also satisfactory (c=0.
It was essential requirement that the facilities in the public vs. and positive symptom distress index representing the intensity of the symptoms. The internal consistency (Cronbach) of this questionnaire was 0. Each symptom is rated on five point rating scale i. such as daytime sleepiness because of sleep deprivation. p<0. Phobic anxiety. shoulder ache. Obsessive compulsive. The SCL consists of 30 questions. Symptom Checklist CRAB Section II-B was used as a self-report measure of symptoms.76. was found to be satisfactory (c=0. Procedure Public and private sector schools that had the internet facility were approached.PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF COMPUTER USE 81 relationships including reduction in conversation time. The respondents gave their answers on a five point scale i. etc. administered after a gap of two weeks.e.).64 and its test–retest reliability. backaches. 1=no problem and 5=very serious problem. private schools were kept constant in terms of the facilities and conditions.001. reduction in time spent with friends. Paranoid ideation and Psychoticism. sleep disturbance. Duly signed consent forms were received back attached on the diaries of the students. Hostility. physical symptoms (headaches. Interpersonal Sensitivity. The nine symptom dimensions were divided into three global indexes: global severity index representing the extent or depth of the present psychiatric disturbance. n=60). where ‘1=no problem’ and ‘5=very serious’ to describe the extent of the symptoms severity they had experienced during the last 7 days. positive symptom total representing the number of questions rated above 1 point. carpal tunnel syndrome and visual fatigue. which are divided into nine symptom dimensions: Somatization. The questionnaires were administered after seeking the formal informed consent from the respective heads of the schools and from the parents who were sent the forms for informed consent at home.e. Depression. . Anxiety. The Section I of CRAB was administered to differentiate the normal users from the excessive users.
About 83 % of the children reported regular computer use and who did not compulsorily used Internet during the past month. showing a significantly higher use of computers by male students ( χ2 =52. 40–59 for moderate users (130 students. Computer-related addictive behavior The computer users were divided into three groups according to total CRAB section I score.82 Khalid and Masood The ones who were classified as excessive users were given the Section II of the CRAB that tapped various psychosocial symptoms that excessive users possibly experienced. The percentage of students with a score above 70 was calculated in order to find the percentage of the participants that were under alarming state. In terms of gender distribution. 19. respectively. 43. and between the SCL. 38. The Pearson correlation was used to examine relationships between computers induced behavioral alteration and total CRAB score. Results Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were used. 20–39 for minimal users (65 students. Distribution on gender base indicates ratio of male users is substantially higher than females being 94 % and 81 %.3%) and 60 and above as excessive users (105 students. p<0. CRAB Section II-B symptom dimensions score and the total CRAB score. more male students (94%) than female students (81. using Tukey’s HSD. Chi square analysis was performed to examine differences among the groups and socio demographic characteristics.5 %). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to discover whether or not differences existed among the groups in SCL. The post hoc test.0%) used computers. was performed where there was a significant difference among the groups of computer users to trace out the cross-group differences. df =1.2 %).001). Its significance among each group was compared using Fisher’s exact test.4. .
06 t (298) =1.001) however.25 to 0. minimal.7 hours.8%).7.001). file downloads (6. The nine SCL symptom dimensions and the three global indexes significantly correlated with the total CRABI score (γ ranging from 0. showing a significantly longer use of computers by excessive users.5%).001) in the computer users. p<0. p<0. school-related activities (8. news (2.34. Manifestations of computer-induced behavioral alterations Computer-induced behavioral alterationsmanifestations significantly correlated with the total CBABI score (γ = 0.4%) (χ2=21. df =2. Post hoc tests of the nine symptom dimensions and the three global indexes among three groups showed significant differences. p<0.001). respectively. followed by chatting (11.41 and 2. Minimal users (10.PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF COMPUTER USE 83 Length of computer use Average daily length of computer use during weekdays and weekends was t (298) =1. The post hoc tests revealed a significant difference among the three groups. Comparison of average SCL scores by degree of preoccupation with computer The average scores for the nine SCL symptom dimensions and the three global indexes were significantly different among three groups.4) =18.9%).60.9.001). moderate and excessive users (F (2. moderate and excessive users with scores above 70 for each SCL scale.1%). there was no significant difference in computer use for other activities among three groups.5%) and excessive users (1.9%) used computers for school-related activities significantly more than moderate (3. followed by moderate and minimal users (p<0.6%).1%) and others (0. . Main computer activities Computers were used mainly for games (70. p<0. minimal. The percentage and comparisons using Fisher’s exact test of.
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Discussion Computer has already become a part of the Pakistani student’s everyday life. It has been observed that the excessive use on computers causes multifarious psychosocial problems. Gender differences with reference to this excessive use are prominent and highlights that male students tended to use computer more frequently than female students. It is suggested that the computer environment is orientated more towards male culture. Recently female users have shown a rise. The difference in the CRAB score distribution between males and females indicates that male students are much more preoccupied with the computer as entertainment. Of multiple purposes of computer use, only 8.5% of the population used them for educational purposes in schoolrelated activities. The remaining majority used computers for fun-seeking activities or recreational activities associated with computer game play. It was further found that game playing is subsequently coupled with chatting, and these double activities provide personal pleasure and pleasure in peer interactions. Why are adolescents attracted to games and chatting so much? Games and chatting provide instantaneous ‘reward’, so they can be viewed as a type of operant conditioning. The game setting is placed into cyberspace, where no ego threat exists and ‘self’ can transform into a power identity from a helpless ‘self’ situation. Also, since play involves the user’s manipulation, the game is obedient, pleasing, appeasing and even exciting. Computer games are widely considered a vehicle by which children are initiated and acclimated to the culture of computers. Games are designed mainly for boys, and most reflect male themes of action, adventure, violence, sports and competition. For this reason, males mainly between the ages of 10 and 20 play computer games more than females (Griffiths, 1993). After games, chatting was the most common activity on the computer. This finding, in which female students chatting more, is consistent with the results of previous studies (Weiser, 2000; Parker and Floyd, 1996). Chat rooms provide a
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potent mix of immediacy, anonymity and intimacy. Furthermore, chat rooms offer a sense of togetherness (Jantz and McMurray, 1998). These characteristics of chat rooms allow students to experience more unhindered friendships with friends met in the chat rooms than with real-life friends. The students who spend much time on playing games or in the chat room experience a deterioration of societal relationships, including isolation from friends (Griffiths, 2000), development of physical symptoms (Shotton, 1991) a drop in school performance (Wallace, 1999) conflicts with family members (Kraut & Patterson, 1998) and decrease in total sleep time (Young, 1998). This study also supports the fact that computer use induces various detrimental effects in their daily life. Although computer addiction has not been recognized as an official diagnosis, it can be viewed as a problematic behavior requiring more attention, if it causes problems in daily life and interferes with healthy development during his/her adolescence years. Many studies seem to suggest that preoccupation with computer use might cause psychiatric problems: internet addicts had psychological and psychiatric problems, such as depression, anxiety and low self-esteem, long before they became addicted to the internet (Young, 1998) he/she becomes more isolated from internet use (Kraut & Patterson, 1998) and the internet is used to counteract other deficiencies in the person’s life (Epright, Allwood & Stern, 1999). All these suggestions indicate a possible underlying psychopathology in people who are preoccupied with the computer or the internet. However, clarification based on clear epidemiological studies is needed. The present results from the SCL CRAB- Section II were able to discriminate four decreasing orders of subjective psychiatric complaints: most frequent in excessive users and then moderate, non-, and mild users, in order. The significant difference in the percentage of students with scores above 70 among four group’s supports the fact that the greater the preoccupation with computers, the more complaints there are of clinically
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significant psychiatric symptoms. Score 70 is two standard deviation from the mean of each SCL and scores above 70 are considered clinically significant. Among excessive users, the percentage of students who score above 70 was shown to be highest for symptoms of Obsessive compulsive (13.0%) followed by Interpersonal sensitivity (11.6%) Somatization (9.4%) Anxiety (8.7%) and Hostility (8.7%). This result indicates that teenagers with excessive computer use complained mainly of the above symptoms. Although this study has some limitations because of its self- constructed questionnaire method and due to limited sample size. Still, this study proposes the points that it is necessary to educate adolescents for healthy computer use and to pay attention to prevent related psychosocial outcomes from excessive use. Also, it is necessary to establish a screening tool for the excessive computer user. The intake of nation wide sample with greater sample size is suggested. Lastly, further in-depth studies will be necessary to clarify whether or not this new trend is a new clinical diagnostic entity. References American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Brenner, W. (1993). Psychology of Computer Use. Internet: Use and Abuse. Psychological Reports. 80: 879-882. Brown, I. (1997). A theoretical model of the behavioural addictions--applied to offending. In J. E. Hodge, M. McMurran, & C. R. Hollin (Eds.), Addicted to crime? (pp. 13-65). Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
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