This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In India. Bharat) is smaller than the Indian Empire formerly ruled by Britain. North. There is hardly any culture in the world that is as varied and unique as India. and it is a part of BRIC (Brazil. occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. The modern nation of India (also known by its ancient Hindi name. there is amazing cultural diversity throughout the country. Officially titled the Republic of India. including four major world religions. India is a vast country. Nearly one sixth of all the human beings on Earth live in India. was administratively detached from India in 1937. and Northeast have their own distinct cultures and almost every state has carved out its own cultural niche. mi. lie in South Asia. Its borders encompass a vast variety of peoples. bordered by Pakistan (W). having variety of geographical features and climatic conditions. Buddhism. India is one of the emerging economies of the world. India is home to some of the most ancient civilizations. Ten years later. practicing most of the world's major religions. Russia. divided into thousands of socially exclusive castes. Hinduism. and Bhutan (N). and combining the physical traits of several major racial groups (Compton's). The culture of India is one of the oldest and unique. and Myanmar (E) and Bangladesh forms an enclave in the NE. Jainism and Sikhism. China. when Britain granted independence to the peoples of the Indian subcontinent. India and china syndicate). Burma (now Myanmar).269. speaking scores of different languages. The South. Nepal.India the world 2nd largest populist country on planet is situated in south Asia. the world's most populous democracy. it's 1.413 sq. a mainly Buddhist country lying to the east. two regions with Muslim majorities--a large one in the northwest (West Pakistan) and a .
is the most important. Bhutan. Urdu is also the official . The island republic of Sri Lanka lies just off India's southern tip (New World Encyclopedia). and Tibet. In its standard form and its many dialects.3 million square miles (3. which is recognized as a separate "official" language in the Indian constitution.smaller one in the northeast (East Pakistan)--were partitioned from the predominantly Hindu areas and became the separate nation of Pakistan.400 kilometers) from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal (Compton's). Linguistic differences are much clearer than those of racial groupings. It is predominant in the northern and central regions.500 miles (2. Finally. Also bordering India on its long northern frontier are the People's Republic of China and the relatively small kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan. the peninsular tableland. the low-lying Indo-Gangetic Plain. East Pakistan broke away from Pakistan in 1971 to form the independent nation of Bangladesh. Two linguistic groups. together with its adjacent coastal plains. the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian. it is spoken by about 43 percent of the population and is understood by a large number of others. extends more than 1. In the north the high peaks of the Himalayas lie partly in India but mostly just beyond its borders in Nepal. makes up more than half of the nation's area. Much of India's area of almost 1. There are three distinct physiographic regions. account for all but a tiny proportion of the population (Compton's). referred to until 1947 as Hindustani or Khari Boli. shared with Pakistan and Bangladesh. Of the Indo-Aryan languages. largely the Deccan.3 million square kilometers-including the Pakistani-held part of Jammu and Kashmir) is a peninsula jutting into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east. the official national language. South of the mountains. Hindi. Included among the Hindi variations is Urdu.
The list of official languages includes four Dravidian tongues: Telugu. Of the scores of languages not officially recognized.language of Pakistan and is spoken by most Indian Muslims (except in the far south and east). It is. spoken largely in the Sind province of Pakistan and also by Hindu refugees who came to India after partition in 1947. Gujarati. four fifths of the people are Hindus. for correspondence between Hindispeaking and non-Hindi-speaking states. Tamil Nadu. and Sindhi. Though a number of religions flourish in India's tolerant social climate. Tamil. they are widely regarded as diverse manifestations of one great universal spirit. While it is not one of the 15 languages. Panjabi (the official language of the state of Punjab and the most widely spoken language of Pakistan). a classical literary language. for example. Gujarat. English is understood by most educated persons. . many are spoken almost exclusively by tribal peoples. and Jammu and Kashmir). Assam. and Kashmiri (respectively. Hinduism has no standard orthodox form. the official languages of the states of Maharashtra. the religion of the early Aryan invaders. or religious obligations. Hinduism evolved from Vedism. and Marathi. Two other languages of the Indo-Aryan family are among the 15 regarded as official languages by the constitution: Sanskrit. and Kannada. Malayalam. in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh. While it recognizes innumerable gods. it is officially recognized and is used. Orissa. Assamese. Kerala. Oriya. in effect. which predominate. respectively. Other important Indo-Aryan languages are Bengali (the official language of the state of West Bengal and also of Bangladesh). and Karnataka (Compton's). known collectively as Adibasis (New World Encyclopedia). what people who call themselves Hindus do in carrying out their dharma. It is also the language shared by the Dravidianspeaking south and the Hindi-speaking north.
though the Shi'ah sect is well represented among Muslim trading groups of Gujarat. Most villagers are farmers. India's present constitution went into effect on Jan. many of which have traditional occupations. the institution of caste is so strong in the subcontinent that it has affected the communities professing Islam and most other faiths. though it remained within the . stresses the equality of people. who constitute 20 percent of the population. 1950. Many families. Most. West Bengal. Muslims. especially among the scheduled castes. and both adults and children must sell their labor to the larger farmers. are descendants of converts from Hinduism and other faiths. Muslims form a majority of the population in Jammu and Kashmir and substantial minorities in the states of Uttar Pradesh. At that time. Although Islam. the nation changed its status from a dominion to a federal republic. most Indian Muslims intermarry within graded. and Kerala. Shares typically range from one third to one half the harvest. Assam. The majority own some land. have no land at all. castelike groups. The majority belong to the Sunnah branch of Islam. but a substantial number must rent all or part of the land they farm. Thus. and on who provides the animals for plowing. however. are the largest religious minority. The amount depends on whether the cultivator or the landlord pays for seed and irrigation water. Followers of the monotheistic faith of Islam are descendants of invaders from the Middle East and Central Asia who began entering the subcontinent as early as the 8th century. unlike Hinduism. usually in scattered parcels. 26.This varies considerably from one region and social group to another. either for cash or for an agreed-upon share of the harvest.
from the 16th century. The Kailasa Temple at Ellora was carved out of solid rock in the 8th century. Village-level workers within each block are the chief links between the government and the villagers. was replaced by a president. Now many states require that a certain number of women and members of scheduled castes be included. The enormous. or shrine. In former days virtually all panchayat members were men of the upper castes. elaborately sculptured Sun Temple at Konarak dates from the 13th century. The artistic and literary heritage of India is exceptionally rich. These date from many different ages. Increasingly. which has divided the entire country into community development blocks. but the office is largely ceremonial. chosen by an electoral college. with its striking outer towers and inner Hall of 1. The governor. at Sanchi was probably begun by the emperor Asoka in the mid-3rd century BC.000 Pillars. averaging about a hundred villages each. presided over by a village headman. appointed by the British Crown.Commonwealth. The president is the official chief of state.general. The ancient Buddhist domed stupa. known as a panchayat. Probably most renowned are the country's architectural masterpieces. and the Minakshi Temple in Madurai. They bring news to the villagers of developments that might benefit them and report back the sentiments of the people (Concise). The panchayats are expected to work closely with the government-sponsored Community Development Program. The sublime Taj Mahal at Agra was built in the 17th century by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his favorite wife. usually those who owned the most land. Village government is in the hands of a democratically elected council. Every major region and religious group of India has produced works . elections are held by secret ballot.
Hindu and Jaina temples are usually richly embellished by sculpture. bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and India in 2009 totalled approximately C$4. Because of the Islamic opposition to representative art. decorative tiles.1 billion. Their roots go back nearly 2. Despite the lower numbers in 2009. Classical Indian music. a decrease of 10. mosques are comparatively austere and rely for adornment largely on inlaid stonework. However. Folk music and dance also show wide regional variations (Compton's).2 percent. plaster. As with architecture. has had several internationally recognized exponents. However. due in large part to the global economic crisis. and drama are closely linked. Mughals and the Rajput princes in the 16th and subsequent centuries. inspired by both European and Far Eastern models. geometric designs in stone. Modern painting.000 years. Their mastery calls for great discipline and intensive practice. Poetry is particularly admired. Islam's holy book. .3 percent from 2008. the reduction in bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and India was less significant than the decrease in Canada’s overall trade for 2009. India is a hum of IT industry. and ornate calligraphy (Compton's). Each has a conventionalized "language" that demands considerable sophistication on the part of the audience. India is very important trade partner of Canada.of extraordinary merit. guides the Muslims. which allows Canada to strengthen its ties with India. but religious and philosophical texts are particularly numerous Indian Muslim literature covers a wide range of practical subjects. The literature of India covers many fields of knowledge. As an emerging economy of the world. which was 21. or wood. dance. According to Statistics Canada. the authority of the Quran. a number of regional styles have developed.
1 billion (an 11. knit apparel.bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and India has increased by 70. . which it had not previously done since 1992. imports from India reached C$2. woven apparel and precious stones and metals (primarily diamonds). fertilizers.0 billion (a 9. Top Canadian exports include vegetables (mostly peas and lentils).3 percent decrease from 2008). top imports from India include organic chemicals. India ranked as Canada’s 10th destination for merchandise exports in 2009 (up from 13th in 2008) and as its 20th source of imports (up from 22nd in 2008). and machinery.1 percent decrease from 2008). This is the second year in a row that Canada has registered an annual trade surplus with India. resulting in a C$141. Despite the recent decrease in bilateral trade. While Canadian merchandise exports to India totalled C$2.8 million trade surplus for 2009 for Canada.0 percent since 2004.
http://www. Compton's Encyclopedia Online.com/ceo99-cgi/article?'fastweb? getdoc+viewcomptons+A+3993+35++India'. New World Encyclopedia.ca/indiainde/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_india-inde.org/set_stl. Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Modern Language Association. 23 October 1999 http://www. 1 November 1999 . Third Edition. MLA. India. html India. .aol.htm.Bibliography India.mla.aspx?lang=eng&menu_id=9. 1 November 1999 http://comptonsv3. New York: Pelican. 1995.canadainternational.web.gc.
Western and Eastern . a bull on the right. and of the Mind). NATURAL FEATURES Borders: Coast. The words Satyameva jayate (Truth Alone Triumphs) are inscribed below the wheel in the Devanagari script. Deccan. Indo-Gangetic Plain. India: Indus. from Sanskrit Sindhu referring to Indus River.168 kilometers). Capital: New Delhi. Major Ranges: Himayalas. Vindbya. 3. Four lions (one of which is hidden from view) standing back to back with wheel in the center of the abacus. Satpura.Fact Summary Official Name: Republic of India. National Emblem: Adapted from Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka in 1950. Karakoram.425 miles (15. Natural Regions: Himalaya. Aravalli.686 kilometers). Anthem: 'Jana Gana Mana' (Lord of the People. a horse on the left. land frontier. 9. and the outlines of the other wheels on the extreme right and left. of Society.533 miles (5.
59. Narbada. Jainism. Kamet.695 meters). THE PEOPLE Population (1996 estimate): 952. Major Peaks: Nanda Devi. deaths.8. Christianity.7 years. Islam.842 feet (2. Brahmaputra.8 persons per square kilometer).8 percent urban.817 meters). Bengali. Major Rivers: Ganges.000 population): Births. Oriya. Major Religions: Hinduism.969. Kannada. Major Islands: Andaman. Mahanadi. Buddhism.2 percent rural (1995 estimate). females.756 meters).Ghats. Gujarati. 26. . Kaveri. Nicobar. 26. 8. Telugu.1 persons per square mile (288. Notable Lake: Wular. 25. Marathi. rainy season from June to October. 58. hot season from March to June. Yamuna (Jumna). Climate: Three seasons for most of the country--cold season from November to February. Lakshadweep. 25. Godavari.5. Anai Mudi. Life Expectancy (at birth): Males. 73.000. 9.8. Tamil.447 feet (7. Vital Statistics (estimated rate per 1. Sikhism. Major Languages: Hindi (official). Assamese. Urdu.646 feet (7. 733. Punjabi. Malayalam. Zoroastrianism. English (official).
educational. Brabourne Stadium.MAJOR CITIES (1991 estimate) Bombay (9. Marina beach. Madras (3.841. Victoria Gardens. leading cultural. Vidhana Saudha. Delhi (7.396) Major port and capital of Tamil Nadu state. educational. educational. Mysore Government Museum. political. well known for cotton-textile.296) Capital of Karnataka state.206. publishing. film.819) Major port. the Madras Government Museum. Calcutta (4. and the Corporation Stadium. cultural. and Marine Drive. religious.. educational. University of Madras. and transportation center of south India.399. Red Fort. cultural. and printing industry. industrial.891) Major port and financial and commercial center of India.302. capital of West Bengal state. Napier Park. Central Secretariat. capital of Maharashtra state. . Bangalore (3.925. transportation. Parliament House. Rashtrapati Bhavan. Qutab Minar. and transportation center. cultural and traditional handicraft center. the Indian Institute of Technology. and political centerError! Bookmark not defined. commercial. and the National Gallery of Modern Art.704) Capital of India.
420) Industrial and commercial city. commercial. Lucknow (1. transportation. rail and lead junction. industrial.619. botanical and zoological gardens. Residency.624. and Hesaraghatta Lake.954. major cotton-textile center. Bhonsla Palace. Salar Jung Museum. Lake Kankaria. and handicraft center. industrial. Nagpur (1.752) Transportation.879. and educational city. British Fort. educational. and Sati Chaura.115) Capital of Uttar Pradesh state. Pune (1. agricultural.939) Capital of Andhra Pradesh state. Kasturchand Park. and handicraft center. Jama Masjid.651) Educational.145. commercial.526) Industrial. the Indian Institute of Technology. Kanpur University. educational. and racecourse. Kanpur (1. financial. Tin Darwaza (Three Gates). and cultural center. the Char Minar. cantonment. cultural. and Secretariat. and industrial center. Hyderabad (3. cultural. Gandhi Ashram. Hazratganj. and the Tomb of Ahmad Shah. Ambajheri Tank. and a Hindu glass temple. Ahmadabad (2. Mecca Masjid. Rumi Darwaza.Lal Bagh. Great Imambara. cultural. commercial. commercial. educational.566. Empress .
electrical machinery. millet. pulses. iron ore. Wellesley Bridge. cotton cloth. coal. motorcycles and scooters. bicycles. transport equipment. wheat. diamonds. Chief Mined Products: Limestone. sheep. Foreign Trade: Imports 59 percent.Gardens. Chief Manufactured Products: Cement. finished steel. Statue of Shivaji. mangoes. fruits and vegetables. ECONOMY Chief Agricultural Products: Crops--sugarcane. corn (maize). coconuts. works of art. bananas. crude petroleum. chromium. zinc. lead. Livestock--cattle. . tea. fish. Deccan College. iron ore. and Shanwar Wada (Saturday Palace). manganese. textile yarn and fabrics. precious and semiprecious stones. lemons. copper. fertilizers. clothing. rough diamonds. engineering goods. Chief Exports: Handicrafts. limes. iron and steel. steel ingots. oranges. natural gas. rice. paper and paperboard. chemicals. vegetable oils. water buffalo. leather. gold. foodstuffs. fertilizers. exports 41 percent. coffee. refined sugar. goats. sorghum. Chief Imports: Fuel oil and refined petroleum products. machinery. road motor vehicles. apples oilseeds. bauxite.
Compulsory School Age: From 6 to 14 in all states except Nagaland and Himachal Pradesh. Chief Trading Partners: United States. United Kingdom. . Saudi Arabia. iron and steel. secondary (age 1117) is free in most areas. Japan.tobacco. Germany. Monetary Unit: 1 Indian rupee = 100 paisa. EDUCATION Public Schools: Lower primary (age 6-10) is free throughout India. Literacy: 52 percent.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.