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This term paper is submitted to BIM as a partial fulfillment for the Diploma in Personnel Management
Supervisor: Salauddin Ahmed Deputy Director, BIM
Author: Tahseen Zakaria Course: PGDPM Roll No: Seven (7) Session: 2009
Salauddin Ahmed; without his supervision and guidance carrying out this research would not have been possible. Salma Siraj and Prof. Solaiman; their insights and valuable lectures in the class have enabled me to do many things. Also my gratitude goes to my wife, who made sure that my dissertation never gets hampered because of my accommodation and cooking needs. Special thanks to Prof. Hasina Zakaria, Ex-Principal of Ispahani Public School and College; Prof. Amrato Lal Saha, the Ex-Principal of Chittagong Government College; and Mrs. Dilruba Begum, the Ex-Principal of Radiant School and College for allowing them to be interviewed. Also I would like to thank Sameer Zakaria, Senior Territory Manager, Unilever-Bangladesh; Dr. Tahlil Azim; Asst. Professor, Independent University Bangladesh and Dr. Quitum, Acting Dean, Dept. of Business Administration, East Delta University for helping me in distributing and collecting the survey questionnaires. Last but not least, my parents Capt. Md. Zakaria and Prof. Hasina Zakaria for supporting me throughout the course and keeping my motivation alive during the research.
Page No Chapter-1: Introduction 1 Prologue 1.1 Scenario/Present Context 1.2 Rationale to the research 1.3 Relationship between education management and motivation 1.4 Feasibility of the research 1.5 Report Outline Chapter-2: Literature Review 2 Conceptual framework of motivation 2.1 Maslow‘s Need Hierarchy 2.2 Herzberg‘s Two-factor model 2.3 Vroom/Lawler and Porter‘s Expectancy model 2.4 Equity theory 2.5 Goal theory 3 A realistic framework towards motivation: the context of Bangladesh 3.1 Content theories and motivation 3.2 Process theories 4 Summarizing literature review Chapter-3: Methodology 5 Research philosophy 6 Data collection & constraints 6.1 Quantitative data collection 6.2 Qualitative data collection 6.3 The credibility of research findings Chapter-4: Investigation Results 7 Summary information 8 Findings 8.1 Findings for objective (a) 8.2 Findings for objective (b) 8.3 Findings for objective (c) 8.4 Findings for objective (d) 8.5 Findings for objective (e) 8.6 Findings for objective (f) 8.7 Findings for objective (g) 8.8 Findings for objective (h) 8.9 Findings for objective (i) 8.10 Finding for objective (j) Chaapter-5: Investigation Analysis 9 Interpretation of quantitative data 10 Summary of quantitative findings 7 7 7 7 9 9 10 11 11 11 13 14 14 15 25 30 35 36 36 42 44 47 49 49 50 52 54 56 57 59 61 61 63 66 67
11 Interpretation of qualitative data 12 Emerging themes from qualitative findings 12.1 Administration 12.2 Type of rewarding 12.3 Management Strategy and IPRP 12.4 Change initiatives 13 Comparison of quantitative and qualitative findings 14 Paradoxical research findings: Explanation and analysis Chapter-6: Conclusion & Recommendations 15 Review and analysis of the research questions 16 Aligning motivational strategy 16.1 Payment 16.2 Promotion and advancement 16.3 Specialised training courses 16.4 Extra curricular activities 16.5 Building relationships 16 Strategy suggestions 17 Limitations of the research 18 Scopes for future research
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Further education implies to College level education in terms of Bangladesh (equivalent to A Levels or High School degrees in North America). Nowadays, teachers are complaining about their low salary, straggling social life, lower medical allowances, demolished ethical values, collisions with Government and uncertain pension schemes. The objective of the report is to determine an appropriate motivational strategy as a part of improved management policy for the teachers working in Bangladeshi further education sector. The objective of this report is to determine an appropriate motivational strategy as a part of improved management policy for the teachers working in Bangladeshi further education sector. In this regard a number or efforts (both qualitative & quantitative) have been made to find out the exact reason for what motivates teachers to work even in this hostile socio-economic environment. A number of associated research questions have been developed in this regard and both survey & questionnaire were developed to find out possible motivator factors. Finally a number of motivators were identified and possible suggestions to implement/improve present scenario in order to retain motivation among teachers were proposed.
To determine an appropriate motivational strategy as a part of improved management policy for the teachers working in Bangladeshi further education sector.
Chapter 1: Introduction
[This introductory chapter describes the context, objective and feasibility of the intended research. The importance of aligning motivational strategy has been highlighted by integrating motivation with the issues of management. This has prepared a solid ground for undertaking this investigation as a managerial level research. The introductory section also provides a short glimpse of chapter descriptions- useful to acquire an overall idea regarding research procedure and/or reporting structure.]
1.1 Scenario/Present Context The education sector in Bangladesh today faces an imperative and tarnished dilemma, which involves almost half of the nation‘s teaching staffs, teachers and students. As a developing country Bangladesh has many things to deal with and education sector, apart from having poor salary structure possesses political vengeance, anti-social attitude, improper curriculum, no strategic planning and improper expenses. 1.2 Rationale to the research As mentioned above, the situation has reached to its peak in the last two years. Teachers are complaining about their low salary, straggling social life, lower medical allowances, demolished ethical values, collisions with Government and uncertain pension schemes. Despite of having an economy where unemployment rate is 6% and half of the population lives under poverty, why Bangladeshi further education teachers are most likely to quit their profession? (Chowdhury, 2002) My research tries to find out a better management policy to improve the job satisfaction level of teachers and teaching staffs in further education of the country. It tries to find out the appropriate motivational factor in this particular social and geographical context. 2 years of trainee involvement and 3 years of direct management experience as a Director of a local English medium school & college enables me to analyse and compare the possible solutions which are very much related to education management, motivation, job satisfaction, psychological contract and strategic decisions. 1.3 Relationship between education management and motivation Common assumption regarding management and motivation suggests that there exists a strong and visible relationship. But what does the management literature say in this context? Are these two issues very closely related or they are only loosely knotted paradigms? Is it possible to maintain a better management by only ensuring job satisfaction level rather than implementing new parameters of motivation? (Point to be noted that many critics have labeled job satisfaction and motivation as two entirely different issues.) In other words, despite of having a superb job satisfaction (or even job 7
dissatisfaction) is it really needed to motivate employees? What is the role of motivation in the cases from day-to-day management to management of change? What is the role of motivation in education management? However, before assessing the role of motivation in verve of management, it would be helpful to know the proper definition of management. ―Management has been defined by Mary Parker Follett as ‗the art of getting things done through people‖ (Graham, 1998). ―The elements involved in the process of management were identified by Henri Fayol as ‗to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control‖ (Gray 1988, cited in Rees and Porter, 2001). Rees and Porter (2001) have taken the definition of management one step further by synthesizing Fayol‘s view with later writers, and by developing a complete cycle of basic elements in management.
Figure 1: The Managerial Cycle; Adopted from Rees and Porter (2001). In figure 1, the sixth element in Rees and Porter‘s cycle has been described as motivation. Motivation has become a part of any managerial activity e.g. management. In a fast changing world, Rabey (2001) has described motivation as a tool to initiate and implement new projects, which helps improving an organization‘s performance. Management and motivation are interchangeably related (Kinman & Kinman, 2001). But, what is the role of motivation in managing education sector? Fullan (1997) has stated that successful innovation or improvements of schools and staff development are intimately related. Successful implementation of innovation requires positive motivation towards the intended change process (Reis and Peña, 2001). Freeman and Thomas (2005) have taken this issue one step further when they argued and proved that the emergence of knowledge
economy has caused education to be recognized as a commercial commodity. In any way, the importance of motivation in education management in a sustained economy can never be neglected (MacBeath and Mortimore, 2001). 1.4 Feasibility of the research Managing education, like any other management field, contains issues such as job satisfaction, motivation, leadership, salary, coordination, strategic planning, managing people etc. Hopefully, much works have been done in these sectors. However, a very little work has been produced in context to developing countries, especially in education management. Konidari and Abernot (2006) align educational institutions with a service organization model and examine the applicability of total service quality management to education. Total quality management is an ongoing process, which requires to answer what motivates teachers in educational institutions from time to time (Sirvanci, 2004). It is important to know the motive because despite of having job satisfaction, teachers‘ performance vary. Similarly, despite of possessing a great deal of job dissatisfaction, some teachers perform quite well than their other colleagues (Yariv & Coleman, 2005).This notion contradicts the common belief of people that job satisfaction is positively associated with job performance. That is, workers who are more satisfied with their jobs will perform at a higher level than those who are less satisfied. Although job satisfaction and motivation are two entirely different issues, the notion highlights the importance of knowing the appropriate motivator factor (i.e. motive) of teachers despite of a staggering job dissatisfaction attitude (Chowdhury, 2002). The reason for such differentiation in job performance can perhaps be explained with the help of psychological contract at a later stage. Finding out the motive would eventually help to decide an appropriate management strategy in context to Bangladesh. Identifying the relevant motivational factors is part of any management process, through which a better motivational and management policy can be theorized. Popular books on management and the nature of organizational effectiveness appear to take a positive view of human nature and support an approach which gives encouragement for people to work willingly, i.e. motivation (Mullins, 1993). 1.5 Report Outline The research/report is divided upon five main parts, each of which is equally important. The first part of the research/report goes through an overall review of the existing literature regarding motivation. In the later stage of this part, the overviewed motivational theories are integrated with the context of Bangladeshi further education sector; what can be done to improve teachers‘ motivational level; and what should be focused upon. The second part of the research, the methodology section describes how these derived research objectives can be fulfilled. The third part of this report (e.g. findings) only describes the research i.e. first hand information obtained through the chosen methods. The fourth part of the research is to analyze and interpret the information, and the fifth part of the research is to draw conclusion and suggest the new strategies, which are most likely to contribute in increasing Bangladeshi further education teachers‘ motivational level.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
[This chapter provides a detailed overview of existing literature regarding management and motivation. However, the objective of this chapter is to link the intended research with the existing management literature and having an insight of education management, thus preparing for the ground for research in Bangladesh‘s context. End of this literature review, a number of research questions would emerge from the synthesis and analysis of topics. These research questions would then be expanded upon, linked and weighted in order to set up a realistic strategy for undertaking the research.]
Conceptual framework of motivation
―Human psychological characteristics may be grouped into three major categories. First, there are ability factors such as intelligence, and various aspects of skills and knowledge. Secondly, temperamental factors such as disposition (e.g. extravert, introvert) play an important role determining behaviour. Thirdly and in the context of this report, most important are motivational factors‖. (Robertson and Smith, 1985) Many critics have treated motivation as part of learning, or development, or personality, or animal drives. According to McClelland and Steele (1973), human motivation is a subject eminently worth study in its own right. Throughout the centuries many researchers have tried to draw a clear distinction between management and motivation. And sometimes many have tried to integrate theses two issues together. Thus the most widely studied issue in management paradigm contains the debate of motivation versus job performance in the name of better management seeking exploration. The debate exists because practical examples show that some workers are motivated but are poor performers. In contrast, there are employees who are not motivated but are excellent performers. Job satisfaction and motivation is not strongly related to job performance because not many people possess skill, problem solving capability, attention to details and willingness to learn which are some of the most important characteristics for a good worker (Gibson et al 1997, and Varca 2004). Valsecchi (2003) describes such group of people as undermined workforce. Most recently an independent consulting firm in the USA carried out a survey of employees‘ attitudes. While most workers were generally satisfied with their pay and benefits, less than half thought that their boss was not doing a good job of motivating them (Celep and Cetin, 2005). This situation is very much frustrating from a manager‘s perspective. From the managerial perspective, those who are good workers should be motivated in order to ensure a steady and increased productivity (Valsecchi, 2003). Thus Valsecchi suggests that although motivation and performance is not interchangeably related, motivating workforce will at least build a chance for never running short of skilled manpower. The biggest criticism of Gibson et al (1997) and Varca‘s (2004) theory is: they are applicable only for a perfect working world where workers are already expected and assumed to be motivated. In a real world if a worker is not motivated, productivity is most likely to suffer (Rao, 2006). Gibson et al (1997) have described it as a very weak
positive relationship. That is, workers who are more satisfied with their jobs will perform at a higher level than those who are less satisfied. Gibson (1997) concludes his research by saying that in order for job satisfaction to influence behavior, the attitude must be relevant to the behavior in question (i.e. job performance). Based on this last comment, some of the researchers have even aligned motivation with a superb job condition. It is frustrating if the employees fail to deliver the expected outcome despite of a superb job condition. Lewin (1980, cited in Gibson et al 1997) is the most influential researcher relating performance level and behavioral factors which result from job condition. Lewin argues that employees‘ behavior lead to outcomes and employees‘ behavior is a function of individual and environmental variables. These individual and environmental variables can be wonderfully justified by several schools of motivational theories. Motivation theories can be divided into three main categories namelyinstrumental/behaviorist, content theory and process/cognitive theory. The instrumentality theory state that people are motivated by money. In other words, people will be motivated to work if rewards and punishments are directly related to their performance. The theory emerged from Taylor‘s (1911) research about two most important human psychological behavior- reward factor and fear factor. Behavioral psychologists such as Skinner (1974) later described external factors (such as money and punishment) are the only way to influence employees‘ motivational level. Content theory is concerned with the specific needs of people. Maslow‘s (1954) theory and to some extent Herzberg‘s (1957) two factor theory are concerned with the contents (i.e. specific needs) of the individual employee. Hence, these two theories are referred as content theories. Process or cognitive theory examines the psychological processes involved in motivation. This alternative and contemporary approach deals with psychological ‗processes‘ such as expectancy, goal and equity. Vroom‘s expectancy model (1964, later developed by Porter and Lawler, 1968), Latham and Locke‘s (1979) goal theory and Adams (1965) equity theory are the examples of process/cognitive theory. At this point it would be important to learn about these conceptual theories, and later try to integrate the research with the most suitable one(s). 2.1 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Abraham Maslow undertook the first comprehensive attempt to classify needs comparing to behavioral factors in 1940s. Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs extensively deals with motivation. It states of five specific needs possessed by any individual employee, namely- survival, safety, socialization, prestige, and self actualization. According to him, a person fulfilling the first need will eventually start looking to fulfill the next level in the hierarchy (Reece & Brandt, 1996). For example, a person who is getting paid wellenough and regularly (satisfying his survival and safety needs in the hierarchy) will soon start looking for opportunities to socialize with others in the work place. ―The theory is perhaps most useful as a reminder of the full range of motivational forces
in people. It may, for example have relevance in developing a workforce in developing countries.‖ (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) 2.2 Herzberg’s Two-factor model ―Herzberg and his colleagues (1957) developed the two factor model of motivation following an investigation into the sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among accountants and engineers. It is sometimes called the motivation-hygiene theory. The basic research and various studies which replicated the method led to the conclusion that the factors giving rise to job satisfaction (and motivation) are distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction.‖(Armstrong, 2002) ―Herzberg blended these two premises into a dual-factor explanation of motivation. Dual factor theory refers to two different types of needs: (1) hygiene factors, which involve working conditions and can trigger dissatisfaction if inadequate, and (2) motivator factors, which originate from the nature of the job itself and can create job satisfaction.‖ (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) ―Two groups of factors affect job satisfaction: (1) those intrinsic to the job – the intrinsic motivators or satisfiers- such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and growth; (2) those extrinsic to the job- the extrinsic motivators or hygiene factors.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) For an example: increase of salary produces only short-term satisfaction while the work itself can provide longer-time (intrinsic) motivation. ―Hygiene factors are those basic factors surrounding the job, namely- job security, working conditions, quality of supervision, interpersonal relationships, and adequacy of pay and fringe benefits. Lacking of these hygiene factors can cause dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors do not produce job satisfaction. If adequate, they simply produce neutral feelings with the realization that basic maintenance needs are taken care of.‖ (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) According to Herzberg, motivator factors are namely- job challenge, responsibility, opportunity for achievement or advancement, and recognition. These motivator factors provide feeling of job satisfaction. These factors are associated with job content and are intrinsic, or unique to each individual in his or her own way. The most mentionable part of Herzberg‘s research is- it states that job satisfaction and job-dissatisfaction derive from different sources ―and simply removing the sources of dissatisfaction will not cause a person to be motivated to produce better results‖. (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) 2.3 Vroom/Lawler and Porter’s Expectancy model ―The concept of expectancy was originally contained in the Valency-InstrumentalityExpectancy (VIE) theory formulated by Vroom (1964).Valency stands for value, instrumentality is the belief that if we do one thing it will lead to another and expectancy is the probability that action or effort will lead to an outcome. The strengths of expectations may be based on past experience, but individuals are frequently presented with new situations- a change of job, payment system or working conditions imposed by management- where past experience is an inadequate guide to the implications of the change. In these circumstances, motivation may be reduced.‖ (Armstrong, 2002)
―The expectancy model explains why extrinsic financial motivation- for example an incentive or bonus scheme works only if the link between effort and reward is clear and the value of the reward is worth the effort. It also explains why intrinsic motivation arising from the work itself can be more powerful than extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation outcomes are more under the control of individuals, who can judge from past experience the extent to which advantageous results are likely to be obtained by their behavior.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) ―The theory was further developed by Porter and Lawler (1968) into a model which follows Vroom‘s ideas by suggesting that there are two factors that determine the effort people put into their job- a) the value of the reward to individuals in so far as it satisfies their need for security, social esteem, autonomy and self actualization; b) the probability that reward depends on effort, as perceived by individuals- in other words, their expectations of the relationship between effort and reward. Thus the greater the value of a set of rewards, and the higher the probability that receiving each of these rewards depends upon effort, the greater the effort that will be made in a given situation.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) 2.4 Equity theory Another process theory- equity theory as described by Adams (1965, cited in Armstrong 2002) states that people will be better motivated if they are treated equitably and demotivated if they are treated inequitably. ―It is concerned with people‘s perceptions of how they are being treated in relation to others. To be dealt with equitably is to be treated fairly in comparison with another group of people (a reference group) or a relevant other person. Equity involves feelings and perceptions, and it is always a comparative process. It is not synonymous with equality, which means treating everyone alike. That would be inequitable if they deserved to be treated differently.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) ―Equity theory focuses on people‘s feeling of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. It is based on exchange theory. Social relationships involve an exchange process. For example, a person may expect promotion as an outcome of a high level of contribution (input) in helping to achieve an important organisational objective. People also compare their own position with that of others. Feeling about the equity of exchange is affected by the treatment they receive when compared with what happens to other people.‖ (Mullins, 1993) ―When there is an unequal comparison of ratios the person experiences a sense of inequity. A feeling of inequity causes tension, which is an unpleasant experience. For example, Adams (1965) suggests that workers prefer equitable pay to overpayment. Workers on piece-rate incentive payment schemes who feel they are overpaid will reduce their level of productivity in order to restore equity. The presence of inequity therefore motivates the person to remove or to reduce the level of tension and the perceived inequity. The level of tension created determines the strength of motivation.‖ (Mullins, 1993)
2.5 Goal theory ―Goal theory is developed by Latham and Locke (1979) states that motivation and performance are higher when individuals are set specific goals, when the goals are difficult but accepted, and when there is feedback on performance. Participation in goal setting is important as a means of securing agreement to the setting of higher goal. Difficult goals must be agreed, and achieving them must be helped by guidance and advice. Finally feedback is vital in maintaining motivation, particularly towards the achievement of even higher goals.‖ (Armsrtong, 2002) ―The basic premise of goal theory is that people‘s goals or intensions play an important part in determining behavior. Locke accepts the importance of perceived value, as indicated in expectancy theories of motivation, and suggests that these values give rise to the experience of emotions and desires. People strive to achieve goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Goals guide people‘s responses and actions. Goals direct work behavior and performance, and lead to certain consequences of feedback.‖ (Mullins, 1993) ―Much of the theory of goal setting can be related to the system of Management by Objectives (MBO). MBO is often viewed as an application of goal setting. Goal theory has a number of practical implications for the managers: Specific performance goal should systematically be identified and set in order to direct behavior and maintain motivation. Goals should be set at a challenging but realistic level. Difficult goal leads to higher performance. However, if goals are set at too high a level, or are regarded as impossible to achieve, performance will suffer, especially over a longer period. Complete, accurate and timely feedback and knowledge of results is usually associated with high performance. Feedback provides a means of checking progress on goal attainment and forms the basis for any revision of goals. Goals can be determined either by a superior, or by individuals themselves. Goals set by other people are more likely to be accepted when there is participation. Employee participation in the settings of goals may lead to higher performance.‖ (Mullins, 1993)
A realistic framework towards motivation: the context of Bangladesh
Although all of the above mentioned theories are more than enough to provide a good theoretical framework for motivation, many critics believe that knowledge of motivation has not advanced beyond Herzberg and his generation. This topic tries to integrate Maslow and Herzberg‘s theories with the real scenario of Bangladeshi further education sector. However, as Guest and Conway (1997) have pointed out that Maslow‘s and Herzberg‘s theories are not applicable in some specific contexts, a combination of both old and new theories is needed to keep the research up-to-date. In this context the
relatively newer process theories should be used. Process theories are easily applicable with the assortments of psychological contract, which is one of the biggest concerns of management dealing with teachers. Teachers are often described as emotional labourer (Constanti and Gibbs, 2004), possessing a complex notion of psychological obligations. Unlike Maslow‘s and Herzberg‘s theories (which were researched upon factory workers and later one on medical staffs) process theories deal with expectations, equity and objectives (e.g. goals), which will be very helpful in this research context. 3.1 Content theories and motivation In context to education sector, Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs can be described as below (Emerson and Goddard, 1993):
Safety Socialization Prestige Self –actualization
E.g. financial security. A guaranteed minimum salary to satisfy basic needs. A safe environment. Free from dangers, discrimination and politics. Opportunities for socialization. Employee and employer contracts. Recognition of individual achievement. Appraisal. Career development and promotions.
In order to determine a specific management strategy, it is important that we first find out in what level of the hierarchy most of the Bangladeshi further education teachers fit-in in the year 2006? The needs factor was assumed very low by Chowdhury (2002), who demonstrated and proved in his research by showing that most of the teachers in Bangladeshi education sector think that the working condition is no better than any highly paid navvy‘s. According to Chowdhury, the needs factor certainly resided in the level of survival. At this point we derive our first research question: “In what level of Maslow’s hierarchy the Bangladeshi further education teachers fit-in?” By exploring the above mentioned research question, we are likely to find out the specific issues influencing teachers‘ motivational factor in respect to Bangladesh. The hierarchy deals with specific issues regarding employees‘ (in our case teachers‘) needs namely: a) The first level in Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs (i.e. the survival need) can be described as payment/financial security. b) The second level in the hierarchy of needs (e.g. safety) can be described as job security. c) The third level in the hierarchy (i.e. socialization) can be described as mutual relationship between the employees (e.g. colleagues) or with the employer. d) The fourth level of Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs (i.e. prestige) can be described as recognition and appraisal. e) The last level (i.e. self actualization) can be described as career development and promotions.
Herzberg‘s theory can be applied in our research using two different viewpoints. Firstly, it will be helpful to know both the reasons for job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as they are distinct and different from each other (Herzberg, 1957 cited in Cook and Hunsaker, 2001). ―Management deals with not only motivating employees, but also with their satisfaction, expectation, continuity and stability‖ (Reis and Peña, 2001). Hence, knowing the reasons for both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the Bangladeshi college teachers will help us to identify and integrate a better education management policy in the long run. Similarly, some critics may argue that because the aim of our research is to identify and recommend appropriate strategies for motivation, we should concentrate on the reasons for job satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction. Point to be noted that many researchers have labeled motivation and job satisfaction as two entirely different issues. Whereas some people are satisfied with their present job, they probably are not that motivated to improve or implement new job conditions. In contrast people, who are dissatisfied with present job condition, can be motivated in a better way to improve existing job situation (goal theory). Herzberg‘s reasons for job satisfaction are known as the motivator factors (Armstrong, 2002); and simply removing the sources of dissatisfaction will not cause a person to be motivated to produce better results (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) In other words, if we only find out the reason for job satisfaction, we are most likely to motivate our employees more easily. Motivator factor needs to be satisfied in order to achieve motivation objective to its fullest extent. Hence, by finding out which one is the most influential motivating factor, we are most likely to fix-up a short-term strategy for motivating Bangladeshi college teachers in an urgent basis. At this point, we can clearly derive our second research question, adopting any one of the two above mentioned viewpoints. In both the cases we are supposed to find out the appropriate reason of motivation (e.g. motivator factor), which will help us in deciding an effective motivational strategy. Hence, our second research question is: “According to Herzberg’s Dual Factor theory, what is the most influential motivator factor for Bangladeshi further education teachers?‖ Based on the above mentioned research questions, the followings are the research topics/issues we need to address throughout our research: 3.1.1 Money/payment and motivation Doubts have been cast on the effectiveness of money as a motivator by Herzberg (1957) and his fellow researchers. They claimed that while the lack of it may cause dissatisfaction, money does not result in lasting satisfaction. There is something in this, especially for people on fixed salaries or rates of pay who do not benefit directly from an incentive scheme. They may feel good when they get an increase because apart from the extra money it is a highly effective way of making people feel they are valued. But the feeling of euphoria can rapidly die away. However, it must be reemphasised that different people have different
needs, and Herzberg‘s two factor theory has not been validated. Some will be much more motivated by money than others. What can not be assumed that money motivates everyone in the same way and to the same extent.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) Adequacy of pay and fringe benefits has been described as one of the hygiene factors in Herzberg‘s two factor theory. According to Herzberg (1957), hygiene factors cause job dissatisfaction and job dissatisfaction is not related with motivator factors. On the contrary, job satisfaction is strongly related with motivation (please note job satisfaction dose not mean having no dissatisfaction; according to Herzberg job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are two different features). Hence, many academics argue that since payment is a reason for creating job satisfaction, it can not be used as a motivation tool. At this point it would be interesting to know to what extent the Bangladeshi further education teachers consider payment as a motivator factor. The motivation for money is an extrinsic motivation. Although in our later chapters we will try to analyse whether teachers prefer extrinsic or intrinsic reward schemes, for the time being we are assuming payment is an important motivator. People work for money and through that money they earn living (Taylor, 1911). This very basic working notion of human psychology can turn out to be positively true in the cases of third world countries- like Bangladesh (Chowdhury, 2002). Many teachers in Bangladesh (especially the secondary and further education teachers) complain that the payment they receive from government is very inadequate and a big turn-off (The Observer, 29.5.2005). Teachers from the private schools complain about the fewer benefits they receive comparing to their public school counterparts. Even in the private schools, teachers complain about their salary and do not feel motivated to receive additional duties. In this context many critics have argued that raising the salary to a satisfactory level is the only way to motivate teachers. To support their point, these critics refer the mass private tuition culture which exists in Bangladesh. Most Bangladeshi teachers (regardless of public or private school) provide informal tuition hours to selective students in exchange of extra money. Despite of paying school fees, the parents are ‗forced‘ to pay private tuition fees to respective subject teachers in order to ensure ‗quality‘ education for their children. As a result, teachers pay more attention to their private students at home; and the quality of the class room education suffers the most. Although the government has condemned teachers to a great extent, a little has been done to improve the salary structure (The Observer, 29.5.2005). Hence, it is important to know whether the need level of the Bangladeshi further education teacher relies in the first level of Maslow‘s hierarchy (e.g. payment and financial security). If so, the strategy to motivate teachers should be designed accordingly. Eliminating the causes of dissatisfaction will be a vital step in our process of making a subsequent motivational strategy later on.
3.1.2 Job security Job security in this regard contains the issue of employee and employer contracts. ―Contracts in employment are of two kinds: formal, written economic contract and the equally important, informal and unwritten psychological contract- how people think they should be treated. Both involve rights, obligations and expectations on the part of the employer and the employee, and a breach in one can have important effects on the other. For example how people feel they are being treated by the organization can affect their perception of their levels of pay‖. (Makin et al, 1996) Our discussion in this regard first goes towards formal contract. An agreement between the management and the employee must exist in which the designated salary and the type of payment should be clearly listed (Smithson and Lewis, 2000). However, as teaching profession consists of intellectual provisos and lot of other psychological or social norms, the impact of salary is very complicated here. Dickinson (2006) investigates whether the perceptions of fair pay are generally characterized by social norms? His research found the answer positive and he determined the three most popular norms- responsibility, qualifications and performance. Further researches are needed to justify this notion in Bangladesh‘s context. Taylor used to believe that for some people, money is the only motivation for doing things right (famously known as the Taylor‘s theory of motivation). So at this point we should try to find out to what extent salary motivates further education teachers in Bangladesh. Psychological contract, on the other hand is a complex notion. ―A psychological contract is a system of beliefs which encompasses the actions employees believe are expected of them and what response they expect in return from their employer‖. It is concerned with assumptions, exceptions, promises and mutual obligations. It creates attitudes and emotions which form and given behaviour. A psychological contract is implicit. It is also dynamic- it develops over time as experience accumulates, employment conditions change and employees reevaluate their expectations‖. (Armstrong, 2002) ―The psychological contract may provide some indication of the answers to the two fundamental employment relationship questions which individuals pose: what can I reasonably expect from the organisation? And what should I be reasonably expected to contribute in return? But it is difficult, often impossible, to ensure that the psychological contract and therefore the employment relationship will be fully understood by either party.‖ (Guest and Conway, 1997) Teaching profession in Bangladesh suffers from severe job insecurity- not only in terms of formal contracts, but also in terms of psychological obligations. In government colleges, teachers are often transferred from one county to another one. City areas are the most desirable posting places and many teaching staffs try to convince the posting authority by unfair means (The Observer, 29.5.2005). This notion threatens the job stability of other honest and legitimate teaching
staffs. In addition to this, private institutions lay off jobs whenever the institution suffers from low student admissions. Although in government colleges‘ redundancy is not a big issue, the surplus redundant teachers from private sector imply a surplus number of job applications in government colleges. 43% of the total further education institutions are semi-government or private (Bangladesh Statistical Bureau Handbook, 1998), cumulating almost up to twelve thousand further education teachers. As Armstrong (2002) has pointed out, the content of psychological contract is dynamic; it tends to be more flexible in the cases of private sector colleges. Teachers of government colleges perform specific duties and generally are not expected to do extra hours or out-of-the-contract services for the welfare of the school. In contrary, authorities in the private sector schools expect teachers to get more ‗involved‘ and ‗engaged‘ into day-to-day activities. In many private schools, class teachers are bound to prepare the daily book-keeping of expenses, whereas in government colleges staffs from the accounting department perform such duties. These frequent changes in formal (and informal) job contract create problems in the management and teachers relationship, thus making the job more insecure for the teachers. ―Employees may except to be treated fairly as human beings, to be provided with work which uses their abilities, to be rewarded equitably in accordance with their contribution, to be able to display competence, to have opportunities for further growth, to know what is expected of them, and to be given feedback (preferably positive) on how they are doing. Employers may expect employees to do their best on behalf of the organisation- to put themselves out for the company- to be fully committed to its values, to be compliant and loyal, and to enhance the image of the organisation with its customers and suppliers. Sometimes these expectations are fulfilled, often they are not. Mutual misunderstanding can cause friction and stress and lead to recriminations and poor performance, or to a termination of the employment relationship.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) In this context, we intend to find out which segment of the Bangladeshi further education teachers contains highest job insecurity point (i.e. private sector teachers or government employed teachers)? What is the probable cause for this job insecurity (i.e. informal reason or formal reason) and how it de-motivates (or motivates) teachers? 3.1.3 Mutual relationship between the employees (e.g. colleagues) or with the employer Recently the most mentionable work on psychological contract has been performed by Pate et al (2003). In their research paper the writers have argued that employees‘ behavior and attitude are deeply influenced by the fact that psychological contracts are often breached in recent years. The research has highlighted two contextual issues- perceptions of job insecurity and a sense of
collegiality. Collegiality has been defined as the relationship between colleagues. Collegiality is important because it helps employees to face difficult situation (Pate et al, 2003). Even in difficult times, the authority can undoubtedly support its employees in order to maintain the sense of collegiality. Many teachers in the further education sector in Bangladesh complain that they are not properly ‗taken care‘ of when difficult situation arises. However, many principals feel that they can do whatever possible for them without breaching any part of the law; even if it means treating the accused teacher neutrally. Although this type of notion breaks psychological contract between the management and the employees; in time of crisis this is perceived as the best way to handle situations. (Saunders and Thornhill, 2003) However, this policy is a big turn-off for many motivated teachers as it leads to a feeling of job in security. In this context we should try to know whether the colleagues and the authority support the teacher(s) in difficult situations. One of the most important factors for a positive collegiality can be described as ‗asking‘. ―Asking involves seeking information about the job from those who are doing well. Perhaps the simplest technique involves asking the job incumbents, either individually or in groups, about the characteristics of the job. Other possible sources are the supervisor and the trainer (both of whom may well have done the job in the past). The sources of this information need not only be oral. Written material such as training manuals, previous job descriptions and operations and service manuals may also provide useful information.‖ (Makin et al, 1996) Successful assessment of staff-needs is a partial functionality of such effective communication process and can be carried-out through various means, either in person or with the help of technology (Vokala and Bouradas, 2005). Apart from ensuring the scopes for asking, the communication process requires the authority to ‗listen‘. ―Listening is a more aristocratic management paradigm than trying to influence people through dictation‖ (Glynn et al, 2003). Like many other developing countries, Bangladesh virtually possesses lack of understanding between the management and the staff in every service sector organization (Belal, 2001). The country‘s teaching sector is not out of this phenomenon as well. Hence, from the above discussion we can clearly find out the single most important obligation of psychological contract- communication. Papalexandris and Chalikias (2002) demonstrate that in recent years organizations have experienced more development in training and performance management but less in employee communication. As Biggs and Swailes (2006) argue, an effective employer-staff communication significantly improves the organizational commitment from both sides. Such communication process can even improve the concept of psychological contract in an organization (Thomson, 2002) .Tzafrir et al (2004) also agree with this concept and further defines good relationship as a motivational factor. Hence, we need to understand to what extent the relationship between the employee and the management is a motivational factor for teachers working in Bangladesh.
In further explaining our above mentioned query, we can seek help from the last E factor of Handy‘s motivational calculus (Handy 1985, cited in Harrison, 2000). The E factors discusses how far do individuals see it as worthwhile to expand effort, energy, excitement and expertise in the task, given the results that are required, the rewards it appears to offer them, and the workloads they already carry? This point again highlights the importance of building strategic decisions with relations to teachers‘ motivational factors. Kettunen (2005) relates the articulation, implementation and measurement of strategy with educational sector and shows it as a matter of bridge building between the perceived present situation and the desired future situation. Dinham and Scott (2000) argue that teachers, schools and others, with an interest in education, need to forge partnerships and actively participate in educational discourse with member of other outer domains. As a developing country Bangladesh has many things to deal with and education sector, apart from having poor salary structure possesses political vengeance, anti-social attitude, improper curriculum, no strategic planning and improper expenses. Often developing countries suffer from arbitrary leadership, particularly in education sector (Winston and Quinn, 2005). Bangladesh is not out of this dilemma too. Should we turn the decision making capability towards the public sector, or should government be the sole decider of our education policy? Therefore the above mentioned research question should also try to explore to what extent teachers‘ engagement in the decision making process influences their motivation and job satisfaction? 3.1.4 Recognition and appraisal One of the four factors of Handy‘s motivational calculus (Handy 1985, cited in Harrison, 2000) is reward. The reward factor questions whether the task or job offers valued reward to the individual or not? Therefore, the reward factor is very much related to the issues of recognition and evaluation. Performance appraisal and teacher evaluation systems in schools have been subject to criticism in many countries because they have not met perceived requirements of educators and/or the state (Timperley, 1998). Some incompetent teachers remain unidentified whereas in some cases competent teachers do not receive the appraisals they deserve. In many schools the performance evaluation and appraisal standards are set by the respective principals, mostly based on two evaluation criteria- class room performance assessed by colleagues and parents, and statistical depiction of failure rate or pass success (Simmons, 2002). But to what extent the recognition or the performance appraisal influences teachers‘ motivational level? According to Koskinen (2003), rewards and recognition are essential to an individual to the promotion of as his or her commitment. In order to understand this, we first need to understand the two aspects of rewarding from Vroom‘s expectancy modelintrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. ―The intrinsic rewards contain psychological issues such as self-respect, sense of achievement, self-actualization. Extrinsic rewards contain issues like pay, benefits, promotion, praise and friendship.‖ Koskinen (2003) In order to align a specific motivational strategy, we need to know whether Bangladeshi further education teachers are seeking for
intrinsic reward or extrinsic reward. Through our intended survey, we hope to fulfill this objective. The demonstration of recognition and appraisal (e.g. reward) can be performed by various means. Apart from increasing the salary, holidays and formal reward ceremonies can also be arranged as motivational boost-ups. ‗Employee of the year‘ e.g. ‗teacher of the year‘ schemes can be introduced in rural schools where government funding is less adequate. However, the type of appraisal system can only be selected at the point when we know what kind of reward schemes Bangladeshi teachers are soughing for- intrinsic or extrinsic. According to Zembylas and Papanastasiou (2004), teachers‘ motivation is clearly related to levels of intrinsic empowerment. If this notion is true for Bangladesh, then increasing the salary sounds to be a good motivator factor. But on what basis the salary should rise? Should it follow the schemes of Instant Performance Related Pay (IPRP)? Or, should the increase of salary be synchronal depending on the length of service years and experience? Both these two salary schemes possess certain advantages and disadvantages. The synchronal salary increase is a not a god motivation because it does not emphasize on performance or merit. Instead, it relies on experience and time, which can be achieved normally. Brown (2000) emphasizes on IPRP based payment system and argues that it can significantly increase an organization‘s effectiveness. Conversely Prucell (2000) believes that IPRP plays no significant role in improving an organization‘s effectiveness at all. Instead, it creates an unhealthy practice among colleagues and seriously damages mutual trust. This second notion seems much more factual in Bangladesh‘s context as teachers generally consider other factors such as social status, political position, recognition and respect as part of the job satisfaction process. In this context, we intend to know to what extent the pattern of recognition or the performance appraisal system influences teachers‘ motivational level in Bangladesh. 3.1.5 Career development and promotion Osei (1996) expresses the needs for effective staff development in educational institutions and libraries as this increases performance and job effectiveness, and the climate of interpersonal relations in an organization. However, in the present context, we are not only speaking of support staffs, but also the teachers, lecturers and any other post related to direct classroom interaction. The notion is undoubtedly true for any organizational staff as well as school teachers, regardless of psychological, economical or geographical context. As Andaleeb (1998) states, one of the critical issues that needs to be addressed in Bangladesh is establishing teacher quality benchmarks and ensuring a quality assurance program, through which hopefully the nation will be able to achieve proficient teachers in near future. However, the research also expresses the fact that many teachers believe there is no need of personnel training programs, but agree that the syllabuses should be modified especially in Bengali and Arabic medium level. Hence we need to know to what level and extent a need for staff development training
influences teachers‘ motivational factor in Bangladesh? 3.1.6 Hygiene factors Being a part of the content theory category, the Herzberg‘s hygiene factors (i.e. reasons for job dissatisfaction) are almost similar to the notions of Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs. Herzberg‘s dissatisfaction issues, namely adequacy of pay & benefits, job security, interpersonal relations, quality of supervision; and working conditions have been adequately explained and discussed in context to Bangladesh under the titles Money/payment and motivation (topic no 3.1.1), Job security (topic no 3.1.2), Mutual relationship between the employees and with the employer (topic no 3.1.3), Recognition and appraisal (topic no 3.1.4), and Career development and promotion (topic no 3.1.5). 3.1.7 Motivator factors Herzberg‘s motivator factors include issues such as job challenge, responsibility, opportunity for achievement or advancement, and recognition. We have already discussed the reward factor in topic 3.1.4. The rest three issues we are going to analyse in context to Bangladesh. Job challenge consist two significant issues in today‘s fast changing world- a) interference from external and(or) internal forces, and b) dealing with new changes. Interference is directly related with intrinsic factors of motivation. ―Intrinsic Motivation Principle of Creativity states that people will be most creative when they feel motivated primarily by the interest, satisfaction, and challenge of the work itself- and not by external pressures‖. (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) This notion is very unrealistic in context to Bangladesh as interference happens from both in and outside the organisation. Employees are affected by such interference as well. Chowdhury (2002) has described political vengeance as one of the most influential features in Bangladeshi education sector. Further education teachers in Government colleges are often targeted by the student associations which are openly linked with political parties. Theses political parties target further education colleges as a ground for member recruitment. Teachers in this case are often asked to help in recruiting young students. Some refuses, some do not. Teachers who refuse to aid particular political parties later face trouble created by the student leaders (The Daily Prothom-alo, 16.02.2004). According to Chowdhury (2002), refusal to help student unions not only result in slower promotion, frequent transfers, and uncooperative attitude from the authority, but also psychical assaults in some cases. The uncooperative attitude from the authority can be described as violation of psychological contract from the management‘s side. The organizational obligations such as discretion, consultancy and recognition, which teachers expect to receive from the management, are often violated or neglected. Herriot et al
(1997) have performed detailed research in this context, which we have discussed in topic 3.2.1. Another significant feature of job challenge can be described as management of change. A better education management requires constructive, e.g. positive handling of change situations, which motivates employees to cope up with future change processes. In today‘s increasingly uncertain, competitive and fast moving world, organizations must rely more and more on individuals to come up with new ideas, to develop creative responses and push for changes before opportunities disappear (Kanter, 1992). However, like many other organizations, some school teachers can also find it very difficult to adopt changes. These changes include the changes in ethics, the changes in management policy and the changes in student-teacher relationship. As Schuler (2001) argues, the extent to which individuals are likely to be resistant, indifferent or supportive towards change depends on the degree to which they perceive the change will affect them personally and their way of working. Since such changes concern teachers‘ job performance, we should try to determine to what extent the changes in education sector influence teachers‘ job performance in Bangladesh. Responsibility in Herzberg‘s theorem has been defined as ‗job enrichment‘ by Cook and Hunsaker (2001). In early 70‘s, the floor workers in Ford‘s one of the biggest production plant in Kentucky were given the power to organise, distribute and allocate the resources by their own initiatives instead of relying on factory managers. A similar notion has been observed in recent years in the name of Strategy 2000 which Ford undertook as a process to decentralize the decision making capability. Although the process of developing strategy on most cases is centralized, the Ford‘s ‗Strategy 2000‘ prompted all senior managers and later all employees to contribute in decision making. (Hales, 2001) Both the researches showed an improved level of job satisfaction and increase in productivity by the workers. Although enriching the duties of the workers increased the level of responsibility, it had also increased their level of motivator factor. Johnson and Scollay (2001) state that psychologists and teachers usually possess a greater level of expert and reference power need. However, getting involved in policy making process often results being a victim of unhealthy political and social situation in Bangladesh. The core activity of a teacher often gets hampered because he/she needs to deal with office politics, budgeting, benefits and other extra activities which are not directly related to teacher‘s job definition (Oshagbemi, 1997). Hence, at this point it would be interesting to know what positive (or negative) impact the management is most likely to incur if teachers are given much wider authority and controlling over the policy making decisions in schools. The opportunity for achievement and advancement is relatively low for female teachers in Bangladeshi further education sector who account 12% of the total teaching staff population. (Bangladesh Statistical Bureau Handbook, 1998) Recent statistics show that gender issue plays a vital role in recruitment or selection process in developing nations (Tanova and Nadiri, 2005) and
Bangladesh is not out of this influence too. In addition to this, men are usually believed to bear the responsibility of the whole family and many women in Bangladesh rely on men even for their basic needs such as food, shelter and education. Siddique (1998) points out the fact that even in private sectors, Bangladeshi women are receiving lower salary than men due to the socioeconomic and religious beliefs. Even in some cases, female teachers do not get assistance from their male colleagues and (or) are neglected from daily activities. Hence, it is easily questionable whether the male and female teachers are equally motivated in Bangladeshi further education sector or not. The government, however, tries to ensure equal rights and opportunities for everyone regardless of gender by enforcing laws. But it is not difficult to assume that in reality the practice is different (Siddique, 1998). The increase of salary is subjected to promotion and often promotions are not offered to female teachers in secondary education as most of school authorities in rural area believe men are much stronger and are able to offer greater service (Hossain and Tisdell, 2005). Hence, it is important to measure the extent of gender issue influencing the motivational level of teachers working in Bangladesh. 3.2 Process theories Process or cognitive theory examines the psychological processes involved in motivation. This alternative and contemporary approach deals with psychological ‗processes‘ such as expectancy, goal and equity. Vroom‘s expectancy model (1964, later developed by Porter and Lawler, 1968), Latham and Locke‘s (1979) goal theory and Adams (1965) equity theory are the examples of process/cognitive theory. Before integrating expectancy, goal and equity in Bangladeshi further education sector, it will be worthwhile considering the definition of psychological contract and its impact on Bangladeshi further education teachers. 3.2.1 Psychological Contract in Bangladeshi further education sector Process theories are very important in context to teaching because teachers are often considered as a specimen of emotional labourer, e.g. employees who use intellectual means to ensure their living (Constanti and Gibbs, 2004). At this point we can recall the issues of psychological contract. Cook and Hunsaker (2001) have established a clear relationship between motivation and psychological contract. According to Constanti and Gibbs (2004), the employee‘s behavior requires ―emotional labor‖ where the front-line employee (in this case, teachers) has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a successful service delivery. The implication is not necessarily of equality or mutual benefit, but of satisfaction for the customer (student) and profit for the management. According to Herriot et al (1997), psychological contract refers to the perceptions of mutual obligations to each other held by the two parties in the employment relationship, the organization and the employee. According to Armstrong (2002), a psychological contract is a system of beliefs which encompasses the actions
employees believe are expected of them and what response they expect in return from their employer. As described by Guest et al (1996, cited in Armstrong, 2002), it is concerned with assumptions, expectations, promises and mutual obligations. ―It creates attitudes and emotions which form and govern behavior. A psychological contract is implicit. It is also dynamic- it develops over time as experience accumulates, employment conditions change and employees reevaluate their expectations.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) The best way to understand psychological contract in Bangladesh‘s context can be described as performing ‗extra‘ levels of duties for the welfare of the students. These extra duties may include giving more time to the students, trying to assess their personal needs and perform administrative duties up to a certain extent. According to Takala and Pallab (2000), these extra duties can be defined as responsibilities. ―When analyzing the issue of responsibility within organizational life, one should consider several issues. First, it is not sufficient to simply consider an individual‘s (and also an organization‘s) awareness and observance of the formal laws laid down by social and legal institutions of the society. It is also important to focus on the informal moral principles operative in social life. Moral principles such as ensuring the welfare of other people even when there are possibilities of economic losses to oneself, guide the conscience of individuals and act as constraints on the rational actions which seek to maximize material satisfaction, profitability and efficiency for themselves.‖ (Takala & Pallab, 2000) Needless to say, all these contractual obligations are beyond the norms of most Bangladeshi teachers‘ perception regarding payment. The possibility of doing any unpaid job, despite of the fact that it may bring welfare and benefits to the students (and the teachers‘ career as well in the long run) is unquestionably turned down by most of the Bangladeshi further education teachers. As mentioned before, most of the teachers prefer to give extra tuition hours to their private students at home rather than spending extra time in the class rooms (see topic 3.1.1). Unlike developed countries, the psychological obligations between the employee and the employer should exist significantly in the context of Bangladeshi education sector. In fact, the obligation may become even stronger because of the poor working conditions. This has increased the expectation level from both the parties to each other to a great extent. Like most other organizational employees, Bangladeshi further education teachers possess obligations to their employers identified by Herriot et al (1997). In recent years, the most mentionable work regarding the contents of psychological contract has been performed by Herriot et al (1997). The perceived obligations of the two parties to the employment relationship, the employee and the organisation, were explored using the critical incident technique. According to Herriot et al (1997), the following are the most common organisational obligations (i.e. employees expect to receive from the organisation/employer):
Training: Providing adequate induction and training. Fairness: Ensuring fairness of selection, appraisal, promotion and redundancy procedures. Needs: Allowing time off to meet personal or family needs. Consult: Consulting and communicating with employees on matters which affect them. Discretion: Minimal interference with employees in terms of how they do their job. Humanity: To act in personally and socially responsible and supportive way towards employees. Recognition: Recognition of or reward for special contribution or long service. Provision of a safe and congenial work environment. Justice: Fairness and consistency in the application of rules and disciplinary procedures. Pay: Equitable with respect to market values and consistently awarded across the organization. Benefits: Fairness and consistency in the administration of the benefit systems. Security: Organisations trying hard to provide what job security they can. According to King and Bu (2005) the most important organisational obligations perceived by the employees (e.g. teachers) can be described as the most influential employee motivator factors. Therefore, knowing what are the two most important employee motivator factors in a sense would represent what are the two most important employer obligations. The survey method will be used in this purpose. Similarly, a different quasi-descriptive tool should be used (namely structured or in-depth interview) to collect information about the employee obligations. According to Herriot et al (1997), the following are the most common employee obligations (i.e. organisations/employers expect to receive from their employees): Hours: To work the hours the employee is contracted to work. Work: To do a good job in terms of quality and quantity. Honesty: To deal honestly with clients and with the organisation. Loyalty: Staying with the organisation, guarding it reputation and putting its interests first. Property: Treating the organisation‘s property in a careful way. Self-presentation: Dressing and behaving correctly with customers and colleagues. Flexibility: Being willing to go beyond one‘s own job description, especially in emergency. Psychological contract consists of a mutual agreement generated by both participating parties. But because the contract consist two parties, we should to listen to the other party
as well. However, the total aim of our research is to motivate the further education teachers rather than their employees. According to King and Bu (2005) the most important organisational obligations perceived by the employees (e.g. teachers) could be described as the most influential employee motivator factors. Therefore, it would be enough only to point out the two most important motivational factors for Bangladeshi further education teachers. (i.e. through which in a sense would be focusing on the two most important organisational obligations expected by employees). Hence, at this point we can derive our third research question: “What is the extent of difference regarding the awareness of two most important employee motivator factors perceived by both the individual parties (i.e. employee and the employer) in Bangladeshi further education sector?” If the level of understanding is pretty positive, we are most likely to find a positive apt level (i.e. what employers think of the most important employer obligation is equally perceived by the employee group. In other words, what employees think of the most important employer obligation is similarly perceived by the employer group). If the level of understanding is pretty low, then we will find a lower apt level (i.e. what employees think of the most important employer obligation is not perceived equally by the employer group.) 3.2.2 Integration of process theories and psychological contract How do psychological contract affect work motivation? In order to find out this answer, we first need to know how expectations affect work motivation. Why? According to Marks (2001), psychological contract is a list of unwritten ‗expectations‘ from both the employee and the management. Both these parties are mutually obligated and expect some sorts of informal duties from each other. Process theories, similarly, deal with psychological expectations. ―In contrast to identifying the content of need based theories of motivation, process theories focuses on the mental processes used to evaluate cause → effect relationships.‖ (Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) ―Process theories of motivation explain how and why workers select behaviours and how they determine whether their choices were successful‖. (Steers et al, 1996, cited in Cook and Hunsaker, 2001) Motivation based on expectations focuses on a person‘s beliefs about the relationships among effort, performance, and reward for doing a job. Vroom‘s (1964) model of Expectancy is the first process theory that deals with the universal psychological conception of human- ‗expectation‘. Expectancy theory: Expectancy theory formulated by Vroom (1964) possesses a unique notion by stating that individual needs are different and depends on people‘s individual perception. The value that employees put on the outcome which they are expecting from particular behavior (i.e. valance) differs from person to person. Similarly, the effort-performance expectancy (i.e. expectancy) differs from person to person as it depends a lot on experience and maturity. This theory is absolutely relevant to our research‘s context because it relates expectation with experience and valence- both of which are very important in dealing with Bangladeshi school teachers‘ mentality, job perception and outcry.
Teachers‘ perception about valances can be integrated with psychological contract because in most cases employee obligations are structured based on their experience (and on expected effort level). Some teachers feel comfortable to perform ‗extra‘ responsibilities whereas others do not show any interest in doing so. As an example, a number of teachers value recognition from the parents as a good motivator factor whereas for some teachers extrinsic values (such as money and holidays) are pivotal. However, the objective of our research is to find out the majority‘s perception regarding expectancy-valence theory, i.e. what most of the teachers think the motivator factor is. Equity theory: Another process theory, Equity theory by Adams (1965) similarly possesses an analogous view of job responsibility in comparison to psychological contract. For an example: fairness. Fairness is a very important employee expectation which can be justified by the use of Equity theory. Some people possess high attention need, which makes their perception to equitably entirely different. To them being treated a bit extra is justified by the ground that they deserve it. This notion has been described by Jaques (1961, cited in Armstrong 2002) as the ‗felt-fair‘ principle. According to him pay systems will be fair if they are felt to be fair. Jaques (1961) points out an important fact that there is no standard definition of the term ‗fair‘ and it varies from person to person. However, people should not receive less pay than they deserve by comparison with their fellow workers. Psychological contract articulates the reason and necessity of unpaid (or unrecognised) extra duty. The implication of psychological contract is not necessarily of equality or mutual benefit, but of satisfaction for the customer and profit for the management. Similarly, equity theory states that people should be treated equitably. ―It is concerned with people‘s perceptions of how they are being treated in relation to others. To be dealt with equitably is to be treated fairly in comparison with another group of people (a reference group) or a relevant other person. Equity involves feelings and perceptions, and it is always a comparative process.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) The management can demand the same level of employee obligations in which the organizational obligations are persisting. In this regard, we need the test the following hypothesis in context to Bangladesh: are the teachers offering their best service to the school authorities (i.e. employers) and whether the school authorities are treating all their teachers (employees) equitably? We are assuming the answer is most likely to be negativebecause from our experience we have seen negligence from the further education authorities, which have forced us to undertake this research today. It should be noted that equitability is not the synonym of equality, which means treating everyone alike. Some employees deserve to be treated differently and it would be inequitable if they are measured in a common scale (Armstrong, 2002). Goal theory: The third process theory, Goal theory, states that motivation and
performance are higher when individuals are set specific goals, when the goals are difficult but accepted, and when there is feedback on performance. According to Mullins (1993), the basic premise of goal theory is that people‘s goals or intensions play an important part in determining behavior. This is the exact point where psychological contract and goal theory interact. For some teachers, the goal in their teaching career is perceived as long term success. Through employee obligations, they tend to get more and more successful day by day, contributing ultimately in career development and the education sector over all. Because of these specific goals, they tend to get involved in psychological contract. ―Similarly, most of the managers enter in the contract of psychological obligations with their employees only to achieve a specific objective- successful management‖. (Pate et al, 2003) Although goal theory specifically deals with employee resolutions, there is no formal disparagement that it can not be used for management‘s (i.e. employer‘s) improvement. Setting objective for the management and selecting target sales (in our case contributing in more student passes) can be seen as the implementation of goal theory from management‘s context (Dinesh and Palmer, 1998).
Summarizing literature review
According to Saunders et al (2003) research questions are derived and initiated from the discussions of literature review. This provides a broader scope of narrowing research focus, thus preparing a ground for understanding research objectives. The following project management figure illustrates the process of finding and interpreting research questions throughout the research.
Figure 2: Deriving and interpreting research questions From the literature review, the following research questions have emerged: Research question- 1: “In what level of Maslow’s hierarchy the Bangladeshi further education teachers fit-in?”
Finding out the answer of this research question is important because it circuitously deals with the type of motivator factors which would improve the motivational level of further education teachers. If the teachers reside in the very basic level of Maslow‘s hierarchy (e.g. survival needs), materialistic motivations rather than the intrinsic ones would be the most probable motivator factors used in improving teachers motivational level. The following are the objectives need to be addressed in analyzing (and answering) the above mentioned research question. (a.) Like many other service based commodities of modern world, education has now been divided into two separate segments. (Smithson and Lewis, 2000) one is underpaid and compulsory state education (i.e. government colleges) and the other is far more privileged and expensive private education (i.e. private colleges). Although the objective and activity of all these colleges are same, private sector teachers seem to possess greater motivational level than their government counterpart. From the discussions of topic 3.1.2, it would be important to find out which segment of the Bangladeshi further education teachers possess lower level of job motivation- the private sector teachers or the government school teachers. (b.) From the discussions of topics 3.1.4 and 3.1.7 the issue of rewarding has come up. In order to determine a proper education strategy, it would be important to find out whether Bangladeshi higher education teachers seek for intrinsic reward (such as achievement, recognition, responsibility etc) or extrinsic reward (such as money, holidays, interpersonal relations etc) schemes. This objective is important because it would be directly linked with another intended research questions- research question no-2. Research Question- 2: “According to Herzberg’s Dual Factor theory, what is the most influential motivator factor for Bangladeshi further education teachers?” Herzberg‘s theorem mentions several factors of job motivation and de-motivation based on employee perception. These motivator factors are very much applicable in the case of Bangladeshi further education sector. Finding out the most important motivator factor would not only help in deciding appropriate management strategy, but would also help to justify the finding of research objectives-b described earlier. Therefore, the most important motivator factor should also help in deciding the type of rewarding Bangladeshi further education teachers seek for, thus verifying the present motivational level from research question 1. The followings are the objectives associated with research question 2.
(c.) Brown (2000) believes that Performance Related Pay (IPRP) helps to increase the performance level of employees whereas Prucell (2000) believes that, it creates an unhealthy competition among colleagues. Then again, increment of payment on basis of experience and service years have also been criticized because it does not consider individual‘s merit. The discussions of topics 3.1.4 and 3.2.1 suggest that it would be important to know to what extent the pattern of recognition or the performance appraisal system influences teachers‘ motivational level.
(d.) Managing change has always been a burning management issue. In recent years, the issue has become a very important topic in the case of Bangladeshi further education sector. In terms of education, changes refer changing in syllabus, changes in teaching techniques, changing of job conditions, changing in educational policies, textbook up-gradations etc. Schuler (2001) says that the extent to which individuals are likely to be resistant, indifferent or supportive towards change depends on the degree to which they perceive the change will affect them personally and their way of working. Hence, from the discussions of topic 3.1.7, it would be important to find out to what extent the change efforts in education sector influence teachers‘ job performance in Bangladesh. (e.) Recent statistics show that gender issue plays a vital role in recruitment or selection process in developing nations (Tanova and Nadiri, 2005), and Bangladesh is not out of this influence too. Siddique (1998) points out the fact that even in private sectors, Bangladeshi women are receiving lower salary than men due to the socio-economic and religious beliefs. As female teachers account almost 12% of the total teaching staffs in further education, from topic 3.1.7, it would be important to find out to what extent being treated equally regardless of gender affects the motivational level of a teacher(s) working in Bangladesh. (f.) From the discussions of topic no 2 the issue of Herzberg‘s dual factor theory has come up. It is commonly believed that motivator factors (which originate from the nature of the job itself and can create job satisfaction) differ from person to person based on age. The same motivator factor is not applicable for different age groups. Younger teachers may recognize the opportunity for achievement or advancement as the main motivator factor, whereas older teachers may believe that providing wider range of responsibility is the only way to motivate themselves. This concern over age issue has been recognized by Sarker et al (2003) who argue that Herzberg‘s motivator factors vary from one age group to another although the employees may work with the same nature of job. Hence, it would be important to know whether the age issue plays any significant role in deciding the appropriate motivator factor. If it does; the findings should be divided and analyzed accordingly.
Research Question- 3: “What is the extent of difference regarding the awareness of two most important employee motivator factors perceived by both the individual parties (i.e. employee and the employer) in Bangladeshi further education sector?” This research question is partially associated with research question-2. Similar to the previous one, this research question would intend to find out the two most important employee motivator factors. However, according to King and Bu (2005) the most important employee motivator factors are in a sense what employees expect the management to fulfil (e.g. the most important employer obligations perceived by the employees). In order to measure the extent of communication gap, it would be necessary to know whether the Principals agree with the emerged findings of the investigation regarding the two most important employee motivator factors. The associated objectives are thereby detailed below:
(g.) Osei (1996) expresses the need for effective staff development in educational institutions because this increases performance and job effectiveness, and the climate of interpersonal relations in an organization. According to Andaleeb (1998), a critical issue that needs to be addressed in Bangladesh is establishing teacher quality benchmarks and ensuring a quality assurance program, through which hopefully the nation would be able to achieve capable teachers in near future. Analyzing topics 3.1.5 and 3.2.1, it would be important to find out whether specialised training (career) programs play any significant role in influencing Bangladeshi teachers‘ motivation. (h.) Ford‘s Strategy 2000 has proved that when employees are given greater responsibilities, their performance level increases. However, for ‗emotional laborers‘, putting additional duties may distract them from performing their core job responsibility (i.e. teaching). Analyzing topics 3.1.3, 3.1.7 and 3.2.1, it would be necessary to find out to what extent teachers‘ engagement in the decision making process influences their motivational level. (i.) Treating some problem cases neutrally (like teachers who have been accused of being too strict, beating, molestation, lower class attendance and poor performance) in difficult situations may breach the psychological contract between the employer and the employee. Many critics argue that this type of notion leads to a feeling of job insecurity and de-motivates other employees. From topics 3.1.3, 3.1.7 and 3.2.1 the issue of environment and interference has emerged. It would be important to know to what extent the relationship with other employees (e.g. colleagues) and (or) with the management influences the motivational level of teachers working in Bangladesh. This research objective could be further extended upon to understand the role of sex (i.e. gender) in seeking positive relationship with the colleagues. (j.) Psychological contract has been defined as an informal contract between the employer and the employee in which both the parties expect certain extra duties from each other. According to Herriot et al (1997), employees expect 12 counts of obligations to be performed by the organisation. As discussed in topic 3.2.1, in other words employer obligations can be described as employee motivator factors. However, it would be interesting to know in real life what these two parties (e.g. teachers and Principals) think of employer obligations. Which ones would be the most important issues for them according to their priority and how they would be perceived by others? Hence, analysing topics 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, it would be important to find out the two most important employer obligations according to the respective parties, so that the level of understanding between these two parties (i.e. employee and employer) could be compared. In other words, the two most important motivator factors (according to the employees) would have to be determined first. And then it would have to be tested whether the same motivator factors are equally perceived by the employers in Bangladeshi further education sector.
Chapter 3: Methodology
[The Methodology chapter provides a detailed view of how research would be undertaken in a specific context. Research approach and strategy would be decided based upon research objectives obtained though extensive literary search (chapter 2). Data sources would be verified and justifications for undertaking specific methods would be presented. At the end of the discussions, sample methodical tools used to collect primary information would be presented. The overall research method would have to be justified as well in terms of reliability, validity and generalisability.]
Because of the nature of our research objectives described in the previous chapter, the intended investigation will be a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research. This will ensure triangulation to take place in the research. According to Saunders et al (2003), triangulation refers to the use of different data collection methods within one study. ―Not only it is perfectly possible to combine approaches within the same piece of research, but it is often advantageous to do so‖ (Saunders et al, 2003). Most of the data in this intended research will be primary data due to the fact that first hand information will be gathered through qualitative and quantitative means for an empirical analysis. Data will be collected directly form sources/targets using appropriate methods. In order to do so both the concerned sides involved in this research i.e. the teachers and the Principals are needed to be addressed, which would facilitate to identify and recommend appropriate management strategies for motivating further education teachers. In this regard the first step should be to listen the employees e.g. teachers working in further education institutes/colleges. As part of the quantitative data collection a survey among 15 further education institutions in the district of Chittagong would be conducted. This particular geographical context has been selected because a wider range of control over the sample institutions, easy access to information, availability of logistics and communication advantages are available. Data obtained from these institutions are surely to be representative, generalized, and valid for the subject matter. The second step would be to collect primary data using semi-structured interview from the Principals of the respective institutions, which would enable to obtain a concept from the managerial view point. Semi-structured interviews would be used in qualitative research in order to conduct discussions not only to reveal and understand the ‗what‘ and the ‗how‘ but also to place more emphasis on exploring the ‗why‘. (Saunders et al, 2003) This implies that the research will be a mixture of both deductive and inductive approach. At this point it would be beneficial to explain the paradigms of deductive approach. Presence of the intended survey has made up the research approach deductive. According to Saunders et al (2003), survey method is usually associated with the deductive approach. Deductive approach is mostly related to testing theories and associated with positivism. This implies the research is actually empirical to explanatory approach and
the type of the outcome should be predictive. Most of the explanatory researches are quantitative, establishing casual relationships between sampled variables (Robson, 2002). The research adopts an inductive approach as well due to the fact that it will collect and analyze qualitative information as a second activity. According to Saunders et al (2003), the study based on the principle of developing theory after the data have been collected is called inductive approach. This notion would undoubtedly imply to this research because the negatively tested research questions from the first part would be developed into new theories. In order to do so viewpoints from the respective Principals through semistructured interviews and obtained comments from the teachers through the survey questionnaire will be used. Principals will be interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire whereas teachers will be encouraged to fill-up a comments section in the survey questionnaire exceeding no more than 50 words.
Data collection and constraints
6.1 Quantitative data collection The first part of the research- collecting teachers‘ (e.g. employees‘) viewpoint, will be implemented using survey method. The survey method consists of two different methodologies- ‗samples‘ and ‗population‘. The sample indicates a subset of the entire group, normally chosen in such a way to try to ensure that it is representative of the entire group. On the other hand, population is the entire group under consideration; may be people, organizations or things (Daniel, 1990). Based on existing circumstances, it would be wiser to go for a sampling technique because it is not possible to collect data from the entire population due to financial and time constraints. However, sampling can be further divided into two categories- probabilistic and nonprobabilistic (Saunders et al, 2003). The probabilistic sampling identifies a suitable sampling frame or size and is suitable for small population (i.e. a census). On the other hand, non-probabilistic sampling allows selecting cases which are best able to answer ones research questions and objectives. Non-probabilistic sampling is not pure random sampling. Instead, it is either purposive or based on self selection (Bryman & Bell, 2003). Daniel (1990) as well has referred non-probabilistic sampling as purposive sampling. As probabilistic sampling identifies suitable sampling frame and enables the researcher to check representativiness of sample to population (Bryman & Bell, 2003), it would be wiser to go for a probabilistic sampling technique. Saunders et al (2003) have mentioned five further categories of probabilistic sampling: simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster and multistage. At this point the argument in this regard goes for stratified sampling. Stratified sampling is divisible to relevant strata which significantly lowers the cost and time of the research. Besides, the entire sample frame of further education institutions can be stratified based on some common parameters such as performance, student number, teacher number and location, which are well known to the researcher. This indicates that the sample frame contains periodic patterns, thus insisting to go for a Stratified Random Sampling method.
―Stratified random sampling is a modification of random sampling in which we divide the population into two or more relevant and significant strata based on one or more number of attributes. Dividing the population into a more series of relevant strata means that the sample is more likely to be representative, if we can ensure that each of the strata is represented proportionally within the sample. However, it is only possible to do this if we are aware of, and can easily distinguish significant strata in our sampling frame.‖ (Saunders et al, 2003) At this point it can be questioned that why cluster sampling has not been chosen as the intended research method? Although cluster sampling is almost similar to stratified sampling, there are some possible drawbacks. According to Saunders et al (2003), both the methods of selecting clusters randomly and/or restricting clusters based on certain criteria possesses the chance of reducing validity of the sample. Stratified sampling on the other hand emphasizes on representativeness rather than clustering, thus broadening the chance of being more accurate. 6.1.1 Sample size The margin of error that can be tolerated in this research is 5% (adopted from Saunders et al, 2003). It has been decided that the survey should be randomly (stratified) conducted among 3 further education institutions in Chittagong due to easy access and increased representativeness of information. To stratify the population, the city of Chittagong has been selected. The common attributes based on which the institutions are going to be approached are: 1. Geography: All of the intended institutions belong in the same sociogeographical and economic region. The district of Chittagong covers almost 4% of the total land population in Bangladesh. 2. Authority: All the chosen institutions belong under the same education authority. The district of Chittagong is supervised by the Chittagong Education Board, a subcommittee of the National Curriculum and Textbook Board of Bangladesh (NCTB). National policies and other educational committees (including NCTB) are governed and supervised by Ministry of Education. 3. Budget and payment: The budget differs based on the size and location of the schools. However, the salary is uniform for the staffs and teachers working in different institutions, which is fixed and determined by the National Wages Board‘s pay scale. 4. Ethnicity: The local culture and socio-expectations in the area are similar for all of our chosen schools. People associated with the institutions, students, employees, teachers and guardians all are part of the same local custom and ethnicity. On an average each institution possesses 45 teachers, making the population size a figure of 3 X 45 = 135. Based on the assumption that the response rate would be 70
percent or higher (Saunders et al, 2003), the actual sample size should be: 135 X 100 70 = 192 (approx) Hence the survey needs at least 192 respondents, hopefully which will be achievable from the 3 randomly selected further education institutions. 6.2.2 Administering the survey The biggest advantage with survey method is- if prepared properly, it requires a very little supervision (Saunders et al, 2003). However, it is important that the questionnaire reaches to the targeted group properly. The questionnaire should be distributed randomly among teachers. A week has been proposed for this activity. The completed questioners will be sent back to the researcher in form of original paper based documents. Another week has been proposed for completing this activity. The process is cost effective and resembles accurate information although it possesses a very little direct supervision. 6.2.3 Survey questionnaire The questions for the survey have been designed in order to gather relevant information necessary for the research. There exist five main unmarked sections in the questionnaire. One by one they have been discussed as below: [We appreciate you spending your precious time in filling-up this form for a good cause. We would be delighted if you make possible efforts to answer as accurately as possible. Thank you.]
1 (A): At your present job, how satisfied you are about the communication process between you and the management? Not satisfied at all Low satisfied OK Highly satisfied Superb
1 (B): How much communication gap you think your institution should have between the management and the employees? Management should be fascist. Management should pretend to hear us but do what it likes.
Management should try to negotiate things with us to its highest ability. Management should value our thoughts and actively seek improvements. put itself into trouble with superior authority to implement our suggestions.
2 (A): Please point out the extent of satisfaction you already have with your salary at your present job? Not satisfied at all Low satisfied OK Highly satisfied Superb
2 (B): Please point out the extent of satisfaction that you wish you had with your salary I am getting extra paid. A less salary but a bit extra facilities. Need no change. Should get a more extra. Dramatic increase (Double or more)
3. Please rank the issues below in accordance to your most desired importance. 1 indicates the least important issue (according to you) and a 5 indicates the most important issue. No number can be repeated twice and the given numbers should sum up to 15. Issue Explanation Proposed Rank (Put a number between 1 to 5)
Financial security: A guaranteed minimum salary to satisfy basic needs. Safety A safe environment: Free from dangers, discrimination and office politics. Socialisation Opportunities for socialisation: A friendly and welcoming environment. Prestige Recognition of individual achievement: Prestige towards students, parents and colleagues. Self actualisation Career development and promotions Total:
4. Your Sex:
5. You belong to the age group of:
20 to 30 42 to 52
31 to 41 52 and above
6. Number of years in teaching service:
1-5 years 11-15 years
6-10 years years
7. Your institution is:
8. Do you think a salary increase should be given to those teachers who will receive a positive feedback from the students end of each academic year (i.e. Do you think performance related pay should be introduced)?
9 (A): How much co-worker influence do you currently have at your job? None Lower Average Higher Highest
9 (B): How much co-worker influence do you think your job should have? None Lower Average Higher Highest
10. Any personal comment? (less than 500 words. Either Bengali or in English)
Personal information section: This section collects the factual information from the respondent. Question no 1,2 and 3 formulate this entire section; designed to help in finding the results for objective-a, objective-b, objective-e, objective-f, objective-g, objective-h, and objective-i, comprising the issues of topic no 2, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.1.5, 3.1.7, and 3.2.1. The three questions are designed to retrieve personal information, which are absolutely relevant to the research‘s context. The very first question of the questionnaire enquires whether the respondent is a public sector teacher or a private sector teacher. The second question asks about the respondent‘s age and the third question enquires about his/her sexuality. Motivator determiner section: This particular section consist of question nos 4, 5 and 6. The section explores how the respondent feels or believes about something, thus collecting opinion based information. This section is perhaps, the most influential questionnaire section in the entire research. Based on Herzberg‘s theorem, question no 5 and question no 6 possess a list of motivator (and de-motivator) factors, which would be needed to get prioritized by the respondents. A four option based importance scale would be used in this context. In the importance scale prioritizing implies four level of importance—1. not important, 2. mildly important, 3. important, and 4. very-important. The issues which would receive at least 45% of the respondents‘ most important poll (i.e. column 4 in the survey questionnaire) should be considered as a significantly important motivator factor. Similarly, if more than 45% of the sample population think any particular issue is a significant cause for demotivation, then that issue should be considered as a de-motivator factor. However, the objective of this research is to find out the most important motivator factor(s). Hence, in most cases opinion poll from the de-motivation section need not be included. Cases, in which inconsistency between responses for a particular respondent would be observed, should be analysed and assumed humanly using question no 5. Motivational Level determination: Based on Maslow‘s hierarchy, this section would collect respondent‘s attitude information. The section would enquire in which level of Maslow‘s hierarchy the respondent is living in. The respondent would be asked to prioritize the five issues residing in different levels of Maslow‘s hierarchy, based on a point 5 based importance scale. The most important issue should be marked 5 and the least important issue should be marked 1. This section comprises question no 7 in the questionnaire, which would help in finding the result for objective-a, which is associated with research question-1. Remarks/Comments section: This particular section collects information regarding the respondent‘s behavioural pattern. The question openly asks the respondent to provide an insight regarding the causes for motivation and de-motivation in his/her present job. Due to space constraint and effective analysis, the respondents have been requested to write no more than 50 words. Information obtained through this section would be used in necessary quantitative and qualitative analysis as well. Besides, the consistency of answers can be checked by comparing this section with the findings of motivator determiner section. A number of new issues might emerge from this section, particularly which have been overlooked in the literature review.
6.2 Qualitative data collection The second part of the research- collecting the authorities‘ (e.g. employers) viewpoint can be achieved by conducting qualitative interviews of the Principals. Qualitative interviews can be conducted on a one to one basis or on a one to many basis (Saunders et al, 2003). Because of the nature of the research it will be useful taking note of the respective Principals‘ opinions individually. In this regard it will be appropriate to conduct one to one interviews through telephone. But what type of structure the interviews should follow? Saunders et al (2003) have mentioned three different interview typologies based on their level of formality and structure namely structured interviews, semi-structured interviews and unstructured interviews. Structured interviews use questionnaires based on a predetermined and standardised or identical set of questions. By comparison, semi-structured and unstructured interviews are non-standardised. In semi-structured interviews the researcher will have a list of themes and questions to be covered, although these may very from interview to interview. Thus, semi-structured interviews can be used as a powerful data collecting tool in the cases of inductive approach. Due to the fact that it may be needed to reorder the questions while interviewing each of the Principals individually, it will be useful for us to go for a semi-structured interview. However, the selected inductive approach requires analysing data from the questionnaire completed by the participant teachers as well. In order to collect qualitative information from the teachers, a section of the survey paper will be left empty for open comments or remarks. Teachers will be encouraged to fill-in this section with words exceeding no more than 50. This restriction will enable to get hold of the most important qualitative information from the employees (i.e. teachers), which will be used to fulfil the inductive research approach.
6.2.1 Targeted group Principals from three typical further education institutions from the district of Chittagong have been selected and approached for the interviewing. The intended institutions are: 1. Ispahani Public School and College (IPSC) 2. Radiant School and College 3. Chittagong Government College The following factors have been considered while selecting institutions of which the Principals will be interviewed: Typicality- The institutions represent majority of the further education institutions in the country in terms of student-teacher ratio, student-teacher number, size, structure, governorship, administration and funding.
Ingenuousness- The institutions are open and willing to share their information in order to help researching a better education management policy. Reliability- The institutions are reliable in terms of presenting information and the respective Principals are generally known as honest, experienced and sincere persons. Apart from interviewing the Principals, the qualitative target group also include the participant teachers who are supposed to write down comments/remarks on the survey questionnaire. Assuming the margin of error for the previously mentioned survey participants, hopefully 80 respondents will fill-up the comments/remarks section (each exceeding no more than 50 words). 6.2.2 Administering the interview The telephone interview with the Principals will be conducted and administered by the researcher himself. Face to face interview can not be done due to time and financial reasons. Telephone interview, however, ensures instant response and data collection. Suitable appointment dates would have to be arranged first in discussion with the Principals. Hopefully, the whole interview process should not take more than 7 days. For accurate analysis, the conversation would be audio taped with the interviewee‘s prior concession. Qualitative data collection from the survey questionnaire does not require any particular supervision. Scope for writing down own comments at the end of the survey questionnaire would provide the chances for the teachers to express their views regarding motivation and de-motivation in their present job. The appropriate comments would be used in the qualitative data analysis part. 6.3.3 Sample questions for the interview Semi-structured interview provides limited scope for detailed discussion. However, additional questions can be asked or redesigned within the given structure to clarify certain points (Saunders et al, 2003). The following are the basic questions, which would be used in the interview sessions with the Principals. It should be noted that the interview questionnaire has been prepared right after the completion of the survey of the teachers. This ensures a more specific and in-depth scope of interviewing of the Principals. 1. Can you please describe an ideal administration for any school or college? What kind of relationship you think a Principal should have with his teachers? 2. Does your present situation match with your perceived ideal situation? If not, to what extent and why?
3. How important do you consider recognition, socialization and respect as possible means to motivate further education teachers? Similarly how important do you consider extra payment, holiday packages and promotion in motivating your teachers? 4. Do you consider your teachers to be more materialistic or, more devoted to their work? What are the implications it has in deciding or setting your management/administrative approach? 5. How effective you think implementing Performance Related Pay (IPRP) will be in terms of improving teachers‘ performance? How you think it will motivate the teachers who seek intrinsic rewards from their job instead of materialistic i.e. extrinsic outcome. 6. How do you describe your independence in implementing change processes? Is there any factor that in most cases resists change efforts? 7. Do you think these intended change efforts play any role in influencing teachers‘ job performance? 8. Does this surprise you that our survey has found Payment and Opportunities for promotion and advancement are the two most important motivational factors for Bangladeshi further education teachers. 9. Do you think opportunities for specialised trainings...such as BEd, MEd, PGCE, ITT etc…will help to improve teachers‘ motivational level in Bangladesh? 6.3 The credibility of research findings Credibility of any research finding can be questioned if suspicion arises regarding the information‘s reliability and validity. Saunders et al (2003) have mentioned the issue of generalisability as well, which is sometimes referred to as external validity. ―It is important that the findings are equally applicable to other similar research settings and deliver exactly what we were intending to doing‖ (Smith et al 2002, cited in Saunders et al 2003). At this point it would be appropriate to justify the reliability, validity and generalisability of the information used in this research. 6.3.1 Reliability Robson (2002, cited in Saunders et al 2003) asserts that there may be four threats to reliability namely- participant error, participant bias, observer error and observer bias. Hopefully, the chosen methods for obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information would guarantee the reliability of the research findings in every way. There exists a very little possibility of occurring participant error because the survey and the interview questionnaires would be designed using a common understandable languageEnglish. A careful selection for using appropriate words would be considered, which
would ensure the questionnaire does not get too complicated to understand. A pilot survey would be conducted with the same questionnaires in which a small group of friends and class-mates would be encouraged to participate. A large sample population for the survey ensures a biased view from any individual respondent would not question the reliability of information. Similarly, due to the quantitative approach there exists absolutely no allegation about the observer getting biased. Information would be analyzed using SPSS or Microsoft Excel software (a specimen of which would be provided in the appendix section). As a result there exists no chance of occurring observer error as well. The interview questionnaire possesses far more chances of achieving absolute reliability because it would be directly administered by the researcher. Explanation could be provided if by any chance the interviewees come across any difficult issue. The semi structured approach ensures understanding particular context/conversation; thus enabling the researcher to understand the level of preconception from the interviewee. Observer error is impossible as well because the intended interviews would be recorded and type written. A careful selection of the institutions would ensure no incident of participant and/or observer bias could be experienced. Adopting semi-structured interview would ensure that none of the Principals get treated differently. Although in semi-structured interview the order of questions can be revised based on situation, this should in fact strengthen the technique for collecting qualitative information. Hence, the intended qualitative analysis is most likely to be inductive, unbiased and reliable. 6.3.2 Validity ―Validity is concerned whether the findings are really about what they appear to be about‖ (Saunders et al, 2003). Hence, it can be assumed that validity can only be ensured if appropriate issues could be identified from the relevant literature and the procedure for collecting information could be made accurate. Robson (2002, cited in Saunders et al 2003) has mentioned six different threats to validity namely history, testing, instrumentation, mortality, maturation and ambiguity about casual direction. Assurance of validity could be ensured if these mentioned issues are addressed properly. An appropriate justification of history, testing and instrumentation could be found in the relevant chapters of literature review, research objectives and methodology. The issue of mortality could be satisfied because there exists no chance of respondents dropping out from the intended survey. Both the number of efforts for conducting the survey and the number of respondent would be unique. The last two threats to validity (e.g. maturation and ambiguity about casual direction) are both associated with time, in which the findings and the analyses need to stay up-to-date during and after the research. Relevant literature and up-to-date references would be used in this context. 6.3.3 Generalisability ―Generalisability (e.g. external validity) is a concern in the design of research as the extent to which the research results are generalisable i.e. the findings may be equally applicable to other research settings, such as other organizations‖ (Saunders et al, 2003).
The issue of generalisability has already been affirmed due to the nature of this research. According to Saunders et al (2003) generalisability is a particular worry if the intended research approach is a case study. In order to guarantee the generalisability of the research findings, this intended research would be using survey method to collect primary quantitative data. The quantitative survey is going to be conducted within 15 different colleges with an actual sample size of 343. This sample population would represent other institutions in the country, thus maintaining generalisability of the findings. Similarly the selection of three Principals for the purpose of interviewing would be done in such a way that the information gathered would be accurate, reliable and generalisable. Referring to topic no 6.4, the institutions from which the Principals have been chosen share same geographical, sociological, administrative, and infrastructure environment. In this way the analysis of qualitative data would also be generalized and would represent the findings for other institutions as well.
Chapter 4: Investigation- Results
[Due to the nature of this research (e.g. both quantitative and qualitative approach), this chapter simply describes all the findings according to the research objectives. The chapter explains how data were weighted and measured obtained from the sources. These findings would then be expanded upon, analysed, and linked with theory in the next chapter in order to prepare the ground for aligning the appropriate motivational strategies.]
Summary of information
The intended research would consist both qualitative and quantitative information. For the quantitative part, the number of responses comparing to what was predicted is pretty low. Instead of having 192 responses, the total number of respondent was 90. This rate is unexpected, although could be justified due to the ground of having an inferior quality of supervision. As Saunders et al (2003) have pointed out that the biggest advantage with survey method is- if prepared properly it requires a very little supervision, they emphasized a little on collection and returning of the feedbacks. In contrast Bell (2005) has addressed this issue properly. During the survey, explanations of questionnaires and supervision of teachers may not be required. However, this notion would not guarantee any higher level of response even after the questionnaire had reached to the hands of the targeted group properly. Jankowicz (2000) has mentioned the importance of doing field work and has coined the term ‗background setting‘, in which the respondents would be explained the importance and objective of the survey. By mistake this issue of background setting was not addressed properly. Although the survey questionnaire contains a heading which summarizes the objective and importance of the research, clearly it has failed to appeal the people. In the survey, coincidently equal number of male and female teachers took part, thus making the male to female ratio 1:1. The highest number of respondents belongs to the age group of 38-46, counting 27 out of total 90 respondents. 23 of the respondents belong to the age group of 24-29. 22 respondents belong to the age group of 30-37, and only 18 belong to the age group of 47 and over.
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 24-29 30-37 Age group 38-46 47 and above
30% 24% 20%
Figure 3: Number of respondents based on their age group
Private sector has responded ardently than their public sector counterpart. Out of 90, 67 of the respondents belong to private institutions, whereas the rest 27 belong to the public sector. Thus private sector
Figure 4: Percentage of respondents from different sectors. The qualitative information, however, does not possess any of such response issues. All the selected Principals could be reached and interviewed due to the fact that the conversations were booked prior to the research. Three out of three chosen Principals helped in every possible way to carry out the discussions from which a number of themes have emerged. These emerged themes have been described, extended upon and analysed in the section of interpretation (topic no 8.2) right after this topic.
The followings are the findings based on both quantitative and qualitative data collected through the survey and the interviews. The obtained figures from the survey have been slightly rounded in order to decrease confusion. Exact quotations from the interview have also been used to represent specific finding(s). A brief outline of these findings will now be presented, with verbatim extracts from the transcripts used to define and illustrate the figures. This will then be expanded upon, drawing on relevant literature and linking to the findings in the analysis section in the next chapter. 8.1 Findings for objective (a) Analysing topic 3.1.2, the first objective of the research would be to find out which segment of the Bangladeshi further education teachers possess lower level of job motivation- the private sector teachers or the government sector teachers. Level of motivation could be calculated using the ‗motivational level determination‘ section of the questionnaire. The section comprises a single question (question no 7) based on the classic motivational model- Maslow‘s hierarchy. Question no 7 in the questionnaire asks the respondent to put a number from 1 to 5 for a particular Maslow‘s level based on priority. The issue that is most important to the respondent should get the highest number 5. The issue (or level) that is least important to the respondent should get only 1. Using SPSS or Microsoft Excel, it is possible to count how many respondents have put 5 for the survival need. The Maslow‘s hierarchy consist five different levels of motivational needs. If a person possesses higher survival need, it can be said that he/she is residing in the lower level of the motivational hierarchy. Similarly, if a person possesses lower survival need, he/she is most likely to reside in a higher motivational level. In both cases, the objective is to determine the level of existence of survival need in the respondents‘ minds. To determine how many of these respondents belong to the private (or public) sector, information from question no 1 would be used. Data obtained through question no 1 would be factual information, which enquires in what sector (public or private) the respondent is working in? According to the survey, 41% among the overall private sector teachers possess a high level of survival need in Maslow‘s hierarchy. This implies that this group of people still have not crossed the first level in Maslow‘s hierarchy. They are still residing ‗inside‘ the first level of Maslow‘s hierarchy. Similarly, about 44% of the overall public sector teachers think they possess a high level of survival need. Possessing a very high level of survival need indicates the level of motivation (in Maslow‘s hierarchy) is at the very basic stage. Reversibly, 59% of the private sector teachers possess higher level of motivational needs than survival (such as payment), which is 3% more comparing to 56% of the public sector teachers. This implies that public sector teachers are less motivated and need greater attention than their private sector counterpart. However, strategies should be implemented in order to improve both sides‘ poor motivational level.
45 40 Percentage of teachers 35 possessing lower level of motivation 30 25 20
Private sector teachers Public sector teachers
Figure 5: Percentage of teachers who have not still crossed the very first level of Maslow’s hierarchy. 8.2 Findings for objective (b) Analyzing topics 3.1.4 and 3.1.7, the second research objective would be to find out whether Bangladeshi further education teachers seek for intrinsic reward (such as achievement, recognition, responsibility etc.) or materialistic reward (such as money, holidays, interpersonal relations etc.) schemes. Both qualitative and quantitative information would be used in this context. Information collected through survey question no 6, is the primary source of data for quantitative analysis. In response to question 6, 50 out of the 90 participants responded that they would like to receive more opportunities for recognition, responsibility and achievement from their next job. 40 said better pay, improved holidays and social status would be more important to them in their next job. This implies that almost 56% of the teachers seek for intrinsic reward whereas 44% seek for materialistic i.e. extrinsic reward.
Seeking intrinsic rewarding(s)
Seeking materialistic rewarding(s)
Figure 6: Percentage of teachers seeking different rewarding(s) 50
In order to determine the ratio of private and public sector teachers‘ opinion, factual information obtained through question no 1 would be used. A larger number of private sector teachers seek for intrinsic rewarding- 57%; 6% more comparing to public sector teachers (from which 51% seek intrinsic rewarding). This notion, however, highlights one important fact- from both public and private sector education, majority of the teachers seek for intrinsic rewarding(s) such as more opportunities for recognition, responsibility and achievement.
Private sector teachers
Public sector teachers
Figure 7: Percentage of teachers seeking intrinsic rewarding(s) Two out of three Principals believe the teachers are materialistic (i.e. seeking extrinsic rewarding), which is a complete contrast to the findings from quantitative survey. According to the Principal of Chittagong Government College:
“It may sound rude but I think my colleagues are absolutely materialistic. Most of tem, despite of having provident fund, goes for private tuitions and caching classes. As I have mentioned before, money obviously is the biggest motivation. That’s why we have asked for salary increase from the government although we know the problem is not going to be solved that easily. Government has its own limitations and teachers keep demanding more. For an example: despite of ensuring their pensions and provident fund last year…which took me a great deal to do…they are still asking for increment festive bonuses and overtime.”
The Principal of Ispahani Public School and College more or less perceive a similar opinion. According to her:
“I think teachers have already made it almost a duty for us (Principals) to work day and night in order to arrange them extra money. Every month directly or indirectly I’ve been pushed to go to the Board office so that I’d be able to arrange extra working hours for them during National Exams. Not only that, some
teachers seek for long paid holidays despite of realizing the shortage of class teachers.”
In contrast, the Principal of Radiant School and College said:
“If you provide proper monetary benefits and other advantages, I see no reason why teachers shouldn’t be devoted to their work. In our institution I have made sure that my teachers can concentrate to their fullest extent on the students and the class. The environment has been made up in such a way that teachers feel embarrassed to their colleagues if a particular class performs badly. You can say that I have created a competitive environment where being the very best counts. This implies that my teachers look for respect, social status and recognition from their society rather than money, holiday or something like this…They are devoted to their work and were recruited due to this attitude. Therefore, if the institution considers rewarding someone, the best way is to make the teacher a group mentor or class teacher…i.e. giving him/her more responsibility.”
8.3 Findings for objective (c) By analysing topics 3.1.4 and 3.2.1, research objective-c has emerged. According to the objective, it would be important to know to what extent the pattern of recognition or the performance appraisal system influences teachers‘ motivational level. Both qualitative and quantitative type of data would be used in analysing this particular objective. For the quantitative interpretation, a four level based importance scale would be used. In the questionnaire, prioritizing implies four level of importance—not important (NI), mildly important (MI), important (I), and very-important (VI). Information obtained through survey question nos 4 and 5 would be used in this context. The issues which would receive at least 45% of the respondents‘ most important poll should be considered as a significantly important motivator factor. For an example, if 50 out of 90 respondents think performance appraisal is very important in motivating themselves (i.e. almost 56% of the sample population) then performance appraisal should be considered as one of the most important motivator factors. Similarly, if more than 45% of the sample population think absence of performance appraisal is a significant cause for de-motivation, then performance appraisal should also be considered as a de-motivator factor. The data obtained through survey question 5 shows 51% of the teachers (50 out of 90 respondents) believe Promotion and advancement is a ‗very important‘ motivational factor in their present job. 49% of the respondents believe the pattern of recognition or the performance appraisal system plays an ‗important‘ role in influencing teachers‘ motivational level. Conversely, 48% believe recognition and performance appraisal is a very important de-motivator factor. On the other hand, the survey shows that although promotion and advancement motivates the teachers, lack of this factor does not necessarily de-motivate them. Only 30% of the total further education teachers (27 out of 90 respondents) believe that lack of promotion and advancement opportunity is a demotivator factor. 19% of the respondents believe Promotion and advancement is not a
significant issue at all. Then again only 3% of the total respondents believe Recognition and performance appraisal is not an important factor at all. Therefore, it could be clearly said that the desired reward by the teachers would be to get Promotions and Opportunities for career development (such as transfers in metropolitan cities and institutions) rather than simply being recognised and appraised for good work by colleagues and guardians.
60 50 40 30
51% 49% 30%
20 10 0
Neither motivator nor de-motivator
Promotion and advancement
Recognition and performance appraisal
Figure 8: Influence of Promotion-advancement and recognition-appraisal in motivating teachers. In the qualitative part information, majority of the interviewed Principals agreed that Instant Performance Related Payment (IPRP) can be considered as one of the most suitable performance appraisal system. The Principals believe the pattern of recognition including regular promotion and IPRP influences teachers‘ motivational level to a great extent. According to the Principal of Ispahani Public School and College:
“Being recognised and appraised for right performance certainly increases the motivation, especially when we are talking about my teachers. In previous years we had a steady but slow promotion system in which teachers used to get promotions based on their service hour and experience. But many teachers complained about the delays in promotion and used to believe that they deserve faster but worthy recognition. I introduced bonus schemes to change the situation in which teachers are rewarded bonus payments if their performance is beyond the satisfactory level. Teachers who seek intrinsic motivation, as you have mentioned before, instead of monetary rewards…are promoted to Class Teachers for a particular period. Many of my school’s teachers,
these days, consider being the Class Teacher a far more prestigious recognition than receiving short-time bonuses. ‖
The Principal of Chittagong Government College emphasised more on deciding the process for performance appraisal system rather than directly implementing IPRP. According to him:
“It is important that the government should have a clear strategy for implementing a fixed process about whom and how to give promotions or salary increment. I do not think only appraisal the teacher would boost their motivational level. They need promotions as a reward. Although, the government gazette describes the means for using performance related promotion, the criteria listed there is too out of focus and inconsistent with real life. For example: the gazette focuses on number of journal publications. This requirement is more academic and practically contributes in no way for the students to get improved teaching techniques. The more a teacher gets attached with this kind of so called academic activities, the more the class and the students start feeling neglected by the teacher. This is a real problem now and I have proposed the ministry to go for true assessment of performance by respective colleagues and teachers. In some cases students could have been added to cast their opinions about a particular teacher but until we are going to eliminate the issue of student politics from the campuses, this notion can not work. Thus by changing the style and pattern of performance appraisal and recognition system, teachers level of motivation or performance level can be improved…or worsen to a great extent.”
The Principal of Radiant School and College commented:
“I believe chances for promotion and advancement are important motivations. My teachers are not materialistic. Hence, it is important in what way we design our performance appraisal system. In my personal opinion, although many teachers have argued that performance relate pay (e.g. IPRP) is not actually a better motivation comparing to getting regular payment, I believe bonuses and IPRP could at least be used to achieve motivational goals for short-times. I don’t know how much of implication this short strategy will have in designing your five years based projection, but I think it is at least worth giving a try. We need to remember that as a private institution, are resources are pretty limited. So despite of providing chances for promotions and career advancement, we also need to implement a successful IPRP scheme in the schools.”
8.4 Findings for objective (d) Managing change has always been a burning management issue, which has been discussed extensively in terms of education sector management in topic 3.1.7. It would be necessary to know to what extent the change efforts in education sector influence teachers‘ job performance in Bangladesh. Another interesting finding from this section would be to know the cause which majority of the Principals think causing reluctance. 54
These are important to know because future management strategies need to be aligned based on what would be the most efficient way to initiate change process. This research objective would be addressed and analyzed using the qualitative information obtained through interviews. The following statement has been quoted from the interview of the Principal of the Chittagong Government College:
“It is impossible in my college to ban student politics, which many private institutions have already done. You will have to realize this is a government college. Until and unless there is a change in government policy or in national level…my authority simply can not ban student politics inside the campus. Yes…we have failed in many cases to implement positive change processes because of the student politics. For example, last year we tried to change the Biology practical syllabus but were forced to abandon the project because of the resistance from student unions. Similarly, increment of salary in the last pay-scale was cancelled because student unions did not agree to support increasing student tuition fees. Incidents like these basically make my teachers de-motivated.”
The Principal of Radiant School and College commented:
“As I have said before, all these intended change proposals are independently tested by me and the board of directors. If they weren’t viable, the committee wouldn’t approve them. Because we believe these changes will bring significant improvement in students’ and teachers’ performance, we initiated these change processes. Last year we have introduced A level mathematics in English and we expected our teachers to cope up with the change process. Not surprisingly, all the teachers started trying to speak in English inside the class room as they viewed it as a great opportunity to improve their skill (and career as well). I think introducing English as the medium of communication inside mathematics class has significantly increased the motivational level of our students, and teachers as well.”
The remark from the Principal of Ispahani Public School and College was:
“I believe its student politics which would cause the biggest problem in implementing any change process. That is why I have always tried to keep student politics away from my institution. Even when students and some outside accomplices demanded student union in the campus, we rejected it. Students can directly complain to me or any teacher or can get help from other officials if the face any trouble from the teachers. So, what’s the point making a student union and giving power to some selfinterested pupils who claim to look after the students. Because we do not have student politics in our institution, I virtually feel nor trouble implementing change processes. The only resistance in this case now could come from the school trustees or the guardians/parents. But the second one is a very minor issue and we know how to deal with them…”\
From the above discussions it has emerged that Principals think student politics would be the main reason for reluctance in implementation change processes. Although the issue of interference from superior authority has been mentioned in some context, two out of the three Principals have clearly identified student politics as the most significant cause for initiative failures. 8.5 Findings for objective (e) After the discussions of topic 3.1.7, it would be interesting to know to what extent gender issue affects the motivational level of a teacher(s) working in Bangladesh. The motivator determiner section in the survey questionnaire would also be used to know the extent of influence that gender issue plays in motivating further education teachers in Bangladesh. Both questions 5 and 6 include the issue of being treated equally regardless of sex, and ask the respondent to prioritize this particular issue. In the survey questionnaire, prioritizing implies four level of importance scale—not important, mildly important, important, and very-important. If majority of the respondents feel gender issue does not play a significant role in motivating themselves, they would prioritize this particular issue in the ‗not important‘ or ‗mildly important‘ section. If majority of the respondents list it in the ‗important‘ or ‗very important‘ column, then it can be said that gender issue plays a significant role in present job context. Information obtained through question no 3 would also be used for further analysis because it directly enquires about respondent‘s gender. Such as, knowing how many of the male teachers believe gender equality is an important issue comparing to their female counterpart would certainly help us to align an appropriate management strategy. From the survey it has been observed that gender issue does not affect the motivational level of teachers in Bangladesh. Only 33% of the sample population think that being treated equally regardless of sex is an important motivational factor. This 33% has placed gender issue in the most important column of the importance scale. Similarly only 25% believe that not being treated equally due to sexuality will cause them any sort of demotivation. A similar importance scale has also been used to retrieve such information from q uestion-5. The numbers are considerably low comparing to other motivator and de-motivator factors. However, the most interesting finding in this case is: those who believe equal treatment is a very important motivational factor, among them more male (almost 64%) than female (almost 36%) believes being treated equally regardless of gender is a great motivational factor. The graph below illustrates the situation:
Figure 9: Perception about gender equality as a great motivational factor. 8.6 Findings for objective (f) It would be important that we try to understand whether age issue plays any significant role in deciding the appropriate motivator factor. If it does; we should divide and analyze our findings accordingly. In order to do so, quantitative information obtained through survey question nos 2 and 6 would be used. Survey question 2 asks about the respondent‘s age. And survey question 6 enquires what type of rewarding the respondent would be seeking from his/her next job. Would that rewarding be materialistic (such as better pay, improved holidays and social status) or would it be intrinsic (such as more opportunities for recognition, responsibility and achievement). The information obtained through question 6 then can be used to calculate how many people of a certain age group are looking for a particular type of rewarding. For example: while considering intrinsic motivation, 7 out of the 18 teachers who belong in the age of 47 and over have said they are seeking for intrinsic rewardings. Hence, percentage of teachers from this particular age group seeking intrinsic motivation would be: 7 X 100 18 = 39% (approx) Similarly, 59% of the teachers belonging in the age group of 38-46 have said they seek intrinsic rewarding rather than materialistic. 55% from the age group of 30-37 and 61% from the age group of 24-29 have responded the same. Now if the age groups are plotted along the X-axis and the value for the percentage of the teachers seeking intrinsic motivation are plotted along the Y-axis, the following graph would be achieved:
Percentage of teachers seeking intrinsic motivator
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 24-29 30-37 Age group 38-46 47 and above 39% 61% 55% 59%
Figure 10: Seeking intrinsic motivation- graph showing the trend by teachers belonging in different age groups. The trend line for intrinsic motivation is slightly downward, forming a zigzag trend in which younger teachers possesses the highest tendency for seeking intrinsic motivation. The graph above then shows the first half of the middle-age group seeking slightly less intrinsic motivations. The late half of the middle-age group exhibits a slight increase in seeking intrinsic motivation again. In the final phase of their career (age 47 an over), teachers greatly seek for materialistic motivators. It seems that the older teachers get during their career, the more they start looking for materialistic (i.e. less intrinsic) rewarding in context to Bangladesh. However, the study excludes the retirement age (age group 65-67) during which it is commonly believed that teachers look for intrinsic motivations. A similar method would be followed to find-out the percentage of teachers belonging in different age groups seeking materialistic type motivations. In fact, the second graph would be a totally reversed in order to the first one. The below is the graph for teachers seeking materialistic motivations from their expected job. As stated before, instead of looking for intrinsic reward, the rest of the 24-29 age group look for materialistic rewards. 45% of the teachers belonging in the age group of 30-37 look for materialistic reward. 41% from the 38-46 and 61% from the age group of 47 and above seek for materialistic motivation from their expected job.
Percentage of teachers seeking materialistic motivation
70 60 50
40 30 20 10 0 24-29 30-37 Age group
47 and above
Figure 11: Seeking materialistic motivation- graph showing the trend by teachers belonging in different age groups. The survey, therefore, shows teachers‘ motivational need changes from time to time, in which age plays a significantly important role.
8.7 Findings for objective (g) From the discussions of topics 3.1.5 and 3.2.1, it would be important to find out whether specialised training (career) programs play any significant role in influencing Bangladeshi teachers‘ motivation. Both quantitative and qualitative data would be used in finding this answer. For the quantitative part information, the motivator determiner section (e.g. survey question 4 and 5) from the intended survey would be used. The motivator determiner section uses 4 level based importance scale in which a respondent can choose option from any one of the followings: very important, important, mildly important and not important. In question no 4, the respondents would be asked to prioritise the issue of specialised training courses(s) as a motivator factor. Question no 5 would not be used in this context because so far lack f specialised training courses has not been identified as a cause for de-motivation. 42% of the total teachers (i.e. 37 out of 90 respondents) believe specialised training courses play a ‗very important‘ role in improving motivational level. 43% believe (i.e. 38 out of 90 respondents) specialised training courses play an ‗important‘ role in improving motivational level. Only 4 out of 90 respondents (i.e. 4.44%) teachers believe opportunities for specialised training courses is not a motivator factor at all. However, as
26% (23 out of 90 respondents) of the further education teachers believe poor performance by co-workers is a de-motivational factor rather than a motivational factor and poor performance depends a lot on what specialised skills co-workers possess, the importance of giving opportunities for specialised training courses can not be neglected. Hence it could be said that specialised training (career) programs play a significant role in influencing Bangladeshi teachers’ motivation. The qualitative part information would consist viewpoints of the Principals in further education institutions. From the qualitative findings it could be said that there exists a mixed opinion between the Principals regarding the effectiveness of specialised training courses. The Principal of Chittagong Government College said:
“In government institutions, the recruitment process of teachers is relatively tougher comparing to private sectors. All of our teachers possess necessary teaching degrees such as BEd along with their subject degree. Besides, higher level teachers come from BCS-Education Cadre scheme and there exists a very little chance of recruiting contemptible teachers. If the government want to update the syllabus, our government teachers are the one to whom the Education Ministry ask for suggestions and new syllabus. They prepare, up-to-date and make new curriculum. Hence, these teachers are already capable of dealing and delivering new techniques. For this, the teachers stay up-to-date with modern knowledge by their own initiatives, like reading journal papers or foreign books. The teaching skills improve with experience and as day passes, the teachers get wiser to their surrounding. So, even if there appears an opportunity for specialised training course, teachers feel compelled instead of enthusiasm. These opportunities practically do not improve the motivational level unless monetary benefits are included.”
Some alternative suggestions have been proposed by some of the Principals during their interviews. According to the Principal of IPSC:
“I’d like to say that there are two viewpoints, which I think will help to motivate teachers if they are given such opportunities. Assuming the courses are free and may sometimes include visits to abroad, I think teachers will try to work more sincerely for that. However, if the teachers are kept too busy with regular class works, or if they are too engaged with private tuitions and incoming money, the possibility is- fewer teachers would like to go for specialised training. They will simply consider it as a waste of time…. I am saying that opportunities for specialised training should be used as a reward; not as a general mean for enhancing everyone’s performance.”
In contrast, the Principal of Radiant School and College commented:
“The importance of improving skills and learning new techniques can never be neglected. I always try to learn from other institutions. Knowledge sharing and a willingness to change improve the overall performance of the teachers, students and the institution collectively. The teachers are devoted to their job
and would consider anything that earns social status and students’ or parents’ respect. Hence, giving them the opportunity will certainly increase their motivational level, I believe. Every institution needs to create such an environment in which teachers would be morally and administratively supported by the Principal to carry on their specialised courses. We needs to remember a college is not a business institution and giving extra days off to the teachers who is working hard to gain additional career skills will eventually benefit the institution.”
8.8 Findings for objective (h) Education sector needs to change constantly with the new and upcoming trends of science, teaching technique, number of students and/or even assessment criteria. In this context, taking part in the policy making decision has emerged 1 as an important motivational issue from the discussions of topics 3.1.3, 3.1.7 and 3.2. It would be important to know to what extent teachers‘ engagement in the decision making process influences their motivational level in Bangladesh. The motivator determiner section in the survey questionnaire (i.e. survey questions 4 and 5) would ask the respondent to prioritize this particular issue in the 4 level based importance scale. In response to question no 4 a respondent would mark the issue either as a very important motivator factor, or as a mildly important motivator factor, or as an important motivator factor, or not important at all. Similarly in response to question 5 a respondent would mark how important this particular issue is as a de-motivation factor. Thus, the number of teachers considering this issue as a very important motivator or de-motivator factor could be counted easily. According to the survey, taking part in the policy making decisions is neither a motivator nor a de-motivator factor. Only 26% of the sample population (e.g. 23 out of 90 teachers) believe that taking part in the policy making decisions would actually motivate them for future projects. This percentage is significantly low comparing to other motivator factors considered in the same motivator determiner section. On the other hand, only 23% (21 out of 90 respondents) think that not being able to participate in policy making decisions can de-motivate them. This number is well below the importance level comparing to other de-motivator factors as well. Clearly the further education teachers in Bangladesh believe that policy making is not and should not be a part of their job contract. 8.9 Findings for objective (i) Discussions from topics 3.1.3, 3.1.7 and 3.2.1 have introduced the issue of environment and interference. It would be important to know to what extent the relationship with other employees (e.g. colleagues) and (or) with the management influences the motivational level of teachers working in Bangladesh. This research objective could be further extended upon to understand the role of sex (i.e. gender) in seeking positive relationship with the colleagues. Knowing how many of the male teachers believe gender equality is an important issue comparing to their female counterpart would certainly help to align an appropriate management strategy. Quantitative information would be used throughout this whole research objective.
The ‗motivator determiner section‘ in the survey questionnaire (comprising survey question 4 and 5) would be used to find out this impact of workplace relationship in motivation. Again the 4 level based importance scale would be used in which the respondent would label a specific issue either as an important or as a non-important motivator (and de-motivator) factor. The survey has showed the relationship issue with colleagues and/or management is a motivator factor more than a de-motivator factor. 45% of the teachers (41 out of 90 respondents) believe positive relationship with the colleagues is a ‗very important‘ motivator factor. Similarly, almost 42% (39 out of 90 respondents) believe that positive relationship with the management is also a very important motivator factor. Hence, it can be said that relationship with other colleagues and relationship with the management influences the motivational level of Bangladeshi teachers to a great extent. In order to understand the impact of gender issue in seeking workplace relationship, information from question no 3 along with questions 4 and 5 would be used. Question no 3 is part of the ‗personal information‘ section in the survey questionnaire and enquires about respondent‘s relevant sex (i.e. gender). Surprisingly, more number of male teachers (52%) seek for positive relationship with colleagues than their female counterparts (48%). However, equal percentages of male and female teachers (50%) seek for a positive relationship with the management.
Relationship with colleagues Relationship with management
Percentage of teachers
35 30 25 20
Figure 12: Importance of having positive relationship with colleagues Vs positive relationship with management.
Figure 13: Male female ratio in seeking workplace relationships
8.10 Finding for objective (j) From the discussions of topics 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, it would be important to find out two most important employer obligations according to the respective parties, so that it would be possible to compare the level of understanding between these two opposite sides (i.e. teachers and Principals). In order to do so, firstly it is needed to find out which two are the most important motivator factors according to the employees. According to King and Bu (2005) the most important employer obligations perceived by the employees (e.g. teachers) can be described as the most influential employee motivator factors. After finding the two most important motivator factors, it would have to be tested and compared with the viewpoints of the Principals to understand the difference of perception (i.e. how effective the Principals think these two motivator factors are in motivating teachers?). Both quantitative and qualitative data would have to be used in this context. The motivator determiner section (e.g. survey question 4 and 5) from the intended survey would be used. The motivator determiner section uses 4 level based importance scale in which a respondent can choose option from any one of the followings: very important, important, mildly important and not important. Due to the smaller number of responses, the factors exceeding more than 50% of the overall teachers‘ opinion poll as ‗very important‘ motivators would be considered as most important employer obligations perceived by employees. To measure this, the total number of positive cardinality (i.e. 1) in the ‗very important‘ column for the respective factors would be calculated. In a sense, the factors which would achieve the highest numbers of 1s (e.g. positive responses), would be considered as the two most important motivator factors/employer obligations. According to the survey, the two most important employer obligations (in other words, the factors that motivate the employees to a great extent) are- Payment, and opportunities for Promotion & advancement. The first one is a materialistic motivation and the second one is an intrinsic motivation (such as responsibility). 55% of the teachers (50 out of the 90 respondents) have labelled ‗Payment‘ as one of the ‗very important‘ motivator factors.
Then again 51% of the teachers (46 out of 90 respondents) seek for ‗promotion and advancement‘ as the biggest motivation to their work. 49% of the overall teachers believe the pattern for ‗recognition and performance appraisal‘ is a very important motivator factor. A ‗positive relationship with the colleagues‘ is the fourth most important motivator factor counting almost 45% of the total poll. ‗Positive relationships with the management‘ and ‗specialised training courses‘ are considered most important motivator factors by 42% of the teachers (e.g. 38 out of 90 respondents).
Figure 14: The two most important motivator factors Interviews with the Principals include the question whether it is surprising that the survey has found Payment and Opportunities for promotion and advancement are the two most important motivational factors for Bangladeshi further education teachers. According to the Principal of Radiant School and College“I won’t say payment is a big motivational factor in our school. All the teachers are reasonably paid-off. I believe socialization and opportunities to build up a secure social status will be seen as the important motivator factor by our teachers. Plus as I have mentioned before, teachers in this institution can take part in the policy making decisions in much greater extents comparing to other colleges. I think being able to work independently is another reason why our teachers are doing well. So I am a bit surprised that the survey did not pick up this right fact.”
The Principal of Ispahani Public School and College said“I think management is sufficiently aware of the fact what motivates our teacher the best. So the finding does surprise me in a sense that teachers did not evaluate a positive relationship with the management as a great motivator. Based on my experience, teachers seek for a good relationship with their management, which I believe motivate them to go for future projects. For an example, last year one of my senior teachers refused to be a Class Teacher because she thought being a class teacher will subsequently take her away from her colleagues. She thought she had a very good relationship with her colleagues, so it will be impossible for her to maintain a close relationship with the management. Although I assured her that being close to her colleagues does not mean that she can’t have a positive relationship with the management, she declined. All this happened only because she considered herself incapable because of the reason that having a positive relationship with the management...is not possible by her.”
In contrast, the Principal of Chittagong Government College commented“Payment is obviously the most appropriate motivational factor here. Not only being a government college, I believe all other institution has faced the similar problem like us...the payment is too low. This year we have applied for a gratuity fund from the Ministry. If it becomes successful, I believe we will be able to motivate the teachers in a much wider sense. Increase of payment will bring them more opportunities for socialization as well. So I think that is also an important motivator factor. In addition to these, I totally agree with the concept that opportunities for promotion and advancement increase motivational level. We have seen this before and we have proved before that promoting teachers improve their motivational level. Because of a slow promotion system...which is governed and administered by the Government...most of our teachers feel de-motivated to accept extra duties.”
Hence, it could be concluded that according to employees (e.g. teachers) the two most important employer obligations would be ensuring Payment and opportunities for Promotion (e.g. career advancement). Unfortunately they were not similarly perceived by the employer side, which considers other factors as most important employer obligations.
Chapter 5: Investigation- Analysis
[The purpose of this chapter would be to help in deciding the appropriate motivational strategy for the further education teachers working in Bangladesh. Findings from the previous chapter would be interpreted, compared and analysed in order to obtain specific conclusive notions. The chapter prepares grounds for specific strategic suggestions intended to be presented in the Recommendation part of the next chapter. The reasons for having contradictory paradigms would be discussed; and the means for aligning motivational strategy accordingly would be emphasised.]
Interpretation of quantitative data
According to Bell (2005), interpreting refers to look for similarities, groupings, clusters, categories and items of particular significance. Remenyi et al (1998) referred interpretation as another form of processing the evidence, which ensures using of the findings would be unbiased and accurate. Because of the nature of this research, interpretations from both quantitative and qualitative perspective would be necessary. To know the extent of influence which different motivational factors play in motivating (or de-motivating) teachers, the ‗motivator determiner‘ section (which comprises of survey questions 4, 5 and 6) would be used. This section is based on Herzberg‘s Dual Factor theory and relevant other analyses. Motivational level can be interpreted from the ‗motivational level determination‘ section (comprising question no 7 in the survey questionnaire), which is designed based on the classic Need Hierarchy of Abraham Maslow. The ‗personal information‘ section (comprising survey questions 1,2 and 3) would be used to obtain information for analyzing specific cross An abnormality in answering the survey questions by the respondents could be observed, which is practically beyond any theoretical explanation. For example: in response to question 4 and 5, some teachers are labelling ‗payment‘ as one of the most important motivator factor (and de-motivator factor as well). The same group of teachers are then demanding intrinsic outcomes/rewards as motivation instead of materialistic rewards in response to question 6. This notion is an interesting finding and worth of having an indepth qualitative analysis. 16 out of 90 respondents have been identified responding in this manner. Similarly, 9 out of the 90 respondents claiming self-actualization as the most desirable level in Maslow‘s hierarchy (in response to question 6) are labelling payment as a very important motivator factor. An example of a respondent‘s remark in response to survey question 8 is presented below. This same respondent has prioritized payment as the biggest motivator and demotivator factor.
“I feel to motivate me best to appreciate my good works and criticism of my negative sides. And for this recognition of my contribution if I am rewarded by getting promotion or by
recognizing me. If I get slowly promoted on my relationship between colleagues and management don’t go well I feel very demotivated.”
This type of problematic data has been corrected and verified using survey question 8 (e.g. the open comments/remarks section). Teachers‘ own comments in the questionnaire have reflected the type of desired motivation(s) they seek for- thus justifying either the answers from motivator determiner section (survey questions 4 and 5), or from motivational level determination section (e.g. survey question 7). However, despite of saying ‗Payment‘ is the biggest motivator factor, Bangladeshi college teachers seek intrinsic types of motivations more than materialistic motivations (supported information obtained through survey question 6). To support this notion, the next two biggest motivator factors have been identified as – ‗Recognition and performance appraisal‘, and ‗Promotion and advancement‘; both belonging to the intrinsic reward/motivation scheme discussed in topics 3.1.4 and 3.1.7. Demands for materialistic motivations such as positive relationship with the management and opportunities for specialised training courses are pretty low, which is a very interesting finding in context to Bangladesh. Before submitting data for the SPSS work sheet, all the information would be weighted using numeric type numbers and the (basic) cardinal of 1. Any positive response would be weighted as 1 although negative responses would be deducted, thus eliminating the possibility of using cardinal 0. The survey questionnaire has been designed in such a way that it contains necessary numeric representations (i.e. Question Nos). Therefore forecasting the overall cardinality (i.e. positive answer or negative answer) of a specific question would be systematic and easier.
Summary of quantitative findings
The following are the summaries of findings obtained through quantitative information described earlier. These findings would be necessary to remember before analyzing and setting-up an appropriate motivational strategy for the teachers working in Bangladeshi higher education sector. (a) In Bangladesh the public sector further education teachers (e.g. government teachers) are less motivated, and need greater attention than their private sector counterpart. (b) Bangladeshi further education teachers seek for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. However, majority of Bangladeshi further education teachers seek more intrinsic motivations than materialistic motivations. (c) The pattern of recognition or performance appraisal system plays a significant role in influencing teachers‘ motivational level. In this regard teachers believe having materialistic rewards such as Promotion and opportunities for career development is a
better motivator factor comparing to simply getting recognized and/or being appraised for good work. (d) Gender issue does not affect the motivational level of further education teachers working in Bangladesh. (e) Teachers‘ age play a significantly important role in deciding the appropriate motivational need. (f) Opportunities for sspecialised training (career) programs play a significant role in influencing Bangladeshi teachers‘ motivation. (g) Taking part in the policy making decisions is neither a motivator nor a de-motivator factor for Bangladeshi further education teachers. (h) A higher number of male teachers seek for positive relationship with colleagues than their female counterparts. However, equal percentages of male and female teachers seek for a positive relationship with the management. (i) The two most important employee motivator factors are Payment, and Opportunities for promotion & advancement. The first one is extrinsic motivation and the second one is intrinsic motivation (such as responsibility).
Interpretation of qualitative data
Callis and Hussey (2003) have discussed the possibility of using Grounded theory as a method of analyzing qualitative data. Although grounded theory is generally used in deciding overall methodology, the same pattern can be followed in analyzing and interpreting particular information(s). According to them the initial stage of grounded theory is coding, which enable the qualitative data to be separated, compiled and organized. At a basic level they are simple and topical, at more complex levels the codes are more general and conceptually abstract to aid theory development. The second stage of grounded theory is linking and developing by means of the paradigm. ―At this stage, the researcher will construct mini-theories about the relationships that might exist within the data and which need to be verified. Although the overall theoretical framework will not be discovered in this stage, the mini-theories can be incorporated into and form part of the overall paradigm model that is being developed alongside the research‖ (Callis and Hussey, 2003). The last stage of the analysis is: further development of categories and sub-categories in terms of properties and dimensions. This develops the ideas already generated within the identification of the phenomenon. It builds on the relationships discovered and purposefully tracks down other relationships, some of which will fall outside the paradigm model.
The themes emerged from the coding have been discussed in the next topic. These themes would then be compared, analyzed and used to align the perfect management strategy for the further education sector.
Emerging themes from qualitative findings
Throughout the interviews a number of research themes have emerged. These themes would be focused, assessed and evaluated upon in the Analysis chapter along with relevant theories and findings obtained through the Results/Findings section, which would play a significant role in aligning a new management strategy. 12.1 Administration This part of the conversation has focused on the relationship between management and the colleagues. The research objectives-g and i tend to analyse the effects of having more opportunities in the policy making decisions and interference from the management on the motivational level of Bangladeshi further education teachers. It is necessary to compare the perception regarding an ideal administration of both the parties (i.e. employer and the employee) if these two motivator factors are needed to be aligned properly with the management strategy. Therefore, the issue needs to be addressed and the Principals must be interviewed regarding their present administrative environment. The interviews were successful in this context and all the Principals provided an insight of what they think the definition of ideal administration should be, and how they tend to integrate the definition with their present situation. Although all of the Principals could define a clear definition of ideal administration and believe that their authority is ideal in many extents, a clear contrast could be observed when they confessed that there are many issues left to be addressed. Supposedly this notion expresses an inflexible (or stubborn) attitude from the management‘s side. In most of the cases the authority is at the same time practising both flexible and bureaucratic approach. According to one of the teachers who participated in the previous quantitative survey“The authority pretends to listen, but we never see any actions taken based on our recommendations. Ultimately every decision relies on the Principal. So what is the point encouraging us to participate in the policy making decisions. Instead it causes me a great deal of de-motivation.”
12.2 Type of rewarding From the interviews another important issue has emerged, which itself was a burning topic in the quantitative survey as well. The survey among the teachers has provided the necessary insight, which clearly shows that teachers mostly seek for intrinsic rewards. However, as part of deciding any management strategy (where both the employer and employees would be affected) it is necessary to know the perception from both the (i.e. management and employees) side. Therefore, in the interview discussion the Principals 69
where asked, in a sense, to provide their opinions regarding what should better motivate the further education teachers. Interestingly a new paradigm has emerged in which most of the Principals have proposed a combination. A clear effort to link all the theoretical positive motivator factors with management strategy has also been demonstrated by one of the Principals. According to the Principal of Ispahani Public School and College“Being recognised and appraised for right performance certainly increases the motivation, especially when we are talking about my teachers. In previous years we had a steady but slow promotion system in which teachers used to get promotions based on their service hour and experience. But many teachers complained about the delays in promotion and used to believe that they deserve faster but worthy recognition. I introduced bonus schemes to change the situation in which teachers are rewarded bonus payments if their performance is beyond the satisfactory level. Teachers who seek intrinsic motivation, as you have mentioned before, instead of monetary rewards…are promoted to Class Teachers for a particular period.”
The combination of rewarding has been recognised by ordinary teachers as well. The following is an interesting comment obtained from one of the survey papers:
“People are greedy. The moment you give them money, the next moment they want more. So, if you can limit the amount by giving them other rewards which would be equally perceived as money, it would be easier to stay in control. I’d certainly appreciate if my institution sends me to conferences as a senior teacher or short holidays in other parts of the country on its expenses.”
12.3 Management Strategy and IPRP As part of the previous theme, the issue of IPRP has also been addressed by both the interviewer and the interviewee. Before aligning any strategic decision, it is important to remember that resources are scarce. Hence, improving the payment structure does not necessarily mean that the government needs to increase the salary of the teachers. Instead, monetary motivation can be proposed in the form of Instant Performance Related Pay (IPRP). Although majority of the further education teachers have said that they do not see bonus as a great motivational factor, Principals seem to disagree with this view. However, gratuity fund has been recognised as a great motivational factor by both the parties. As one of the teachers has mentioned out:
“Motivation depends on many other factors, which I believe you know better than me. Plus, in my opinion, a better administration can guarantee job satisfaction at best, not motivation. To motivate the teachers for new projects, you need to increase their payment; or ensure them early gratuity etc. Otherwise the performance level will always remain the same, fulfilling the bare necessity.”
A public sector teacher from the quantitative survey questionnaire commented:
“What me and my children are going to do after my retirement makes me crazy! I need a proper source of income even after retirement, regardless of how much money I make now. This is the reason why despite of having the opportunity, I did not leave the government institution. Although private institutions pay more, they do not provide any gratuity or provident fund.”
Only on of the Principals emphasised more on deciding the criteria for performance appraisal system rather than directly implementing IPRP. According to him, before deciding any performance related rewarding, the way to evaluate this performance should be decided first. This is a very important managerial issue and should reflect on the proposed strategic recommendations. 12.4 Change initiatives Initiating change processes is an important management phenomenon, which needs to be addressed while discussing with the Principals. The objective would be to find out in which way or by whom most of the cases resistance to change occurs. This is important to know because future management strategies need to be aligned based on what would be the most efficient way to initiate change process. During the interviews, all the Principals said that student politics would be the main reason for reluctance in implementation change processes. The Principals openly condemned student politics and had expressed their views against it. However, not everyone thinks student politics is the only resistance to initiate change process. Some Principals have mentioned about in-house politics too. Principals have blamed the superior authority for falling in implementing change initiatives. It should be noted that the Principals did not blame the teachers for failing in to implement any change program. There are two possible explanations for this. One option could be that the management simply does not count teachers to take part in any policy making decisions. The second explanation could be Principals are in constant power struggle with the superior authority. According to the principal of Radiant School and College“In our institution, we try to implement everything in a democratic way. Teachers have much say in the policy making decisions of the institution. Any change process that we intend to implement is thoroughly discussed with the board of directors at the very last stage. Before doing so I discuss the intended change plans with my teachers. If they think the change will bring significant improvement in present situation, I take the proposal to the board. I need to convince myself about the viability and the possibility of the change process as well. However, board of directors are the supreme authority and if they feel the intended change proposal is not worth enough, we are bound to obey their decisions.”
Although taking part in the policy making decision as a motivator factor has already been discussed before, power struggle has not yet been identified as an issue. Hence from the discussions of change initiative this new theme has emerged, which is very much related to administration. 71
Comparison of quantitative and qualitative findings
Some of the quantitative research findings would be tested and compared with the associated qualitative findings in order to measure the level of understanding in perceptions perceived by the two opposing employee and employer sides. Measuring this difference in perception would not only help in knowing what the second party (e.g. employer) think of the first party (employee), but would also help in aligning and recommending an effective management strategy. In this regard the first intended objective would be to test whether the Principals think the pattern of recognition or performance appraisal system plays a significant role in influencing teachers‘ motivational level. The quantitative finding of this inquiry has returned the answer positive. The survey has confirmed that teachers believe having materialistic rewards such as Promotion and opportunities for career development is a better motivator factor comparing to simply getting recognized and/or being appraised for good work. Fortunately, feedbacks obtained through the interviews confirm that majority of the Principals think in the similar way and consider materialistic reward such as IPRP a better motivator than simply appraising or verbally recognising good performance (referring to topic no 8.3). Therefore, the intended management strategy at end of this research should emphasise on two most important materialistic rewarding: Promotions and Instant Performance Related Payment (IPRP). However, one Principal highlighted a very important issue in this regard- how to evaluate the performance of teachers from the viewpoint of teaching capability. According to him, if the conventional journal based publication is considered as the effective way of assessing a teacher‘s potential for Promotion or IPRP, the whole pattern of recognition would be ineffective and would face serious criticism. In that case the proposed strategy should be to evaluate teaching skills of teachers by an independent board comprising the members of management, Principal and other fellow colleagues. This board, upon request, would evaluate the suitability of the candidate for a Promotion and/or Performance Related Payment (IPRP). Feedback from students would also be collected so that there exists a better chance of assessing teaching skills rather than academic and/or age superiority. The second objective of the comparison would be to find out the difference in perception regarding the effectiveness of specialized training courses (such as BEd, Med, PGCE or ITT) as a motivator factor for teachers. The survey has showed that opportunities for specialised training (career) programs play a significant role in influencing Bangladeshi teachers‘ motivation. Some respondents have even commented that they feel demotivated because they do not receive any encouragement or opportunity to improve the inner-personal skills, which they believe would have brought them much closer to the students. What do the Principals think in this context? Unfortunately not every Principal thinks specialised training programs would enhance teachers‘ motivational level. In fact, the negative perception is much superior to a positive viewpoint. One Principal has even suggested not to consider specialised training courses as a mean to improve skills but to
use the opportunity in such a way that it looks like a materialistic reward. For example: the Principal has suggested that teachers should be told about career opportunities and payment increases instead of having an improved teaching capability if they accomplish such courses. Although the effectiveness and justification of such notion is very much arguable, the Principal believes the existing appraisal system and social recognition in a sense, prefers materialistic rewards rather than intrinsic rewards (such as opportunities to improve inner personal skills). Clearly this notion is a complete contradiction of the finding obtained through research objective-b in topic 8.2. At this point another important comparison would have to be conducted. The quantitative survey has showed teachers prefer intrinsic motivations rather than extrinsic motivations. However, from the qualitative interviews it could be interpreted that two out of three Principals believe the teachers are materialistic (i.e. seeking extrinsic rewarding), which is a complete contrast to the findings from quantitative survey. There exist two possible explanations in this context. Firstly, the average communication between teachers and Principals is so ineffective that the management has clearly failed to realize teachers‘ motivational needs. The alternative possibility is, because ‗Payment‘ and ‗Opportunities for promotion and advancement‘ has been identified as the two most important motivator factors (the first factor was coined as extrinsic and the second was coined as intrinsic motivator), they are not necessarily a group (or groups) of either extrinsic motivators or intrinsic motivators. This second possibility is the most contradictory paradigm obtained throughout the research and has been explained elaborately in topic 13.2.1. It would also be important to compare whether the two most important employee motivator factors are equally considered as the two most important employer obligations perceived by the Principals. Unfortunately the qualitative analysis showed that the quantitatively emerged two perceived employer obligations by the employees are not similarly perceived by the employer side, which considers other factors as most important employer obligations. The following table shows the comparison of the above mentioned quantitative and qualitative findings in a concise order: Quantitative findings Teachers believe opportunities for Promotion and career development is a better motivator factor comparing to simply getting recognised, or being verbally appraised for good work. Qualitative findings Principals believe teachers get far more motivated if chances for promotion and 1. opportunities for career development are offered rather than officially or verbally recognizing the effort. Principals believe IPRP could be used 2. as a great motivational factor for teachers.
Teachers believe Instant Performance Related Payment (IPRP) is not a great motivational factor.
Teachers believe an opportunity for specialised training courses is a very important motivation.
Principals believe opportunities for specialised training courses would not 3. motivate teachers in their present job context.
Teachers seek for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. However, more teachers seek for intrinsic motivations than extrinsic ones.
Principals believe teachers only seek for extrinsic motivations.
Teachers believe ensuring payment and regular promotion should be the two most important employer obligations.
Principals believe other factors such as ensuring positive relationship with the management and providing 5. opportunities to take part in the policy making decisions are the most important employer obligations.
Table 1: Comparison between quantitative and qualitative findings
Paradoxical research findings: Explanation and analysis
At this stage, it is very likely to experience the demolition of hypothesis and getting outcomes contrary to the initial beliefs (Saunders et al, 2003). The findings for research question-1 and 3 in particular address such an issue. Two of the most contradictory research findings regarding research questions 1 and 3 are: 1) teachers seek for intrinsic motivations from their jobs (finding from research objective-b). 2) On the other hand they are saying that Payment is one of the biggest motivator factors, which should be considered as the biggest employer obligation (finding from objective-j). Therefore, the question arises: how come a materialistic reward such as Payment could be the part of teachers‘ intrinsic expectations? The phenomenon can be explained with the help of rational reasoning and hypothetical analysis. Teachers not only seek for intrinsic motivation, but they actually seek for both a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivator factors. ―It can be argued that money motivates because it is linked directly or indirectly with the satisfaction of many needs. It satisfies the basic needs for survival and security, if income is regular. It can also satisfy the need for self-esteem and status. Money satisfies the less desirable but nevertheless prevalent drives of acquisitiveness and cupidity. So money may in itself have no intrinsic meaning, but it acquires significant motivating power because it comes to symbolise so many intangible goals. Pay is often a dominant factor in the choice of employer, and pay
is an important consideration when people are deciding whether or not to stay with an organisation.‖ (Armstrong, 2002) According to Armstrong (2002), people need money and therefore want money. However, it can motivate but it is not the only motivator. It has been suggested by Wallace and Szilagyi (1982, cited in Armstrong 2002) that money can serve the following reward functions: It can act as a goal that people generally strive for, although to different degrees. It can act as an instrument which provides valued outcomes. It can be a symbol which indicates the recipient‘s value to the organisation. It can work as a general reinforcer because it is associated with valued rewards so often that it takes on reward value itself. Researchers have described payment as the ‗basic‘ motivation instead of coining the term intrinsic or extrinsic. According to him payment is the basic requirement to distinguish any activity as a ‗job‘, without which people are not likely to work. Hence instead of discussing payment as a materialistic motivator, it would be appropriate to consider it as a psychological and physiological need (i.e. a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation). This notion justifies the finding of this research namely: teachers seek for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from their job. In this regard, remark from a respondent during the survey questionnaire can be mentioned:
“When I get an extra amount of salary increase, then I feel motivated to finish the assigned project. This happens at the very first week of the job. But eventually when I find out that working hard even with the increased salary is not worth enough comparing to other jobs or posts, I feel de-motivated. So payment is the biggest issue in motivating or de-motivating me although as a conservative family member, I expect respect and social status from my job. Money can improve these two demands as well. If I get a good salary, not only my psychical needs are satisfied, but my mental needs have a better chance of getting satisfied too.”
Therefore, it can be argued that our finding of Payment as one of the most important employee motivator factor (despite of majority of the teachers seeking for intrinsic motivations) is rationale and justified. This finding is authentic and credible, which needs to be used appropriately while aligning a particular motivational strategy for teachers.
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations
[This part of the report delivers the final objective of the research by proposing/suggesting several management strategies, which will help in improving teachers‘ motivation. The recommendations are derived from the research findings and analysis conducted in the earlier stages of this report. In addition to proposing the motivational strategies, the chapter also discusses the limitations of this research, its implications and scopes for explorations by future researchers.]
Review and analysis of the research questions
A review of findings of the three previously described research questions should be discussed at this stage before aligning a new motivational strategy. The most contradictory finding and inconclusive answer of a specific research question would be research question no-1. Comprising of research objectives a and b, the statement of the question described – ―In what level of Maslow‘s hierarchy the Bangladeshi further education teachers fit-in‖? Finding out the answer of this research question is important because it circuitously deals with the type of motivator factors which would improve the motivational level of further education teachers. If the teachers reside in the lowest level of Maslow‘s hierarchy (e.g. have not overcome their survival need yet), materialistic motivations rather than the intrinsic ones would be the most probable motivator factors used in improving teachers motivational level. This hypothesis can be tested and verified if in response to objective-b, the survey response affirms most of the further education teachers seek for materialistic motivations. Ironically, the finding from objective-b shows that most of the teachers seek for intrinsic motivations even though finding from objective-a suggests majority of the further education teachers reside in the very basic level of Maslow‘s hierarchy (e.g. possess very high survival need). A similar notion has been discussed in topic no 14 of the ‗Analysis‘ chapter. The only explainable reason would be, the information collected through quantitative method was not utterly untainted due to the fact that some papers were accidentally sent to some higher education institutions (instead of further education institution) such as universities. This noted paradigm must be taken into account while designing recommendations/ suggestions for the further education sector management in Bangladesh. Hence, the answer for research question-1 is inconclusive although statistically it could be said that the overall level of motivation is pretty low based on the scale of Maslow‘s hierarchy. A vast majority of teachers from both private and public sector resides in the first need level of Maslow‘s hierarchy. Public sector seems less motivated than their private sector counterpart and although in theory teachers are supposed to seek for extrinsic rewards, in reality the situation is quite opposite. Despite of residing inside the very basic level of Maslow‘s hierarchy, teachers seek for both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Research question 2 on contrary, possesses absolutely conclusive findings. The second research question could be described as – ―According to Herzberg‘s Dual Factor theory, what is the most influential motivator factor for Bangladeshi further education teachers?‖ In response to this query, Payment has been identified as the most influential motivator factor for Bangladeshi further education teachers. As the research question intends to find out employees‘ (e.g. teachers‘) motivational factor rather than the Principals (e.g. employers), result from quantitative survey would only be used in this context. According to the survey 55% of the total teachers (50 out of 90 respondents) believe the issue of Payment is the most influential motivator factor. The third research question could be described as- ―What is the extent of difference regarding the awareness of two most important employee motivator factors perceived by both the individual parties (i.e. employee and the employer) in Bangladeshi further education sector?‖ The finding is conclusive as well in this case. In response to this question, it could be said that the difference in perception between both the participating parties is significantly varied. What employees perceive as the two most important motivators is not perceived similarly by the employers. According to the survey, the most important motivator factors perceived by the employees would be Payment and Promotion & career advancement. In contrast, two out of three Principals believe Payment is not the biggest motivator factor. Positive relationship with the management had even been considered by one of the interviewed Principals.
Aligning motivational strategy
Because the further education teachers in Bangladesh generally seek for intrinsic (and up to some extent extrinsic as well) motivations from their present job condition, a combination of both intrinsic and materialistic motivational factors should be used in aligning next course of actions. Herzberg‘s theory seems to be the most appropriate motivational strategy in this context. Proper measures should be taken to ensure the motivator factors described in Herzberg‘s theory, which are the reasons for motivation in people‘s job. 16.1 Payment At present some colleges use IPRP (Instant Performance Related Payment) as a mean to motivate teachers in higher education sector. Principals tend to use this power as a mean to motivate teachers but the survey has showed IPRP does not play any significant role in improving teachers‘ motivational level. Instead many believe it creates an unhealthy competition among employees (Prucell, 2000). However, teachers have said Salary and Performance Appraisal are the two most important motivator factors. Hence, in this case instead of concentrating on IPRP, we should consider a solution regarding permanent payment.
Before proposing any suggestion regarding payment, it should again be noted that resources are scarce, and unlike any developed nation Bangladesh needs to rearrange its salary from the existing resources available. Therefore, in this case increase of salary is not possible although it is desirable. Students‘ tuition fees in government colleges can not be increased due to political disinclination. At this point the most appropriate solution that exists can be described as rewarding potent teachers by means of not money, but by extra working hours. In order to do so, a significant number of ineffectual teachers need to be removed first. This notion can be executed under the terms of ‗golden hand-shake‘ policy. As a result, the existing teachers will have to work harder and will be eligible to get over-time payments for extra working hours. Despite of working hard, teachers are likely to have increased dedication because in context to Bangladesh teachers are motivated by money (e.g. payment), and achieving extra working-hours comparing to other colleagues would be seen as a recognition from the management by other respective teachers (Equity theory). But how the teachers should be selected for having extra working hours? In the present IPRP system, salary in a month gets increased up to a certain extent if the teacher performs ‗satisfactorily‘. However, the term satisfactorily can not be defined appropriately and question arises how teachers are evaluated in this case? The research has showed that Principals (not even the governing body) mainly decides who and how much salary increase should a teacher have. In that case the proposed strategy should be to evaluate teaching skills of teachers by an independent board comprising the members of management, Principal and other fellow colleagues. This board, upon request, would evaluate the suitability of the candidate for extra working hour (i.e. over-time) chances. Feedback from students should also be collected so that there exists a better chance of assessing teaching skills rather than academic and/or technical superiority. 16.2 Promotion and advancement In addition to payment, teachers think Opportunities for Promotion and advancement is the second biggest motivator factor. Promotion is very important and a through review of the existing promotion system is necessary. Promotion includes the achieving the posts such as Class Teacher, Senior Lecturer, Asst. Professor, Professor etc. Similar to extra working-hour paradigm, question arises about how teachers should be nominated for a promotion? The answer, in fact is relatively simple. The teachers, who would be receiving extra-working hours, should also get the Promotion. This can be justified due to the fact that teacher‘s over-time are allocated based on their performance, similar to having a promotion. Therefore, a teacher who is achieving a promotion will automatically get a salary increase by the means of over-time payment. Hence, there exists no chance of bringing in the allegation that incompetent teachers get more payment and over-times than their competent counterpart. However, this notion patches up one significant course of action: regular promotion scheme based on age will have to go. Instead, performance related promotion will have to be introduced. Similar to the process of selecting teachers for over-time work, teachers will be evaluated by an independent board comprising the members of management,
Principal and other fellow Colleagues. This board, upon request, would evaluate the suitability of the candidate for a Promotion and/or extra working hour allocation. Feedback from students should also be collected so that there lives a better chance of assessing teaching skills rather than academic and/or age superiority. 16.3 Specialised training courses As part of aligning intrinsic motivational strategy, emphasis should be given on specialised training courses. The quantitative research has proved that having opportunities for specialised training courses such as BEd, Med, PGCE and ITT increase higher education teachers‘ motivation level. According to one of the participant teachers, these courses prepare themselves to undertake critical tasks such as teaching on a new curriculum, upgraded teaching techniques and dealing with students in complex situations. However, question arises whether this opportunity should be offered to all the teachers or it should be restricted among very few. In answering this question, it should be considered that resources are limited and a poor economy like Bangladesh can not effort sending every teacher to specialised training courses on state expenses. Some teachers (and Principals) even have suggested that if promising teachers should be sent to other countries for training (and holiday together) purposes. Clearly this notion is purely unaffordable by the Government and other private colleges. In this regard, the only immediate solution can be to assessing teachers for one or two years‘ basis before he/she is selected for a training course. The strategy should include the notion that not all the teachers but the very few who would be selected by the college governing committee should receive a funding (not a loan) from the government. Government colleges need particular attention in this context because teachers‘ performances there are especially awful. By doing so, being selected for this kind of training courses would be seen as a prestigious intrinsic reward, thus improving teachers‘ self-confidence and technical skills in one go. 16.4 Extra curricular activities Part of the research has showed young teachers seek for more intrinsic motivations comparing to their older counterpart. The older Bangladeshi teachers go by, the more they start looking for materialistic rewards such as payment and holidays. In this regard, instead of providing the chances for socialization to older teachers, younger ones should be sent to seminars, Scout activities, exhibitions and sports competitions. At present many older teachers want to be the troop leader and/or the sports coordinator by virtue of their position because they consider these kinds of activities as a way of making overtime incomes. Once the management will start allocating over-time hours not based on age but based on enthusiasm (i.e. performance), situations are most likely to change. Those teachers genuinely interested in taking part in the sports activities, supervision or seminars will more likely benefit the institution comparing to the money motivated older counterpart.
16.5 Building relationships There exists a huge gap in perceptions perceived by both the management and the teachers regarding what these two parties expect from each other. The survey has showed equal number of male and female percentages seek for a positive relationship with the management. However, teachers do not wish to take part in the policy making decisions. Hence, the Principal and other members of the board should try to listen to what teachers expect from their jobs instead of asking teachers‘ view regarding student or teaching policy. Much emphasis has already been given to so-called ‗integration‘ by asking teachers how to improve student‘s performance in the class, which however has seriously neglected the expectation and demand of teachers in their personal and social life. Without satisfying teachers‘ needs it is not possible to improve the education quality. The same research has showed that more male than female teachers seek positive relationship with their colleagues. Therefore, instead of having separate common rooms (what many public colleges still have) for male and female teachers, a common meeting place should be used. This will effectively increase the chance for teachers to build a positive relationship with their colleagues, thus increasing the performance level as well.
Findings from this research could be used in context to Bangladeshi further education colleges (intermediate/A levels), which at present demonstrate a poor teaching performance. Teachers often do not feel motivated to improve the situation and stay happy by merely fulfilling their class duties. As a result each year majority of the new initiatives intended by the government (such as to introduce overall English medium curriculum, decentralization of administration and change in examination processes) do not succeed in the long run. In this situation, suggestions derived from this through research could at least be implemented in the respective colleges/institutions in order to improve teachers‘ motivational level.
1. Instead of Performance related Payment (IPRP), performance related over-time should be introduced. Teachers with ‗satisfactory‘ performance will receive a promotion and will automatically achieve the chance to work for extra teachinghours (e.g. over-times). To make the chances for extra working hours, institutions (especially public ones) need to get rid of some of their incompetent and unnecessary workforces. By doing this, competent teachers would be able to make more salary in exchange of their labour, thus benefiting both themselves and the institution to a great extent. The Promotion and performance appraisal system will have to be very flawless in this context. Teachers will be evaluated by an independent board comprising the members of management, Principal and other fellow Colleagues. This board, upon request, would evaluate the suitability of the candidate for a Promotion and/or extra working hour allocation. Feedback from students should also be collected so that there exists a better chance of assessing teaching skills rather than academic and/or age superiority.
2. Young teachers should be given more responsibilities in supervising or participating in extra curricular activities such as Scouting, sports competitions, debating, seminars and workshops in home or abroad. At present older teachers get these opportunities by virtue of their seniority. As a result, supervision of these kinds of activities has become a mere way of making money because older teachers seek for more materialistic rewards than their younger counterpart. Sending younger teachers to trainings and seminars are going to benefit the intuitions in the long run. 3. Similar to the previous suggestion, teachers should be given more opportunities for specialised training programs such as PGCE, BEd, Med, ITT etc. In this regard performance should be the only parameter in selecting the suitable candidates. The state should offer scholarships (not loans) and/or tuition fee waivers to the selected candidates regardless of in which sector the teacher is working in (i.e. public or private sector). 4. Public sector teachers should get more attention than their private sector counterpart in getting opportunities for specialised training courses, performance related over-times, and building positive relationship between the teachers and the Principals. 5. Students Politics must be banned from all further education institutions because it has been identified as the most appropriate reason that causes change resistance.
Limitations of the research
Although a number of strategic suggestions have been proposed based on the research findings, the feasibility and economic perspective has been omitted. For example: proposal has been made regarding specialised training courses but a feasibility study has been totally ignored. Similarly, discharging incompetent teachers need to be done before implementing performance related over-time, but how incompetent teachers will be selected has not been thought about. I addition to these, banning student politics is not as easy as it sounds in theory although this is the most influential reason causing resistance in change processes. Therefore, the practicality for implementing all the above mentioned suggestions has been ignored and the research tends to produce a suggestion for a perfect working world. The methodology for the survey questionnaire could have been improved by adopting random sampling or structured sampling instead of stratified random sampling. Although appropriate reasons have been shown to justify the choice for adopting stratified random sampling (such as lack of time, and unavailability of money and resources) a random sampling could have had improved the research credibility to a much wider extent and a low rate of response would not have occurred.
And finally, the structure of this report as well as the research could have made more systematic and user-friendly comparing to its existing expression. Despite of having all the necessary information and research findings, the derivations of research objectives from the literature review has made the entire analysis and interpretation part quite a lengthy progression. However, all these issues and findings were necessary in order to deliver an appropriate motivational strategy for the nation, which despite of all these leaves plenty of scopes for future research.
Scopes for future research
Some interesting findings have emerged from the research, which can be expanded and looked upon for further researches. For example, researches can be done in order to understand the concept for demanding both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations by the teachers in context to Bangladesh. Secondly, the real obstacles in implementing the above mentioned strategy suggestions can further be assessed and analysed with a particular focus on economical feasibility and organizational behaviour. Systematization of workforce should also be considered through which teachers could be made more motivated and/or dedicated to their present job. Apart from all these, all three mentioned research questions in this research in fact, individually possesses the scopes and possibility to be further expanded upon, theorised and could be used in improving organisational performance (e.g. performance of the educational institutions).
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