Operational Consideration in Electrical Power Plant

Objectives
• State common parameters of AC electrical supply onboard • Describe how the power is distributed to consumers using line diagram (incorporate shore supply and emergency source of power) • Describe the insulated neutral system and why it is preferred

catering & AC • Electrical power – used to drive most of these auxiliaries • Electrical power system . deck winches & windlasses to general lighting.Introduction • Auxiliary services ranging from ER pumps and fans.designed to provide secured supplies with adequate built-in protection for both equipment & operating personnel • General scheme .nearly common to all ships .

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supplied directly/via transformers etc Distribution boards • Metal-clad. dead front switchboards are mandatory for AC systems .Switchboard • To distribute generated electricity to where it is needed • Can be classified as one of following:– – – – Main switchboards Emergency switchboards Section boards .

built in 2 sections which can operate independently in case one section damaged • One side carries port & fwd motors (group motor starter) while other section carried stbd & aft motors • Central section used for control the main generators • Switchgear cubicles on generator panel sides used for essential services. flanked by group motor starter boards • Separate section will controls 3-phase 220V & lighting services .Distribution system • Main board .

then connected to three bus bars which run through switchboard length • Busbars . voltage regulations & means for adjusting prime movers speed .may seen if rear door are opened. wattmeters.Distribution system (cont/…) • 440V/220V lighting transformers may mounted inside main swbd cubicle. or free-standing behind it • Main generator supply cables connected directly to their CB • Short copper bars. synchroscopes. ammeter switches. in special enclosed bus-bar duct • Swbd contain frequency meters. voltage and current transformers.

switch & fuses . dedicated CB. phase sequence indicator is fitted .usually lamp .suitable terminals including earthing terminal.protect cable linking to main switchboard • Plate giving details of ship’s electrical system (voltage and frequency) & method for connecting must provided • For AC supply.indicate correct supply phase sequence .dry-docking for major overhaul • Log of supply kWh meter taken for costing purposes • Suitable connection box to accept shore supply cable accommodation entrance or emergency generator room • Connection box .Shore supply • Required during deadship .

Shore supply (cont/…) • It is not normal practice to parallel shore supply with ship’s generators • Therefore. simply interchanging any two leads to remedy this fault • Incorrect phase sequence cause motors to run in reverse direction . ship’s generators must disconnected before shore supply resume connection – interlocked provided • Shore supply may also connected directly to emergency board .‘back feeds’ to main switchboard • When phase sequence indicator indicate reverse sequence.

Effect of higher voltage • • • • • Contribute to sparking condition Current drawn proportional to terminal voltage Cause excessive starting current Motor overheat due to high current Motor accelerates fast and may overload the drive .

Effect of lower voltage • • • • • • Motor draw more current to keep same power output Starting torque V². thus to 72.5% Take longer period to build up speed High reactance motor will stalled Overheating will occur Motor may stall & burn due to overheating – 49x full load heating • Star delta starter line voltage 58% .

Effect of higher frequency • Motor run 20% faster. increase overall speed • Overload. overheated & overstress driven loads • Power produced (speed)³ • Supply will reduce stator flux • Affect starting torque • Centrifugal load will rise by 73 % .

Effect of lower frequency • • • • • • Stator flux increases Magnetising current will increase Motor runs slower & hot Speed reduced to 17% Overheating will take place Remedy is to slightly lower the voltage .

Emergency power supply .

supply still available for emergency lighting.determined by size & ship role • Small vessels .ensure immediate run-up • Power rating . in event of emergency (blackout etc).to maintain safety & safe evacuation • Source . starting equipment & switchboard • Must initiated following a total electrical power failure • Emergency batteries . but automatically started by air / battery possible . alarms.Emergency power supply • Provided.‘switch in’ immediately after power failure • Emergency generators . batteries or both • Self-contained & independent from other ER power supply • Emergency generator must have ICE as prime mover with own FO supply tank. communications. watertight doors & other essential services .hand cranked.generator.few kW sufficient for emergency lighting .

hydraulic • Regular tests . chronological restarting & fire fighting supply • Connected to own emergency swbd .• Larger & complicated vessels .may require hundreds of kW for emergency lighting.located in compartment above water line • Normal operation . DNV etc) and etc .initiated by relay which monitors normal main supply • Falling mains frequency / voltage causes ‘start-up’ relay to operate generator starting equipment • Arrangement for starting – electrical. regulations from Classification Societies (LR. ABS.1972 SOLAS Convention. IEE Regulations for Electrical and Electronic Equipment of Ships.emergency board supplied from main board via ‘bus-tie’ • Impossible to synchronise with main generators due to interlocks – newer design permit short period of synchronising • Starting automatically .power loss simulation will triggers start sequence • Detailed regulations . pneumatic.

Insulated neutral system Insulated system .totally electrically insulated from earth (ship’s hull) .

Earthed neutral system Earthed system has one pole or neutral point connected to earth .

earthed to the ground • HV systems (>1000V) .immediate isolation earth-faulted equipment .General • Shipboard systems .insulated from earth (ship's hull) • Shore system .earthed to ship's hull via neutral earthing resistor (NER) or high impedance transformer to limit earth fault current • Priority for shipboard .maintain electrical supply to essential equipment in event of single earth fault • Priority ashore .

. allowing both conductors to be connected so that a very large current bypasses or "short-circuits" the load. so that current cannot flow An earth fault is due to a break in the insulation. as at B. allowing the conductor to touch the hull or an earthed metal enclosure A short-circuit fault is due to a double break in the insulation. as at C. as at A.3 basic circuit faults An open-circuit fault is due to a break in the conductor.

equivalent to ‘short circuit’ fault • Large earth fault current would immediately ‘blow’ the fuse in line conductor • Faulted electrical equipment immediately isolated from supply & rendered SAFE. but loss of equipment • Could create hazardous situation if equipment was classed ESSENTIAL .The preferred system?? • If earth fault occurs on insulated pole of ‘EARTHED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM’ .

The preferred system?? .

maintain supply continuity to equipment. equipment still operates • If earth fault ‘B’ developed on another line. • Therefore an insulated system is more effective than an earthed system . • An earthed distribution system requires only ONE earth fault on the LINE conductor to create an earth fault current. 2 earth faults would equivalent to a short-circuit fault & initated protective gear • An insulated distribution system requires TWO earth faults on TWO different lines to cause an earth fault current.The preferred system?? • If earth fault ‘A’ occurs on one line of ‘INSULATED DISTRIBUTOIN SYSTEM’ . thus being adopted for most marine electrical systems .not trip any protective gear & system resume function normally • Thus.

‘earthed’ via resistor connecting generator neutrals to earth • Earthing resistor with ohmic value .assembled with metallic plates in air – due to single earth fault will cause circuit disconnected by its protection device .High voltage system • Shipboard HV systems .chosen to limit maximum earth fault current < generator full load current • Neutral Earthing Resistor (NER) .

The preferred system?? .

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