SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS

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Filed activity carried in tog wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera Name: Alinasir Daud Yunis Role no, 102 Date: 19/6/2011

Dedication

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

This dissertation is lovingly dedicated to my mother; Habiba Hassan Abdiow, Her support, encouragement, and constant love has sustained me throughout my life.

Acknowledgement 8

SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) Thanks to almighty God who gives this Golding opportunity to complete my field activity without any intervention and I extend my thankfulness to the supervisors who assisted me during my field days, those are: Dr .Ahmed Ismail Dr. Yusuf Ali Jama Dr.Hassan Issack And also my tortures who give me time to know this work in the class before I went for field work.

List of abbreviation
STVS …………………….sheikh technical veterinary school 8

SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) TAD……………………... transboundary animal disease FMD………………………foot and mouth disease NGOs……………………….Nongovernmental organization PPR ………………………..Peste des petite ruminants ELISA …………………..Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Table of content Chapter 1

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)
1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………….….1 1.1 Background information of the study area: ………………..……………..1 1.2 Background information in Tog wajaale: ……………………..……….….1 1.3 Background of Tog wajaale ………………………………….….……….…1 1.4 Background of Hargeisa………………………………………..……………2 1.5 Background of Berbera...................................................................................2 2.0 Main Objectives...............................................................................................2 2.1 Objective...........................................................................................................2 2.2 Methodology.....................................................................................................2 Chapter 2 3.0 Activities carried in Tog wajaale....................................................................3 3.1.1 Livestock trade booms in tog wajaale.........................................................3 3.1.2 Price of animals in wajaale: ........................................................................3 3.1.3 Market actors: ............................................................................................3 3.1.4 Constraints of wajaale livestock market: ..................................................3 3.1.5 Role of municipality:.................................................................................... 4 3.1.6 Vaccination process in wajaale................................................................... 4 3.1.7 Vaccine Preparation and Procedure……………………………………….5 3.1.8 FMD vaccination performance in tog Wajaale town ................................5 3.1.9 Challenges face during vaccination ............................................................6 3.2.0 Treatment of animal during field in wajaale .............................................6 4 .0 Activities carried out in Hargeisa...................................................................7 4.1 Maandeeq slaughter house …………………………………………………...7 4.2 Departments and Management……………………………………………….8 4.3 Compound infrastructure:…………………………………………………….8 4.4 Hygiene and sanitation ………………………………………………………..8 4.5 Transportation and distribution:……………………………………………..8 4.6 Constraints of Maandeeq slaughter house …………………………………..9 5.0 Hargeisa Livestock market ..............................................................................9 5.1 Operation of the market: …………………………………………………….10 5.2 Constraints of Hargeisa livestock market …………………………………..11 6.0 Hargeisa Milk market: ……………………………………………………....11 6.1 Source of milk:………………………………………………………………..12 6.2 Milk reaches the wholesalers in two forms …………………………………12 6.3 Price of the milk……………………………………………………………....12 6.4 Constraints of the milk market ………………………………………..……13 7.0 Activities carried in Berbera……………………………………………...…13. 7.1 Sanitary Standards in Livestock Trade ………………….…………..….…13 7.2 Berbera laboratory .........................................................................................13 7.3 Constraints of the Berbera laboratory …………….…….………………….14 Chapter 3 8.0 Experience gained during the field work ………………………..……….....15 8.1 Conclusion and recommendation:………………………………….…….….15 8.2 Conclusion: …………………………………………………………………...15 8.3 Recommendation:…………………………………………………….………15

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

Chapter 1
1.0 Introduction

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) Field work is an activity that STVS students carryout during the end of every academic year. This report was carried out by the STVS second year students after eighteen days field work in order to improve their knowledge and apply practical skills learned in class and collect data from places they visited. Activities student targeted were mostly close to the skills and techniques learned during the two Years. During this period student do many activities like vaccinating animal clinical inspection and history taken ,This baseline study was conducted in Wajaale, Hargeisa, and Berbera; 1.1 Background information of the study area:

Wajaale Hargeisa Berbera Fig1: Shows location of the places visited 1.2 Background information in Tog wajaale: 1.3 Background of Tog wajaale Tog wajaale is the western district of Somaliland which lies on the border of Somaliland and Ethiopia (see figure 1) the town is 80km away from Hargeisa and comes under the administration of Gebilay region. Tog wajaale is the busiest town that links the two countries Ethiopia and Somaliland. All exports and imports between the two countries transected through this strategic place. In addition to this, the source of one third of the Somaliland income taxes comes from this town. 1.4 Background of Hargeisa Hargeisa is the capital city of the republic of Somaliland. Hargeisa is located North West of Somaliland (Latitude 9°18' N Longitude 44°03' E).It was also the colonial capital of 8

SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) British protectorate. The city is around 32km2 and its population is approximately estimated 477 876 people the majority of the people are export and import traders, The temperature ranges from 13c0 to 32c0 , Hargeisa receives larger amounts of rain surrounded by forest in countryside, the city is in a mountainous area enclosed in the valley of the Galgodon (Ogo) highlands, and this attitude has given Hargeisa a milder climate. The city is financial center of many companies such as food processing, construction and communication companies. 1.5 Background of Berbera Berbera is a coastal town (Red Sea) in the north western part of Somaliland. It is the terminus of roads from Hargeisa and Burao and it is seaport with the only sheltered harbor on the south side of the Gulf of Aden, its population in 2000 was approximately 100,000. And having an airport now adds to its accessibility. Berbera exports sheep, gum Arabic, frankincense, and myrrh. Its seaborne trade is chiefly with Aden in Yemen 240 km/150 mi to the north The weather of Berbera is very dry, hot and wet during the rainy season. 2.0 The aim of the field work To acquire new professional skills from the fieldwork 2.1 Objective  To learn how to collect and process data in livestock sector.  To practice and exercise the knowledge gained in year two in fieldwork for the end of the year. 2.2 Methodology During the field work we have done Observation: information was collected through observation Interview: by asking some question to receive more information of his/her complains. Vaccination: during this time student vaccinate animal in the field

Chapter 2
3.0 Activities carried in Tog wajaale

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) 3.1.1 Livestock trade booms in tog wajaale Hundreds of animals change hands in the tog wajaale livestock market, the market is located in the east of the town, it occupy 1.8km2. The market can be classified as national market because of the population and importance, on an average day, 300-400 heads of goats and sheep, 120-150 heads of cattle and no camels are sold as per the day I visited ,. Goats and sheep cost between $50 and $100 dollars. 3.1.2 Price of animals in wajaale: The price is determined by different factors of which the main one is the demand, when the demand is high the price will go high, also body condition is another factor which can influence the price for example the fat animals are higher price than the thin ones. The seasons like holly Ramadan and during rainy season the animals are at the highest prices. During our visit the price of the animal was low due to the demand of some country like Yemen which are on the conflict between them, 3.1.3 Market actors: Market actor is any person participating at any level of the market and these are producers (farmers), brokers, interregional traders and export trades. Producers: these are the pastoralists, who keep the animals in the rural areas, and these people participate in the market by bringing the animals to the market. Brokers: the work of the brokers is • • • Provide the buyer with guarantee that the animal is health and not stolen. Provide the sellers with guarantee and fair price. Seeks buyer, negotiate the price.

Traders: they are the final link of the chain between the producers and consumers. Interregional traders: these people buy certain class or age group for exporters. Consumers: these are the final users of the products 3.1.4 Constraints of wajaale livestock market:  Lack of good shading  Lack of enough space for the market  Lack of enough water points

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

3.1.5 Role of municipality:  Collects taxes from the market  provide certification the animals sold  control the activities of the market  keep the hygiene of the market  keep security of the market 3.1.6 Vaccination process in wajaale The vaccine was bought by the ministry of livestock of Somaliland which is kept under refrigeration in a temperature of 4oC and it is shaken before inoculation. Fotivax is administered 3ml/animal subcutaneously in cattle with no regard of sex, age and weight, but it needs to repeat after six month as booster. The main sites in which the vaccination is conducted are Wajaale district

Figure 2: fotivax for vaccination Wajaale is the center of vaccination in Somaliland, during my visit more than 45 bull are vaccinated in a day, the vaccinating animals are owned by local traders and they inform the veterinary officers before they bring their animals to the crush pens, then the vaccine vials are taken from the ministry of livestock in Hargeisa and it is preserved with ice box. During the vaccination the animals are lined in the crush and they are performed on vaccination and ear tag, In Somaliland, vaccination of animals comes subsequent to two main outcomes: 1: Suspect of endemic disease in the country to occur or suspect of exposure of transboundary animal disease (TAD) from neighboring states 2: Request from importing countries such as Saudi Arabia in order to provide resistance to an endemic disease. Inspection took place near the vaccinating area. Incase of identification of clinically abnormal animals, they were kept away from vaccination. Animals identified clinically normal where then get entered to the vaccination crash, forcing forward, they were 8

SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) compressed in a narrow place between two walls. This time, animals are ready for vaccination. 3.1.7 Vaccine Preparation and Procedure: Preceding the immunization, the vaccine has to be kept 10 hours cold chain to cool the temperature between +4 to +15 in a lyophilized condition. The animal under self-possession, using sterilized automatic syringes was successfully injected with the vaccine through the subcutaneous route; the targeted animals were injected at the neck region on the area extending from the cervical backbone into a line drawing to the sternum. The dose for cattle was 3ml, the task of immunization was performed by two personnel helping each other one inoculating the dose and the other for ear tagging; ear tagging indicates that the animal was vaccinated in Somaliland and its serial number. On completing the immunization, the animals were loaded immediately and transported to Berbera port to be exported within duration of 4 days. 3.1.8 FMD vaccination performance in tog Wajaale town Wajaale is the center of vaccination in Somaliland, more than 800 bulls are vaccinated per week in Wajaale, the vaccine vials are taken from the ministry of livestock in Hargeisa and it is preserved with ice box. During the vaccination the animals are lined in the crush and they are performed on vaccination and ear tag. The dosage given is 3ml per animal. Ear tag is an important symbol conducted to differentiate vaccinated and non vaccinated animals, both vaccine inoculation and ear tag is charged for $1.5 and$1 respectively. The role of veterinary personnel is not only administering of the vaccine but the animals are inspected thoroughly before they are vaccinated, if there is any clinical signs it is forbidden to vaccinate the animal as it will lead to further deterioration.

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

Within two days 80 of bulls were vaccinated in Wajaale as the I get from the owners of the animal and out of it I vaccinated 45 of them, the students took part the inspection, inoculating of the vaccine and ear tags under the supervision and guidance of the supervisor. 3.1.9 Challenges face during vaccination    Inadequate cold chain in vaccination sites Insufficient needles and syringes Debilitated crashes

3.2.0 Treatment of animal during field in wajaale Students visited many places in the town for the treatments of animals, After history taken and clinical examination, tentatively it was concluded that all animals are common in helmenthiasis according to the case history and clinical signs as follows  Increased temperature up to 42c.  Poor body condition (emaciation).  Inability to feed properly.  Increased respiratory and pulse rates All the animals were administered with albendazole orally in a dosage rate of14ml/50kg Since it is very effective anti-helmentic drug recommended for the treatment of different worms’ infections such as round worms, tape worms, lung worms and liver flukes in cattle, sheep and goats and It is suspension drug which means it must be shaken properly before administration and then administer with the application of drench. While we gave to small ruminants 2ml/10kg and also administered through oral.

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

4 .0 Activities carried out in Hargeisa 4.1 Maandeeq slaughter house The old slaughterhouse of Hargeisa, administered by the municipality, is located in the district known as New Hargeisa. It was built during the era of Britain’s administration of Somaliland. At the time, the town was much smaller and the slaughterhouse was far from residential and commercial centers. With the rapid expansion of Hargeisa, the slaughterhouse, which is old and in very poor hygienic conditions, is now close to homes, restaurants and shops? There is broad consensus that the old slaughterhouse must be closed down. Even though the poorest people who eke out a living from the slaughterhouse will lose out, there is also agreement that the new slaughterhouse, located some distance from the old one, will bring improvements with regard to hygiene, his new slaughterhouse known as maandeeq. it is a private enterprise based on the principles of public private partnership (ppp) the company was founded on 1st march 2005 by Somaliland citizens and is officially opened on 1st Jan 2006. Maandeeq is legally registered with ministry of commerce and industry. It was the first health service company to be set up in Hargeisa to improve health status in Hargeisa slaughter house. Before the new construction the community were using improper techniques and consuming unhealthy meat products which resulted into health problems and poor sanitation. The employees in the house were registered and regulated by Maandeeq Company. Government only involve in terms of general management of the company although there is no financial contribution. Only the veterinary doctors were members from the government, the rest were privately registered. Maandeeq slaughter house has come in two main objectives:  To promote sanitation and hygiene.  To decrease level of contamination in order to improve meat grading. 8

SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) 4.2 Departments and Management 4.3 Compound infrastructure: The compound contains, a place for sheep and goats processing and area for cattle and camel processing. Cattle and camel processing takes place in open area with no distinct facilities. Relatively, sheep and goats processing takes place in areas a bit complicated, most of the construction was aimed to this consideration. Thousand of shoats were processed slaughtered, and easily handled. 4.4 Hygiene and sanitation These promotions were the major concern and progress that Maandeeq improved specially since handover of new building. Improved transportation means by using covered van vehicles instead of uncovered ones and wheelbarrows, proper washing of the working area. Also removing and transporting of both liquid and solid wastages such as blood and other abdominal remainders to a designated dump site with special trucks. Operations: one thousand sheep and goats and fifty cattle and camel were processed each house in the slaughter house for only local consumptions. Maandeeq is an income generating company in Somaliland livelihood with ninety five employees, mainly composed of management team, drivers, subordinate staffs, security guards with four hundred persons as animal slaughters. 4.5 Transportation and distribution: The transport facilities were the only means that enabled the company to distribute meat to market places and major hotels of the City.Maandeeq Company uses more than 12 vehicles which fully operate in the slaughter house and 18 local markets were supplied and distributed with well protected fresh meat.

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) 4.6 Constraints of Maandeeq slaughter house  Low income from people using the service  Destruction of infrastructures by the people using it.  Lack of enough rubbish pits.  Lack of proper water supply. 5.0 Hargeisa Livestock market Hargeisa doesn’t have much in the way of sights, but one that is definitely worth seeing is the livestock market. Located about a 20 minute walk from the main drag, it takes place daily in the morning, and it is best to go early to see the most animals and activity. The livestock trade is the backbone of the Somaliland economy. Most of the livestock are sent to the port of Berbera, where they are exported to the Middle East. At the Hargeisa livestock market, animals are traded for both domestic use and export. The market is a large open dirt plot, with a handful of shelters. Essentially, it is just a gathering of animals and people under the hot beating sun. There are couples crowds of docile came that just stand there with their camel Perma-smiles and occasionally get herded around by their owner.

Figure: 3 Hargeisa livestock market The animals sold in the market were from the towns neighboring or villages like arabsiyo, gebilley and wajaale and sometimes they can be from neighboring countries like Ethiopia where Somali people lives We soon attracted a crowd of curious observers, so that we were soon squeezed in between a crowd of camels on one side and a crowd of people on the other side.

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) Also for sale are goats, sheep, and a handful of cows. Although there is lots of open space in the market, the owners keep their herds together in a dense little pack, so you will come across as cluster of twenty goats huddled closely together as if they were packed into a small room. The price of the camel depends on the sex of the camel, its age, its size, and its state of health; an average adult male camel will cost $800. Goats cost between $50 and $100 dollars. We left without buying anything. 5.1 Operation of Hargeisa livestock market: Livestock market activities began early morning at 6:00 am and finish at 11:00 am, duration of the market fluctuates with the number of animal sellers and buyers. Animals are sold according to their grades esp. cattle as it shown the table below Grades of animals Grade1 Grade2 Grade3 Price in s/slnds shillings 2 m,200,000 2 millions 1m,800,000 taxes 5000s/sland 5000s/sland 5000s/sland

Figure 4: price of the animal per grade The market activities were controlled by municipal officials and they carry out the following functions; collecting taxes, protect hygiene of the market and the security of the market. Majority of the animals sold in the market were those intended for export to gulf countries and Arabian peninsular. Activity of the market was so controlled by number of regional trader in the market. Brokers: Are those that facilitate livestock market activity, they mediate the producers and consumers. Market brokers carry out the following functions:    Identify weather the animal was stolen or not Tells the buyer with reasonable price. Convince the buyer that animal is safe and not sick.

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) Consumers: these are the final users of animal or animal product, they posses into local consumers or import traders. Supply of animals was fluctuating together with animal consumers, the demand from abroad consumers make the supply more than the other. 5.2 Constraints of Hargeisa livestock market  Insufficient of enough shades.  Mismanagement of animals during loading and unloading  Lack of support from the government or NGOs to provide skills to market actors.  High taxes  No price controls.  No veterinary health workers in the market 6.0 Hargeisa Milk market: Milk market is one of the busiest and the best operating markets in Hargeisa. The biggest market in the city is situated on the northern compartment of the city; it is called ‘GOBONIMO’. The Milk marketing events began with the owner and ends with the final consumer. But there are wide ongoing activities that facilitate market exchange done by market agents.

. Figure: 5 Hargeisa milk market

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

6.1 Source of milk: Seeing as whole sellers regulate most of milk marketing; they take the milk from near villages and districts in hargeisa, the important sources of milk were balligacas, geedbalad, Illimaha, baligubadle,wajaale and arabsiyo through specialized milk carriers to the market. Milk containers were plastic bags but when they reach in the market they were immediately transferred to steel containers to be preserved for along time. 6.2 Milk reaches the wholesalers in two forms: 1. Sour milk: this was processed into multi purposes such as butter, and the lost was shared producers and wholesalers. 2. Fresh milk: these have attractive and joyful test and people prefer mostly.

The two forms of milk was influenced by these factors; lack of proper cleaning of milk vessels, addition of milk from two different species or from two milk products milked at interval of time, transportation closure caused by either vehicles or other road impairment mechanisms such as floods. 6.3 Price of the milk Mainly in the market they sell camel milk according to fresh and sour milk as it shows in table 3 below Type of milk Fresh milk sour milk Figure: 6 price of the milk price 2.5 s/sland shillings 2 s/sland shillings

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) 6.4 Constraints of the milk market i. The vehicle may delay due to mechanical problem and the milk may get bad.

ii. Lack of help from the government iii. Face problem of milk spoilage iv. Poor hygiene in the market v. Lack of space for the market 7.0 Activities carried in Berbera Livestock husbandry and export has always been the backbone of the Somaliland economy. Sheep, goats, camels and cattle are reared in Somaliland primarily through a pastoral system. The main market for Somaliland livestock export is Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states. There are a number of areas, particularly in livestock exports, where public goods in the form of internationally-recognized disease control and inspection are needed for the next stages in economic development, and traders do not find it easy to enforce collective action on one another without some kind of state-like authority. The Saudi market has always been the most profitable and the single most important external market for Somaliland livestock 7.1 Sanitary Standards in Livestock Trade Sanitary standards in export livestock trade in Somaliland are based on a three point certification process. This involves an initial clinical inspection and individual animal identification at the point of livestock origin. A second clinical inspection and screening of communicable diseases, time at an intermediate location, and final inspection and certification is conducted at the port. 7.2 Berbera laboratory The lab was built and equipped by an Arab Company called AL-JABIRI and it is in the compound of the quarantine station it composes of several departments like bacteriology which is used for the identification, classification and characterization of the bacterial species,

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) Virology department which is detected the viral diseases and serology department to detect the presence of antibodies against a microorganism.

Figure: 7 Rose Bengal tests The common diseases diagnosed in the lab are FMD, Rinderpest, PPR (Peste des petite ruminants) rift valley fever and Brucellosis. Different diagnosing methods are performed in the lab such as, Direct Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) for FMD, competitive ELISA for rinderpest and PPR, Detection of antigens or antibody to the virus in the blood (serology) like rift valley fever and rose pengal test which is the most widely and simplest test used for brucellosis 7.3 Constraints of the Berbera laboratory 1. Shortage of enough laboratories for fast diagnosis. 2. Mechanical damage during transportation

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

Chapter3
8.0 Experience gained during the field work

I use to know how to vaccinate animal through theoretical but now I got it in practical,
8.1 Conclusion and recommendation: 8.2 Conclusion: The fieldwork was very beneficial to students. They got a lot of experience from veterinary activities occurred in the three attachment places. During the fieldwork in wajaale, students participated in a number of vaccination programs, treatment applications and also other technical activities. Students improved the skills of collecting and processing data in the livestock sectors, after they observed the equipments and collected information from veterinary infrastructure. For them to present in a report form. Students observed a lot of activities going on in maandeeq slaughterhouse to gain information for their report writing. In Berbera student observed the quarantine and the laboratory on how the animals are inspected before they are exported to other countries like Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Egypt. 8.3 Recommendation: Given that activities carried out were more, recommendation of each can be precisely estimated: 1) To built new crushes to the vaccination performances, in order to make more possible for the procedure to take place very faster. 2)To give special milk 8

SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) vessels to milk buyers in order to reduce level of contamination 3)To train the employee of Maandeeq slaughter house workers.4) To create more rubbish pits for maandeeq slaughter house to avoid contamination

Annex: 1

Albendazole for treatment of helminthes (wajaale)

Milk in poor condition (Hargeisa)

sampling of blood for test (Berbera quarantine)

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SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS)

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