The SITARA TEXTILE INDUSTRIES LTD is one of the leading textile groups working in PAKISTAN. They mainly manufacture all type of fabrics required by the customers. They export their fabrics in all parts of the world. The aim of SITARA TEXTILE INDUSTRIES LTD is to prepare a fabric of high quality with good overall fastness properties. A fabric woven with tender care & dyed in the brilliant shades of nature adds elegance and magnificence to this world. Sitara Textile is a manufacturer of such fabulous fabrics; fabrics that speak of unparalleled quality & unmatched comfort. Sitara Textile specializes in producing high class fabric products made of superior quality materials & possesses state-of-the-art production facilities in made-ups and fabrics for various consumer needs. The company makes use of the latest technology & equipment to make sure that each product is original in style and shows exquisite craftsmanship. Sitara is a company that believes in originality as character & quality as foundation. The entrepreneurial spirit of the company assiduously seeks constant development, steady progress & outstanding performance.
This textile mills have following processing departments under one roof such as,
• GREIGH DEPARTMENT
• FABRIC DYEING • FABRIC PRINTING • FINISHING
• TESTING LABORATORY
This Department has mainly two sections.
INSPECTION AND MENDING
The section practically approves weaved cloth for further processing.
This department inspects the quality of fabric, count, no. of warp and wefts and most importantly different defects in cloth. The cloth is thoroughly inspected in this department. The process is passing the cloth on the glass plate tables that are illuminated from below by tube lights. The worker pulls the cloth over the glass plate manually and inspects different defects in cloth and makes record for quality control purposes. The greigh cloth faults are being identified and reported and if the cloth is below the required quality, it is not sent for further process. Following are the common defects present in the greigh cloth. • Slub • Count variation • Oily stains • Wrong ends • Shuttle cut • Rusting stains • Wrong sizing • Fungus stains
The quality of cloth is judged by number of warp and weft yarns which is counted as per square inch by the help of eye piece.
MOSTLY USED QUALITIES
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Quality 40x40/140x80 22x22/60x60 30x30/76x56 30x30/36x68 40x40/100x180 150x16/84x44 30x30/76x68 36x36/73x45 30x24/96x79 40x36/110x74 24x16/116x52 40x40/133x76
Type Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton PC PC PC PC PC PC CVC
The second most important operation is to join pieces of fabric into one continuous sheet of desired length. Good stitching makes the process efficient, reduces rejection rate and improves process reliability.
This department has following sections
. The weft is sewn together at parallel and care must be taken to meet both ends properly tucked-up together to prevent any " Opening" of seam during longitudinal process.Warp of both the pieces being sewn together must be parallel to each other. SCOURING 3. SINGEING AND DESIZING 2.
The method of singeing should be appreciable to the type and condition of blended fabric and 100% cotton.
Removal of protruding fibers. compact and blends but.
PRECAUTIONS DURING SINGEING
• Prior to singeing.1.e. To improve the surface of cloth. Singeing process is done on all types of cloth i.
. • To give a uniform luster to the surface. SINGEING
Fabrics made from staple fibers show some protruding fiber ends at the surface of the cloth. these protruding fibers create hindrance in the process of bleaching and dyeing so they must have to be removed in order to get even surface. Singeing of fabric is done in order to achieve the following objectives. the fiber ends are removed by the help hot plate or flame and this process is called singeing. After this the cloth enters into another blow chamber where ash on surface is removed so that it becomes favorable for desizing. The greige cloth is passed through first blower to clean the cloth from fluff and then the cloth enter into the burner chamber where the protruding fiber ends on both sides are burnt by hot flame coming at an angle of 90º. • To improve pilling rating of fabric. a heavy brushing treatment should be carried out to raise all fuzz stuck down under the size coating.
The desizing is done after singeing. The purpose of rolling is to penetrate the solution in the cloth equally. polyester resins etc. which cleans the fabric after singeing. which are applied on the fabric during the weaving process such as: Water Insoluble size: These are natural products of starch (Potato/Wheat/Rice etc. This process is called “Batching Process”. Water-soluble size: These are synthetic products of carboxyl methylcellulose. The fabric is padded at low pressure to keep the required moisture level. The de-sizing solution when reacts with sizing solution. Polyvinyl alcohol. water-soluble product such as dextrin etc is used for sizing. The fabric is firstly washed in the first tub.•
To make uniform gas flame through out the treatment. the slits of that gas burners. Then fabric is desized. The process of removing the sized material from surface is called desizing. Properties of good de-sizing agent:
• High wetting power • Compatibility whitest enzymes • High emulsifying dispersing power • Low foam formation
. should be cleaned periodically to avoid dogging. The fabric is washed in a first tub and then passed through de-sizing agents. There are many types of sizes. The fabric is desized with desizing agent as well as wetting agent depending on the temperature/subsequently stored for up to 4-12 hours usually on batching rollers.) Modified starch: In some cases. it makes bacteria after few hours which helps to maximum de-size the fabric.
5 6g/l 2g/l 1g/l
RECIPE FOR DESIZING
Desizer ( ALKALASE) Sandozen NI soap Acetic acid Salt Temperature of fabric PH of Fabric 3g/l 60----70ºC 5. the few cellulose as well as the proteins which
. The treatment of the fabric is done with soda solution and heating up with steam combine at the same time with the dwell period in a steamer at temperature of around 100-102°C. Treatment with hot caustic soda causes cotton to swell the fabric impurities being solubilized and partially removed. preference is given to the scouring.MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
Name Speed Flame distance Burner position Fabric temperature SITARA SINGEING & DESIZING MACHINE (PAKISTAN) 10-----150 m/min 10 cm 90º 100---140 ºc
If Fabric Temperature Exceeds 150ºC the Machine Stops. SCOURING In continuous process.
RECIPE FOR SCOURING
NaOH SOAP (Sandopan DTC) Reaction Time Speed 30ml/kg 1ml/kg 15min.
To permit an optimum increase in the degree of whiteness during subsequent bleaching. Solubilized the seed coats to extent where they can be removed during bleaching.
.are mainly located in the primary wall are degraded until soluble in water. impurities and dispersed.
AIMS OF SCOURING
• To permit the subsequent dyeing. 70m/min.
• Removal of hardness of heavy metal ions by addition of suitable sequestering
GOLLER’S SCOURING MACHINE
The speed of running machine is as follow: BOX SPEED LINE SPEED 95m/min.
White is also an important market colour so the whitest white has commercial value. i. For example. BLEACHING
Natural fibres.e. cotton. The degree of off-whiteness varies from batch-to-batch. Bleaching therefore can be defined as the destruction of these colour bodies. wool.3. linen etc. are off-white in colour due to colour bodies present in the fibre. when yellow is mixed with
. Yellow is a component of derived shades.
or to sequester metallic impurities. The combination of such treatments for an individual situation will depend on the rigorousness of the preparation standard and economic factors within the various options.
• Minimum tendering of fibre. These serve various functions such as to activate the bleaching system.g.
MAJOR BLEACHING AGENTS
• SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE (NaOCl)
. scouring and mercerizing. • Technically reliable & simple mode of operation. Bleaching may be the only preparatory process or it may be used in conjunction with other treatments. e. to give wetting and detergent action. The aim of bleaching can be described as following:
Removal of coloured impurities. to stabilize or control the rate of activation. Other chemicals will be used in addition to the bleaching agent.blue. Removal of the seed coats.
• Increasing the degree of whiteness. This section gives consideration to the selection of bleaching agents and to the role of the various chemicals used in conjunction.
Low chemical & energy consumption. desizing. The purpose of bleaching is to remove coloured impurities from the fibre and increase the whiteness level of fabric. the shade turns green. A consistent white base fabric has real value when dyeing light to medium shades because it is much easier to reproduce shade matches on a consistent white background than on one that varies in amount of yellow.
Mercerization requires higher concentrations of caustic soda (19 to 26 % solutions) whereas causticizing is done with concentrations ranging between 10 to 16 %. 50-70m/min.
NO OF TANKS BOX SPEED LINE SPEED 8 90m/min 70m/min
RECIPE FOR BLEACHING
NaOH SOAP (DTC) STABILIZER H2O2 Reaction Time Speed 17ml/kg 2ml/kg 5ml/kg 30ml/kg 25min. Both procedures are effective in completing the removal of motes that may have escaped the scouring and bleaching steps. MERCERIZING
Both Mercerizing and causticizing require cotton to be treated with concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).•
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H2O2) SODIUM CHLORITE (NaClO2)
GOLLER BLEACHING MACHINE (GERMANY).
4. One major difference between the two is that causticizing improves the dyeing uniformity and dye affinity of cotton without improving
dyes and chemicals. yields an increase in colour value a given quantity of dye. Held under tension. freed chains rearrange and re-orient and when the caustic soda is removed. The fibre also becomes more absorbent. Decrease in surface area reduces light scattering. The fibres become permanently round and rod like in cross section and the fibre surface is smoother. Mercerized cotton will absorb more dye than unmercerized cotton and in addition. the cross section becomes thicker and the length is shortened. When done tensionless. The amount of fibre shrinkage is a measure of the effectiveness of caustic soda's ability to swell cotton.lustre.
RECIPE FOR MERCERIZING
Tank volume NAOH Speed Pick up ratio 3000 litres 335g/L 50-60m/min. the chains form new bonds in the reorganized state. adding to fibre lustre. The cellulose crystal unit cell changes from cellulose I to cellulose II and the amorphous area become more open. Tension increases alignment of cellulose chains which results in more uniform reflection of light. Because of fibre thickening. The strength of the fibre is increased about 35 %. 2. The expanded. Caustic soda solution swells cotton fibres breaking hydrogen bonds and weak Vander-Wall forces between cellulose chains.5ml/m
. the coiled shape of the fibre is straightened and the characteristic lumen almost disappears. the fabric becomes denser. stronger and more elastic. the cotton fibre swells. therefore more accessible to water.
comes to processing. Exhaust method 2.FABRIC DYEING
When the greigh fabric from weaving. Semi-continuous method
. Dyeing is of three types: 1. Just after mercerization. it is desized (process of removing starch from fabric). to increase fabric’s lustre and dye ability. the fabric comes for dyeing process. scoured (process of removing natural and added impurities from fabric) and bleached (process of making fabric uniformly white). Then it is treated with caustic soda in a process called mercerization. The white fabric is coloured in dyeing.
Any shade variation is adjusted by making appropriate adjustments.3. Pure dark cotton shades on heavy weight fabric can also be dyed on pad batch giving very good result saving the cost of curing or steaming. These are modern and popular dyeing machines. bleaching and finishing department’s co-ordinate with each other in order to make the production process consistent.
. being the most productive. Let’s describe the main parts of both one by one. is being used at Sitara textiles. Pad-Steam Pad steam and thermosol are used here in SITARA TEXTILE INDUSTRIES LIMITED for quality dyeing of fabric with maximum production. Continuous method Continuous method. Pad-Thermosol (dyeing and then washing on pad steam)
2. While planning the production schedule. dyeing.
TYPES OF MACHINES
Two types of machines are used for continuous dyeing method:
1. The process/route of the dyeing should be decided in time and changes must be reported with considerable time margin to avoid the wastage of time. The squeezing pressure is adjusted according to the shade requirement. The deep shades are dyed at high temperature and light shades are dyed low temperature. These machines are used for dyeing 100% cotton and P/C blends.
which are added in dye liquors. They allow fabric to contact with air in a spread form with air before the fabric is exposed to IR heaters. The main function of these heaters is to avoid uneven dye. The pressure is usually adjusted at 2 bars. But theses agents will not be too efficient in
. The main parts are as under:
Two big rollers are called padders. The padders of Kusters are very much popular in continuous dye houses due to the versatility that it can control pressure from three places. They ensure uniform dyeing same shade throughout the whole width of the fabric. The company “Kusters” makes them.Company “Môn forts” makes this machine. along with padders. there is always some free water on the surface of the fabric which try to migrate on some slightly dry part of the fabric and unevenness in shade occurs. i. whose capacity is about 44 litres. There are eight small nip rollers in the trough to help liquor to penetrate into the fabric. centre and right. After padding.
Infra red heaters are very important part of the machine. The actual phenomenon is that when a fabric is padded. This machine is mainly used to apply colour to fabric and transfer the dye molecules to the surface of fabric. One along with other and their temperature can be individually controlled in terms of efficiency. A slight prevention to that is anti migrating agents. left. a few second dwell times is given to fabric on VTG rollers.e. to give continuous supply to trough. There is a trough for liquor (water + dyes). Two sets of heaters are there. There are two feed tanks. available separately. between two padders. to bind the movements of free water.
Vertical tensioning guide rollers are just above the padders.
one logical solution of it is to dry the fabric at high temperature. oil is used to heat air since high temperature of air is required. So.
There are three drying chambers after IRs. The company “GOLLER” manufactures this. So. Machine consists of the following parts
. Steam is used to heat the air and hot air dries the fabric. IRs is for this purpose and they remove about 30-40% moisture form fabric. IR heaters are also called pre-dryers. without having chances of free water migration to other parts of the fabric.dyeing chambers (after IR). They contain hot air from top and bottom to make fabric dry. rapidly. like above 1200°C. so that free water goes into air.
Speed Drying Temperature Curing Temperature 40-60 m/min 100-130°C 200-230°C
PAD STEAM MACHINE
This is relatively a simple machine as compared to pad thermo sol.
There are two curing chambers to give fabric high temperature for fixation of dyes. Hot air is again used to give temperature to fabric but instead of steam.
Then gradually raised to 95 0C form washers 5-12. depending upon the speed of machine. Pressure is also controlled from left and right instead of left.
There are fourteen washers to wash the fabric. temperature is kept at 40 0C. Speed of machine is adjusted from 90-120 meters/minute. acid is used in left washers to adjust pH of fabric. for subsequent finishing process.
The dyeing processes are divided into the followings: 1. The padding process applying dyes and chemicals on the fabric The drying process after padding The fixation process to fix dyes on the fabric The washing process to remove unfixed dyes. centre and right. For some processes. 2. Then again 40 0C washing is left to washers. Each contain water and temperature of water for each washer is individually controlled.PADDERS
These are of the same shape as of pad thermo sol. 4. Usually first 3-4 washers. fabric is treated with steam in a steamer.
After padding for one minute or so.
There are four rows of drying cylinders. 3. each containing 12 cylinders after washers to dry the fabric. Trough size is smaller and there are no nip or VTG rollers.
where the material should be penetrated with padding solution and evenly squeeze. migration during drying process is liable to create such problems as unlevelness and poor appearance. the fabric to be dyed passes through a padding bath containing dyes and chemicals.
During this cross dyeing process. neutralization. If the washing treatment is not done properly then insufficient soaping and rinsing eventually cause serious problems in fastness of the dyeing. It is therefore necessary to formulate padding recipes and drying conditions that will minimize migration as much as possible. Even if dyestuffs have been applied uniformly on fabric in padding process. Since dyestuffs have not yet fixed firmly with fibres in this process. and oxidation of fabric are carried out at many places.
This process is applied for fixing disperse dyes on polyester fibres and reactive/vat dyes on cotton fibres. treatments of washing.
The padded fabric should be immediately applied “drying” to satisfy the next fixation treatment for the padded fabric. the migration phenomenon is occurred whereby dyes tend to move alongside moisture evaporating during drying not only from the inside of fabric to the surface but also from centre to both edges. For this purpose higher temperature and steam are used.In this process.
Sulphur Sulphur dyes are not commonly used.
The flow diagram of this method is: Pad→ Dry → Chemical Pad → Steam → Wash → Dry
The flow diagram of this method is: Pad → dry → cure → washing → drying
It can be dyed by three different types of dyes: 1. Due to their superiority over vat dyestuffs in cost performance. polyester and polyester-cotton blends are dyed at Sitara Textile Industries Ltd. depending upon the machine availability and customers requirements of fabric fastness property. they have advantage in dyeing facilities and
. Two types of methods can be used.
Reactive dyes are available in a wide variety of dyes for dyeing all types of shades from brilliant to black. Reactive 2.Usually cotton. Vat 3. these reactive dyes are recommended for medium to heavy shades. As many kinds of dyeing methods applicable for reactive dyes. alongside relatively excellent fastness properties.
There are three types of reactive dyes i. their fastness properties are also very good. Soda ash is also caustic. Remazol. Cibacrone.
Recipe for Cibacrone dyes is:
Dyes Urea 10 g/l 100 g/l
Recipe for the Remazol dyes is as:
Dyes Urea Soda Ash Migration Inhibitor Penetrating Agent 10 g/l 100 g/l 20 g/l 0.
These dyes are used from medium to dark shades and their fastness properties are very good. The flow diagram for these dyes is: Pad → Dry → Cure → Cold Wash → Hot Wash → Ironing The drying temperature is 100°C but the curing temperature is 160°C/1½ min. Drimarine. The flow diagram for these dyes is: Pad → Dry → Cure → Cold Wash → Hot Wash → Ironing The drying temperature should be 100°C and the curing should be done at 150°C/min.4-1 g/l 1-3 g/l
Urea is a wetting agent that is used to keep the fabric moist while the colour is setting..
These dyes are also used from medium to dark shades and like the Remazol dyes. Soda ash (sodium carbonate) is used to raise the acidity of the dye bath and "lock" the dye onto the fibre. it can make protein-based fibres harsh and brittle.e. while plant-based fibres can take the harshness.
Due to comparatively higher costs. these vat dyes are generally applied in pale to medium shades dyeing. on pad-steam. For the oxidation 2-5 ml/L water
. After this the oxidation is done to remove the effects of caustic. These dyes are less used as compared to reactive dyes because of less shade. thus making these dyes ideal for dyeing required high fastness.4-1 g/l 1-3 g/l
These dyes are used from light to medium shades and fastness properties are not so good. which is applied during the developing process.
Recipe for Drimarine dyes is:
Dyes Urea Sodium Bicarbonate Migration Inhibitor Penetrating Agent 10 g/l 100 g/l 20 g/l 0. So.4-1 g/l 1-3 g/l
Vat dyes provide the best fastness properties on cellulose fibres. For the developing 30-120 g/l caustic and 38-130 g/l sodium hydrosulphite is used at 102°C for 1½ min. The flow diagram of these dyes is as: Pad → Dry → Chemical Pad → Steam → Washing → Ironing For chemical padding first of all developing of dyes is done.Soda Ash Migration Inhibitor Penetrating Agent
20 g/l 0. however. the use of vat dyes is specific for certain colours. The flow diagram for these dyes is: Pad → Dry → Cure → Cold Wash → Hot Wash →Ironing The drying temperature is 100°C but the curing temperature is 180°C/1min.
they are soluble to some extent in hot water and solubility increases with temperature and by the addition of dispersing agents. The flow diagram of the disperse dyes is: Pad → Dry → Cure → skeletoning → Neutralization → washing → drying In making the skeleton. the neutralization is done. A good disperse dye should have good light fastness. 70% sulphuric acid is used for 7-10 min at 40°C.
.4-1 g/l 1-3 g/l
The drying temperature is 100°C and the curing temperature is 180-200°C/1min.4-1 g/l Dispersing Agent 3-5 g/l Migration Inhibitor
Polyester fabrics are dyed with disperse dyes. At the end washing and drying is done. For this 2-5 g/l soda ash is used at normal temperature. Recipe for the disperse dyes is as: Dyes Dispersing Agent Migration Inhibitor Penetrating Agent 10 g/l 4-5 g/l 0. These both processes are done to develop the dyes on the fabric. For the polyester dyeing. however.
Recipe for vat dyes is:
Dyes 10 g/l 0. disperse dyes are used. washing fastness and perspiration fastness. After this. Disperse dyes are insoluble in water.and 3-5 ml/L acetic acid is used at 50-60°C for 2 min and then finally washing and ironing is done.
Composition Of Padding Solution:
Disperse dyes 10 g/l
. Dyeing Conditions
This method is used to dye the light shades because of lower fastness properties.POLYESTER/COTTON DYEING
For polyester disperse dyes are used and for cotton reactive dyes are used.
4. 30-40 seconds
.0 g/l (sodium alginate) Penetrating agent Sequestering agent
190-220°C. 60-120 seconds
5.Reactive dyes Dispersing agent
10 g/l 2-5 g/l (dispergator BL)
Migration inhibitor 0.0 g/l
20-25°C. pick up 50-70%
1-3 ml 0. pick up 70-90%
Chemical Padding: (developing on Pad Steam)
Caustic soda Hydrosulphite 38-50 g/l 30-38 g/l
7. listing and migration.
. it is recommendable to select both disperse dyes and reactive dyes as much as possible from same manufacturer.
Conditions for Method
In general particle size of disperse dyes is relatively larger than that of
Hydrogen per oxide Acetic acid At 60°C for 2-3 minutes 2-5 ml/l 3-5 ml/l
8. this variation of particle size often leads to different degrees of tailing. especially since particles dyes varies from
manufacturers to manufacturers. When both of dyes are mixed and padded together. • It is important to carry out a thorough washing process in order to remove all
decomposed disperse dyes during steaming.
In order to prevent such troubles.
but the physical and chemical processes that take place between the dye and the fibre are analogous to dyeing.FABRIC PRINTING
Textile printing is the most versatile and important of the methods used for introducing colour and design to textile fabrics. print colour is applied only to defined areas to obtain the desired pattern. A typical printing process involves the following steps:
. carpet or yarn) as in dyeing.” However. This involves different techniques and different machinery with respect to dyeing. instead of colouring the whole substrate (cloth. “Printing is a localized dyeing in which dye is transferred onto the fabric with the help of a vehicle & fixed by some fixation process.
Paste For Pigment Printing
• • • •
Thickener Binder Liq.1)
Colour Paste Preparation
When printing textiles. it is usually finely dispersed in a printing paste.25% 5% 15% 76%
Recipe For Black Colour Dark Shade
. the dye or pigment is not in aqueous liquor. in high concentration.5% 93%
Paste For Reactive Printing
• • • • •
Thickener Reserves salts(luddi Cole) Sodium bicarbonate Urea Water
2. All the necessary ingredients are mixed together in colour kitchen. Ammonia Water
1.85% 5% 1.5% 1.
The dye or pigment paste is applied to the substrate using different techniques.7% 0.4% 0.6%
Recipe For Other Colours Dark Shade
Paste Water Dye 75% 22% 3%
Paste Water Dye 75% 24.Paste Water Dye
75% 19% 6%
Paste Water Dye 75% 24.
to which the fabric is glued during printing is cleaned in The printing gears (all systems responsible for feeding and applying the
continuous mode with water to remove excess adhesive and printing paste. This is the main reason why the fixation rate of a given dye is 10 % lower in printing than in dyeing. into the fibres. Water vapour condenses on the printed material. At this stage the dye is not yet fixed. Water evaporation leads to an increase in dye concentration and at the same time prevents the colours from smearing when the fabric is transported over the guide rollers. Fixation is usually carried out with steam. The distribution of the dye between fibre and thickener is an important factor in determining the fixation degree of the dye. swells up the thickener. which is called the "retaining power" of the thickener. in fact.After printing. The aim of the subsequent fixation step is to transport as much as possible of the dye.
The remaining paste in the containers.
This final operation consists in washing and drying the fabric (it is not necessary when printing with pigments ). paste to the substrate) are cleaned by first removing as much as possible of the paste residues and then rinsing with water. The thickener. in which the paste is prepared (paste
vats) are in general previously cleaned up by means of sucking systems before
. the fabric is dried. heats the print and provides the necessary transport medium for the diffusion of the dye. which is retained by the thickener. is often composed of polysaccharides and therefore competes with cellulose in retaining the dye.
At the end of each batch and at each colour change various cleaning operations are carried out: •
The rubber belt.
which is glued to a moving endless rubber belt. The printed material moves forward one frame at each application and as it leaves the last frame it is finally dried and it is ready for fixation. The screens are simultaneously lifted. Machines used in STIL are
1. while the textile. is moved downward in continuous mode over a guide roller and washed with water and rotating
. The rubber belt. but some machines are equipped with up to 14 different screens) are placed along the printing machine. Then the screens are lowered again and the paste is squeezed through the screens onto the fabric.
Flat Bed printing machine (Rejhani) Rotary printing machine (Zimmer)
The fabric is first glued to a moving endless belt.being washed out with water. after pulling away the fabric. A variety of different machines can be used for printing fabrics. The residual printing paste collected in this manner is then disposed of.
2. is advanced to the pattern-repeat point. A number of stationary screens (from 8 to 12.
squeegees. A separate cylinder roller is required for each colour in the design. which are made in the form of cylinder rollers. From here the paste is directed inside the cylinder screen. but instead of flat screens. the colour is transferred to the fabric through lightweight metal foil screens. Not only the belt. from where a printing hose leads to the squeegee (dye pipe with squeegee).
. pipes. if necessary. The fabric moves along in continuous mode under a set of cylinder screens while at each position the print paste is automatically fed to the inside of the screen from a tank and is then pressed through onto the fabric. etc. Rotary-screen printing machines are equipped with both gluing and washing devices as flat-screen printing. The belt is washed in order to remove the residues of paste and adhesive. After this.) have to be cleaned up at each colour change. the belt is sent back to the gluing device. pumps.
Rotary-screen printing machines use the same principle as flat bed machine. A suction pipe leads from the paste vat to a pump. but also the screens and the paste input systems (hoses. The fill volume of this so-called printing paste input system is quite high and as a consequence the amount of paste residue that has to be removed at each colour change is also fairly significant.brushes to remove the printing paste residues and the glue.
drape. crease recovery. The finishing treatments are basically meant to give the textile material certain desirable properties like lustre.FABRIC FINISHING
Textile finishing is a term that is commonly applied to different processes that the textile materials undergo after bleaching. mildew proofing etc are certain specific ones.
Function Of The Finishing Processes
. soil-release etc. softness. dimensional stability. dyeing or printing for final embellishment to enhance their effectiveness and sale appeal. antistatic. However these also include finishes that meet certain specific end uses such as water repellency. flame retardancy.
3. 5. 2. 6.
2. Special effects. 4. 2. 3. This refers to adequate tensile and abrasion strengths. Monfort 1 Monfort 2 Monfort 3 Monfort 4 MW-2000(Marshal & William) Babcock
Features of Stenters
a) MONFORT 1
• 5 chambers • Having EVAC arrangement • Bow & skew arrangement
. There are six stenters in STIL. Apply finishes by batching process. Maintain the edges length.The main function of applying various finishes may be as:
1. anti-static behaviour and soil release. flame retardancy. 4.
This is the most effective machine in the finishing unit. This relates to proper heat insulation. 3. These include water repellency. moisture absorption and air permeability. crease recovery and freedom from pilling. High Sales Appeal. Thermal fixation of the applied finish. High wear quality. Body protections and comfort. This machine performs many functions such as. mildew and moth proofing. 1. dimensional stability. To impart properties of attractive appearance and good drape. In STIL stenter method is used. 1.
• Double purpose use (finishing and dying) • 110” working width with width adjustment arrangement • temp range 180-200C
b) MONFORT 2 & 4
• • • •
7 chambers used for narrow width fabric working width is 78 inches remaining features are same
c) MONFORT 3
• Also have 7 chambers • Working width is 102 inches • Remaining features are same
• • • • 5 chambers Runs on furnace oil Working width is 102 inches Bowing arrangement
e) MW-2000 stenter
• Working width is 132 inches • 8 chambers
Recipe For Finishing
Starch Ceranine Polysoft L 50kg HCS 10kg 25kg
followed by drying. alternatively of iron and paper or cotton that are normally mounted in vertical frames.Belfasin Si
For Polyester/Cotton Blend
Starch Unisoft CT Polysoft L Unisoft CS Belfasin Si 50kg 40kg 35kg 10kg 10kg
Calendaring is a high speed ironing process that primarily imparts lustre and is usually the final treatment for the fabrics in the finishing sequence. The basic principle of calendaring is to expose the cloth to the combined effect of moisture. The rolls are bearing one on the other under a high pressure that is applied by compound levers or hydraulic or pneumatic equipment. More permanent finish can be obtained by treating fabric with a solution of crease recovery reagent. Semi permanent lustre is sometimes achieved by padding fabric in a sparingly soluble polyvinyl acetate emulsion before calendaring. The calendaring effect on the fabric is usually temporary and disappears after first washing. heat and pressure until the fabric acquires a very smooth and light reflecting surface and gets a good lustre. The calendars are basically an assembly of heavy rolls. where the solution acts as a binding agent.
. calendaring and curing the fabric at about 150 ºC.
The hydrostatic pressure is applied with oil and is adjustable according to width of the cloth. 1. These work at low pressure and temperature than
. 3.Paper or cotton rolls are made by compressing sheets of paper and cotton under heavy pressure of hundreds of tons and then finely turned to produce a smooth surface. 2. rayon and cotton knitwear materials. Adjustment of pressure line according to width of cloth. 4. Attainment of very high pressure. No over load at the fabric selvedge. The roller has fixed axels on which hydrostatic support elements are mounted that press the racolan shell against either steel or a cotton/paper roller. The pressing roller consists of a rotating shell that is covered with a highly elastic plastic material named as RACOLAN. The iron rolls are also called chilled rolls because these are hardened by sudden chilling of the red-hot rolls. The NIPCO roller can be arranged in vertical position or in L shape with a hot steel roller at top and a cotton bowl in front of it.
The pressure application concept of this calender is different from the conventional calendering system.
Felt calenders are mainly used for imparting lustre and smoothness to silk. Easy installation and removal of the rollers. The main advantages of NIPCO calender over a conventional calender are. These are hollow so as to allow passage of steam or sometimes gas-fire to heat these to different temperatures.
The fabric is fed on the drying cylinder and when the blanket retracts to the concave section of the cylinder. The shoe serves to hold the fabric on to the blanket and does not let it slip back.
This process involves feeding the fabric b/w a stretched blanket and a highly polished and heated metal shoe. The cloth is physically forced to comply with the curvature and shrinks according to the thickness of the blanket.used for cotton. The fabric is treated with liquid ammonia at a low temperature prior to preshrinkage treatment.
. This process confers more permanent pre-shrinkage and garments made from such a fabric don’t shrink at all on laundering but it is expensive to apply. By adjusting speeds of the feed and take up rollers the tubular knitwear can be compacted to some extent on this calender. The cloth is pressed between an endless felt blanket and a hot steel cylinder at a speed of 20 to 40 meters/minutes.
Its quality management makes sure that all weaved grey fabrics is subjected to a 100% inspection in accordance with our in house established Lab quality inspection standards. Thorough quality checks are conducted at every phase of production in order to meet the increasing demands of high standard materials by national and international consumers. a part of Quality Management System (ISO 9001). It has the technology of transforming the dreams of true quality into reality.
“No Compromise on Quality” It is our aim to produce quality fabric according to the requirements of our customers under continually improved organized quality management system”
Sitara Textile is powered by the determination of setting the highest standards in quality.
washing fastness and light fastness are a few of the carefully monitored checks conducted at Sitara to fully insure the highest quality standards
QUALITY CHECKING OF GREIGH CLOTH
• • • • •
Cut the sample with GSM cutter.
Calculate the count with the formula. Count the number of yarns along warp and weft side with the help of needle. • Count the number of yarns. Abrasion.
. Piling resistance.
• Place the sample at right side of McMorran balance.
COUNT CHECKING OF GREIGH CLOTH
• Pull of the yarn along weft side and warp side respectively. Pick Glass Method. • Balance the lever. Colour fastness. Place pick glass on sample.
Cut off six inches length.Greigh cloth quality. Place fabric sample on light table.
• Calculate the percentage of polyester by subtracting weights.635 g 200ml 800ml Take sample of the fabric.Count
No of yarns ×6 4. • Then desize the sample.
. Compare the spot on the fabric with tegwa scale.
• Wash in cold water.
• Weigh again.
• • KI I2 Ethanol Water • • •
This test is used for testing the size remaining on the fabric Prepare the tegwa solution according to recipe. Dip the sample in water.2
• Cut the circular sample of greigh cloth with GSM cutter. With the help of stirrer drop off tegwa solution on fabric sample. 10 g 0. Dry in oven at 110 Co.
Dip the sample in 70% H2SO4 for 30 minutes. • Weigh it in grams on electronic balance.
(ISO grey scale)
• White bleached cotton lawn or similar cloth free from starch or other finishes cut
Gray scale for assessing staining . Two tests are made one with dry rubbing and other with the wet rubbing. Note the distance covered by the dye on the sample.ABSORBANCY TEST
Cut the sample of 2×10 cm Dip the lower end of sample in turquoise blue solution tray for 5 minutes.
Standard 3 cm for reactive 1 cm for pigment
COLOUR FASTNESS TO RUBBING
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This method is used for determination of resistance of the colour of textiles to rubbing off and staining other materials. RUBBING TESTER Crock meter
APPARATUS AND REAGENT
Crock meter into 5-cm squares.
with a 900gm. Dry the cloth at room temperature. and when it is dry. • Distilled water
PROCEDURE Dry Rubbing
Place the white dry cloth over the end of the finger of the testing device. Assess the staining of the cloth with greigh scale.
Apparatus and Reagent
. rub it in to and fro in a straight line along a track 10 cm long on the dry specimen. 10 times in 10 second.
Repeat the test with a fresh dry specimen and white cloth which has been wetted with water and squeezed. not less than 22×5 cm for dry rubbing and wet rubbing.
Dry Rubbing Wet Rubbing 3-4 3-4
COLOUR FASTNESS TO PRESSING
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This method is used for determining the resistance of the colour of textile of all kinds and in all forms to ironing and processing on hot cylinders.• Two pieces of the specimen are required. Test warp and weft directions separately. when it is damp. Tests are given for hot pressing when the textiles are wet.
meter. Five pieces not less than 14×4 cm are required.
. Place the wet specimen on a piece of the dry cotton cloth and place the wet cotton cloth on the specimen. Silk & Viscose Cellulose acetate & Polyamide
190-200C˚ 140-160C˚ 115-120C˚
White bleached cotton cloth weighting approximately 125g/sq.
Soak the specimen and cotton cloth in distilled water and squeeze or extract them to contain their own weight of water. Cotton & Linen Wool. Temp. press by moving the iron to and fro over the wet cloth (without additional pressure) for 15 sec.
Assess the change in colour of the specimen with appropriate grey scale.cm at the temperature indicated in the following . which has been subjected to any heat or drying treatment.
Place the specimen on the piece of dry cotton cloth on a smooth horizontal surface.• Hand iron of proper weight to give a pressure of approximately 30g/sq. 20±2C˚. Gray scale by assessing change in colour and staining. before they tested. must be allowed to condition at 65% RH. Place the iron on the specimen and leave it for 15 Sec.(ISO scale)
• The size of the specimen is 10×4cm
Procedure Specimen preparation
Specimen of materials.
Dry Pressing Wet Pressing 4 3-4
COLOUR FASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This method is used to determine the resistance of the colour of textile of all kinds and in all forms to perspiration.
Two undyed cloths for each specimen each 6×6cm of the same kind of fibre as the sample.0 with 0. and 2.
Thoroughly wet one composite sample in a solution of PH8. Place the specimen between the two pieces of white cloth and sew along one side to form a composite sample. pour off
.5g 1-histidine mono-hydrochloride monohydrate.
Solution freshly prepared.
APPARATUS AND REAGENT
• Perspirometer • Oven maintained at 37±2C˚
Solution freshly prepared. containing 0. and 2.5g disodium hydrogen ortho phosphate per litre brought to PH 8.5 with 0.1N sodium hydroxide.5g 1-histidine mono-hydrochloride monohydrate. 5g sodium chloride.2g sodium dihydrogen ortho phosphate per litre brought to PH 5.1N sodium hydroxide.0 at the liquor ratio of 20:1 and allow it to remain in this solution at room temperature for 30min. containing 0. 5g sodium chloride.
Place the apparatus containing the samples in the oven for 4 hour at 37±2C˚ Separate the sample from the white cloth and dry them apart in air at the temperature not exceeding 60C˚ Assess the change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the white cloth with the greigh scale.5×6. Neutral soap Soda ash Specimen size Time Temperature Liquor ratio 5g/l 2g/l 4×10cm 30 min 60˚C 1:50
COLOUR FASTNESS TO WASHING
ISO 1989 CO3 STANDARD WASHING TEST
Place the composite sample in the solution containing 5gm neutral soap 2gm Soda Ash heated to 60c for 30 min.and squeeze it.the solution and place the composite sample between two glasses plates measuring about 7.5. Treat the other sample in the same way but with the solution at PH 5. Assess the change in colour of the uncovered portion of the sample and the staining of the white cloth with the gray scale.5cm under a force of about 4. Rinse the composite specimen twice in cold distilled water and then in cold running water .
Remove the sample and compare the sample with standard scale. This causes pilling in the tested fabrics
Pilling tester Metal plates 4 inch diameter and 1 inch thick
• Standard for assessing the pilling grade
A piece of fabric measuring 10×10 inch is sewn to a firm fit when placed round a rubber tube.PILLING RESISTANCE TEST
ABRASION AND PILLING TESTER JAMES H HEAL
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This method is intended for the determination of the resistance of textiles of all kinds in all forms to the action of an applied resistive force.
PILLING STANDARD 3-4 gray scale matching
. The out end of the fabrics is covered by cellophane tape and metal plates are placed on the tester .Run the tester for 300 cycles.