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# INTRODUCTION

Hi! Are you bored? My name is Spongebobsquarepants. What s your name? If you are, you should read this, it s really fun. I will be your instructor for this module. So will you be my friend. First I want you tell you about gas. Well, gas is every were you can t see them but you can feel them. Did you know that gas is very vital to us human. For example, if there s no gas we can t breath for short we will die. Because the oxygen we breath is an example of gas.

## Wow, I fell alive. Do you fell the same way?

Now, because we have known each other let s start our lesson. LESSON I: PROPERTIES OF GASES We will now discuss the properties of gas. The following are the properties of gas.
1.) Diffusion A gas spreads throughout the space available to it.

Based from the illustration if you open gage the molecules of gas spreads throughout. Now you know what is diffusion let us move on.

Wow that was really fun. How about you, are you enjoying this? If not let s try this exercise: From your right hand make a square shape, while the other hand point you finger up and down. Now do them both at the same time. Is that challenging. Next property of gas is . . . . . 2.) Pressure of a Gas A gas exert pressure.

Base from the illustration, you see that gas exert pressure it s because that gas produced force to spread the thoroughly. Do have some ideas about the illustration, if have please tell me what it is. Don t be shy tell me.

Are you still bored? Well don t be. I am sure that the next topic well make you alive. No more talking . . . I will tell you what is the next property of gas. 3.)Expansibility of a Gas A gas increases or decreases in volume as the temperature rises or falls. In other words, a gas expands or contracts as it become warm or cold.

Do you see the picture. What do you see? . . . . That s right, the balloon contract in the cold beaker while in the hot beaker it expand. Are you awake now? Good, do you have any more questions. If there is no more let us move on.

4.) Compressibility of a Gas A gas can be reduced in volume (that is, compressed) when pressure is applied on it.

What do you what s inside the container? That s right it is a gas. How much gas does it contain? You re right again, there are many gas inside the container. Why do you think so? Wow! You re right again, it is because there are compressed gas in the container. Well that all that I know. You should research more about the properties of gas.

Doing some activity will make you alive. So do this activity . . Activity no. 1 You will need these materials: 10 balloon (different in shapes) syringe Hot and cold water air pump Cologne Bottles Set up no. 1 Put the hot and cold water in separate bottles. Put one balloon in each container. Explain what happen to the balloons. Set up no. 2 Using the different shaped balloons put some air in the balloons using the air pump. What does this means. Set up no.3 Using the air pump put air to the balloons. Don t stop till the balloon burst. What does this shows. Set up no.4 Using a sprayer, spray the cologne far away. Did you smell the cologne? Why that this happened? Set up no. 5 Use a inflated balloon, then compress it after that gradually uncompress it. Using the syringe, blocked the tip of and push the pumper with all of your force. Explain what does it show. Questions: What are the properties of gas described each set up?

Assessment No.1 : We will see if you have learned something. Answer this
1.) 4.)

2.)

5.) 3.) 1.) A gas spreads 4.) Gas ________ throughout the space available 5.) ________ to it. when compresses. 2.) A gas can be reduced in volume when pressure is applied on it. 3.)What happened if gas is heated? Wow! That was dozy. I m glad that was over. Turn to page 24 to know your score.

Let have some fun with our new topic . . . . . Lesson II: Gas Law Did you know that . . . . . . Boyle s law Robert Boyle (1627-1691),is an English Chemist, discovered in the Seventeenth century that at constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the gas pressure. This statement is known a Boyle s Law. Mathematically, Boyle s Law can be written as  or P1V1=P2V2 Where: P1=Initial Pressure V1= Initial Volume P2= New Pressure V2= New Volume

This illustration means that if V1 decrease ,P2 increases so thus V2 and P1. Example: A gas occupies a volumes of 575mL at a pressure of 742mmHg. If the pressure is reduced to 705mmHg at constant temperature, what is the resulting volume of the gas? Given: V1=575mL P2=705mmHg P1=742mmHg V2=? Solution: P2V2=P1V1 -Original formula V2=(P1V1)/P2 -Transpose P2 to the other side V2=(742mmHg X 575mL)/705mmHg Substitutes their original value V2=(426650mmHgmL)/705mmHg Multiply the 742mmH by 575mL and divide it by 705mmHg while you cross out the same unit V2=605mL - is the resulting volume of the gas. Now you know about the Boyle s Law let s move on.

The last time, you did great. Here are another problem to solve . . . . Assessment no.2 Direction: Find the unknown value. 1.) P1=715mmHg 2.) P1=1.02atm 3.) V1=0.534L 4.) P1=1atm 5.) P1=.25atm V1=600.0mL V1=500.0mL P2=698mmHg V2=? V2=623.87mL P2=? P1=? V1=? V1=?

## P2=525mmHg V2=0.635L V2=123mL V2=536mL P2=.5atm P2=.75atm

Turn to page 24 to know you answer is correct. Was that very easy? I now that was a piece of cake.

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## I m sure that you ll do fine in this new lesson.

B.) Charles Law

Jacques Charles (1746-1823), a French Chemist discovered in 1787 that at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. This law, known as Charles Law is expressed mathematically as:      V1T2=T1v2 Where : T1=Initial Temperature V1= Initial Volume T2= New Temperature V2= New Volume 0 Note: T(K)=T( C)+273

Cold

Hot

The picture shows that if the temperature decreases so thus the volume and if the temperature increases so thus the volume.

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Example: A sample of oxygen gas occupies a volume of 1,80L at 250C. If the pressure is held constant, what volume does the gas occupy at 30oC? Given: V1= 1.80L T1=25oC+273=298K T2=30oC+273=303K V2=? Solution: V1T2=T1V2 -Original Formula V2=(V1T2)/ T1 -Transform to the formula to get V2 (Substitutes T1 to the other side of the equation) V2=(1.80L X 303K)/298K -Substitutes the value to their equivalent V2=(545.40LK)/298K -Multiply the 1.80L by 303K V2=(545.40LK)/298K -Divide the product by 298K and cross out the same units. V2=1.83L - The volume does the gas occupy at 30oC I m so happy that you have done well.

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Assessment No 3. Direction: Solve the problem. A sample of nitrogen gas occupies a volume of 2.50L at 25 C. If the pressure is held constant, what volume does the gas occupy at 35OC?
O

## Turn to page 24 to see answer.

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Wow, it s a great day. What do you think? Now we will have a new topic for today. And it is . . . . C. Amontons Law Amontons Law, named after Guillaume Amontons, states that at constant volume, the pressure of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. This statement can be written mathematically as:     or P1/T1=P2/T2 Where : T1=Initial Temperature T2= New Temperature Note: T(K)=T(0C)+273 P1= Initial Pressure P2= New Pressure

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Example: A steel tank contains an amount of helium gas at 25OC and 1.02atm. To what temperature in OC should the tank be subjected so that the pressure would increase to 1.30atm? Given: T1=25Oc + 273 = 298K P2=1.30atm P1=1.02atm T2=? Solution: P2/T2=P1/T1 -Original Formula T2=(T1P2)/ P1 -Transform to the formula to get T2 (Substitutes P1 to the other side of the equation) T2=(1.30atm X 298K)/1.02atm-Substitutes the value to their equivalent T2=(380atmK)/1.02atm -Multiply the 1.80L by 303K T2=(380atmK)/1.02atm -Divide the product by 298K and cross out the same units. T2=380K-273=107OC - The volume does the gas occupy at 30oC Bravo. . .bravo . . .you have done well. I think that you re a genius.

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## Assessment No.4 Direction: Answer the following questions.

1.) According to Amontons, what is the relation between pressure and temperature? 2.) What is the name of the scientist that studied about the relationship between pressure and temperature? 3.) Give the formula for the Amontons Law? 4.) What is constant variable in Amontons Law? 5.) What does P1 stand for? Turn to page 24 to know your score.

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## D.) Combined Gas Law

Combined Gas Law states that the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature and inversely proportional to its pressure. Mathematically, the law can be expressed as:
   P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

Where : T1=Initial Temperature T2= New Temperature V1= Initial Volume Note: T(K)=T(0C)+273

## P1= Initial Pressure P2= New Pressure V2= New Volume

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Example: Dry air is injected into 9.00mL cylinder at a temperature of 23OC under a pressure of 735mmHg. The air is compressed to7.00mL under a pressure of 1.20atm. What is the final temperature of the gas in OC Given:V1=9.00mL T1=23OC+273=296K P1=735mmHg V2=7.00mL P2=1.20atmX760mmHg/1atm=1.20X760mmHg=912mmHg T2=? Solution: P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 -Original Formula T2=(T1P2V2)/ P1V1 -Transform to the formula to get T2 (Substitutes P2 and V2 to the other side of the equation) T2=(912mmHg X 296K X 7.00mL)/735mmHg X 9.00mL -Substitutes the value to their equivalent T2=(380atmK)/1.02atm -Multiply the value of P2 , V2 ,T1 and also the value of P1T1 T2=(1889664mmHgKmL)/6615mmHgmL -Divide the product of P2 , V2 ,T1 by the product ofP1T1 and cross out the same units. O T2=286K-273=13 C - Is the final temperature of the gas in OC Excellent, you had understand well our topic.

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## Assessment no.5 Direction: Answer the questions .

1.) According to Combined Gas Law, what is the relation between volume to pressure and temperature? 2.) What are the names of the scientist that studied about the relationship between volume, pressure and temperature? 3.) Give the formula for the Combined Gas Law? 4.) What is constant variable in Combined Gas Law? 5.) What does V1 stand for? Turn to page 24 to know your score. I think that you got perfect.

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Activity No.2 Directions: Stand up. Then inhale, after that exhale. Do it 10 times.

Questions: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) Why is it if you inhale your chin is expanding? And why is it if you exhale your chin fluctuate? What does this means ? After you the activity what is the relationship between pressure and volume?

## Was that fun? I m sure it is.

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Activity no. 5 Directions: Get a balloon. Put an air to the balloon. Then put it to the warm temperature and observe, after that put in the cool place and observe. Questions: 1.) What happened to the balloon after you put it to a warm place? 2.) What happened to the balloon after you put it to a cool place? 3.) What does this shows? Wow! You have done well.

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Activity no. 4 Direction: Get an egg. Boil it, while boiling it measure the temperature of the egg, then observe. Questions: 1.) What is happing to the egg? 2.) Why do you say so that the pressure of the egg is rising? 3.) As the pressure is rising what happened the temperature? 4.) What does this means?

## Congratulation! You did great.

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Activity no. 3 Direction: Get a balloon. Push the balloon inward then gradually realise. Questions: 1.) If you compress the balloon, what happen to the pressure? 2.) If you compress the balloon, what happen to the volume? 3.) What does this shows?

That was great. Did you enjoy this activity? You did!

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Key to correction Assessment no. 1 Assessment no.5 1.) Diffusion 1.) Inversely proportional to 2.) Compressibility pressure and directly 3.) Expand proportional to temperature. 4.) Exert 2.) Robert Boyle and Jaques Cahrles 5.) Pressure 3.)P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 Assessment no.2 4.) none 1.) 614.62mL 5.) Initial Pressure 2.) 0.81atm 3.) 624.30mmHg 4.) 61.5mL 5.) 1,608mL Assessment no.3 Given: V1=2.50L P1=25OC+273=298K P2=30OC+273=303K V2=? Solution V1T2=T1V2 V2=(V1T2)/T1 V2=(2.50LX303K)/298K V2=757.5LK/298K V2=2.54L Assessment no.4 1.) Directly proportional 2.) Guillaume Amontons 3.) P1/T2=P2/T2 4.) Volume 5.) Initial pressure Eureka! You got it all. Wow! You got perfect, you are a genius.

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