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Chapter 7 Complementary MOS (CMOS) Logic Design

Microelectronic Circuit Design

Richard C. Jaeger Travis N. Blalock

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Chapter Goals

• Introduce CMOS logic concepts

• Explore the voltage transfer characteristics CMOS inverters

• Learn to design basic and complex logic gates

• Discuss static and dynamic power in CMOS logic

• Present expressions for dynamic performance of CMOS logic devices

• Present noise margins for CMOS logic

• Introduce dynamic logic and domino CMOS logic techniques

• Introduce design techniques for “cascade buffers”

• Explore layout of CMOS logic gates

• Discuss the concept of “latchup”

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Inverter Technology

• Complementary MOS, or CMOS, needs both PMOS and NMOS devices for their logic gates to be realized

• The concept of CMOS was introduced in 1963 by Wanlass and Sah, but it did not become common until the 1980’s as NMOS microprocessors were dissipating as much as 50 W and alternative design technique was needed

• CMOS still dominates digital IC design today

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Inverter Technology

• The CMOS inverter consists of a PMOS stacked on top on a NMOS, but they need to be fabricated on the same wafer

• To accomplish this, the technique of “n-well” implantation is needed as shown in the figure which shows the cross- section of a CMOS inverter

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Inverter

(a)

Circuit schematic for a CMOS inverter

(b)

Simplified operation model with a high input applied

(c)

Simplified operation model with a low input applied

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Inverter Operation

_{•} When v _{I} is pulled high (V _{D}_{D} ), the PMOS inverter is turned off, while the NMOS is turned on pulling the output down to V _{S}_{S}

_{•} When v _{I} is pulled low (V _{S}_{S} ), the NMOS inverter is turned off, while the PMOS is turned on pulling the output up to V _{D}_{D}

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Inverter Layout

• Two methods of laying out a CMOS inverter are shown

• The PMOS transistors lie within the n-well, whereas the NMOS transistors lie in the p- substrate

• Polysilicon is used to form common gate connections, and metal is used to tie the two drains together

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Static Characteristics of the CMOS Inverter

• The figure shows the two modes of static operation with the circuit and simplified models

_{•} Notice that V _{H} = 5V and V _{L} = 0V, and that I _{D} = 0A which means that there is no static power dissipation

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics

•

The VTC shown is for a CMOS

inverte

r

that is symmetrical (K P = K N )

•

Region 1: v O = V H

v I < V TN

•

Region 2: |v DS | ≤ |v GS – V TP |

•

Region 4: v DS ≥ v GS – V TN

•

Region 5: v O = V L

v I > V DD – |V TP |

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics

•

•

•

Simulation result shows the varying VTC of the inverter as V _{D}_{D} is changed.

Minimum voltage supply:

2V _{T} ·ln(2)

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics

• The simulation result shows the varying VTC of the inverter as K _{N} /K _{P} = K _{R} is changed

_{•} For K _{R} > 1 the NMOS current drive is greater and it forces v _{I} < V _{D}_{D} /2

_{•} For K _{R} < 1 the PMOS current drive is greater and it forces v _{I} > V _{D}_{D} /2

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Noise Margins for the CMOS Inverter

• Noise margins are defined by the regions shown in the figure

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Noise Margins for the CMOS Inverter

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Propagation Delay Estimate

• The two modes of capacitive charging that contribute to propagation delay

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Propagation Delay Estimate

τ _{P} _{L}_{H} = R _{O}_{N}_{p} C ln 4 ^{V} ^{D}^{D} ^{+} ^{V} ^{T} ^{P} − 1 −

V

H

^{2}^{V} ^{T} ^{P}

V T P

V _{H} +

_{•} For “symmetrical” inverter (W/L) _{P} = 2.5(W/L) _{N} ,

^{τ} PLH ^{=} ^{τ} PHL

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Rise and Fall Times

• The rise and fall times are given by the following expressions:

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Reference Inverter Example

• Design a reference inverter to achieve a delay of 250ps with a 0.1pF load given the following information:

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Reference Inverter Example

• Assuming the inverter is symmetrical and using the values given in Table 7.1:

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Reference Inverter Example

_{•} Solving for R _{o}_{n}_{N} :

• Then solve for the transistor ratios:

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Delay of Cascaded Inverters

• Ideal step used to derive previous delay equations, but this is not possible to implement

• Using the following circuit in SPICE, it is possible to deduct more accurate equations

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Delay of Cascaded Inverters

• The output of the previous circuit looks is shown below. Delay for the non-ideal step input ~ twice than the ideal case

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Static Power Dissipation

• CMOS logic: no static power dissipation

• DC current driving a capacitive load is zero

• This is not completely accurate since MOS transistors have leakage currents associated with the reverse-biased drain-to-substrate connections

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Dynamic Power Dissipation

•

Two components contribute to dynamic power dissipation:

–

–

–

Capacitive load charging at a frequency f given by:

P _{D} = CV _{D}_{D} f

Current flowing through both N- and PMOS that occurs during switching which can be seen in the figure

Peak current occurs when v _{i} = v _{o}_{u}_{t} =V _{D}_{D} /2 for symmetrical design

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Power-Delay Product

The power-delay product is given as:

•

The figure shows a symmetrical inverter switching waveform

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS NOR Gate

CMOS NOR gate implementation

Reference Inverter

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS NOR Gate Sizing

• Size transistors to keep delay times the same as the reference inverter.

– the on-resistance on the PMOS branch of the NOR gate must be the same as the reference inverter

_{–} For a two-input NOR gate, the (W/L) _{p} must be made twice as large

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS NOR Gate Body Effect

• Since the bottom PMOS body contact is not connected to its source, its threshold voltage

changes as V _{S}_{B} changes during switching

_{•} Once v _{O} = V _{H} is reached, the bottom PMOS is not affected by body effect, thus the total on-resistance of the PMOS branch is the same

_{•} However, the rise time is slowed down due to |V _{T}_{P} | being a function of time

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Two-Input NOR Gate Layout

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Three-Input NOR Gate Layout

• It is possible to extend this same design technique to create multiple input NOR gates

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Shorthand Notation for NMOS and PMOS Transistors

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS NAND Gates

CMOS NAND gate implementation

Reference Inverter

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS NAND Gates Sizing

• The same rules apply for sizing the NAND gate as the did for the NOR gate, except for now the NMOS transistors are in series

_{•} The (W/L) _{N} will be twice the size of the reference inverter’s NMOS

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Multi-Input CMOS NAND Gates

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Complex CMOS Logic Gate Design Example

_{•} Design a CMOS logic gate for (W/L) _{p}_{,}_{r}_{e}_{f} =5/1 and for (W/L) _{n}_{,}_{r}_{e}_{f} =2/1 that exhibits the function: Y = A + BC +BD

• By inspection (knowing Y), the NMOS branch of the gate can drawn as the following with the corresponding graph, while considering the longest path for sizing purposes:

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Complex CMOS Logic Gate Design Example

• By placing nodes in the interior of each arc, plus two more outside the graph for V _{D}_{D} (3) and the complementary output (2’), the PMOS branch can be realized as shown on the left figure

• Connect all of the nodes in the manner shown in the right figure, and the NMOS arc that PMOS arc intersects have the same inputs

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Complex CMOS Logic Gate Design Example

• From the PMOS graph, the PMOS branch can now be drawn for the final CMOS logic gate while once again considering the longest PMOS path for sizing

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Complex CMOS Gate with a Bridging Transistor Design Example

• Design a CMOS gate that implements the following logic function using the same reference inverter sizes as the previous example:

Y = AB +CE + ADE + CDB

• The NMOS branch can be realized in the following manner using bridging NMOS D to implement Y. The corresponding NMOS graph

is shown to the right.

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Complex CMOS Gate with a Bridging Transistor Design Example

• By using the same technique as before, the PMOS graph can now be drawn

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Complex CMOS Gate with a Bridging Transistor Design Example

By using the PMOS graph the PMOS branch can now be realized as the one shown on the left.

The longest path was used to select sizing.

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

P7.58

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

P7.59

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

P7.46

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

P.7.63

Design a CMOS logic gate that implements the following function Y=(ABC+DE)’ Based on the CMOS reference inverter. Select transistor sizes to obtain the same delay.

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

P.7.64

• Design CMOS L.G. to implement

Y=[A(B+C(D+E))]’

Select sizes to obtain same delay as reference inverter.

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Minimum Size Gate Design and Performance

• With CMOS technology, there is a area/delay tradeoff that needs to be considered

• If minimum feature sized are used for both devices, then the τ _{P}_{L}_{H} will be decreased compared to the symmetrical reference inverter

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Minimum Size Complex Gate and Layout

The following shows the layout of a complex minimum size logic gate

•

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Practice Problems

• Chapter 7 probs. 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23, 28, 35, 57 to 69, 75, 77, 79, 81 to 84

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Dynamic Domino CMOS Logic

• technique to help decrease power in MOS logic circuits is dynamic logic

• uses pre-charge and evaluation phases that are controlled by a system clock to eliminate the dc current path in single channel logic circuits

• Early MOS logic required multiphase clocks to accomplish this, but CMOS logic can be operated dynamically with a single clock

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Dynamic Domino CMOS Logic

• The figure demonstrates the basic concept of domino CMOS logic operation

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Simple Dynamic Domino Logic Circuit

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Dynamic Domino CMOS Logic

• Domino CMOS circuits only produce true logic outputs

• To overcome this problem use with registers that have both true and complemented output to complete the function

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Dynamic Domino CMOS Logic

• P7.75 (a) draw a diagram of a dynamic domino CMOS logic OR gate (b) same for AND

• P7.82 Draw a dynamic domino CMOS logic circuit that implements Z=AB+CD

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Cascade Buffers

- Sometimes large capacitances (C _{L} ~50pF) must be driven - use even numbers of inverters to drive load

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Cascade Buffers

• The taper factor β determines the increase of the cascaded inverter’s size in manner shown of the previous image.

where C _{o} is the unit inverter’s load capacitance

• The delay of the cascaded buffer is given by the following:

τ _{o} is the unit inverter’s propagation delay

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

For optimum value of N, set to 0 and solve;

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Optimum Design of Cascaded Stages

Optimum cascaded buffer

But: you MUST use integer N - below or above N _{O}_{P}_{T} - (N _{I} ) that gives lower τ

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

Example 7.4

• Design a cascade buffer to drive a load cap of 50pF if C _{0} =50 fF. Find overall delay for a 3.3-V supply with V _{T}_{N} = 0.75V and V _{T}_{P} = -0.75V

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

The CMOS Transmission Gate

• CMOS transmission gate (T-gate): useful circuits for both analog and digital applications

• Acts as a switch that can operate up to V _{D}_{D} and down to ^{V}

SS

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

The CMOS Transmission Gate

• Needs to consider the equivalent on-resistance which is given by the following expression:

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Latchup

• There is one major downfall to the CMOS logic gate – Latchup

• There are many safeguards that are done during fabrication to suppress this, but it can still occur under certain transient or fault conditions

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Latchup

• Latchup occurs due parasitic bipolar transistors that exist in the basic inverter as shown below

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

CMOS Latchup

• The configuration of these bipolar transistors create a positive feedback loop, and will cause the logic gate to latchup as shown to the left

• By using heavily doped material where R _{n} and R _{p} exist, there resistance will be lowered thereby reducing the chance of latchup occurring

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

End of Chapter 7

Jaeger/Blalock

10/15/03

McGraw-Hill

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