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Agus Praditya T| Bandung Institut of Technology (ITB) |INHERENT +62 857 2220 7675 | radit_neo11@yahoo.

com |

Nuclear Energy in Indonesia
1. Introduction
The increasing of demand and supply of energy is a reality anda necessity to support social-economic development of a country. Indonesia, as a developing country, has a high electricity demand due to National Economic Development based on industrialization and supported by a strong agriculture base. It can be noted that in the last five years, the annual electricity growth rate has been assumed at around 9% per annum. The main energy source fueling Indonesia¶ economy is oil, although decreasing s domestic production, increasing domestic consumption, and global price hikes over the past few years have reduced oil consumption and prompted effort to develop other energy resources, coal. Coal will be the primary domestic energy resource, especially to fuel new power generation capacities since Indonesia¶s plans to rapidly expand the use of coal for power generation by building more than 3,000 MW of new coalfired power generation in Western Java alone by 2010.

Figure 1 : Primary energy supply by source in Indonesia

The expanded use of coal will significantly increase emissions of SOx, NOx, PM10, and other pollutants. Therefore, this will cause health impacts, like asthma attacks, l ower respiratory illness (children), respiratory symptoms, and other respiratory diseases. And for this reason, Indonesia¶s goverment intends to applying an optimum energy mix comprising all viable energy sources. The Presidential Regulation No.5 year 2006 indicates the target of energy mix until 2025 and the share of nuclear energy is about 2% of primary energy or 4% of electricity.

as the executing body. Indonesia¶s Nuclear Energy Development Indonesia has several decades of history of activities towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy. explorations and exploitations of nuclear ore. BATAN. Therefore it is replaced with Act number 10 year 1997. and the beneficial applications of nuclear energy in accordance with the law and regulation. which seperating the regulatory body from implementing agency by the forming of two seperate agencies. raw material production for manufacturing and fabrication of nuclear fuel.Then. in 2007. goverment release another act. development.com | 2. including planning for power generation as can be seen from this figure below: Figure 2 : Indonesia s nuclear power program history And towards the plan in introducing Indonesia¶s first Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). have the main duties to conduct government activities in the field of research. Act number 17 year 2007 on Long Term National Development Plan of Indonesia for 2005 to 2025. These means that BATAN is responsible in general surveys. production of .Agus Praditya T| Bandung Institut of Technology (ITB) |INHERENT +62 857 2220 7675 | radit_neo11@yahoo. the Act number 31 year 1964 does not suffice anymore with the current developing situation. the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) and National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) as the executing body which have the task to execute the use of nuclear energy.

BATAN has performed the R& in reactor technology.  © ¨ £§¢ Agus y |B ung Ins ut of Tec nology (ITB |INHERENT| +62 857 2220 7675 | radit_neo11 yahoo. instrumentation and control system. production of isotopes and labeled compounds. i. Indonesia has done extensive prepatory work on most infrastructure issues that would allow the country to make decision to further consider introduction of nuclear power. 3) The Multipurpose 30 MW Research Reactor (completed at 1992) at Serpong Nuclear Research Center have been used mainly for material testing. and Serpong. 1) Bandung Nuclear Complex has the Triga Mark II Reactor which started with a power of 250 kW in 1965. nuclear safety. In order to support the nuclear energy program. development as well as the operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia. among the multipurpose 30 MW reactor. The power of this reactor was then increased to 1000 kW in 1971 and further to 2000 kW in the year 2000.e. supervision of occupational radiation safety and that of environmental radioactivity are also conducted. There is also Pasar Jum'at Nuclear Complex with its 3 units of Co 60 Gamma Irradiators for Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology and the Exploration Area in West Kalimantan for researching in exploration and test mining of nuclear ores. and radioactive waste management At present BATAN have 3 research reactors which are spread out in the Nuclear Research Centers in Bandung. In addition. operation and maintenance of the future NPP in Indonesia. neutron beam experiment. Other facilities in this area are the laboratory for physics.com ¤ ¥¥ ¦ ¢ ¤£¢¡ ¥   . In addition. The purpose of this reactor is for education and training facility. 2) Kartini Reactor is a nuclear reactor with a power of 100 kW in operation since 1979 at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center. several research facilities have been built in the Serpong Nuclear Research Center. fuel cycles. The activities of nuclear medicine was then further developed in several hospitals in Indonesia. nuclear analytical analysis. and for education. isotope production. Yogyakarta.radi i t r research and devel ent and radi active waste management And in order to prepare manpower to support construction. chemistry and biology. nuclear medicine firstly developed in Bandung nuclear complex was the embryo of the nuclear medicine in Indonesia. to go from phase 1 to phase 2 to in Milestone methodology. This reactor also having been built with the objectives to support development of the nuclear industry and for preparation.

RCA. Indonesia through its nuclear energy agency (BATAN) has made and devoted special efforts to prepare highly competence personnel in preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge towards Indonesia¶s plan to operate the first NPP by 2016. 3. BATAN also nominates its staff to participate in the International Training Courses organized abroad by the IAEA.e. to General Electric and Westinghouse companies to participate in their NPP design activities or to the research institute in Japan or Republic of Korea). y And public understanding may results in public support for nuclear power programme. Introduce Nuclear Power in Indonesia Public Acceptance is one of the most important issues in the introduction of nuclear power.Agus Praditya T| Bandung Institut of Technology (ITB) |INHERENT +62 857 2220 7675 | radit_neo11@yahoo.com | Figure 3 : Indonesia s nuclear infrastructure development program Another important issue in nuclear power introduction is the human resources development for the safety of nuclear facilities and technology development. and sending personnel aboard for on the job training (i. FNCA or foreign institutions under the bilateral cooperation. The first step is the public information has to be intensified in line with the dissemination of proven nuclear technology application activities alreadycarried out for couple years in various provinces together with various research and development . This aim is further supported by sending personnel abroad to obtain Master or Doctoral degree. Public acceptance is derived from public understanding that the nuclear programme is indispensable and beneficial to the Indonesian econom and environment.

M. [5] Presentation on BATAN : National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Indonesia.Vienna. Experiences show that the mass media has becoming an important factor in the role of forming public opinion as well as informing and educating the people. but rather the role of this energy source within the context of objectives for the social. Concl ion The social-economic development are increasing demand and supply of energy to a limited number of sources of energy currently available. Nuclear Power Asia Conference 2010. RCARO. June 2007. Preservation and Enchancement of Nuclear Knowledge Towards Indonesia¶s Plan to Operate First Nuclear Power Plant by 2016. National Nuclear Energy Agency. Government and nuclear industry must also create open and transparent policy in the nuclear decision making process to fulfill the ³right to know´ of the public. and non-governmental organi ations.com institutes and local governments. Nuclear Energy Development in Indonesia. 2010. [6] http://www-pub. Therefore maintaining a friendly relationship with the journalist is one of the classical ways. In the top of that. Arnold. [4] Ardisasmita. tell the information about nuclear power.htm   . December 2009. June 14-17. private companies. BATAN has organi ed the nuclear science and technology training programme for Indonesian scientific journalists on September 2003.iaea. Status of Nuclear Power Development in Indonesia. IAEA TC workshop long range planning. Indonesia Country Report. 2006. universities. especially in Java. [2] Sastratenaya. nuclear power is the only alternative at present for replacing the fossil base load generation. Jakarta. and Ariyanto Sudi. Reference: [1] United States Agency for International Development (USAID) ASIA. Indonesia through its nuclear energy agency (BATAN) has made and devoted special efforts to build a nuclear science and technology (using three its Nuclear Research Center) and to prepare highly competence personnel in preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge towards Indonesia¶s plan to operate the first NPP by 2016. [3] Soetrisnanto. training for the journalists must be given in the first priority. not only NPP. Secondly. From Ideas to Action : Clean Energy Solutions for Asia to Address Climate Change.Agus Praditya T| Bandung Institut of Technology (ITB |INHERENT| +62 857 2220 7675 | radit_neo11 yahoo. 4.org/MTCD/publications/ PDF/cnpp2003/CNPP_Webpage/country-profiles/Indonesia/ Indonesia2003.S. political and economic development of a country. Due to the secure long-term energy supply. Achmad S.