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histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012

Lecture 1 CYTOLOGY (the ultra structure of the cell) c) CELL - structural units of all living organisms - performs activities necessary for survival: growth, reproduction, maturation oligosaccharide chain - amplify inherent asymmetry GLYCOCALYX - glycoprotein and polysaccharide covering the external surface of the cell membrane - imparts a special identity to each cell, Histocompatibility Function/s: - filtration barrier - allows changes in ion permeability in response to changes in electrical potential - receptor site for hormones and enzymes - cell recognition and attachment to other cells (glycocalyx) ENDOCYTOSIS - bulk uptake of material PHAGOCYTOSIS ( cell-eating ) - engulfing solid particles PINOCYTOSIS ( cell-drinking ) - engulfing fluid particles EXOCYTOSIS - release of material in bulk - fusion of a membrane-limited structure with the plasma membrane, resulting in the release of its contents into the extracellular space without compromising the integrity of the plasma membrane CYTOPLASM ( hyaloplasm ) ENDOPLASM - sol phase - manifest active streaming - cell components are carried along by directed movement EXOPLASM - gel phase - peripheral portion - free from cell components Organelles ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM ( RER ) - anastomosing network of interconnecting channels - parallel stacks of flattened cisternae - limited by membranes that are continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope - presence of polyribosomes on the cytosolic surface which confers basophilic staining properties Function/s: - to segregate proteins not destined for the cytosol SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM ( SER ) - lacks the associated polyribosomes - cisternae are more tubular - connects with the RER, Golgi App, and Plasmalemma Function/s: - in striated muscle (sarcoplamic reticulum), --sequestration and release of the calcium ions that regulate muscular contraction - endocrine cell -- biosynthesis of steroid hormones - intestinal cell -- synthesis of neutral fats - parietal cell -- formation of HCl in the lining of the stomach - can be easily extracted from cell membranes with salt solutions

Types: EUKARYOTIC - cells are larger and have a distinct nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope - histones are associated with the genetic material - numerous membrane-limited organelles are found in the cytoplasm e.g. somatic cells PROKARYOTIC cells are found only in bacteria typically have a cell wall outside the plasmalemma - lack a nuclear envelope e.g. bacterial cells Parts: PLASMA MEMBRANE outer limiting membrane of the cell serves as a selective barriers CYTOPLASM the protoplasm outside the nucleus contains organelles and inclusions NUCLEUS core part contains the genetic material for heredity

PLASMA MEMBRANE ( plasmalemma ) Models: CLASSICAL MODEL OF DAVSON AND DANIELLI - postulates a lipid center sandwiched by a coat of protein on each surface Phospholipid molecule - amphipatic in nature

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF SINGER AND NICHOLSON - membrane protein which floats like icebergs in a sea of lipid which moves in a constant dynamic state - compose of: a) plasmalemma - lipid bilayer - membrane proteins are embedded in a "mosaic configuration" TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINS - completely span the bilayer - links the cytosol to the ECF - can be extracted only by drastic methods that use detergents PERIPHERAL PROTEINS - bound to the cytoplasmic surface

b) other protein molecules

histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012


: each of the 9 contains 3 microtubules fused and aligned Function/s: - cell division - formation of cilia and flagella (made up of microtubules) - basal bodies PEROXISOMES ( microbodies ) - finely granular homogenous content and crystalloid body - contains Catalase for bacterial destruction FILAMENTS a) Microfil ( less than 8nm ) b) Intermediate - contractile acting to promote cell shape and motility * TONOFILAMENTS - web-like structures - serve exclusively in a supportive role - anchors the cell Function/s: - maintain cell shape - provides resiliency to forces tending to alter the shape - prominent in cytoplasm in wear & tear epithelia - adhesion between adjacent cells MICROTUBULE - looks like the centriole X/S : 13 globular subunits -- supports the flagella, cilia, and centrioles Function/s: - formation of spindle aparatus - core of cilia (organ linings) and flagella (spermatozoa) - rigidity cell shape ANNULATE LAMELLAE - visible only in E/M: parallel arrays with small pores at irregular interval - presence of diaphragms closing the pores Cytoplasmic Inclusions - lifeless accumulation of metabolites - dispensable - not essential PIGMENT - do not require synthetic dyes a) Exogenous - found outside the body eg carotenes, vit C, minerals ( Pb & Au ), tatoo

GOLGI APPARATUS - system of stack saucer-shaped cisterns with concave facing the nucleus -- trans ( maturing ) face -- cis ( forming ) face Function/s: - packaging of secretory materials - in glandular cells -- site of accommodation and concentration of secretory products - site of sulfation the secrete mucopolysaccharide - concentration and packaging of hydrolytic enzyme MITOCHONDRIA - mobile powerplant of the cell - self-replicating - slender rods or cigar-shaped depending in the activity - usually appears swollen (vesicular cristae) when damage Globular Units - occurance of energy transformation - ATP synthesis Function/s: - ATP synthesis - protein, nucleic acid, and lipid synthesis - attached to respiratory and phosphorylating enzymes - in the matrix -- Kreb's citric acid cycle - inner mitochondria -- electron transport chain - accumulation of calcium RIBOSOMES - small electron-dense particles - intensely basophilic due to phosphate groups ( methylene, toluidine blue, hematoxylin ) Function/s: - mainly for protein synthesis LYSOSOMES - contains hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases) for intracellular digestion Primary -- resting lysosome Secondary -- active in digestion Function/s: - enzyme synthesis - Heterophagosomes -- bacteria are destroyed Autophagosomes -- process of digestion with RER and mitochondria *APOPTOSIS -- cell is programmed to die *RESIDUAL BODY -- remnants of the undigested mat'ls - defense mechanism - normal replacement of cell organelles - metabolism of substances CENTRIOLE ( diplosome ) - pairs of short rods adjacent to the nucleus - self-duplicating E/M: hollow cylinder -- open in one end, close in the other X/S : circular outline -- wall: 9 groups of longitudinally oriented parallel subunits

b) Endogenous - found within the body eg Melanin -- dark brown / black found in melanocytes Lipofuscin -- wear & tear pigment (brown) -- sign of aging cells LIPIDS - round, clear areas - extracted by solvents - appear as black spherical droplets stained with Osmium tetroxide GLYCOGEN - storage form of glucose - seen in liver cells ( and )

histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012


CRYSTALS - protein in nature - found in Sertoli cells and IC of Leydig eg Crystal of Reinke

SECRETORY GRANULES - periodically released into the ECF eg Pancreatic acinar cells Intestinal epithelial cells * Zymogen -- as large dense protein granules VACOULE - storage cavities NUCLEUS - found in all cells except in mature RBCs and platelets - rounded or elongated structure, usually in the center of the cell - stains blue (basophilic) Function/s: - archive of the cell - repository of heredity factors NUCLEAR ENVELOPE - outer limit nucleus - 40nm thick ( 7x than the plasma membrane ) E/M : 2 parallel membrane enclosing a perinuclear space/cisterna : fibrous lamina -- stabilizes the nuclear envelope : ribosomes are found in the outer layer NUCLEAR PORE - provide controlled pathways between the nucleus and the cytoplasm * PORE COMPLEX - short cylinder with 8 regular subunits with central grounds - diameter up to 9 nm pass freely through the nuclear pore without consuming energy b) Nucleo-lonema c) Chromosomal region CHROMOSOMES - irregular densities - visible mass is the sex chromatin / Barr bodies NUCLEAR CHROMATIN - contains DNA and protein ( histone ) - structural manifest in Interphase Types: a) Heterochromatin - coiled part; inert - coarse granules in the E/M - basophilic clumps in the L/M b) Euchromatin - dispersed; active - finely dispersed granular material in the E/M - stained basophilic areas in the L/M Types of Nuclei chromatic vesicular - euchromatin pyknotic - darkened NUCLEOLUS - spherical structure that is rich in rRNA and protein - usually basophilic when stained with hematoxylin and eosin Regions: a) Par Amorpha / Fibrosa Pars Granulosa - which consists of primary transcripts of rRNA genes - maturing ribosomes; - proteins become assoc with rRNAs in the nucleolus - heterochromatin is attached to the nucleolus