Fast food

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Fast food (also known as Quick Service Restaurant or QSR within the industry itself) is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951. Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating,[1] or fast food restaurants (also known as quick service restaurants). Franchise operations which are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations.[2] The capital requirements involved in opening up a nonfranchised fast food restaurant are relatively low. Restaurants with much higher sit-in ratios, where customers tend to sit and have their orders brought to them in a seemingly more upscale atmosphere, may be known in some areas as fast casual restaurants.
A typical fast food meal in the United States includes a hamburger, french fries, and a soft drink. Pictured here are burgers from In-N-Out Burger

▪ 1 History ▪ 1.1 Pre-modern Europe ▪ 1.1.1 United Kingdom ▪ 1.1.2 United States ▪ 2 On the go ▪ 2.1 Filling stations ▪ 2.2 Street vendors and concessions ▪ 3 Cuisine ▪ 3.1 Variants ▪ 4 Business
McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut fast food restaurants in the United Arab Emirates

Flatbread and falafel are today ubiquitous in the Middle East.1 Bibliography ▪ 10 External links History See also: Fast food restaurant history The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is closely connected with urban development. A fixture of East Asian cities is the noodle shop. flans. wafers.[4] http://en. waffles. char-grilled meat sticks known locally as brochettes (not to be confused with the bread snack of the same name found in Europe). many often could not afford housing with kitchen facilities and thus relied on fast food. Unlike richer town dwellers.[3] In the Middle Ages. Pulling wheat dough into thin strands to form lamian Pre-modern Europe In the cities of Roman antiquity. In the French-speaking nations of West Africa. particularly single households. In Ancient Rome cities had street stands that sold bread and wine. In the . bread soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked vegetables and stews later in the day at a popina. multi-storey apartment blocks.wikipedia. panipuri and dahi vada. a simple type of eating establishment. roadside stands in and around the larger cities continue to sell—as they have done for generations—a range of ready-to-eat. Travellers. Popular Indian fast food dishes include vada pav. as well. pasties.▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 5 6 7 8 9 Employment Globalization Criticism See also Notes ▪ 9. many of these establishments catered to those who did not have means to cook their own food. were among the customers. depended on food vendors for much of their meals. large towns and major urban areas such as London and Paris supported numerous vendors that sold dishes such as pies. pancakes and cooked meats. much of the urban population living in insulae. such as pilgrims en route to a holy site. As in Roman cities during antiquity.

imported fast food has become part of both the local. More recently healthier alternatives to conventional fast food have also emerged. The content of fast food pies has varied. Sometimes the regionality of dish became part of the culture of its respective area. Despite its wide appeal and consumption in the UK.[6] Fish and chips with mushy peas A British form of fast food is the sandwich. such as oysters or. turkey has been used more frequently in fast food. the UK has adopted fast food from other cultures.United Kingdom In areas which had access to coastal or tidal waters. Often this seafood would be cooked directly on the quay or close by. and British culture in general. such as pizza (Italian). 'fast food' would frequently include local shellfish or seafood.wikipedia. After World War II. British fast food had considerable regional variation.[5] The development of trawler fishing in the mid nineteenth century would lead to the development of a British favourite fish and chips. as in London. it is only in recent years that the sandwich in its various forms has been considered to be fast food. And further afield. eels. http://en. the fourth Earl of Sandwich in 1762 when he wrapped dried meat in bread so as not to interrupt his work or his gambling (accounts vary). curry and various other forms of fast foods come from other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations.[7][8] The sandwich has similarities in other cuisines and cultures such as the filled baguettes popular in France.[9] In some areas. popularised by John Montagu. England alone accounted for 25% of all fast food. Chinese noodles. kebab. As well as its native forms. initially being promoted as such by niche chains such as Subway and Pret a Manger. The UK has claimed this title with Australia second and the United States third. with poultry (such as chickens) or wildfowl commonly being . A 2008 study was conducted worldwide counting the number of fast food restaurants per person[citation needed].

Howard Johnson's first franchised the restaurant concept in the mid-1930s. KFC. workers are employed in the areas of food preparation and food servicing including fast food in the USA. The American company White Castle. first hamburger chain. is generally Neighboring fast food credited with opening the restaurant advertisement second fast food outlet and signs in Bowling Green.[12] On the go See also: Convenience food http://en. founded in 1922 high volume. signage and . Kansas in 1921.wikipedia. Franchising was introduced in 1921 by A&W Root Beer. low cost. White Castle was successful from its inception and spawned numerous competitors.[8] Curb service was introduced in the late 1920s and was mobilized in the 1940s when carhops strapped on roller skates. drive-in restaurants were introduced. and American fast food restaurants are located in over 100 countries. which franchised its distinctive syrup.[8] Among its innovations.United States As automobiles became popular and more affordable following the First World War. Walter Anderson had Hot Dogs. high speed hamburger restaurant. selling Kentucky for Wendy's. the company allowed customers to see the food being prepared. Approximately 2 million U. formally standardizing menus. founded by Billy Ingram and Walter Anderson in Wichita. hamburgers for five cents Krystal and Taco Bell A take out bag from Yocco's [10] each. introducing the limited menu.[11] The United States has the largest fast food industry in the world. built the first White Castle Pennsylvania hot dog chain restaurant in Wichita in 1916. a Lehigh Valley.

McDonald's first two-lane drive-thru was at the Rock N Roll McDonald's in Chicago. doughnuts. fried chicken. tacos. and ice cream. multiple street vendors may food in Nepal specialize in specific types of food characteristic of a given cultural or ethnic tradition. Filling stations Many petrol/gas stations have convenience stores which sell pre-packaged sandwiches. Many gas stations in the United States also sell frozen foods and have microwaves on the premises in which to prepare them. street vendors provide a colorful and varying range of options designed to quickly captivate passers-by and attract as much attention as possible. and hot food. sandwiches. Street vendor serving fast Depending on the locale. Commonly. mashed potatoes. or engage in other forms of "street theatrics" in order to engage prospective customers. Turo-Turo vendors (Tagalog for point point) are a feature of Philippine life. but most also have a seating area in which customers can eat the food on the premises. play music. Street vendors and concessions Traditional street food is available around the world. New York City hot dog carts. In some cases. hamburgers. portable grill or motor vehicle. often with a "drive-through" service which allows customers to order and pick up food from their cars. Common examples include Vietnamese noodle vendors. Middle Eastern falafel stands. sing or chant sales-pitches. and is eaten as a finger food. it is typical for street vendors to call out prices. fast food has been designed to be eaten "on the go". and taco trucks. . hot dogs. french fries. and salads. Nearly from its inception. often does not require traditional cutlery. although many fast food restaurants offer "slower" foods like chili. pitas. http://en. pizza. In some cultures. Common menu items at fast food outlets include fish and chips.Fast food outlets are take-away or take-out providers. some vendors represent another form of tourist attraction. usually from small operators and independent vendors operating from a cart. chicken nuggets.wikipedia. this can garner more attention than the food itself.

menu items are generally made from processed ingredients prepared at a central supply facility and then shipped to individual outlets where they are reheated. fast food products are often made with ingredients formulated to achieve a certain flavor or consistency and to preserve freshness. Many of these restaurants offer free delivery for purchases over a minimum amount. Variants Although fast food often brings to mind[citation needed] traditional American fast food such as hamburgers and fries. and some outlets charge by weight rather than by . in a fashion which minimizes cost. the food is presented as a smörgåsbord. Most options are some form of noodles. and is key to being able to deliver the order quickly to the customer and eliminate labor and equipment costs in the individual stores. They normally offer a wide variety of Asian food (not always Chinese). and then is free to fill it with their choice of food. It is usually rapidly served in cartons or bags or in a plastic wrapping. which has normally been fried.Cuisine Modern commercial fast food is often highly processed and prepared in an industrial fashion. In most fast food operations. i. on a large scale with standard ingredients and standardized cooking and production methods. This process ensures a consistent level of product quality. Chinese takeaways/takeout restaurants are particularly popular.wikipedia. It is common to combine several options in one container. Deep fried calamari Because of commercial emphasis on speed. or meat. In some cases. uniformity and low cost. rice. Many types of sushi ready to eat http://en. sometimes self service. The customer chooses the size of the container they wish to buy.. cooked (usually by microwave or deep frying) or assembled in a short amount of time.e. there are many other forms of fast food that enjoy widespread popularity in the West.

Some of the most popular foods include frango assado (Piri-piri grilled chicken previously marinated). most famously speciaal (special): mayonnaise.Sushi has seen rapidly rising popularity in recent times. with (spiced) ketchup and chopped onions. Sometimes the fries are served with combinations of sauces. Kebab houses are a form of fast food restaurant from the Middle East. Meat is shaven from a rotisserie. Sbarro and Pizza Hut. Fish is battered and then deep fried. A form of fast food created in Japan (where bentō is the Japanese equivalent of fast food).wikipedia. francesinha. Pizza is a common fast food category in the United States. The filling often includes fish. Menus are more limited and standardized than in traditional pizzerias. and is served on a warmed flatbread with salad and a choice of sauce and dressing. and oorlog (literally "war"): mayonnaise and peanut sauce (sometimes also with ketchup and chopped onions). Portugal. espetada (turkey or pork meat on http://en. and pizza delivery. francesinha poveira. In Portugal. Fish and chip shops are a form of fast food popular in the United Kingdom. The meat product is usually a deep fried snack. this includes the frikandel (a deep fried skinless minced meat sausage). A Dutch fast food meal often consists of a portion of french fries (called friet or Lamb shish kebab patat) with a sauce and a meat product. there are some varieties of local fast-food and restaurants specialized in this type of local cuisine. and the kroket (deep fried meat ragout covered in breadcrumbs). These doner kebabs or shawarmas are distinct from shish kebabs served on sticks. Kebab shops are also found throughout the world. as in the most popular kind in the West. with chains such as Papa John's. especially Turkey and Lebanon. Bulgaria A francesinha fastfood restaurant in Póvoa de Varzim. chicken or cucumber. is offered. The most common sauce to accompany french fries is . The Dutch have their own types of fast food. peanut sauce or piccalilli. rolled in nori (dried laver) with filling. while others can be ketchup or spiced ketchup. sushi is normally cold sticky rice flavored with a sweet rice vinegar and served with some topping (often fish). or. A fast-food kiosk in Yambol. often with a time commitment. Domino's Pizza. New Zealand and Australia but they generally are less common in the US. especially Europe. Australia and New Zealand.

[13] The National Restaurant Association forecasted that fast food restaurants in the U. The BLS's projected job outlook expects average growth and excellent opportunity as a result of high turnover. author of The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation. This type of food is also often served with french fries (called batatas fritas).000 restaurants worldwide. Bureau of Labor Statistics. would reach US$142 billion in sales in 2006.2% [16]. about 2.[17] argue that the fast food industry will be succeptible to increased automation. 1990 McDonald’s opened a restaurant in Moscow. such as Martin Ford.000 new workers and received a million applications for these postions--an acceptance rate of only 6. McDonald's hired approximately 62.[14] Employment According to the U.[21] On January 31.wikipedia.S.S. Fast food has been losing market share to fast casual dining restaurants. in April 2011. consumers spent about US$110 billion on fast food in 2000 (which increased from US$6 billion in 1970). workers are employed in food preparation and serving (including fast food) as of 2008 [15]. the full-service restaurant segment of the food industry is expected to generate $173 billion in sales. The largest McDonald’s in the world is located in Orlando. a 5% increase over 2005.3 billion transactions. USA[22] McDonald's in Moscow http://en. The Moscow restaurant is the busiest in the world. the global fast food market grew by 4.7 million U.[20] McDonald's is located in 126 countries and on 6 continents and operates over 31.two sticks) and bifanas (pork cutlets in a specific sauce served as a sandwich). However. and that this will reduce employment and/or job creation in the industry[18].4 billion and a volume of .8% and reached a value of 102.[19] In India alone the fast food industry is growing by 41% a year. In comparison. and broke opening day records for customers served. Business In the United States alone. which offer more robust and expensive cuisines. Some analysts. Florida. Globalization In 2006. some international chains started appearing specialized in some of the typical Portuguese fast food such as Nando's. Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future.S.

org/wiki/Fast_food .[25] the first non-US location opening in December 1984 in Bahrain.129 restaurants in 90 countries as of May 2009. and Postmodern Imagination. "How turkey became a fast food" (http://news. cases of worker exploitation. BBC. with 100 locations in China. ^ BBC (2006-08-31). ISBN 0800627369. Fast Food: Roadside 4. Fast Track: Immigrants. Texts Under Negotiation: The Bible Food and Eating in Medieval Barbie.[citation needed] See also ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Food groups Fast Food Nation Junk food Panic Nation Super Size Me ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Western pattern diet Chew on This List of fast food restaurants Slow Food Health food restaurants Notes 1.stm) . Fast Food.There are numerous other fast food restaurants located all over the world. Big Business. Westview Press. 27–51. "Eel and pie shop" (http://news. Brueggemann. Fortress Press. "Fast Food and Urban Living Standards in Medieval England" in Restaurants in the Automobile Age..100 restaurants in more than 65 countries. ISBN 0-8018-6920-X. 2007. ^ Martha Carling. 209. 2007. and claims of cultural degradation via shifts in people's eating patterns away from traditional foods. ^ 2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6331007. ^ Stambaugh (1988).[24] Subway is one of the fastest growing franchises in the world with approximately 39. Retrieved November politics/5301158. ^ BBC News (2007-02-07). Burger King has more than 11. ^ Jakle. 200. pp. [28] Criticism Further information: Criticism of fast food Fast food chains have come under criticism over concerns ranging from claimed negative health effects. Retrieved November 24.[26] Pizza Hut is located in 97 alleged animal cruelty. John (1999). ISBN 0813341558.stm) .[27] Taco Bell has 278 restaurants located in 14 countries besides the United States. http://en. 5. and the American Dream.wikipedia. Johns Hopkins University Press.[23] KFC is located in 25 6. 3. Jennifer (2003). 2. Walter (1993).

Eric (2001).uk/worldservice/ specials/1616_fastfood/) . ^ "It's harder to get a job at McDonalds's than to get into Harvard" ( 17. 2007. ^ country. Retrieved June 26. ^ abc .co. "The Hamburger" (http://www. ^ See Honk for Service (http://search. 2008. 20. Bureau of Labor Statistics. ^ Ford. NPR.wordpress. ^ World InfoZone Ltd.blogspot. Fast Food Nation: Tunnel: Automation. . Martin .thelightsinthetunnel. ^ "BLS. 14. ^ Linda SandwichHistory. Retrieved November 23." 15.) 18. ^ "Worldwatch Institute" ( . Occupational Employment Statistics morning/features/patc/hamburger/) .businessinsider. Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future (http://www. ^ 2008/01/13/nyregion/ 13casual. Retrieved evolution-of-quick-service-restaurant.htm/) 16.bls. 11.php?country=UnitedKingdom) .npr. 8. Acculant Publishing. ^ "The Fast Food Factory" ( booksearch/ by Lou Ellen Mcginley with Stephanie Spurr (Tray Days Publishing. "History of Sandwiches" (http://whatscookingamerica.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=fast%20casual&st=cse) .worldinfozone.S. ^ National Public Radio (2002). and industry experts say it could be a sign of the sector’s maturity and sustainability nationwide. "The Evolution of the Quick Service Restaurant" (http://jpfarrell. 9. ISBN 978-1448659814.thelightsinthetunnel. Retrieved February . The Lights in the James P Farrell. What's Cooking America. 2007.htm) . Retrieved November 23.nytimes. "Where to Eat? A New Restaurant Genre Offers Manhattan More Choices" ( 05/could-fast-food-automation-replace-lowwage-workers/) 19. World InfoZone Ltd. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0395977894.worldwatch. 2004) 12. several fast-casual chains are showing success and growth in Manhattan. The New York Times. (e-book available free online (http://www.wikipedia. 2008. (2009).barnesandnoble. "Though still a relatively small sector within the nation’s $350 billion restaurant industry. 21.asp?z=y&EAN=9780615126975&itm=2) Low Wage Workers?" The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. ^ "Could Fast Food Automation Replace ( oco/ocos162. A Management Consultant @ Large. "United Kingdom Information" (http://www. ^ "Research and Markets" (http://www. ^ John Eligon (2008-01-13). Food and Beverage Serving and Related Workers" (http://www.

Web. Roadside Empires: How the Chains Franchised America. search?vid=1&hid=102&sid=0ea9212f-e66c-4839-94b8-8c4bd969f07e%40sessionmgr109) " Business Week 4020 (2007): 64-72. "Official SUBWAY Restaurants Web Site" (http://www. (http://0-web.php/Growth_Hormones_in_Food#How_does_this_affect_me." JSTOR. Harvey. ▪ Berry.ebscohost.unr. Ray with Robert Anderson. EBSCOhost. Michael.Subway.kfc. Selling 'em by the Sack: White Castle and the Creation of American .com/ company/ourbrands. Berkeley: University of California P. Subway Restaurants.22. 1985. (2010. 2003. 1998. <http://proxy. ^ [1] ( . ^ "Yum! Brands" (http://www. 1997. Rosenthal (editors). London. Medicine. Paradox of Plenty: a Social History of Eating in Modern America. Kathleen Seiders. University of .innopac.copperwiki.innopac. Catherine. New York: ▪ Food and Eating in Medieval Europe. from OrlandoFL/pointsOfInterest/ WorldsLargestMcDonaldsinOrlandoFL. 2002. Martha Carlin and Joel T. . ^ "Burger King" (http://www. "Reframing the Obesity Debate: McDonald’s Role May Surprise You. 2010. Academic Search Premier. St. Bibliography ▪ Adams. Reno Libraries. . "The Journal Of Academic Search Premier. Stan. Retrieved 2009-05-24.tacobell. 27.yum. ▪ Luxenberg. June 14).com. EBSCOhost. ▪ Levinstein.3F ▪ Hogan.library. ^ Subway publication (2008).asp) .cfm) 23.wikipedia. The Hambledon Press. 24. 26. 3203451?&Search=yes&term=journal&term=convenience&term=food&term=fast&term=fla&list=hid http://en. University of Nevada. "McDonald’s 24/7. ▪ Kroc. New York: New York University Press. and Ethics 35 (2007): 154-157. ISBN 1-85285-148-1 ▪ Growth Hormones in Food. 03 Oct.subway. Retrieved September 23.vacationsmadeeasy. JSTOR. 22 February search?vid=1&hid=102&sid=0ea9212f-e66c-4839-94b8-8c4bd969f07e%40sessionmgr109) " Journal of Law. ^ "Subway" ( (http://0-web. ^ "KFC" (http://www. ^ "Taco Bell" (http://www. Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's. . 5 February 2008. Reno Libraries.library. 28. Martin's Press. Leonard L. ▪ Arndt.ebscohost. and Dhruv Grewal. David.

JSTOR. 2004. Melanie "Salads or No. For photos of the Parkmoor Restaurants see Drive-In Restaurant Photos (http://www. Retrieved September ▪ Motavalli. John ▪ Obesity In America.publication that covers the fast food industry ▪ The British Library . 2003..Fast Food and Snacks Industry Guide (sources of information) (http://www. University of Nevada. 5 February 2008. 7. The Hormone Foundation.pdf) ▪ Vegan Eating Out (http://www. Capital Ideas. 27 April 2008 The Obesity Crisis: What's it all about? (http://www.qsrmagazine. J.obesityinamerica. Aggravates Global Hunger.Vegan fast food menu options. A Tray and the Glory Days of the Drive-In. Lou Ellen with Stephanie Spurr. In Defense of Food: an Eater's Manifesto. St.Edu/ehost/ search?vid=1&hid=102&sid=0ea9212f-e66c-4839-94b8-8c4bd969f07e%40sessionmgr109) " The New York Times 19 April 2006. Howard with Dori Jones Yang. (n. 2010. 1999 ▪ ?p=117) . Retrieved September 23. Web. (http://0-web. 2002 ▪ The Case Against Meat: Evidence Shows That Our Meat-Based Diet Is Bad for the .org) ▪ Pacific Research Institute. M. Brutalizes Animals and Compromises Our The Endocrine Society. Houghton Mifflin ▪ Morrison Paul. and James M. ▪ Warner. EBSCOhost. 31 August 8. 1988. External links ▪ QSR magazine (http://www.library." JSTOR. Louis: Tray Days Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8018-3692-3. Academic Search Premier. 2001 ▪ Schultz. (2010. MacDonald. Reno Libraries. The Ancient Roman City JHU Press. Catherine J.shootstlouis. Honk for Service: A Man.▪ McGinley. 2010. Vol. (2009). "American Journal of Agricultural Economics. April 18). ▪ Schlosser.What really saves more time and money… eating at a fast food joint or cooking at home? http://en. <http://proxy.mbc. 03 Oct. What About Grass-fed Beef?. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal .com) . No.johnrobbins.ebscohost.. 2010.drcarolyndean.wikipedia. Pour Your Heart Into It: How Starbucks Built a Company 1244988?&Search=yes&term=food&term=fast&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoAdvancedSear One Cup at a Time.d. from http://www.emagazine. from http://www. ▪ Recession-Pinched Flock to KFC For Sugar-Coated Protein (http://www. Cheap Burgers Revive McDonald’s. Eric. New York City: Penguin ▪ Robbins.

pdf) ▪ Why Resource to calculate how many calories are in popular chain products.html?view=print) by Mark Hyman ▪ Adventures in Fast Food (http://www.adventuresinfastfood. Categories: Fast food | Restaurant terminology | Nutrition .com) Resource for information and history on major fast food chains ▪ Calorie Counter ( barbermcds72302cmp. Cheap Food Is Actually More Expensive (http://www.▪ A copy of the Caesar Barber lawsuit (http://news.huffingtonpost.findlaw.wikipedia.fastfood.

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