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Inspection and Control

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What is QA - QC ?

QA = Quality Assurance (A documented management system) QC = Quality Control (Inspection and testing routines)
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The Tasks of the Paint Inspector


To ensure that the requirements of the coating specification are met. Verify the quality of work carried out by the contractor/yard. Prepare written records of the standard of work - Approval (Satisfactory ? / Conforming ?) - Non-conformance
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An Inspectors Work Includes:



Be capable of interpreting the specifications Understand the objective of the inspection Inspect all structures to be painted Ensure that all specified requirements are met Document the results from the inspections In case of non-conformance: Issue written reports

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An Inspector Needs to Know:


All paints that will be used All relevant inspection methods and
inspection tools Relevant standards Methods involved in cleaning, pre-treatment and paint application The equipment used for pre-treatment and application: Benefits and limitations
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What Needs to be Inspected ?


If relevant, the following stages of the production need to be inspected Shop-priming of the steel The steel work (Pre-blasting preparation) Cleaning and surface preparation prior to paint application Application of paint The applied paint film and its curing conditions.
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Inspection at Shop priming


Cleanliness (No salt, oil, grease or other contaminants) Rust grade. A or B acc. To ISO 8501-1 Shot or grit blasted steel, to Sa 2 acc. to ISO 8501-1 Correct DFT (Usually 10 - 25 microns) Satisfactory drying No damages caused by conveyor.
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Inspection of steel work (Pre-blasting preparation)


The following items need to be inspected during construction Rounding of sharp edges. Smoothing of rough welding seams. Removal / grinding of weld spatter and beads. Cracks and pittings. Surface faults like laminates etc.
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Inspection of Cleaning and Surface Preparation Prior to Application


If relevant, the following conditiones must be inspected / verified Cleanliness (salt, oil, grease and dust/dirt) Evaluation of present condition (rust grade) Surface preparation (e.g. blast cleaning) Cleanliness of prepared surface (salts, oil, grease, dust and dirt) Paint SchoolClimatic conditions (temperature, relative humidity etc)
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Inspection During Application


The following must be verified, inspected or tested:
Ensure proper mixing of 2-pack paints Ensure use of the correct thinner Measuring the wet film thickness (WFT) Number of coats as given in the specification Cleanliness between coats (salts, dust, oil etc.) Drying time / recoating intervals Control of equipment: Pressure, nozzle etc. Paint School Climatic conditions (Ventilation, Air and JPS-E / Control / 10 steel temperature and the relative humidity)

Inspection After Application


After application the following must be checked Climatic conditions (Ventilation, Temperature and humidity) Curing / drying of the film Dry film thickness (DFT) Adhesion Holiday detection
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An Inspector Deals With Several Parties

Customer / owner The Yard Contractor / sub-contractor Paint supplier Suppliers of equipment Classification society

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Inspection Tools

Utstyr utlagt

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Wet Film Thickness Gauge


ISO 2808 Wet film thickness gauge To be used on flat, even surfaces 1. coat no problem 2. Coat: Be careful if
First Coat is not fully cured/dried or if First coat is soft or resoluble

Vtfilm mler

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Magnetic and Electromagnetic Dry Film Thickness Gauges


ISO 2808 Dry film thickness gauge Calibrate on smooth surface to zero and to thickness similar to be measured Check with your calibration foil frequently Plastic material foils wear easily. Replace frequently. No internal memory in gauge
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Trrfilm mlere Elektr. Magn.

Inspection Tools: Mirror and Flash light

Visual inspection Important tools to be able to inspect areas difficult to access For inspection in confined spaces: Use Ex approved equipment
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speil, lykt

Using Inspection Tools: Mirror and Flash light

Visual inspection Important tools to be able to inspect areas difficult to access


Jan, speil, lykt

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Magnifier

Visual inspection Handy tool when looking for defects, to verify cleanliness and roughness of the substrate

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Surface Roughness acc. to ISO 8503


Example of a reference comparator: Clemco Surface profile comparator comprising four segments. Clemco - grit Clemco shot also available Check if the profile is according to specification and the paint manufacturers recommendation
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Clemco Compartor

Contact Thermometer
Electronic instrument for measuring the steel temperature Steel temperature must be min. 3oC above the dew point Other types of thermometers are also available. E.g. magnetic thermometers
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Steel temperature

Measuring the Relative Humidity


ISO 8502 - 4 Photo: Sling hygrometer for measuring: - Dry temperature - Wet temperature Measure the temperature in the vicinity. Calculate the relative humidity Use together with dew point calculator
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Dew Point Calculator


ISO 8502 - 4 For calculation of dew point To be used together with surface temperature thermometer and sling hygrometer. Use this frequently during pre-treatment, application and drying of the paint. Recommendation: Every 6 hours and when weather conditions are changing
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Tools for Marking Areas With Defects


Photo: Chalk for marking areas during inspection To be used both after pretreatment and painting Areas with defects must be marked properly Other tools than chalk can be used NOTE: Chalk may be considered as contamination for some paint systems, and might have to be removed
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Cross Cut Adhesion Test


ISO 2409 Cross cut adhesion test Cut vertical and horizontal lines to form a grid Apply a strong tape Pull off the tape Evaluate according to the standard

Gitter tester m prveplate

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Low Voltage Pore Detector


ASTM G-62 -85, method A Photo: Low voltage pore detector Detecting pinholes, voids or metal particles in paint film up to 250 microns Non destructive test method Will only detect defects down to bare metal The sponge must be wetted Do not use excessive water

L.V. pore test

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High Voltage Pore Detector

ASTM G-62-85, method B Photo: High voltage pore detector Destructive test method for detecting pinholes, voids and thin spots in paint film Adjust voltage according to the film thickness or the paint manufacturers recommendation Gives a light or signal when pinhole or weak point is detected

Brunner H.V.P.D Bruker.

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BSRA Instrument With Probe

For measuring the surface roughness Used prior to and after application of the paint Particularly for under water areas Important to follow instructions for use given by supplier
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BSRA Probe
Close up photo of B.S.R.A. Probe The probe is mounted on wheels Move slowly and steadily along the surface Do not lift the probe from the surface during the measurement Make sure to keep the probe and the wheels clean

Nrbilde ruhetsmler

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Salt Test Equipment - Bresle Test

ISO 8502 - 6 (Sampling) ISO 8502 - 9 (Conductivity) Equipment for measuring content of water soluble salt on substrate Bresle method

Bresle sett

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Syringe - Bresle Test: Sampling


Bresle salt test Syringe for injecting distilled water Shows how to inject the distilled water through the frame and into the pad The water must be pumped in and out several times. Follow the standard
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Bresle spryte 8 - 41

Conductivity Meter - Bresle test

ISO 8502 - 9 (Conductivity) Instrument for measuring the conductivity Salt level is measured as the conductivity of the solution Instrument shows the conductivity which have to be recalculated to give the salt level on the substrate. Only water soluble salts !

Bresle instrument 8 - 44

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Different Types of Salt Have Different Affinity to Water / Humidity


Laboratory test. Different types of salt are applied on two test panels Several month of exposure Right: Clean water, no rust Middle: Iron Sulphate, little rust Left: Sodium Chloride. Heavy rust develops At similar levels: Chlorides more severe than Sulphates
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Sodium Chloride

Iron Sulphate

No salt

3 test plater 0590 - 50

Using PIG Universal on a Ships Hull

PIG = Paint Inspection Gauge Destructive test method Possible to verify the number of coats applied Possible to measure the thickness of each individual coat Insp. mler bunn

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Pull-off Testing Of Paint On A Structure

ISO 4624 Pull off adhesion test. Destructive test method Here, connecting of the device for pulling off the dollies Read and note the value Several types of instruments are available
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Insp. avstrekk 8 - 49

Pull-off Dollies Glued To The Structure

ISO 4624 Pull off adhesion test Dollies are glued to the structure with a strong glue Prior to pull-off: Cut around the dolly, through the paint film and down to the substrate material
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Dollys 8 - 46

Area After Pull-off Testing


ISO 4624 Pull off adhesion test The adhesive failure - fracture between coats - or between coating and substrate must be evaluated Note adhesion failure, % The cohesive failure - fracture within the coating- must be evaluated. Note cohesion failure, % Also: Note glue failure, %

Resultat 8 - 51

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Standards Relating Methods for Evaluation of Degradation of Coatings


Property
Blistering Rust grade Cracking Flaking Chalking
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Standard / Test method


ISO 4628 - 2, ASTM D 714 DIN 53209, BS 3900 H2 ISO 4628 - 3, ASTM D 610 DIN 53210, BS 3900 H3 ISO 4628 - 4, ASTM D 661 DIN ISO 4628, BS 3900 H4 ISO 4628 - 5, DIN ISO 4628 BS 3900 H5 ISO 4628 - 6

Standards for Testing of Corrosion Protective Properties


Property / Environment
Humidity chamber Condensation o ISO 6270 (Condensation, water at 40 C) DIN 50017 ASTM D 2247 (Condensation, water at 38 o C) ASTM D 1735 (Humidity chamber) ISO 7253, ASTM B 117, BS 3900 - F12, DIN 53167, DIN 50021 ASTM G 85 (Prohesion test) ISO 2810 BS 3900 F 6 ASTM G 53 o ASTM G 8 (1500 mV/Ag-AgCl at 20 C o ASTM G 42 (1500 mV/Ag-AgCl at 60 C BS 3900 F 11

Standard / Test method

Salt spray Natural weather exposure Weather-o-meter Cathodic disbonding Cathodic protection
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Standards for Evaluation of Coated Surfaces


Property
Paint film thickness Holiday detection Degradation of coatings

Standard / Test method


ISO 2808 (Wet and dry) SSPC - PA 2 ASTM G 62 (Low and high voltage) ISO 4628

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Standards Relating to Mechanical Properties


Property
Adhesion (Cross cut) Adhesion (Pull-off) Adhesion (Shear strength) Hardness Hardness Hardness Elasticiy Flexibility Impact resistance
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Standard / Test method


ISO 2409, DIN 53251, BS 3900-E6, ASTM 3359 ISO 4624, ASTM 4541, BS 3900 - E10 ASTM D 1002 (Specified for Chartek) ISO 2815 (Buchholz - methode) ISO 1522 (Knig - pendel) Barchol ISO 1520 (Cupping test) ISO 6860 ASTM D 522 BS 3900 - E11 (Conical mandrel) ISO/TR 6272 - 79E DIN 55669 ASTM D 2794 - 84 BS 3900 - E3

Standards Relating to Physical Properties


Property
Solids, % by weight Solids by % volume Drying time Flash point Milling grade Viscosity Paint film thickness Density Gloss Covering capacity Recoatability Curing of Zn-silicate
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Standard
ISO 1515 (105 C - 3 hours) ASTM D 2697 (1 hour - 110C - dip) ISO 1517 (Surface dry) ISO 1523 (Closed cup) ISO 3679 (Zeta flash) ISO 1524 ISO 2431 (Flow cup) ISO 2808 ISO 2811 (Psykrometer) ISO 2813 (60 C commonly used) ISO 2814 ASTM D 1640 ASTM D 4752 - 87

A General Standard for Corrosion Protection: ISO 12944


Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paints systems. Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8
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General introduction. Classification of environments. Design considerations. Types of surface and surface preparation. Protective paint systems. Laboratory performance test methods. Execution and supervision of paint work. Development of specifications for new work and maintenance.

Relevant Standards for Assessing Surfaces Prior to Paint Application


Standard
ISO 8501 ISO 8502 ISO 8503 ISO 8504

Area
Visual assessments of surface cleanliness. Tests for the assessment of surface cleanliness. Surface roughness characteristics of blast-cleaned steel substrates. Surface preparation methods.

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Surface Preparation

ISO 8501 - 1
Visual assessment of surface cleanliness Rust grades and preparation grades of uncoated steel Rust grades and preparation grades of steel
after overall removal of previous coating

Photographic examples of steel when


blast cleaned with different abrasives
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Surface Preparation

Standard for Deciding Rust Grades

ISO 8501 Rust grade A, B, C and D

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Standard for deciding Preparation grades

ISO 8501 - 1
Sa: Blast cleaning (grades 1, 2, 2 and 3) St.: Hand and power tool cleaning (grades 2 and 3) Fl:
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Flame-cleaning (one grade)

Surface Preparation

ISO 8501 - 2

As for ISO 8501-1, but: For steel where previous coating has been removed locally, not completely.

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Standard for deciding Preparation grades

ISO 8501 - 2
PSa : Localised blast cleaning (grades 2, 2 and 3) : Localised hand and power tool cleaning (grades 2 and 3) Localised machine abrading (one grade)

PSt

PMa :

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Surface Preparation

ISO 8501 - 3
Visual assessment of surface cleanliness Preparation grades of welds, cut edges and surface imperfections. June 1998: Not yet approved

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Determination of Water Soluble Salts


The most frequently used methods are: Conductivity Titration Colour-reactions Other Methods: SCM 400 Salt Contamination Meter

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Tests for the assessment of Surface cleanliness: ISO 8502 (1 of 2)


Part 1 Field test for soluble iron corrosion products Part 2 Laboratory determination of chloride on cleaned surfaces. Part 3 Assessment of dust on steel surfaces prepared for painting (pressure- sensitive tape method) Part 4 Guidance on the estimation of the probability of condensation prior to paint application. Part 5 Measurement of chloride on steel surfaces prepared for painting. Ion detector tube method.

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Tests for the assessment of Surface cleanliness: ISO 8502 (2 of 2)


Part 6 Sampling of soluble impurities on surfaces to be painted. Bresle method.

*
Part 9 Analysis of soluble impurities on surfaces to be painted Analysis methods for field use for ferrous salts. Part 10 Analysis of soluble impurities on surfaces to be painted. Analysis methods for field use for oil and grease.

* Part 7 and 8 are not prepared


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ISO 8502 Part 1


Merckoquant test for iron Quantitative test for detection of watersoluble iron-salts Indicator test strips impregnated with 2,2 bipyridyl Sensitive within the range of 5mg/l to 250 mg/l Destilled water Specified test area 25 x 10 cm Cotton Glass/plastic containers
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Soluble Iron Salts On Blast Cleaned Surfaces. ISO 8502 - 1 Part 1


Merckoquant test on steel substrate Steel substrate

Beaker with test solution


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Visual comparison with the standard

Water Soluble Salts on Blast-cleaned Steel. ISO 8502 - 1. Annex 3 Potassium Hexacyanoferrate (III) test paper The filter paper is impregnated with Potassium
Hexacyanoferrate (III) Water / humidity In case of the presence of Iron salts the colour will turn blue A qualitative , not a quantitative test
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Water Soluble Salts on Blast Cleaned Steel ISO 8502-1. Annex. 3

Filter paper impregnated with Potassium Hexacyanoferrate

Blast cleaned steel

Blue spots
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Laboratory Test Method for Determining Chlorides. ISO 8502-2

Laboratory test method for determination of Chlorides on a clean substrate

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Assessment of Dust on Steel Surfaces Prepared for Painting. ISO 8502-3


Tape Blast cleaned steel

Approved Not approved


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Assessment of Dust ISO 8502 - 3


Assessment for dust on steel surface prepared for painting

1.Quantity ratings 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 corresponding to pictorial ref. 2.Dust size classes 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

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Guidance on Estimating Probability of Condensation prior to Paint Application ISO 8502-4


Thermometres

Wet rag
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Humidity

ISO 8502 - 4
Guidance on the estimation of the probability of condensation prior to paint application

1. 2. 3. 4.

Air temperature % Relative humidity Steel temperature Dew point

Steel temperature min. 3 oC above the dew point


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Relative Humidity
R.H.: % water vapour in the air as percentage of the total amount water vapour the air can contain at the same temperature. Example Air at 20oC can contain 17.31 g. water/m3, but contain 15 g/m3. What is the R.H. ? R.H. =
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15 x 100 17.31

= 86.65 %

Chlorides on Steel Surfaces ISO 8502 - 5

Measurement of Chloride on steel surfaces prepared for painting (The ion detection method)

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The Bresle Method.

ISO 8502 - 6
A method for assessment of soluble salts on the steel substrate: The Bresle method This is a quantitative test

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Conductometric Measurement of Soluble Salts. ISO 8502 - 9

Field method for measuring conductivity ( S) of solutions containing water soluble salts

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Calculating the Salt Content on a Surface


(L2 - L1) x 6 = mg. salt pr. m2 L2 = S after washing L1 = S before washing Used washing water, in ml.: Converting factor:
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10 4

15 6

20 8

50 20

Units
1 mg 1 m2 1 mg/m2 1g/cm2 Na+ + ClMol Weights = = = = = = 1000 micro grams (g) 10 000 cm2 0,1 micro g/cm2 (g) 10 mg/m2 NaCl (Sodium Chloride) Cl- : 35,5 NaCl : 58,5

1 mg Cl- is corresponding to 58,5/35,5 mg NaCl = 1,6 mg NaCl

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Surface Roughness Characteristics of Blast-cleaned Steel Substrates: ISO 8503


Part 1 Part 2 Specifications and definitions for ISO surface profile comparatives for the assessment of abrasive blast-cleaned surfaces. Method for the grading of surface profile of abrasive blast- cleaned steel - Comparator procedure. Method for the calibration of ISO surface profile comparators and for the determination of surface profile- Focusing microscope procedure. Method for the calibration of ISO surface profile comparatives and for the determination of surface profile - Stylus instrument procedure

Part 3

Part 4
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ISO 8503 - 1 Nominal values and tolerances


a) Comparators for steel, blast-cleaned with grit abrasives Nominal reading m 25 60 100 150 Tolerance m 3 10 15 20 Segment 1 2 3 4

b)

Comparators for steel, blast-cleaned with shot abrasives Nominal reading m 25 40 70 100 Tolerance m 3 5 10 15

Segment 1 2 3 4

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ISO 8503 - 1 Limits of Profile Grades


a) Comparators for steel.Blast-cleaned with grit abrasives Profiles equal to segment 1 and up to but excluding segment 2 Profiles equal to segment 2 and up to but excluding segment 3 Profiles equal to segment 3 and up to but excluding segment 4 Fine (G) Medium (G) Coarse (G)

b)

Comparators for steel.Blast-cleaned with shot abrasives Profiles equal to segment 1 and up to but excluding segment 2 Profiles equal to segment 2 and up to but excluding segment 3 Profiles equal to segment 3 and up to but excluding segment 4

Fine (S) Medium (S) Coarse (S)

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Surface Roughness Profile


Stylus instruments Elcometer Mod. 123 Testex Press-O-film Microscope Comparators
Rugotest ISO 8503 etc.
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Surface preparation methods: ISO 8504.


Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 General principles. Abrasive blast-cleaning. Hand- and power-tool cleaning.

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ISO 8504 - 2 Abrasive blast-cleaning

Methods Effectiveness Fields of application

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ISO 8504 - 3 Hand- and Power-tool Cleaning

Methods Equipment to be used Procedure to be followed

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ISO 8504 - 1 General Principles

Selection of methods

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Paints and varnishes - Determination of film thickness: ISO 2808 - 97 (1 of 2)


Method 1: Method 2: Method 3: Method 4: Method 5: Determination of wet film thickness. Determination of dry-film thickness by calculation from mass Measurement of dry-film thickness by mechanically contacting method Measurement of dry-film thickness by the profilometer method Measurement of dry-film thickness using microscope method

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Paints and varnishes - Determination of film thickness: ISO 2808 - 97 (2 of 2)


Method 6: Method 7: Method 8: Method 9: Method 10: Magnetic method Eddy current method Non-contact methods Gravimetric method (dissolving methods) Determination of dry-film thickness on blast-cleaned steel substrates

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Wet Film Measuring Comb ISO 2808 - 97 Method No.1


Thickness given in microns

Microns
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Wet paint

Steel

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Paints and varnishes - Determination of film thickness: ISO 2808 - 97


Method No. 6: Magnetic method

Magnetic (Method 6B) or magnetic


instrument (Method 6A) for measuring total DFT Instruments for magnetic, metallic substrates Calibration must be done in accordance with instructions from the manufacturer Before testing the paint system must be properly cured.

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Paint and varnishes - Determination of film thickness: ISO 2808 - 97


Method No. 7 - Eddy current method High frequency electromagnetic instrument For non-magnetic substrates Calibration in accordance with the manufacturers instruction
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Paint and varnishes - Determination of film thickness: ISO 2808 - 97


Method No. 10 - On blast cleaned steel substrates Electromagnetic instruments Calibration on a smooth steel surface min. 1,2 mm thick For DFT not less than 25 microns and above 50 microns Number of readings, as a guide:
Reference area: at least 3 readings evenly 2 reference areas every square meter on flat plates 3 reference areas every length of a web 2 reference areas every metre length for a flange 2 reference areas every metre length for a pipe

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Measuring DFT on Small Areas According to SSPC - PA 2


Procedure
1. Area of 10 m2: 5 spot measurements 2. Each spot measurement: The average of 3 individual readings made on one small area 3. The average of 5 spot measurements must be within specified range of film thickness 4. Single spot measurements may be as low as 80% of specified minimum film thickness 5. Individual readings included in the spot measurements may be less than 80% of minimum thickness
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Number of Film Thickness Measurements acc. to SSPC - PA 2


Case
1. 2.

Area
10 m2 30 m2

Selection of Measurements
5 spots (on each spot: 3 measurements) As for case 1 for each 10 m2 Select 3 areas, each of 10 m2 The first 100 m2 as for case 3 For each following 100 m2 select randomly one area of 10 m2

3. Up to100 m2 4. Above 100 m2

Note: If measurements outside the specification for any 10 m2 in case 3 or 4 above are found then each 10 m2 shall be measured
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Curing Test of Zinc - ethylsilicate with MEK. (ASTM.D4752-87)


Glove MEK Rag

Rubbing 50 x

No Zinc on the Rag: Cured Approved


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A lot of Zinc on Rag: Not cured Further curing / Reblasting

Adhesion Testing by Knife and Adhesive Tape: ASTM D 3359-87


There are two test methods The method to select depends on the DFT
Methode A: DFT above 125 microns Methode B: DFT below 125 microns (Above 125 if wider cuts are used) Methode A: X - cut. Tape test Methode B: Cross - cut. Tape test
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Holiday Detection. Low Voltage. ASTM G 62 Method A


Low voltage: < 75 V DC To detect pinholes, voids or metal particles to
be in the range of 25-250 microns. Effective for paint films up to a DFT of 500 microns if a wetting agent is used in the water. This is a non-destructive test.

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Holiday Detection. High Voltage. ASTM G 62 Method B


High voltage: 900 - 20.000 V Used to detect pinholes, voids and areas with thin paint films This is a destructive test.

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Adhesion Testing ASTM 3359-87. Method B


< 50 microns = 1 mm apart (11 cuts) 50 - 125 microns = 2 mm apart (6 cuts) > 125 microns = Method A or 3 mm between cuts 1. Cuts: 20 mm long
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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Brush with a soft brush Examine Cuts: 20 mm long at 90o on the original cuts Brush with... Tape 75 mm Within 90 + 30 sec. remove tape

Cross-cut Test ISO 2409


Cutting tool Single bladed knife Multi-blade cutting tool with 6 cutting edges spaced 1 mm or 2 mm apart Spacing of cuts
0 - 60 microns 60- 120 microns 121 - 250 microns 1 mm spacing, hard substrates 2 mm spacing, soft substrates 3 mm spacing, hard/soft substrates

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Cross-cut Test ISO 2409


Procedure:
Make 6 parallel cuts with defined space in the coating. Repeat operation, crossing original cuts at 90o so that a grid pattern is formed. Brush with soft brush. Apply adhesive tape and pull off. Classify results in accordance with table 1.

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Classification of Cross Cut Test


Classi-fication 0 1 2 3 4 5 Description Appearance of surface Six parallel cuts
Completely smooth: none of the squares detached Small flakes at the Intersections. Area affected 5 % Flaked along the edges and/or at the Intersections. Area affected: 5-15% Flaked along the edges, wholly in large ribbons, and/or partly or wholly on different parts of the squares. Area affected: 15-35% Flaked along the edges in large ribbons and/or some squares have detached partly or wholly. Area affected: 35-65% Any degree of flaking that cannot even be classified by 4.

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ISO 4624 Pull-off test for adhesion


Procedure:
Test dollies glued onto the coating Adhesive: Cyano-acrylate or solvent free epoxy Remove adhesive and coating around the dollies Pull off test-dollies vertical to the surface Read adhesion value and report the type of fracture

Fractures:
Adhesion failure - fracture between coats or substrate and 1. coat Cohesion failure - fracture within a coat

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ISO 4624 Pull-off test for adhesion


Instruments: Elcometer Adhesion Tester Saeberg Adhesion Tester (pneumatic) Hate Adhesion Tester (hydraulic) PAT

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Paint Failures Commonly Occurring



Holidays, too low DFT Sags and runs Orange peel Dry spraying Over spray Pinholes, popping Fish-eye Wrinkling / lifting

Sweating Poor drying / curing Blisters Rust penetration Cracking Flaking Chalking Discolouration

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ISO 4628

Evaluation of degradation of paint coatings Designation of intensity, quality and size of common types of defect

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Content of the Standard ISO 4628


The standard consists of six parts Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6
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General principles and rating schemes Designation of degree of blistering Designation of degree of rusting Designation of degree of cracking Designation of degree of flaking Designation of degree of chalking

ISO 4628/1
Part 1: General principles and rating schemes
Uniform deterioration. Rating scheme for designation the intensity of deterioration consisting of a uniform change in the visual appearance of the paint coating. Rating
0 1 2 3 4 5
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Intensity of change
unchanged, i.e. no perceptible change very slight, i.e. just perceptible change slight i.e. clearly perceptible change moderate, i.e. very clearly perceptible change considerable, i.e. pronounced change severe, i.e. intense change

ISO 4628/1
Part 1: General principles and rating schemes
Scattered defects. Rating scheme for designating the quantity of defects consisting of discontinuities or other local imperfections of the paint coating. Rating
0 1 2 3 4 5
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Quantity of defects (relative to a test surface area of 1 to 2 dm) none, i.e. no detectable defects very few, i.e. some just significant defects few, i.e. small but significant amount of defects Moderate, i.e. medium amount of defects considerable, i.e. serious amount of defects dense, i.e. dense pattern of defects

ISO 4628/1
Part 1: General principles and rating schemes
Rating scheme for designating the size (order of magnitude) of defects Class
0 1 2 3 4 5

Size of defect
not visible under 10 X magnification only visible under magnification up to 10 X just visible with normal corrected vision clearly visible with normal corrected vision (up to 0,5 mm) range 0,5 to 5 mm larger than 5 mm

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ISO 4628/1 Test report


The test report shall contain at least the following information: a) the type and identification of the product tester; b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/1); c) the type of defect; d) the intensity of the defect (table 1) or, e) the quantity of the defect (table 2); f) the rating, if any, of the size of the defect in brackets preceded by the letter S. Examples: cratering of top coat : 2 (S3) whitening : 4 rivelling : 3 (S2)
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ISO 4628/2
Part 2: Designation of degree of blistering
Rating Rate the density and size of the blisters in a paint coating by means of the pictorial standards NOTE - The photographic reference standards have been adopted from ASTM D 714-56 The correlation between the ISO and the ASTM rating system is as shown in the table. Table - Correlation between ISO and ASTM rating systems

Density ASTM
None (less than few) Few Medium Medium - Dense Dense Paint School
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Size ISO
0 1 2 3 4 5 (smaller than 8) 8 6 4 2 1 2 3 4 5

ASTM

ISO

ISO 4628/2
Part 2: Designation of degree of blistering Test report
The test report shall contain at least the following information: a) the type and identification of the product tested; b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 462/2); c) the numerical rating of the density of blistering; d) the numerical rating of the size of blistering for example: blisters 2 (S2) Where a test piece exhibits blisters of varying size, quote as the size rating that of the largest blisters which are numerous enough to be typical of the test piece. e) the date of the examination
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ISO 4628/3
Part 3: Designation of degree of rusting

Rating Designate the degree of rust formation by reference to the pictorial standards
Degree
Ri 0 Ri 1 Ri 2 Ri 3 Ri 4 Ri 5
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Area rusted %
0 0,05 0,5 1 8 40/50

Assessment of Area Ratio for Corrosion Breakdown


0.1 % . . . . . 3.0 % . . . 10 % . . 1.0 %

20 %

30 %

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ISO 4628/3
Part 3: Designation of degree of rusting
Correlation between ISO and European rust scales
ISO rust scale Ri 0 Ri 1 Ri 2 Ri 3 Ri 4 Ri 5 European rust scale Re 0 Re 1 Re 2 Re 3 Re 5 Re 7

Approximate correlation between ISO and ASTM rust scales


ISO rust scale Ri 0 Ri 1 Ri 2 Ri 3 Ri 4 Ri 5 Paint School
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European rust scale 10 9 7 6 4 1 to 2

ISO 4628/3
Part 3: Designation of degree of rusting Test report:
The test report shall contain at least the following information: a) the type and identification of the product tested; b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/3); c) the numerical rating of the rusted area; d) the numerical rating of the size of the rust spots, if desired, for example: Rust: Ri 3 (S4) = rusted area, as a percentage of rust, approximates standard 3, the sizes of the individual rust spots of the order of a few millimeters. e) the date of the examination
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ISO 4628/4
Part 4: Designation of degree of cracking
Rating Rate the quantity of cracking by reference to table 2 of ISO 4628/1 and using as examples figures 1 or 2, depending on the type of cracking

Rating scheme for the designation of the size of cracks Class 0 1 2 3 4 5 Size of cracks Not visible under 10 X magnification Only visible under magnification up to X 10 Just visible with normal corrected vision Clearly visible with normal corrected vision Large cracks generally up to 1 mm wide Very large cracks generally more than 1 mm wide

Three main types of failure by cracking are to be distinguished: a) surface cracks which do not fully penetrate the top coat b) cracks which penetrate the top coat, the underlying coat(s) being substantially unaffected; c) cracks which penetrate the whole coating system

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ISO 4628/4
Part 4: Designation of degree of cracking Test report:
a) the type and identification of the product tested; b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/4); c) the numerical rating of the quantity of cracking; d) the numerical rating of the size of cracking; e) the depth of cracking (a. b. or c), where possible, for example: cracking 2 (S3) b If necessary, the standard assessment may be amplified in words, for example linear cracking. The use of such comments shall, however, be avoided wherever possible: e) the date of the examination
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ISO 4628/5
Part 5: Designation of degree of flaking
Scale for the quantity of flaking Class
0 1 2 3 4 5

Flaked area
0 0,1 0,3 1 3 15

The main types of failure by flaking are to be distinguished: a) Top coats flaking from underlying coat; b) Whole coating system flaking from substrate

Scale the average size of areas Class


0 1 2 3 4 5

Size of flaking
not visible under X magnification up to 1 mm up to 3 mm up to 10 mm up to 30 mm larger than 30 mm

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ISO 4628/5
Part 5: Designation of degree of flaking
Test report
The test report shall contain at least the following information: a) the type and identification of the product tested; b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/5); c) the numerical rating of the quantity of flaking; d) the numerical rating of the size of flaking; e) the depth of cracking (a or b), for example; flaking 3 (S2) a

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ISO 4628/6
Part 6: Rating of degree of chalking by tape method Self-adhesive, transparent tape, of width 25 mm + 10 mm
Chalking is removed by adhering to the tape Black or white background Comparing the amount of chalk on the tape with pictorial reference standard in figure 1
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ISO 4628/6
Part 6: Rating of degree of chalking by tape method

Test report
a) all details necessary for the identification of the product tested; b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628-6); c) the type of weathering (artificial or natural) of the coating; d) all details necessary for the identification of the adhesive tape used; e) all details necessary for the identification of the substrate used as background for the adhesive tape; f) the numerical rating of the degree of chalking; g) any deviation from the procedure specified; h) the date of the examination
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Content of the Standard ISO 11124


Specifications for metallic blast-cleaning abrasives. The standard consists of 5 parts Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
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Introduction Chilled iron grit High carbon cast steel shot and grit Low carbon cast steel shot Cut steel wire

Content of the Standard ISO 11125


Methods of test for metallic blast-cleaning abrasives. The standard consists of 8 parts Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8
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Sampling Determination of particle size distribution Determination of hardness Determination of apparent density Determination of defective particles and microstructure Determination of matter Determination of moisture Abrasive mechanical properties

Content of the Standard ISO 11126


Specification for non-metallic blast-cleaning abrasive. The standard consists of 10 parts Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10
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Introduction Silica sand Copper refinery slag Coal furnace slag Nickel refinery slag Iron furnace slag Fused aluminium oxide Olivine sand Staurolite Garnet

Content of the Standard ISO 11127


Test methods for non-metallic blast-cleaning abrasives. The standard consists of 8 parts Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8
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Sampling Determination of particle size distribution Determination of apparent density Determination of hardness by a glass slide test Determination of moisture content Determination of water soluble contamination by conductive measurement Determination of water soluble chlorides Abrasive mechanical properties

Contamination of Abrasives
The abrasives can be contaminated with

Water Oil and grease Chlorides Sulphates

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The Content of Humidity of the Abrasives Acc. to ISO 11127 - 5

Laboratory test Requirement: Maximum 0,2 %

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Content of Water soluble Contaminants acc. to ISO 11127 - 6


Conductivity measurements
A sample of 100 g. of the abrasives 100 ml of water Shake for 5 minutes and let rest for 1 hour Shake again for another 5 minutes Measure the conductivity at a temperature of 10 oC Requirement: Maximum conductivity of 25 mS/m

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How to Control the Abrasives


According to ASTM D 4940 Mix 300 ml of abrasive and 300 ml water Stir for 1 min. let stand for 8 min., stir again for 1 min.
Conductivity (AB-1) Fill the liquid for test and measure the conductivity. Max 25 mS/m
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Oil content (AB-1) No presence of oil, either on top or as an emulsion after 30 min.

Is the Abrasive Free From Oil and Grease ?

Put a handful of the abrasives into a beaker Pour clean, fresh water into the beaker Shake the mixture A film of oil will form on top of the water if oil or grease are present
This is of particular importance to check when abrasives are recycled

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Testing and Evaluation. Marine Atmosphere (1 of 2)


Test method
Physical testing Adhesion Adhesion Flexibility Elasticity Hardness Impact resistance Gloss Abrasion resistance Exposure conditions: Saltspray Prohesion test UV-cabinet Condensation chamber Humidity chamber Weathering Resistance to liquids

Standards
ISO 2409 ISO 4624 ISO 1510 ISO 1520 ISO 2815 ISO 6272 ISO 2813 ASTM D 4060 ISO 7253 or ASTM B 117 ASTM G 53 ISO 6270 BS 3900 ISO 2810 ISO 2812

Comments
Before and after exposure Before and after exposure Before and after exposure Before and after exposure

Oil, petroleum , etc.

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Testing and Evaluation. Marine Atmosphere (2 of 2)


Test method
Evaluation of paint films Blistering Rust Cracking Delamination Chalking Scribe Evaluation of the liquid paint Appearance in tin Viscosity Application properties ISO 2431 ISO 2884 Flow time

Standards

Comments

ISO 4628/2 ISO 4628/3 ISO 4628/4 ISO 4628/5 ISO 4628/6 ASTM D 1654

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Surface Roughness

Stylus instruments Elcometer Mod. 123 Testex Press-O-film Microskope Comparator


Rugotest No. 3 ISO 8503 etc.
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Using Solvents to Determine Generic Type of Paint


Rag soaked with solvent
Paint dissolves: Physically drying

No reaction: Chemically curing

Steel 2 coat paint


Lifting: Oxidatively curing

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Dayly Logs

Stl-temperatur Luft-temperatur Relativ fuktighet Duggpunkt Objekt malt Navn p relevant personell Hva ble diskutert Film-tykkelse (skal mles, ogs for flekking ved dokking)

NB-navn, nr, objekt Prod. nr. Malingens opprinnelsessted Eksakt spesifikasjon Areal - m2 Forbehandling, spesifisert og utfrt Andre kommentarer

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Atmospheric Conditions.

Requirement During Blasting and Painting

Surface temperature of the structure must be minimum 3 C above the dew point

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ISO 11126 Standardises the Non-metallic Abrasives


Part 1 General introduction and classification Part 2 Silica sand Part 3 Copper Refinery Slag Part 4 Coal Furnace Slag Part 5 Nickel Refinery Slag Part 6 Iron Furnace Slag Part 7 Silica sand
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Thank You !

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