Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project

Student Guide

Sun Microsystems, Inc. ,

Part No: 819–5580–10 March, 2006

Copyright 2006 Sun Microsystems, Inc.

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All rights reserved.

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Contents

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What is the OpenSolaris Project? .................................................................................................... 7 Web Resources for OpenSolaris ...................................................................................................... 10 Discussions .........................................................................................................................................11 Communities ......................................................................................................................................11 Projects ................................................................................................................................................11 OpenGrok .......................................................................................................................................... 12

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Planning the OpenSolaris Environment ...................................................................................... 15 Development Environment Configuration ................................................................................... 17 Networking ........................................................................................................................................ 18

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OpenSolaris Policies ........................................................................................................................ 21 Development Process and Coding Style ......................................................................................... 23

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Features of the OpenSolaris Project ............................................................................................. 25 Overview ............................................................................................................................................ 26 Security Technology: Least Privilege ............................................................................................... 26 Predictive Self-Healing ..................................................................................................................... 26 Zones .................................................................................................................................................. 28 Branded Zones (BrandZ) ................................................................................................................. 28 Zettabyte Filesystem (ZFS) .............................................................................................................. 29 Dynamic Tracing (DTrace) .............................................................................................................. 29 Modular Debugger (MDB) .............................................................................................................. 30

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...................................................................................................................................................................... 41 Process Debugging ........... 47 Listing Traceable Probes ..... 2006 ............................................................................................... 58 8 Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace .................................................................................... 38 Kernel Overview .......................................................................... 43 6 Getting Started With DTrace ................................................................................................................ 62 9 Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB .......... 85 Global and Non-Global Zones .. 92 Creating a Filesystem and /home Directories ........................................................................... 57 DTracing Applications ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31 Process and System Management ......................... 74 10 Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace ................. 88 11 Configuring Filesystems With ZFS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 52 7 Debugging Applications With DTrace .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents 5 Programming Concepts .............................................................................. 36 CPU Scheduling .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 49 Programming in D ......................... 55 Enabling User Mode Probes ................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Enabling Simple DTrace Probes ..... 89 Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems ................................................................................................................................................................ 91 Creating Mirrored Storage Pools ........................................................................................................................... 61 Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program ................ 73 Using DTrace and MDB to Examine Virtual Memory ............................... 71 Software Memory Management ...................... 93 4 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March................. 87 DTracing a Process Running in a Zone ...................................................................................... 33 Threaded Programming ...............................................

...131 Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS ...102 Writing the User Context Entry Points .............................................................................................122 Adding the Template Driver ............ 110 Writing the Driver Data Structures ...Configuring RAID-Z .........................................................123 Removing the Template Driver ..........................................................................................................................................................................95 Overview of the Template Driver Example .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................124 Dummy Driver Source .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 Writing the Loadable Module Configuration Entry Points .........................................................................................................132 ................................................................................................................................................................................................121 Testing the Template Driver ..............................................................................97 Writing the Template Driver ....................................................................................................................................................................120 Building and Installing the Template Driver ....................................................................................................................................98 Writing the Autoconfiguration Entry Points .............................................................. 113 Writing the Device Configuration File ...............................................................................94 12 Writing a Template Character Device Driver ....125 13 Debugging Drivers With DTrace ............................................................................................................................122 Reading and Writing the Device ......................................

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Finally. discussions. and source browser for the OpenSolaris project. communities. We’ll start by showing you where to go to access the code.1 Objectives M O D U L E 1 What is the OpenSolaris Project? The objective of this course is to learn about operating system computing by using the Solaris™ Operating System source code that is freely available through the OpenSolaris project. Then. projects. we’ll work through the following labs which are designed to demonstrate typical operating system issues by using OpenSolaris: I Process Debugging I I I I Enabling Simple DTrace Probes Listing Traceable Probes Programming in D Enabling User Mode DTrace Probes I Application Debugging I I DTracing Applications Using DTrace to Profile and Debug a C++ Program I Memory Management I Using DTrace and MDB to Examine Virtual Memory I Observing Processes I DTracing a Process Running in a Zone I Configuring Filesystems I I Creating Mirrored ZFS Storage Pools Creating a Filesystem and /home Directories 7 . we’ll briefly describe how the features and documentation enable straightforward configuration of a development environment and initiation into the development process.

2006 .What is the OpenSolaris Project? I I Configuring RAID-Z Device Drivers I I Writing a Template Character Device Driver Debugging a Device Driver with DTrace 8 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.

In the first eight months. including being the basis for future versions of the Solaris OS product. seamless. The OpenSolaris project is currently sponsored by Sun Microsystems. x86 and AMD x64 architectures Leadership on 64–bit computing $0. Teaching with the OpenSolaris project provides the following advantages over instructional operating systems: I I Access to code for the revolutionary technologies in the Solaris 10 operating system Access to code for a commercial OS that is used in many environments and that scales to large systems Hardware platform support including SPARC. over 12. modification.000 participants have become registered members. and rock-solid code base Availability under the OSI-approved Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) allows royalty-free use. The OpenSolaris source code will find a variety of uses. Inc.What is the OpenSolaris Project? Relevance The OpenSolaris project was launched on June 14. complete. 2005 to create a community development effort using the Solaris OS code as a starting point. other operating system projects. third-party products and distributions of interest to the community. and end users of the Solaris Operating System. and derived works I I I I I Module 1 • What is the OpenSolaris Project? 9 .00 for infinite right-to-use Free. exciting. It is a nexus for a community development effort where contributors from Sun and elsewhere can collaborate on developing and improving operating system technology. The engineering community is continually growing and changing to meet the needs of developers. innovative. system administrators.

The icons in the upper-right of the OpenSolaris web pages link you to discussions. communities.org/os/downloads. the OpenSolaris web site provides search across all of the site content and aggregated blogs. downloads.Web Resources for OpenSolaris Web Resources for OpenSolaris You can download the OpenSolaris source. projects.opensolaris. In addition. as shown in the upper-left of the graphic. and source browser resources as shown in the following graphic. 10 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. view the license terms and access instructions for building source and installing the pre-built archives at: http://www. 2006 .

and user groups.org/os/community/documentation http://www. Discussions also provide an archive of previous conversations that you can reference for answers to your questions.org/os/community/edu http://www.org/os/projects for the current list of new projects.opensolaris.org/os/community/zfs http://www. documents. or joint-authored products. See http://www.org/os/communities for the complete list.opensolaris.opensolaris. New projects are initiated by participants by request on the discussions.opensolaris.org/os/community/zones http://www. support. Projects that are submitted and accepted by at least one other interested participant are given space on the projects page to get started. graphics.opensolaris. See http://www. Communities Communities provide connections to other participants with similar interests in the OpenSolaris project. Projects Projects hosted on the opensolaris. Module 1 • What is the OpenSolaris Project? 11 . for example: http://www.org/os/community/device_drivers http://www. See http://opensolaris.org web site are collaborative efforts that produce objects such as code changes. Communities form around interest groups. Projects have code repositories and committers and may live within a community or independently. technologies.opensolaris.opensolaris.opensolaris. tools.opensolaris.Web Resources for OpenSolaris Discussions Discussions provide you with access to the experts who are working on new open source technologies.org/os/community/os_user_groups Academic and Research DTrace ZFS Zones Documentation Device Drivers Tools User Groups These are only a few of over 30 communities actively working on OpenSolaris.org/os/community/tools http://www.org/os/discussions for the complete list of forums to which you can subscribe.opensolaris.org/os/community/dtrace http://www.

See http://cvs. extensively commented code that reads like a book. so that you can better understand the open source. RCS. 2006 . If you just need to know how some features work in the Solaris OS.org/source to try it out! The first project to be hosted on opensolaris. OpenGrok understands various program file formats and version control histories like SCCS.org/os/project/opengrok to find out about the ongoing development project. See http://www. the source code browser provides a convenient alternative.org was OpenGrok. you can download the complete codebase. The following graphic shows the results of an OpenGrok file path search on fbt. Take an online tour of the source and you’ll discover cleanly written. If you’re interested in working on an OpenSolaris project.Web Resources for OpenSolaris OpenGrok OpenGrok™ is the fast and usable source code search and cross reference engine used in OpenSolaris. and CVS.opensolaris. 12 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.opensolaris.

Web Resources for OpenSolaris Module 1 • What is the OpenSolaris Project? 13 .

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M O D U L E Planning the OpenSolaris Environment 2 2 Objectives The objective of this module is to understand the system requirements. 15 . support information and documentation available for the OpenSolaris project installation and configuration.

2006 .html I 16 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Inc. Inc. Click Sun Studio 11 Collection to see Sun Studio books about dbx.sun.com/bigadmin/features/articles/laptop_resources... 2005. dmake. Sun Studio 11: C User’s Guide. Performance Analyzer.Planning the OpenSolaris Environment Additional Resources I I Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations. and other software development topics. Resources for Running Solaris OS on a Laptop: http://www. 2005. Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems.

Development Environment Configuration Development Environment Configuration There is no substitute for hands-on experience with operating system code and direct access to kernel modules. For supported systems. The unique challenges of kernel development and access to root privileges for a system are made simpler by the tools.tar.bz2 file is provided if you are installing from pre-built archives.PLATFORM. and documentation provided for the OpenSolaris project. Source files Install images BFU archives The on-bfu-DATE. SPARC64. The SUNWonbld-DATE.gnusolaris. Build tools Module 2 • Planning the OpenSolaris Environment 17 . see the Solaris OS Hardware Compatibility List at http://www. Consider the following features of OpenSolaris as you plan your development environment: TABLE 2–1 Configurable Lab Component Support Configurable Component Support From the OpenSolaris Project Hardware OpenSolaris supports systems that use the SPARC® and x86 families of processor architectures: UltraSPARC®.tar.PLATFORM. Pentium. Build 32 or newer.opensolaris. See http://www. For the OpenSolaris kernel with the GNU user environment.bz2 file is provided if you build from source. try http://www. forums. Pre-built OpenSolaris distributions are limited to the Solaris Express: Community Release [DVD Version]. AMD64. and Xeon EM64T.com/bigadmin/hcl.org/os/downloads for detailed instructions about how how to build from source.sun.org/gswiki/Download-form.

See http://www. Also.opensolaris. 2006 .Development Environment Configuration TABLE 2–1 Configurable Lab Component Support Configurable Component (Continued) Support From the OpenSolaris Project Compilers and tools Sun Studio 10 compilers and tools are freely available for use by OpenSolaris developers. allowing one or more processes to run in isolation from other activity on the system.org/ os/community/tools/gcc for the gcc community. OpenSolaris is also a VMWare™ guest. I Speeds application performance by about 50 percent by using an enhanced TCP/IP stack 18 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.opensolaris. an open-source virtual machine monitor developed by the Xen team at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. I Memory/Disk Requirements I Memory requirement: 256M minimum. refer to http://www. See http://www.org/ os/community/xen/ for details and links to the Xen project. see http://opensolaris. OpenSolaris supports Xen.org/ os/community/tools/sun_studio_tools/ for instructions about how to download and install the latest versions. Networking The OpenSolaris project meets future networking challenges by radically improving your network performance without requiring changes to your existing applications.org/os/project/content/articles/vmware for draft version of a recent article describing how to get started. Refer to Module 2 for more information about how Zones and Branded Zones enable kernel and user mode development of Solaris and Linux applications without impacting developers in separate zones.opensolaris. 1GB recommended Disk space requirement: 350M bytes Virtual OS environments Zones and Branded Zones in OpenSolaris provide protected and virtualized operating system environments within an instance of Solaris.

and hardware offloading Accommodates high-availability. Your lab environment becomes self-sustaining when hosted on OpenSolaris because you are always running the latest and greatest environment.Development Environment Configuration I Supports many of the latest networking technologies. Participation in the OpenSolaris project can improve overall performance across your network with the latest technologies. and Voice over IP (VoIP) networking features through extended routing and protocol support Supports current IPv6 specifications I I Find out more about ongoing networking developments in the OpenSolaris project here: http://opensolaris. wireless networking. Module 2 • Planning the OpenSolaris Environment 19 . such as 10 Gigabit Ethernet.org/os/community/networking/. streaming. empowered to update it yourself.

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M O D U L E OpenSolaris Policies 3 3 Objectives The objective of this module is to understand at a high-level the development process steps and the coding style that is used in the OpenSolaris project. 21 .

OpenSolaris Policies Additional Resources I OpenSolaris Development Process. 2006 . http://www.opensolaris.org/os/community/documentation/getting_started_docs/ I 22 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.org/os/community/onnv/os_dev_process/ C Style and Coding Standards for SunOS. http://www.opensolaris.

Development Process and Coding Style Development Process and Coding Style The development process for the OpenSolaris project follows the following high-level steps: 1. Design The Design phase determines whether or not a formal design review is even needed. Module 3 • OpenSolaris Policies 23 .opensolaris. Implementation The Implementation phase consists of the following: I Writing of the actual code in accordance with policies and standards Download C Style and Coding Standards for SunOS here:http://www. and completeness. If a formal review is needed. The Integration phase is to make sure everything that was supposed to be done has in fact been done. Integration Integration happens after all reviews have been completed and permission to integrate has been granted. if needed Identifying code reviewers in preparation for integration 4.org web page. Next.opensolaris. Search for an existing bug or file a new bug or request for enhancement (RFE) by using the http://bugs. The announcement has the following benefits: I I I I Precipitate discussion of the change or enhancement Determine the complexity of the proposed change(s) Gauge community interest Identify potential team members 2. documentation. someone has an idea for an enhancement or has a gripe about a defect. announce it to other developers on the appropriate E-mail list. complete the following next steps: I I I I Identify design and architectural reviewers Write a design document Write a test plan Conduct design reviews and get the appropriate approvals 3. which means conducting reviews for code.org/os/community/documentation/getting_started_docs/ I I I I Writing the test suites Passing various unit and pre-integration tests Writing or updating the user documentation. Idea First.

providing accurate results with no data loss or corruption. with mechanisms in place in order to audit changes done to the system and by whom. Serviceability – It must be possible to diagnose both fatal and transient issues and wherever possible. I I I I I I I I Refer to http://www. That document also details the following design principles and core values that are to be applied to source code development for the OpenSolaris project: I Reliability – OpenSolaris must perform correctly. with flow charts that illustrate the development phases. Performance – The performance of OpenSolaris must be second to none when compared to other operating systems running on identical environments. OpenSolaris enforces a coding style on contributed code. Availability – Services must be designed to be restartable in the event of an application failure and OpenSolaris itself must be able to recover from non-fatal hardware failures. These tools are cstyle(1) for verifying compliance of C code with most style guidelines. regardless of its source. Maintainability – OpenSolaris must be architected so that common subroutines are combined into libraries or kernel modules that can be used by an arbitrary number of consumers.org/os/community/onnv/os_dev_process/ for more detailed information about the process that is used for collaborative development of OpenSolaris code. Security – OpenSolaris security must be designed into the operating system. Manageability – It must allow for the management of individual components. and hdrchk(1) for checking the style of C and C++ headers. 24 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Compatibility – New subsystems and interfaces must be extensible and versioned in order to allow for future enhancements and changes without sacrificing compatibility.org/os/community/onnv/.opensolaris. software or hardware. in a consistent and straightforward manner.Development Process and Coding Style The formal process document for OpenSolaris describes the previous steps in greater detail. 2006 . Like many projects. Platform Neutrality – OpenSolaris must continue to be platform neutral and lower level abstractions must be designed with multiple and future platforms in mind. automate the diagnosis. This style is described in detail at http://opensolaris. Two tools for checking many elements of the coding style are available as part of the OpenSolaris distribution.

M O D U L E Features of the OpenSolaris Project 4 4 Objectives The objective of this module is to describe the major features of the OpenSolaris project and how the features have fundamentally changed operating system computing. 25 .

the UltraSPARC 26 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. error telemetry. and maintain a portion of the campus or department infrastructure. FMA. Many parts of Solaris are already participating in FMA.Overview Overview Now that you have considered the components. and guidelines for OpenSolaris development. Fault Management Architecture (FMA) The Solaris OS provides a new architecture. Predictive Self-Healing Predictive self-healing was implemented in two ways in the Solaris 10 OS. Fine-grained privileges allows applications and users to run with just the privileges they need. and a consistent model of system failures for a management stack. This section describes the new Fault Management Architecture and Services Management Facility that make up the self-healing technology. processes. including the CPU and Memory error handling for UltraSPARC III and IV. let’s briefly talk about the following features of the operating environment: I I I I I I I Security Technology: Least Privilege Services Management Facility (SMF) Zones Branded Zones (BrandZ) Zetabyte File System (ZFS) Dynamic Tracing Facility (DTrace) Modular Debugger (MDB) Security Technology: Least Privilege UNIX® has historically had an all-or-nothing privilege model that imposes the following restrictions: I I I I No way to limit root user privileges No way for non-root users to perform privileged operations Applications needing only a few privileged operations must run as root Very few are trusted with root privileges and virtually no students are so trusted In the Solaris OS we’ve developed fine-grained privileges. automated diagnosis software. The least privilege allows students to be granted the privileges that they need to complete their course work. for building resilient error handlers. response agents. participate in research. 2006 .

the OpenSolaris project provides application-level features and functionality to create separate and protected run-time environments. for both microscopic and macroscopic system resources. and telemetry events are produced that drive automated diagnosis and response.d(4) startup mechanism and includes an enhanced inetd(1M) . such as email delivery. Beyond consistent error handling. Opteron support is scheduled for build 34. and more. When a subsystem is converted to participate in Fault Management. including full support for CPU. promoting the service to a first-class operating system object.Overview PCI HBAs. simple view for administrators and system management software. and I/O faults on Opteron. error handling is made resilient so that the system can continue to operate despite some underlying failure. A variety of projects are underway. See http://opensolaris. and integration with various management stacks. unified model for management of an enormous number of services. Services Management Facility (SMF) SMF creates a supported. The sophisticated resource management facilities of zones addresss the unique challenges of application development and testing in shared environments. In addition to service-level management improvements. configuration. Module 4 • Features of the OpenSolaris Project 27 . conversion of key device drivers. software bugs. ftp requests. all with a unified. The smf(5) framework replaces (in a compatible manner) the existing init. SMF gives developers the following: I Automated restart of services in dependency order due to administrative errors.org/os/community/fm for information about how to participate in the Fault Management community or to download the Fault Management MIB that is currently in development. The Fault Management tools and architecture enable development of self-healing content for software and hardware failures. and remote command execution in the OpenSolaris project. or uncorrectable hardware errors A single API for service management.org/os/community/smf/scfdot to see a graph of the SMF services and their dependencies on an x86 system freshly installed with the Solaris OS Nevada build 24. and observation Access to service-based resource management Simplified boot-process debugging I I I See http://opensolaris. Memory.

org/os/community/brandz/install/ for the installation requirements and instructions. they co-exist within one operating system instance. and are usually managed as one entity. the resource management facilities can be used to prevent processes in one zone from using too much of a system resource or to guarantee them a certain service level. While the zone supplies the security. or as complex as a complete Linux user space. Refer to http://opensolaris. Together. for example. The applications are protected from each other to provide software fault isolation. using BrandZ. Zones provide protected environments for Solaris applications. and includes the tools necessary to install a CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution inside a zone on a Solaris system.Overview Zones A zone is a virtual operating system abstraction that provides a protected environment in which applications run. Regardless of the underlying kernel. within zones that are running a complete Linux user space. Branded Zones (BrandZ) BrandZ is a framework that extends the zones infrastructure to create Branded Zones. which are zones that contain non-native operating environments. filesystem partitioning for kernel development is simplified by the ZFS code in the OpenSolaris project. The lx brand enables user-level Linux software to run on a machine with a OpenSolaris kernel. A branded zone may be as simple as an environment where the standard Solaris utilities are replaced by their GNU equivalents. 2006 . the OpenSolaris project takes zones a step further and provides separate and protected run-time environments. 28 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. See http://opensolaris. This feature is only available for x86 and AMD x64 architectures at this time. for Linux applications.org/os/community/zones/faq/ for answers to a large number of common questions about zones and links to the latest administration documentation. To ease the labor of managing multiple applications and their environments. The lx brand will run on x86/x64 systems booted with either a 32-bit or 64-bit kernel. The lx brand enables Linux binary applications to run unmodified on Solaris. Additionally. only 32-bit Linux applications are able to run. However. The OpenSolaris project addresses the unique challenges of operating system development and testing for application performance using features like zones. isolated environments. name space and fault isolation. zones and resource management are often referred to as containers. porting to SPARC might be an interesting community project because BrandZ lx is still very much a work in progress. Zones can be combined with the resource management facilities which are present in OpenSolaris to provide more complete.

org/os/community/zfs/demos/basics/ for 100 Mirrored Filesystems in 5 Minutes. In RAID-Z. RAID-Z is a virtual device that stores data and parity on multiple disks. In addition to pooled storage. ZFS provides RAID-Z data redundancy configuration. and service personnel to concisely answer arbitrary questions about the behavior of the operating system and user programs. DTrace enables you to do the following: I I I I I I Dynamically enable and manage thousands of probes Dynamically associate predicates and actions with probes Dynamically manage trace buffers and probe overhead Examine trace data from a live system or from a system crash dump Implement new trace data providers that plug into DTrace Implement trace data consumers that provide data display 29 Module 4 • Features of the OpenSolaris Project . The combined I/O bandwidth of all devices in the pool is available to all filesystems at all times. provisioning. In addition to enhanced configuration and administration features that simplify and support developer requirements. the code made available in the OpenSolaris project provides a sophisticated dynamic tracing facility (DTrace) for debugging kernel and application behavior. Each storage pool is comprised of one or more virtual devices. Dynamic Tracing (DTrace) DTrace provides a powerful infrastructure to permit administrators. a demonstration of administering mirrored pools with ZFS.Overview Zettabyte Filesystem (ZFS) ZFS filesystems are not constrained to specific devices. developers. similar to RAID-5. so they can be created easily and quickly like directories. which describe the layout of physical storage and its fault characteristics. ZFS uses variable-width RAID stripes so that all writes are full-stripe writes. RAID-Z is the world’s first software-only solution to the RAID-5 write hole. wasted bandwidth. and stranded storage.opensolaris. They grow automatically within the space allocated to the storage pool. ZFS presents a pooled storage model that eliminates the concept of volumes and the associated problems of partitions. See http://www. This is only possible because ZFS integrates filesystem and device management in such a way that the filesystem’s metadata has enough information about the underlying data replication model to handle variable-width RAID stripes.

See http://www. and knowledge of assembly language to diagnose and correct. kernel and device developers rely on mdb to determine why and where their code went wrong. user process core files.org/os/community/mdb 30 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. You can use the mdb command interactively or in scripts to debug live user processes. device driver development. Generally. where you can ask the experts or review previous conversations and common questions.opensolaris. There is an active community for MDB. the live operating system. In addition to DTrace. 2006 . the OpenSolaris project provides debugging facilities for low-level types of development. object files. kernel crash dumps. Modular Debugger (MDB) MDB is a debugger designed to facilitate analysis of problems that require low-level debugging facilities.org/os/community/dtrace.opensolaris. MDB is available as two commands that share common features: mdb and kmdb.Overview I Implement tools that configure DTrace probes Find the DTrace community pages here http://www. examination of core files. for example. You can use the kmdb command to debug the live operating system kernel and device drivers when you also need to control and halt the execution of the kernel. and other files.

M O D U L E Programming Concepts 5 I I I I 5 Objectives This module provides a high-level description of the fundamental concepts of the OpenSolaris programming environment. as follows: Threaded Programming Kernel Overview CPU Scheduling Process Debugging 31 .

Inc. Solaris 64-bit Developer’s Guide.. 2005. 2005.. 2004). Inc..Programming Concepts Additional Resources I Solaris Internals (2nd Edition). Sun Microsystems. I I I I 32 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2006 . 2006) by Jim Mauro and Richard McDougall Solaris Systems Programming. Prentice Hall PTR (May 12. Sun Microsystems. Inc. 2005. by Rich Teer Multithreaded Programming Guide. STREAMS Programming Guide. Sun Microsystems. Prentice Hall PTR (August 19.

Two pools (default and foo) are associated with the same processor set (default). That is. The following picture shows one possible pool configuration with three pools and three processor sets. Process IDs (PIDs) are numbered sequentially throughout the system. If we search OpenGrok for pool. Threads or LWPs of the same process do not have pool bindings. Each successful login to a project creates a new task. Processes may be bound to pools that have non-empty resource sets. Processes in a given task or a given project can only be bound to different pools if they were rebound individually one by one as single processes. New pools can be created and associated with processor sets. When the pools facility is enabled. Also. which is a grouping mechanism for processes. processor sets must be managed by using the pools facility. we find that the code comments provide a graphical representation of these relationships: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The operation that binds tasks and projects to pools is atomic. pool_default. A task contains the login process as well as subsequent child processes. grouped. Module 5 • Programming Concepts 33 . The resource pools facility brings together process-bindable resources into a common abstraction called a pool. Note that processor set "foo" is not associated with any pools and therefore cannot have any processes bound to it. which is a network-wide administrative identifier. and labelled such that workload components are associated with a subset of a system’s total resources.c. and processor sets are managed through the pset() system call. all processes belong to the same pool. or (in case of an error) they will be all left bound to the old pool. either all processes in a given task or a project will be bound to a new pool. each user is assigned by the system administrator to a project. Processor sets and other entities are configured. and are bound to the same resource sets associated with the resource pool of that process. By default. When the pools facility is disabled. note that processes in Task 2 are bound to different pools.Process and System Management Process and System Management The basic unit of workload is the process.

|...... Zones are setup by system administrators.. often for security purposes....Process and System Management 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Processor Sets +---------+ +--------------+========================> | default | a| | +---------+ s| | || s| | +---------+ o| | | foo | c| | +---------+ i| | || a| | +---------+ t| | +------> | bar | e| | | +---------+ d| | | | | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ Pools | default |======| foo |======| bar | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ @ @ @ @ @ @ b| | | | | | o| | | | | | u| +-----+ | +-------+ | +---+ n| | | | | | ........... tasks....::. : | :: | | | :: | | : : +---+ :: +---+ +---+ +---+ :: +---+ +---+ : Processes : | p | :: | p | | p | | p | :: | p |.. 34 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.......|....| p | : : +---+ :: +---+ +---+ +---+ :: +---+ +---+ : :... A zone can be thought of as a container in which one or more applications run isolated from all other applications on the system........... New types of resource sets will be added in the future..: Task 1 Task 2 Task N | | | | | | | +-----------+ | +-----------+ +--| Project 1 |--+ | Project N | +-----------+ +-----------+ This is just an illustration of relationships between processes.|...d|...::.............|...... 2006 ... projects.. pools. in order to isolate groups of users or processes from one another......... and processor sets. Processes can be optionally be run inside a zone.|.....

Applications which require direct access to certain devices. which allows us to install an arbitrary collection of software in the branded zone. should continue to be used within the global zone. Applications should instead use one of the many IP services. For example. Applications which require direct access to these devices may need to be modified to work correctly.Process and System Management Most software that runs on OpenSolaris will run unmodified in a zone. Fundamentally different brands may require new interposition points. and performs no other I/O. Each brand may provide pre-boot and post-boot scripts that allow us to do any final boot-time setup or configuration. However. Since zones do not change the OpenSolaris Application Programming Interface (APIs) or Application Binary Interface (ABI). A small number of applications which are normally run as root or with certain privileges may not run inside a zone if they rely on being able to access or change some global resource. Each brand provides its own installation routine. Here are some guidelines: I An application which accesses the network and files. a brand may choose to supplement or replace the standard behavior of the Solaris OS. process loading path. for example. etc. The few applications which fall into this category may need applications to run properly inside a zone or in some cases. I I BrandZ extends the Zones infrastructure in user space in the following ways: I I A brand is an attribute of a zone. /dev/kmem. in some cases this may increase security risks. I I I Module 5 • Programming Concepts 35 . I I BrandZ provides a set of interposition points in the kernel: I These points are found in the syscall path. set at zone configuration time. At each of these points. or a network device. thread creation path. should work correctly. An example might be the ability to change the system’s time-of-day clock. These interposition points are only applied to processes in a branded zone. a disk partition. will usually work if the zone is configured correctly. recompiling an application is not necessary in order to run it inside a zone. The zonecfg and zoneadm tools can set and report a zone’s brand type.

or to access specific data. and branded zones. and semaphores. void *arg). So. start_routine is the function with which the new thread begins execution. Condition variables block threads until a particular condition is true. But. and libthread for OpenSolaris threads. When the count is reached. a thread must first acquire the exclusive write lock. multithreading support for both sets of interfaces is provided by the standard C library. Read/write locks permit concurrent reads and exclusive writes to a protected shared resource. The count is the limit on how many threads can have access to a semaphore. Communication between the threads of one process is simple because the threads share everything. Go to /on/usr/src/lib/libc/spec/threads. Multithreading provides flexibility by decoupling kernel-level and user-level resources. zones. the thread that is trying to access the resource blocks.Process and System Management Threaded Programming Now that we’ve learned about processes in the context of tasks. The pthread_create() function is called with attr that has the necessary state behavior. I I I 36 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The libraries are libpthread for POSIX threads. resource pools. The four synchronization objects are mutex locks. Counting semaphores typically coordinate access to resources. condition variables. Traditional UNIX already supports the concept of threads. When start_routine returns. 2006 . pthread_create() returns zero when the call completes successfully. and creating a process involves creating a new address space. inlcuding a common address space and open file descriptors. int pthread_create(pthread_t *tid. Each process contains a single thread.spec in OpenGrok for the complete list of pthread functions and declarations. To modify a resource. Use pthread_create(3C) to add a new thread of control to the current process. a process is also an address space. data produced by one thread is immediately available to all the other threads. Any other return value indicates that an error occurred. read/write locks. so programming with multiple processes is programming with multiple threads. Thread synchronization enables you to control program flow and access to shared data for concurrently executing threads. projects. I Mutex locks allow only one thread at a time to execute a specific section of code. the thread exits with the exit status set to the value returned by start_routine. const pthread_attr_t *tattr. void*(*start_routine)(void *). In OpenSolaris. let’s discuss processes in the context of threads. An exclusive write lock is not permitted until all read locks have been released.

init has completed). When called via _ld_concurrency() from libthread these vectors are reassigned to real threads interfaces. Both libthreads block signals under the bind_guard/bind_clear interfaces. In a non-threaded environment all thread interfaces are vectored to noops. TI_VERSION == 2 Under this model only libthreads bind_guard/bind_clear and thr_self interfaces are used. Threads in different processes can communicate with each other through synchronization objects that are placed in threads-controlled shared memory. The synchronization objects can have lifetimes beyond the life of the creating process.1 and libthread.Process and System Management Synchronization Synchronization objects are variables in memory that you access just like data. Under lib/libthread these interfaces provided _sigon/_sigoff (unlike lwp/libthread that provided signal blocking via bind_guard/bind_clear.. through which we vector all rt_mutex_lock/rt_mutex_unlock calls. Two models are supported: TI_VERSION == 1 Under this model libthread provides rw_rwlock/rw_unlock.. Code comments in the mutex.c file reveal the following: 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 .so. The use of mutexes over reader/writer locks also enables the use of condition variables for controlling thread concurrency (allows access to objects only after their . Lower level locking is derived from internally bound _lwp_ interfaces. The threads can communicate with each other even though the threads in different processes are generally invisible to each other. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Implementation of all threads interfaces between ld. This removes recursive problems encountered when obtaining locking interfaces from libthread. Synchronization objects can also be placed in files. Module 5 • Programming Concepts 37 .

Process and System Management

OpenGrok results for a full search on POSIX reveal the POSIX.pod file that includes the module, as described in the following comments:
POSIX 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ... Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1 =head1 SYNOPSIS use POSIX; use POSIX qw(setsid); use POSIX qw(:errno_h :fcntl_h); printf "EINTR is %d\n", EINTR; $sess_id = POSIX::setsid(); $fd = POSIX::open($path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0644); # note: that’s a filedescriptor, *NOT* a filehandle =head1 DESCRIPTION The POSIX module permits you to access all (or nearly all) the standard POSIX 1003.1 identifiers. Many of these identifiers have been given Perl-ish interfaces. Things which are C<#defines> in C, like EINTR or O_NDELAY, are automatically exported into your namespace. All functions are only exported if you ask for them explicitly. Most likely people will prefer to use the fully-qualified function names. This document gives a condensed list of the features available in the POSIX module.

Now that you understand a bit about how synchronization objects are defined in multi-threaded programming, let’s learn how these objects are managed by using scheduling classes.

CPU Scheduling
Processes run in a scheduling class with a separate scheduling policy applied to each class, as follows:
I

Realtime (RT) – The highest-priority scheduling class provides a policy for those processes that require fast response and absolute user or application control of scheduling priorities. RT scheduling can be applied to a whole process or to one or more lightweight processes (LWPs) in a process. You must have the proc_priocntl privilege to use the Realtime class. See the privileges(5) man page for details.

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Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Process and System Management

I

System (SYS) – The middle-priority scheduling class, the system class cannot be applied to a user process. Timeshare (TS) – The lowest-priority scheduling class is TS ,which is also the default class. The TS policy distributes the processing resource fairly among processes with varying CPU consumption characteristics. Other parts of the kernel can monopolize the processor for short intervals without degrading the response time seen by the user. Inter-Active (IA) – The IA policy distributes the processing resource fairly among processes with varying CPU consumption characteristics, while also providing good responsiveness for user interaction. Fair Share (FSS) – The FSS policy distributes the processing resource fairly among projects, independent of the number of processes they own by specifying shares to control the process entitlement to CPU resources. Resource usage is remembered over time, so that entitlement is reduced for heavy usage and increased for light usage with respect to other projects. Fixed-Priority (FX) – The FX policy provides a fixed priority preemptive scheduling policy for those processes requiring that the scheduling priorities do not get dynamically adjusted by the system and that the user or application have control of the scheduling priorities. This class is a useful starting point for affecting CPU allocation policies.

I

I

I

I

A scheduling class is maintained for each lightweight process (LWP). Threads have the scheduling class and priority of their underlying LWPs. Each LWP in a process can have a unique scheduling class and priority that are visible to the kernel. Thread priorities regulate contention for synchronization objects. The RT and TS scheduling classes both call priocntl(2) to set the priority level of processes or LWPs within a process. Using OpenGrok to search the code base for priocntl, we find the variables that are used in the RT and TS scheduling classes in the rtsched.c file as follows:
27 #pragma ident "@(#)rtsched.c 1.10 05/06/08 SMI" 28 29 #include "lint.h" 30 #include "thr_uberdata.h" 31 #include <sched.h> 32 #include <sys/priocntl.h> 33 #include <sys/rtpriocntl.h> 34 #include <sys/tspriocntl.h> 35 #include <sys/rt.h> 36 #include <sys/ts.h> 37 38 /* 39 * The following variables are used for caching information 40 * for priocntl TS and RT scheduling classs. 41 */

Module 5 • Programming Concepts

39

Process and System Management

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ...

struct pcclass ts_class, rt_class; static static static static static static static rtdpent_t *rt_dptbl; int rt_rrmin; int rt_rrmax; int rt_fifomin; int rt_fifomax; int rt_othermin; int rt_othermax; /* RT class parameter table */

Typing the man priocntl command in a terminal window shows the details of each scheduling class and describes attributes and usage. For example:
% man priocntl Reformatting page. Please Wait... done User Commands NAME priocntl - display or set scheduling parameters of specified process(es) SYNOPSIS priocntl -l priocntl -d [-i idtype] [idlist] priocntl -s [-c class] [ class-specific i idtype] [idlist] priocntl -e [-c class] [ class-specific [argument(s)] options] [priocntl(1)

options] command

DESCRIPTION The priocntl command displays or sets scheduling parameters of the specified process(es). It can also be used to display the current configuration information for the system’s process scheduler or execute a command with specified scheduling parameters. Processes fall into distinct classes with a separate scheduling policy applied to each class. The process classes currently supported are the real-time class, time-sharing class, interactive class, fair-share class, and the fixed

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Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

A kernel module registers itself in order to serve future requests. Kernel modules do not execute sequentially. With appropriate permissions. 41 I I Module 5 • Programming Concepts . Inter-Active Class. A module runs in kernel space. and physical devices. and services hardware interrupts and exceptions. pages memory. and scheduling. Fair-Share Class. TimeSharing Class. Kernel modules have higher execution privilege. processes. I I I The following section discusses several important differences between kernel modules and user programs. Code that runs in kernel space has greater privilege than code that runs in user space. System software is protected from user programs. Provides applications with system services such as I/O management. The characteristics of these classes and the class-specific options they accept are described below in the USAGE section under the headings Real-Time Class. the --More--(4%) Kernel Overview Now that you have a high-level understanding of processes. Coordinates interactions of all user processes and system resources. Execution Differences Between Kernel Modules and User Programs The following characteristics of kernel modules highlight important differences between the execution of kernel modules and the execution of user programs: I Kernel modules have separate address space. and scheduling. Assigns priorities. let’s discuss the kernel and how kernel modules are different from user programs. Kernel space and user space have their own memory address spaces. including file systems. and swaps processes.Process and System Management priority class. Schedules and switches threads. A kernel module does not execute sequentially. and Fixed-Priority Class. virtual memory. services resource requests. An application runs in user space. threads. A user program typically executes sequentially and performs a single task from beginning to end. The Solaris kernel does the following: I I Manages the system resources.

Instead. Using this prefix for private symbols within the module also is a good practice. You can also have customized libraries as well. have no main() routine. Kernel modules. You cannot assume that your driver code is safe just because your driver code does not block. Kernel modules do not link in the same libraries that user programs link in. Your driver must be able to handle contention issues that result from multiple requests. a kernel module is a collection of subroutines and data. Design your driver assuming your driver might be preempted. 2006 . Kernel modules can be customized for hardware. Kernel modules are linked only to the kernel. By contrast. Kernel modules can include header files that are shared by user programs if the user and kernel interfaces within such shared header files are defined conditionally using the _KERNEL macro. Kernel modules can share data. otherwise customized code can be written for both kernel and user/libraries. Kernel modules can dedicate process registers to specific roles. In a symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) system. Kernel modules use different header files. give them a prefix that is unique within the kernel. As much as possible. Kernel modules must be preemptable. while the kernel can dedicate certain registers to certain roles. declare symbols as static. something which OpenSolaris has for some of the more recent x86/x64 and UltraSPARC platforms. I I I I 42 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Kernel modules require a different set of header files than user programs require. Different threads of an application program need not share data. The only functions a kernel module can call are functions that are exported by the kernel. Design your driver data structures carefully to keep multiple threads of execution separate.Process and System Management I Kernel modules can be interrupted. including device drivers. Kernel code can be optimized for a specific processor. an interrupt handler can request your driver at the same time that your driver is serving a system call. More than one process can request your driver at the same time. Kernel modules should avoid global variables. When you must use global symbols. I I Structural Differences Between Kernel Modules and User Programs The following characteristics of kernel modules highlight important differences between the structure of kernel modules and the structure of user programs: I Kernel modules do not define a main program. the data structures and routines that constitute a driver are shared by all threads that use the driver. So. your driver could be executing concurrently on more than one CPU. For example. Avoiding global variables in kernel modules is even more important than avoiding global variables in user programs. The required header files are listed in the man page for each function.

so we 38 * must be prepared to switch modes on-the-fly.Process and System Management I Kernel modules can be loaded and unloaded on demand. instead.so. This mechanism also has the nice property that we don’t bother 53 * loading libthread_db until we need it. we must dlopen the 41 * appropriate libthread_db on-the-fly based on which libthread. The proc target calls 48 * mdb_tdb_load() with the pathname of a libthread_db to load. reveals the following code comments in the mdb_tdb. a process may begin 37 * life as a single-threaded process and then later dlopen() libthread. we dlopen() it. 54 */ Module 5 • Programming Concepts 43 .4 05/06/08 SMI" 28 29 /* 30 * libthread_db (tdb) cache 31 * 32 * In order to properly debug multi-threaded programs.c file that describe the connection between multi-threaded debugging and how mdb works: #pragma ident "@(#)mdb_tdb. mdb is designed so that multiple targets can be 43 * active simultaneously. the proc target must be 33 * able to query and modify information such as a thread’s register set using 34 * either the native LWP services provided by libproc (if the process is not 35 * linked with libthread). so the debugger starts up faster. or using the services provided by libthread_db (if 36 * the process is linked with libthread). To meet these requirements. Additionally. There are also two possible 39 * libthread implementations (one in /usr/lib and one in /usr/lib/lwp) so we 40 * cannot link mdb against libthread_db directly. we 47 * implement a libthread_db "cache" in this file. look up the symbols we need to reference. You can test new versions of your driver without rebooting your system. Process Debugging Debugging processes at all levels of the development stack is a key part of writing kernel modules. we don’t bother unloading it unless the entire cache is explicitly 52 * flushed. and if it is 49 * not already open. Once an object is 51 * loaded. Finally.c 1. 50 * and fill in an ops vector which we return to the caller. The collection of subroutines and data that constitute a device driver can be compiled into a single loadable module of object code.so and 46 * the other using /usr/lib/lwp/libthread. This might happen if you were looking at two multi-threaded 45 * user processes inside of a crash dump. This loadable module can then be statically or dynamically linked into the kernel and unlinked from the kernel. You can add functionality to the kernel while the system is up and running. one using /usr/lib/libthread. A full search for libthread in OpenGrok.so the victim 42 * process has open. so we could even have *both* libthread_db’s open at 44 * the same time.

. 2006 . or process ID.Process and System Management The following mdb commands can be used to access the LWPs of a multi-threaded program: I I I I $l Prints the LWP ID of the representative thread if the target is a user process. address::context Context switch to the specified process. We’ll start the hands-on lab exercises with DTrace and then add MDB when the debugging becomes more complex.. ::release Releases the previously attached process or core file. 44 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. $L Prints the LWP IDs of each LWP in the target if the target is a user process. pid::attach Attaches to process by using the pid. The process can subsequently be continued by prun(1) or it can be resumed by applying MDB or another debugger. [ addr ] ::bp [+/-dDestT] [-c cmd] [-n count] sym . addr ::delete [id | all] Delete the event specifiers with the given ID number. Set a breakpoint at the specified locations. These commands to set conditional breakpoints are often useful. I I I DTrace probes are constructed in a manner similar to MDB queries.

M O D U L E Getting Started With DTrace 6 6 Objectives The objective of this lab is to introduce you to DTrace using a probe script for a system call using DTrace. 45 .

Getting Started With DTrace Additional Resources I Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide. Inc.. 46 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2005. Sun Microsystems. 2006 .

Once you see this output.Getting Started With DTrace Enabling Simple DTrace Probes Completion of the lab exercise will result in basic understanding of DTrace probes. the integer name of the CPU on which this probe fired is displayed. press Control-C in your shell to exit dtrace and return to your shell prompt: 3 Return to your shell prompt by pressing Control-C: # dtrace -n BEGIN dtrace: description ’BEGIN’ matched 1 probe CPU ID FUNCTION:NAME 0 1 :BEGIN ^C # The output tells you that the probe named BEGIN fired once and both its name and integer ID. Since you haven’t enabled any other probes and BEGIN only fires once. dtrace remains paused waiting for other probes to fire. which fires once each time you start a new tracing request. Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace 47 . Enable the probe: # dtrace -n BEGIN After a brief pause. 1. You can use the dtrace(1M) utility’s -n option to enable a probe using its string name. 1 2 Open a terminal window. We’re going to start learning DTrace by building some very simple requests using the probe named BEGIN. you will see dtrace tell you that one probe was enabled and you will see a line of output indicating that the BEGIN probe fired. Notice that by default. In this example. the CPU column indicates that the dtrace command was executing on CPU 0 when the probe fired. are printed.

DTrace reports this probe firing before exiting. 2006 . Let’s create a simple request using two probes by adding the END probe to the previous example command. The END probe fires once when tracing is completed. pressing Control-C to exit DTrace triggers the END probe. As you can see. 4 Add the END probe: # dtrace -n BEGIN -n END dtrace: description ’BEGIN’ matched 1 probe dtrace: description ’END’ matched 1 probe CPU ID FUNCTION:NAME 0 ^C 0 2 :END # 1 :BEGIN The END probe fires once when tracing is completed.Getting Started With DTrace You can construct DTrace requests using arbitrary numbers of probes and actions. 48 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.

For example.The name of the Unix module or application library of the probe.The name of the probe. 1 2 Open a terminal window.Name of the Provider. Providers are used to classify the probes. In the preceding examples.Internal ID of the probe listed.Getting Started With DTrace Listing Traceable Probes The objective of this lab is to explore probes in more detail and to show you how to list the probes on a system. Provider . Name . 49 I I I Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace . the syscall provider provides probes in every system call and the fbt provider provides probes into every function in the kernel.The name of the function in which the probe exists. you learned to use two simple probes named BEGIN and END. each of which performs a particular kind of instrumentation to create probes. But where did these probes come from? DTrace probes come from a set of kernel modules called providers. Type the following command: # dtrace The dtrace command options are printed to the output. You can then enable and bind your tracing actions to any of the probes that have been published. Module . Function . 3 Type the dtrace command with the -l option: # dtrace -l | more ID PROVIDER 1 dtrace 2 dtrace 3 dtrace 4 lockstat 5 lockstat 6 lockstat 7 lockstat --More-MODULE FUNCTION NAME BEGIN END ERROR mutex_enter adaptive-acquire mutex_enter adaptive-block mutex_enter adaptive-spin mutex_exit adaptive-release genunix genunix genunix genunix The probes that are available on your system are listed with the following five pieces of data: I I ID . When you use DTrace. This is also the method of instrumentation. each provider is given an opportunity to publish the probes it can provide to the DTrace framework.

5 Add one of the following options to filter the list: I I I I -P for provider -m for module -f for function -n for name Consider the following examples: # dtrace -l -P lockstat ID PROVIDER MODULE 4 lockstat genunix 5 lockstat genunix 6 lockstat genunix 7 lockstat genunix FUNCTION mutex_enter mutex_enter mutex_enter mutex_exit NAME adaptive-acquire adaptive-block adaptive-spin adaptive-release Only the probes that are available in the lockstat provider are listed in the output. # dtrace -l -f open ID PROVIDER 4 syscall 5 syscall 116 fbt 117 fbt MODULE FUNCTION open open open open NAME entry return entry return genunix genunix Only the probes with the function name open are listed. 2006 .Getting Started With DTrace 4 Pipe the previous command to wc to find the total number of probes in your system: # dtrace -l | wc -l 30122 The number of probes that your system is currently aware of is listed in the output. # dtrace -l -m ufs ID PROVIDER 15 sysinfo 16 sysinfo 356 fbt MODULE FUNCTION NAME ufs ufs_idle_free ufsinopage ufs ufs_iget_internal ufsiget ufs allocg entry Only the probes that are in the UFS module are listed in the output. The number will vary depending on your system type. # dtrace -l -n start ID PROVIDER 506 proc 2766 io 2768 io 5909 io MODULE unix genunix genunix nfs FUNCTION lwp_rtt_initial default_physio aphysio nfs4_bio NAME start start start start 50 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.

Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace 51 .Getting Started With DTrace The above command lists all the probes that have the probe name start.

d dtrace: script ’hello. in addition to constructing DTrace experiments on the command line. Let’s explore the structure of your D program in more detail in order to understand what happened. and listing probes. These changes were the result of the actions you specified for your BEGIN probe in hello. create a new file called hello. The actions are listed as a series of statements enclosed in braces { } following the probe name.d file. 1 2 3 Open a terminal window. Type in your first D program: BEGIN { trace("hello. world”.). you’re ready to write the DTrace version of everyone’s first program." This lab demonstrates that. and an optional set of actions to perform when the probe fires. exit(0). Your first statement uses the function trace() to indicate that DTrace should record the specified argument. the string “hello. 2006 . when the BEGIN probe fires. World. enabling. dtrace printed the same output as before followed by the text “hello.Getting Started With DTrace Programming in D Now that you understand a little bit about naming. Each D program consists of a series of clauses. world # As you can see.d. "Hello. } 4 5 Save the hello. The second statement uses the function exit() to indicate that DTrace should cease tracing and exit the dtrace command. each clause describing one or more probes to enable. Run the program by using the dtrace -s option: # dtrace -s hello. world"). you did not have to wait and press Control-C. Each statement ends with a semicolon (. In a text editor. 52 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. you can also write them in text files using the D programming language.d. either. Unlike the previous example.d’ matched 1 probe CPU ID FUNCTION:NAME 0 1 :BEGIN hello. world”. and then print it out.

By now. you’ve probably realized from the name and our examples that DTrace’s D programming language is very similar to C and awk(1). If you’ve never written a C program before. Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace 53 . Indeed. D is derived from a large subset of C combined with a special set of functions and variables to help make tracing easy. To call a function. The complete set of D functions is described in Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide. you will be able to immediately transfer most of your knowledge to building tracing programs in D. and then we’ll return to learning how to build more interesting D programs.Getting Started With DTrace DTrace provides a set of useful functions like trace() and exit() for you to call in your D programs. learning D is still very easy. you specify its name followed by a parenthesized list of arguments. let’s take a step back from language rules and learn more about how DTrace works. But first. If you’ve written a C program before. if you’re familiar with the C programming language.

54 .

55 .M O D U L E Debugging Applications With DTrace 7 7 Objectives The objective of this module is to use DTrace to monitor application events.

.Debugging Applications With DTrace Additional Resources Application Packaging Developer’s Guide. 2005. 56 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Sun Microsystems. 2006 . Inc.

or even a restart. special flags. A probe description has the following syntax: pid:mod:function:name I I I I pid: mod: name: format pidprocessid (for example pid5234) name of the library or a. The user code does not need any recompilation. DTrace probes can be turned on just by calling the provider.Enabling User Mode Probes Enabling User Mode Probes DTrace allows you to dynamically add probes into user level functions.out(executable) name of the function entry for function entry return for function return function: Module 7 • Debugging Applications With DTrace 57 .

create a new file called proc_func.Enabling User Mode Probes DTracing Applications In this exercise we will learn to use DTrace on user applications. add an aggregate to count the number of times the function is called using the aggregate statement @[probefunc]=count(). f.d procid Replace procid with the process ID of your gcalctool e. 2006 . increasing the amount and depth of information about the application behavior that is output. a. c. b. } d. Use pid$1:::entry as the probe-description. In the action section. # dtrace -qs proc_func. Run the script that you just wrote. Find the process ID of the process you just started # pgrep gcalctool 8198 This number is the process ID of the calc process. pid$1:::entry { @[probefunc]=count(). leave the predicate part empty. start the calculator. $1 is the first argument that you will send to your script. The steps increase in complexity to the end of the exercise. Perform a calculation on the calculator. This lab builds on the use of a process ID in the probe description to trace the associated application.d. we will call it procid. Press Control+C in the window where you ran the D-script. In a text editor. 58 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 1 2 From the Application or Program menu. 3 Follow the steps below to create a D-script that counts the number of times any function in the gcalctool is called.

d.d to proc_libc. Press Control+C in the window where you ran the D-script to see the output. 6 Finally.d file to the following: pid$1:libc::entry c. modify the script to find how much time is spent in each function. a. If you do not need to print the aggregation you collected.d. Write the first probe as follows: pid$1:::entry c. We will use two probe descriptions in func_time. Your new script should look like the following: pid$1:libc::entry { } 5 @[probefunc]=count(). Module 7 • Debugging Applications With DTrace 59 . b. b. Create a file and name it func_time. Modify the probe description in the proc_libc.Enabling User Mode Probes Note – The DTrace script collects data and waits for you to stop the collection by pressing Control+C. 4 Now. Copy the proc_func. Timestamp is a DTrace built-in that counts the number of nanoseconds from a point in the past. b. Now run the script. In the action section of the first probe.d procid Replace procid with the process ID of your gcalctool a. DTrace will print it for you. a.d. Write the second probe as follows: pid$1:::return d. save timestamp in variable ts. # dtrace -qs proc_libc. Perform a calculation on the calculator. modify the script to only count functions from the libc library.

60 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. pid$1:::return /ts/ @[probefunc]=sum(timestamp .ts) f. 2006 .Enabling User Mode Probes e. ^C gdk_xid__equal _XSetLastRequestRead _XDeq .d script should match the following: pid$1:::entry { } { } 7 ts = timestamp. Press Control+C in the window where you ran the D-script to see the output. b. The new func_time. In the action section of the second probe calculate nanoseconds that have passed using the following aggregation: @[probefunc]=sum(timestamp ... Perform a calculation on the calculator.d script: # dtrace -qs func_time. Run the new func_time. The time is in nanoseconds.ts). 2468 2998 3092 The left column shows you the name of the function and the right column shows you the amount of wall clock time that was spent in that function.d procid Replace procid with the process ID of your gcalctool a.

These examples are also used to compare DTrace with other application debugging tools. including Sun Studio 10 software and mdb. 61 .M O D U L E Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 8 8 Objectives The examples in this module demonstrate the use of DTrace to diagnose C++ application errors.

in addition to c++filt. 2006 . When debugging a C++ program. but never destroyed. and c++filt..Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program A sample program CCtest was created to demonstrate an error common to C++ applications -. CCtest 53|FUNC 47|FUNC 37|FUNC 71|FUNC 37|FUNC 71|FUNC 16|OBJT 16|FUNC |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |9 |9 |9 |9 |9 |9 |18 |9 |__1cJTestClass2T5B6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2T6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t5B6Mpc_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t6Mpc_v_ |__1cJTestClassG__vtbl_ |__1cJTestClassJClassName6kM_pc_ Note – Source code and makefile for CCtest are included at the end of this module. which recognizes both Sun Studio and 62 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. semi-intelligible strings of characters and digits. dem. you have an additional choice for demangling your application -. but the examples were tested with both Sun Studio 9 and 10.the memory leak. destructors. but you cannot readily determine whether these symbols are associated with constructors.. to provide valid external names for C++ function names that include special characters. The Sun Studio compiler includes the following three utilities that can be used to translate the mangled symbols to their C++ counterparts: nm -C. you may correctly assume that a number of these mangled symbols are associated with a class named TestClass. Note – Sun Studio 10 software is used here. This name mangling is an implementation detail required for support of C++ function overloading. and to distinguish instances of the same name declared in different namespaces and classes. [61] | 134549248| [85] | 134549301| [76] | 134549136| [62] | 134549173| [64] | 134549136| [89] | 134549173| [80] | 134616000| [91] | 134549348| . and such is the case with the program contained in this module.. From this output. using nm to extract the symbol table from a sample program named CCtest produces the following output: # /usr/ccs/bin/nm . In many cases. a memory leak occurs when an object is created. you may notice that your compiler converts some C++ names into mangled.. If your C++ application was compiled with gcc/g++. or class functions. For example.

We can use the DTrace pid provider to enable probes associated with our mangled C++ symbols. CCtest | grep TestClass | 134549280| 37|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |__1cJTestClass2t6M_v_ | 134549352| 54|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |__1cJTestClass2t6Mi_v_ | 134549317| 35|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |__1cJTestClass2t6Mpc_v_ Sun Studio symbols with c++filt: # nm [65] [56] [92] . And finally... g++ symbols with gc++filt: # nm gCCtest | grep TestClass | gc++filt [86] | 134550070| 41|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |TestClass::TestClass(char*) [110] | 134550180| 68|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |TestClass::TestClass(int) [114] | 134549984| 43|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |TestClass::TestClass() .. displaying symbols with nm -C: [64] | 134549344| 71|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass() [__1cJTestClass2t6M_v_] [87] | 134549424| 70|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(const char*) [__1cJTestClass2t6Mpkc_v_] [57] | 134549504| 95|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(int) [__1cJTestClass2t6Mi_v_] Let’s use this information to create a DTrace script to perform an aggregation on the object calls associated with our test program.. CCtest | grep TestClass | c++filt | 134549280| 37|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass() | 134549352| 54|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(int) | 134549317| 35|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(char*) g++ symbols without gc++filt: [86] | 134550070| 41|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |_ZN9TestClassC1EPc [110] | 134550180| 68|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |_ZN9TestClassC1Ei [114] | 134549984| 43|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |_ZN9TestClassC1Ev . the open source gc++filt found in /usr/sfw/bin can be used to demangle the symbols contained in your g++ application.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program GNU mangled names... let’s start by counting the following: Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 63 .. To test our constructor/destructor theory.. Examples: Sun Studio symbols without c++filt: # nm [65] [56] [92] .

d ‘pgrep CCtest‘ | c++filt The DTrace output is piped through c++filt to demangle the C++ symbols. }’‘ | egrep "new|delete" __1c2k6Fpv_v_ == void operator delete(void*) __1c2n6FI_pv_ == void*operator new(unsigned) The corresponding DTrace script is used to enable probes on new() and delete() (saved as CCagg. Caution – You can’t exit the DTrace script with a ^C as you would do normally because c++filt will be killed along with DTrace and you’re left with no output. 2006 . } END { printa(@n). } Start the CCtest program in one window.d): #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_: { @n[probefunc] = count().calls to delete() Use the following script to extract the symbols corresponding to the new() and delete() functions from the CCtest program: # dem ‘nm CCtest | awk -F\| ’{ print $NF. go to another window on your system and type: # pkill dtrace Use this sequence of steps for the rest of the exercises: 64 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. } pid$1::__1c2k6Fpv_v_: { @d[probefunc] = count(). printa(@d).calls to new() The number of objects destroyed -. then execute the script we just created in another window as follows: # dtrace -s . To display the output of this command.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program I I The number of objects created -./CCagg. with the following caution.

} /* call to delete() */ pid$1::__1c2k6Fpv_v_:entry { printf("%s: %x\n". The DTrace argument variables are used to display the addresses associated with our objects. we should see the same pointer value as arg0 in the call to delete(). probefunc. probefunc.d: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option quiet /* __1c2k6Fpv_v_ == void operator delete(void*) __1c2n6FI_pv_ == void*operator new(unsigned) */ /* return from new() */ pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_:return { printf("%s: %x\n"./CCtest Window 2: # dtrace -s scriptname | c++filt Window 3: # pkill dtrace The output of our aggregation script in window 2 should look like this: void*operator new(unsigned) void operator delete(void*) 12 8 So. With a slight modification to our initial script. arg1). } Execute this script: # dtrace -s ./CCaddr. arg0). Since a pointer to the object is contained in the return value of new(). we now have the following script.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Window 1: # . Let’s check the memory addresses of our objects and attempt to match the instances of new() and delete().d ‘pgrep CCtest‘ | c++filt Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 65 . named CCaddr. we may be on the right track with the theory that we are creating more objects than we are deleting.

then type this in window 3: # pkill dtrace Our output looks like a repeating pattern of three calls to new() and two calls to delete(): void*operator void*operator void*operator void operator void operator new(unsigned): new(unsigned): new(unsigned): delete(void*): delete(void*): 809e480 8068a70 809e4a0 8068a70 809e4a0 As you inspect the repeating output. } pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_:return { printf("%s: %x\n". 2006 . a pattern emerges. Including a call to ustack() on entry to new() provides a hint. Here’s the modification to our previous script. then type pkill dtrace in Window 3 to print the following output: 66 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.d in Window 2. arg0). probefunc.d: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option quiet /* __1c2k6Fpv_v_ == void operator delete(void*) __1c2n6FI_pv_ == void*operator new(unsigned) */ pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_:entry { ustack(). At this point we have identified the source of the memory leak! Let’s continue with DTrace and see what else we can learn from this information. It seems that the first new() of the repeating pattern does not have a corresponding call to delete().Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Wait for a bit. renamed CCstack. arg1). } Execute CCstack. We still do not know what type of class is associated with the object created at address 809e480. probefunc. } pid$1::__1c2k6Fpv_v_:entry { printf("%s: %x\n".

so.1‘void*operator new(unsigned) CCtest‘main+0x9a CCtest‘0x8050cda void*operator new(unsigned): 80a2bf0 void operator delete(void*): 8068a70 void operator delete(void*): 80a2bf0 The ustack() data tells us that new() is called from main+0x19.so.so.1 ld.so.-0x34(%ebp) main+0xf: movl %edi.1478 dumped # mdb core.%esp main+0x1c: movl %eax.1478 Loading modules: [ libc.d ‘pgrep CCtest‘ | c++filt libCrun.-0x38(%ebp) main+0x12: pushl $0x8 main+0x14: call -0x2e4 <PLT=libCrun.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program # dtrace -s . at main+0x19. and main+0x9a -we’re interested in the object associated with the first call to new().1‘void*operator new(unsigned) CCtest‘main+0x19 CCtest‘0x8050cda void*operator new(unsigned): 80a2bd0 libCrun.%ebp main+3: subl $0x38./CCstack..1‘__1c2n6FI_pv_> main+0x19: addl $0x4..%esp main+6: movl %esp.1 ] > main::dis main: pushl %ebp main+1: movl %esp.-0x10(%ebp) main+0x1f: movl -0x10(%ebp). To determine the type of constructor called at main+0x19. main+0x57.so. Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 67 .-0x30(%ebp) main+0xc: movl %esi.1‘void*operator new(unsigned) CCtest‘main+0x57 CCtest‘0x8050cda void*operator new(unsigned): 8068a70 libCrun.%eax main+0x22: pushl %eax main+0x23: call +0x1d5 <__1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_> .-0x2c(%ebp) main+9: movl %ebx.so. we can use mdb as follows: # gcore ‘pgrep CCtest‘ gcore: core.

So. TestClass(const char *name).. a call to new TestClass() at main+0x19 is the cause of the memory leak. t = new TestClass(). delete(tt). virtual char *ClassName() const. Examining the CCtest.. 2006 ."). cout << tt->ClassName(). at offset main+0x23.h class TestClass { public: TestClass(). virtual ~TestClass(). Source files created for this example: EXAMPLE 8–1 TestClass. cout << t->ClassName(). . This example is intended to model the DTrace approach to interactive process debugging. displaying function arguments and return values. TestClass(int i). tt = new TestClass((const char *)"Goodbye. delete(t). The DTrace pid provider allows you to enable a probe at any instruction associated with a process that is being examined. cout << t->ClassName(). DTrace features used in this example include: aggregations. we have identified a call to the constructor __1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ that is never destroyed."). Using dem to demangle this symbol produces: # dem __1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ __1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ == TestClass::TestClass #Nvariant 1() Thus. It’s clear that the first use of the variable t = new TestClass().. The dem and c++filt commands in Sun Studio software and the gc++filt in gcc were used to extract the function probes from the program symbol table and display the DTrace output in a source-compatible format.").. is overwritten by the second use: t = new TestClass((const char *)"Hello.. t = new TestClass((const char *)"Hello.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Our constructor is called after the call to new. The memory leak has been identified and a fix can be implemented.cc source file reveals: . 68 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. and viewing the user call stack.

cc #include #include #include #include #include <iostream.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program EXAMPLE 8–1 TestClass.h> "TestClass.cc: #include #include #include #include #include <stdio. } TestClass::TestClass(const char *name) { str=strdup(name). }.h> <string.h> <stdlib.h> "TestClass. } TestClass::~TestClass() { if ( str ) free(str). i).h" int main(int argc.h> <stdio.h> <unistd."). } EXAMPLE 8–2 CCtest. sprintf(str.h" TestClass::TestClass() { str=strdup("empty. } TestClass::TestClass(int i) { str=(char *)malloc(128). TestClass. } char *TestClass::ClassName() const { return str.h (Continued) private: char *str.h> <unistd. char **argv) Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 69 .h> <stdlib. "Integer = %d".

o: $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $< 70 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.o TestClass.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program EXAMPLE 8–2 CCtest.cc. sleep(1)."). delete(t). delete(tt). } } EXAMPLE 8–3 Makefile OBJS=CCtest. while (1) { t = new TestClass(). cout << t->ClassName().o PROGS=CCtest CC=CC all: $(PROGS) echo "Done. TestClass *tt.")." clean: rm $(OBJS) $(PROGS) CCtest: $(OBJS) $(CC) -o CCtest $(OBJS) . 2006 . t = new TestClass((const char *)"Hello. tt = new TestClass((const char *)"Goodbye.cc (Continued) { TestClass *t. cout << t->ClassName(). cout << tt->ClassName().

Then.M O D U L E Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 9 9 Objectives This module will build on what we’ve learned about using DTrace to observe processes by examining a page fault. 71 . we’ll incorporate low-level debugging with MDB to find the problem in the code.

72 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Inc. Sun Microsystems. 2006 .. 2005.Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB Additional Resources Solaris Modular Debugger Guide.

h. we’ll examine the code and data structures used to handle page faults. Most of the data structures involved in the software side of memory management are defined in /usr/include/vm/*. In this module.Software Memory Management Software Memory Management OpenSolaris memory management uses software constructs called segments to manage virtual memory of processes as well as the kernel itself. Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 73 .

Look for the <----symbol to find associated text in the output.d with the following script: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent pagefault:entry /execname == $$1/ { printf("fault occurred on address = %p\n". We’ll use the output of the script to determine what source code needs to be examined for more detail. we’ve added text to the extensive code output to guide the exercise. Create a file called pagefault. } entry /self->in == 1/ { } return /self->in == 1/ { } 74 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Note – In this module. We’ll start with a DTrace script to trace the actions of a single page fault for a given process. The script prints the user virtual address that caused the fault.Software Memory Management Using DTrace and MDB to Examine Virtual Memory The objective of this lab is to examine a page fault using DTrace and MDB. args[0]). self->in = 1. } pagefault:return /self->in == 1/ { self->in = 0. and then traces every function that is called from the time of the fault until the page fault handler returns. 1 2 Open a terminal window. 2006 . exit(0).

page tables are hashed on x86 -> htable_getpte <-.i86pc/vm/hat_i86. Also.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.containing fault address -> as_segcompar <-.c -> htable_getpage <-.c or sun4/vm/vm_dep.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <./pagefault.generic address space fault common/vm/vm_as. # .c -> as_fault <-./pagefault.search segments for segment <. for instance.look for page table entry for page <-. so you’ll see various calls to mutex_owner().as_segcompar <.as_segat -> segvn_fault <-.i86pc/vm/htable. Assertions are turned on only for debug kernels.c <.segment containing fault is found.htable_lookup -> htable_va2entry <.c or sfmmu/vm/hat_sfmmu.common/vm/vm_as. which is only used with ASSERT().c -> hat_probe <-. assertions are turned on.d’ matched 42626 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> pagefault fault occurred on address = fb985ea2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | pagefault:entry <-. as mozilla is not an exact match with the name. Note – You need to specify mozilla-bin as the executable name.i86pc/vm/vm_machdep.c -> as_segat -> avl_find <-.c -> htable_lookup <.avl_find <.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.as_segcompar <-.htable_va2entry Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 75 .as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.d mozilla-bin dtrace: script ’.common/vm/seg_vn.Software Memory Management 3 Run the script on Mozilla.segments are in AVL tree -> as_segcompar <-.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <. (not SEGV) <-.

page_lookup -> ufs_getpage_miss <-.hat_kpm_pfn2va <.check for page already in memory -> page_lookup_create <-.pageio_setup -> lufs_read_strategy <-.htable_getpage -> htable_release <.read some pages (common/vm/vm_pvn.Software Memory Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -> x86pte_get <-.file operation to retrieve page(s) -> ufs_getpage <-.page wasn’t in memory -> bmap_read <-. 2006 .hat_probe -> fop_getpage <-.x86pte_get <.common/io/dktp/disk/cmdk.htable_getpte <.htable_release <.direct attached disk (dad(7D)) <-.read block device (disk) common/os/driver.get block number of page from inode -> bread_common -> getblk_common <.cmdkstrategy 76 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.common/vm/vm_page.bmap_has_holes -> page_lookup <-.c) -> bmap_has_holes <-.create some pages <.c) <-.segvn_kluster <.setup page(s) for io common/os/bio.page_create_va -> segvn_kluster <.check for sparse file <.pvn_read_kluster -> pageio_setup <-.c) -> page_create_va &lt-.c <.return a page table entry -> x86pte_access_pagetable -> hat_kpm_pfn2va <.used for ide disks (common/io/dktp/dcdev/dadk.dadk_strategy <.page_lookup_create <-.common disk driver (cmdk(7D)) <-.bmap_read -> pvn_read_kluster &lt-.create page if needed <.bread_common <.getblk_common <.c <.driver sets up dma and starts page in <.file is in ufs fs (common/fs/ufs/ufs_vnops.logged ufs read -> bdev_strategy <-.c -> dadk_strategy <-.c -> cmdkstrategy <-.x86pte_access_pagetable -> x86pte_release_pagetable <.x86pte_release_pagetable <.

x86_hm_enter -> hment_prepare <.hment_prepare -> x86pte_set <-.let someone else run (common/disp/disp.c -> sema_p <-.disp -> resume <-.dispatch to next thread to run <.locate entry in page table -> x86_hm_enter <.page is in memory <.hment_assign Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 77 .x86pte_access_pagetable -> x86pte_release_pagetable <.save old context <.swtch <.bdev_strategy -> biowait <-.x86pte_release_pagetable <.get page frame number <.someone else is running here.undo pageio_setup <.fill in pte into page table -> x86pte_access_pagetable -> hat_kpm_pfn2va <.pvn_plist_init <.call hat to load pte(s) for page(s) -> hat_memload -> page_pptonum <-.wait for pagein to complete common/os/bio. -> restorectx <-.ufs_getpage <.Software Memory Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <.pageio_done -> pvn_plist_init <.x86pte_set -> hment_assign <.intel/ia32/ml/swtch.actual switching occurs here <-.page_pptonum -> hati_mkpte <-.restorectx <.resume <.restore context (we’ve been awakened) <..wakeup via sema_v from completion interrupt -> swtch <-.biowait -> pageio_done <-..savectx <-.hat_kpm_pfn2va <.sema_p <.ufs_getpage_miss <-.hati_mkpte -> hati_pte_map <-.build page table entry <.c) -> disp <-.s -> savectx <-.s or sun4/ml/swtch.fop_getpage -> segvn_faultpage <-.

segvn_fault() then calls segvn_faultpage(). as_fault() walks an AVL tree of seg structures looking for a segment containing the faulting address. other threads will run. the instruction causing the page fault will be retried and should now complete successfully. it is "reclaimed" off the free list. I I I I I I I I I I 78 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. When pagefault() returns. Then we call a device driver strategy routine. If no such segment is found. The disk driver returns through the file system code out to segvn_fault().pagefault Remember that the above output has been shortened.hat_memload <. the following has happened on the page fault: I I I The pagefault() routine is called to handle page faults.e. see strategy(9E) for an overview of what the strategy routine is supposed to do. the disk driver interrupt handler wakes up the blocked mozilla-bin thread. The pagefault() routine calls as_fault() to handle faults on a given address space. this is segvn_fault() segvn_fault() looks for the faulting page already in memory. If the page does not already exist. a segment specific fault handler is called.x86_hm_exit <.segvn_fault <.as_fault <.segvn_faultpage <. the virtual address that caused the page fault should now be mapped to a valid physical page.Software Memory Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # -> x86_hm_exit <.. we need to page it in. the thread causing the page fault blocks (i. the page is not already in memory. If the segment is found. segvn_faultpage() calls the HAT (Hardware Address Translation) layer to load the page table entry(s) (PTE)s for the page. When the paging I/O has completed. ufs_getpage() finds the block number(s) of the page(s) within the file system by calling bmap_read(). switches out) via a call to swtch(). While the page is being read.hati_pte_map <. At a high level. so we call ufs_getpage(). For most segments. 2006 . the process is sent a SIGSEGV (segmentation violation) signal. Here. At this point. At this point. If the page already exists (but has been freed).

# mdb -k Loading modules: [ unix krtld genunix specfs dtrace ufs ip sctp usba random fctl s1394 nca lofs crypto nfs audiosup sppp cpc fcip ptm ipc ] > ::ps !grep mozilla-bin <-. Note – The search for the segment containing the fault address found the correct segment after 8 segments. Use mdb to locate the segment containing the fault address. b. Using an AVL tree shortens the search! c. you may want to use: ::log /tmp/logfile in mdb and then !vi /tmp/logfile to search. Open a terminal window. See calls to as_segcompar in the DTrace output above.. Find the number of segments used by mozilla by using pmap as follows: # pmap -x ‘pgrep mozilla-bin‘ | wc 368 2730 23105 # The output shows that there are approximately 368 segments. 0xffffffff82fa7c80 ] avl_pcb = 0xffffffff82fa796d } s_ops = segvn_ops s_data = 0xffffffff82d85070 } Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 79 .find the mozilla-bin process R 933 919 887 885 100 0x42014000 ffffffff81d6a040 mozilla-bin > ffffffff81d6a040::print proc_t p_as | ::walk seg | ::print struct seg <-.greater/equal to base and < base+size s_szc = 0 s_flags = 0 s_as = 0xffffffff828b61d0 s_tree = { avl_child = [ 0xffffffff82fa7920.Software Memory Management 4 Use mdb to examine the kernel data structures and locate the page of physical memory that corresponds to the fault as follows: a. Or.. --> { s_base = 0xfb800000 <-. fault addr (fb985ea2) s_size = 0x561000 <-. Note – If you want to follow along.Lots of output has been omitted. you can just run mdb within an editor buffer.this is the seg we want.

2006 .walk page list on vnode <-.offset within segment 185ea2 <-.walk list of pages on vnode_t 1236 1236 21012 <-.we’ll look at anonymous space later vpage = 0xffffffff82552000 cred = 0xffffffff81f95018 swresv = 0 advice = 0 pageadvice = 0x1 flags = 0x490 softlockcnt = 0 policy_info = { mem_policy = 0x1 mem_reserved = 0 } } > ffffffff82f9e480::print vnode_t v_path v_path = 0xffffffff82f71090 "/usr/sfw/lib/mozilla/components/libgklayout.points to a vnode_t anon_index = 0 amp = 0 <-.Software Memory Management <-.from s_data { lock = { _opaque = [ 0 ] } segp_slock = { _opaque = [ 0 ] } pageprot = 0x1 prot = 0xd maxprot = 0xf type = 0x2 offset = 0 vp = 0xffffffff82f9e480 <-.here is matching page p_vnode = 0xffffffff82f9e480 80 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.and lots more output omitted --> > ffffffff82d85070::print segvn_data_t <-.so" > fb985ea2-fb800000=K <-.rounding down to page boundary gives 185000 (4kpage size) > ffffffff82f9e480::walk page !wc <-. (not all are necessarily valid) > ffffffff82f9e480::walk page | ::print page_t <-.1236 pages.lots of pages omitted in output --> { p_offset = 0x185000 <-.

Software Memory Management p_selock = 0 p_selockpad = 0 p_hash = 0xfffffffffae21c00 p_vpnext = 0xfffffffffaca9760 p_vpprev = 0xfffffffffb3467f8 p_next = 0xfffffffffad8f800 p_prev = 0xfffffffffad8f800 p_lckcnt = 0 p_cowcnt = 0 p_cv = { _opaque = 0 } p_io_cv = { _opaque = 0 } p_iolock_state = 0 p_szc = 0 p_fsdata = 0 p_state = 0 p_nrm = 0x2 p_embed = 0x1 p_index = 0 p_toxic = 0 p_mapping = 0xffffffff82d265f0 p_pagenum = 0xbd62 <-.the page frame number of page p_share = 0 p_sharepad = 0 p_msresv_1 = 0 p_mlentry = 0x185 p_msresv_2 = 0 } <-.multiple page frame number time page size (hex) bd62000 <-.here is physical address of page > bd62000+ea2.and lots more output omitted --> > bd62*1000=K <-.10/K <-.dump 16 64-bit hex values at physical address 0xbd62ea2: 2ccec81ec8b55 e8575653f0e48300 32c3815b00000000 5d89d46589003ea7 840ff6850c758be0 e445c7000007df 1216e8000000 dbe850e4458d5650 7d830cc483ffeeea 791840f00e4 c085e8458904468b 500c498b088b2474 8b17eb04c483d1ff e8458de05d8bd465 c483ffeeeac8e850 458b0000074ce904 Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 81 .

%esp 0xfb985eab: andl $0xfffffff0.Software Memory Management > bd62000+ea2.%esp 0xfb985eae: pushq %rbx 0xfb985eaf: pushq %rsi 0xfb985eb0: pushq %rdi 0xfb985eb1: call +0x5 <0xfb985eb6> 0xfb985eb6: popq %rbx 0xfb985eb7: addl $0x3ea732.%esi 0xfb985ec8: je +0x7e5 <0xfb9866ad> 0xfb985ece: movl $0x0.looks like a match 0xfb985ea3: movl %esp.%ebx 0xbd62ebd: movl %esp.%esi 0xfb985ec6: testl %esi.-0x2c(%rbp) 0xfb985ec0: movl %ebx.%esp 0xbd62eab: andl $0xfffffff0.-0x1c(%rbp) > ffffffff81d6a040::context <-. 2006 .10/ai <-. let’s try dumping as code 0xbd62ea2: 0xbd62ea2: pushq %rbp 0xbd62ea3: movl %esp.and dump from faulting virtual address 0xfb985ea2: 0xfb985ea2: pushq %rbp <-.%esi 0xbd62ec8: je +0x7e5 <0xbd636ad> 0xbd62ece: movl $0x0.get as for mozilla-bin 82 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.data looks like code.-0x2c(%rbp) 0xbd62ec0: movl %ebx.%ebp 0xbd62ea5: subl $0x2cc.-0x20(%rbp) 0xbd62ec3: movl 0xc(%rbp).%esp 0xbd62eae: pushq %rbx 0xbd62eaf: pushq %rsi 0xbd62eb0: pushq %rdi 0xbd62eb1: call +0x5 <0xbd62eb6> 0xbd62eb6: popq %rbx 0xbd62eb7: addl $0x3ea732.%ebx 0xfb985ebd: movl %esp.change context from kernel to mozilla-bin debugger context set to proc ffffffff81d6a040.10/ai <-.%ebp 0xfb985ea5: subl $0x2cc.%esi 0xbd62ec6: testl %esi.-0x1c(%rbp) > 0::context debugger context set to kernel > ffffffff81d6a040::print proc_t p_as <-. the address of the process > fb985ea2.-0x20(%rbp) 0xfb985ec3: movl 0xc(%rbp).

Once the page_t is located. a vnode_t maps the segment data. Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 83 . The vnode_t contains a list of pages that "belong to" the vnode_t. we print the segvn_data structure. We then convert the page frame number to a physical address and examine some of the data at the address. we have the page frame number.Software Memory Management p_as = 0xffffffff828b61d0 > fb985ea2::vtop -a ffffffff828b61d0 <-. We then check the physical address by using the vtop (virtual-to-physical) mdb command. We locate the page corresponding to the offset within the segment. In this segment. It turns out this data is code.check our work virtual fb985ea2 mapped to physical bd62ea2 <-.physical address matches Once the segment is found.

84 .

10 M O D U L E 1 0 Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace Objectives The objective of this module is to build on knowledge of DTrace to observe processes that run inside a zone. 85 .

Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace Additional Resources I System Administration Guide: Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Solaris Zones 86 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2006 .

There are two types of non-global zone root file system models: sparse and whole root. By default. At first login. If the zone is associated with a pool that has its pool. The global administrator uses the zonecfg command to configure a zone by specifying various parameters for the zone’s virtual platform and application environment. The global administrator can log in to the installed zone by using the zlogin command.Global and Non-Global Zones Global and Non-Global Zones Now that we have some knowledge of debugging applications. Multiple zones can share a resource pool or in order to meet service guarantees. let’s work on debugging applications that run in zones. The scheduling class for a non-global zone is set to the scheduling class for the system. Every OpenSolaris system contains a global zone. a single zone can be bound to a specific pool. The zone is then installed by the global administrator.scheduler property set to a valid scheduling class. who uses the zone administration command zoneadm to install software at the package level into the file system hierarchy established for the zone. The zoneadm command is then used to boot the zone. Module 10 • Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace 87 . the internal configuration for the zone is completed. then processes running in the zone run in that scheduling class by default. The global zone is both the default zone for the system and the zone used for system-wide administrative control. You can also set the scheduling class for a zone through the dynamic resource pools facility. Percentage of the CPU the zone is entitled to is the ratio of its shares and the total number of shares for all zones bound to a particular resource pool. The global zone has a dual function. The sparse root zone model optimizes the sharing of objects. The whole root zone model provides the maximum file system configurability. all zones including the global zone have one (1) fair share scheduler share assigned to them.

Log into the global zone: % zlogin password: # 3 Count the number of I/O operations per zone: # dtrace -n io:::start{@[zonename] = count()} 88 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. process tools like prstat(1M). 2006 . 1 2 Open a terminal window. From the global zone.Global and Non-Global Zones DTracing a Process Running in a Zone This lab will focus on observing processes running in a zone. ps(1) and truss(1) can be used to observe processes in other zones. DTrace may be used from the global zone and supports a zonename variable and the pr_zoneid field in psinfo_t for use with the proc provider.

11 M O D U L E 1 1 Configuring Filesystems With ZFS Objectives The objective of this lesson is to provide an introduction to ZFS by showing you how to create a simple ZFS pool with a mirrored filesystem. 89 .

Configuring Filesystems With ZFS Additional Resources ZFS Administration Guide and man pages: http://opensolaris.org/os/community/zfs/docs/ 90 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2006 .

we’ll start by learning about mirrored storage pool configuration. the storage is fragmented across disks. ZFS formats the disk using an EFI label to contain a single. Then we’ll show you how to configure RAID-Z. In this module. large slice. Typically. ZFS uses pooled storage to eliminate the management problems associated with volumes and to enable all storage to be shared. The recommended mode of operation is to use an entire disk. this is a hard drive that is visible to the system in the /dev/dsk directory. The value of shared storage is the ability to repair damaged data. Module 11 • Configuring Filesystems With ZFS 91 .Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Each storage pool is comprised of one or more virtual devices. A storage device can be a whole disk (c0t0d0) or an individual slice (c0t0d0s7). which describe the layout of physical storage and its fault characteristics. in which case the disk does not need to be specially formatted. This can be any block device of at least 128 Mbytes in size. In traditional storage configurations which use partitions or volumes. The most basic building block for a storage pool is a piece of physical storage.

so let’s get on with it! It’s time to create your first pool: 1 2 Open a terminal window.0G USED 22. with a single filesystem mounted at /tank. Create a single-disk storage pool named tank: # zpool create tank c1t2d0 You now have a single-disk storage pool named tank.Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Creating Mirrored Storage Pools The objective of this lab exercise is to create and list a mirrored storage pool using the zpool command.7G CAP HEALTH 28% ONLINE ALTROOT - 4 Create a mirror of tank: # zpool create tank mirror c1t2d0 c2t2d0 The storage pool is mirrored on c2t2d0. 3 Validate that the pool was created: # zpool list NAME tank SIZE 80. 92 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. ZFS is easy.3G AVAIL 47. 2006 .

Module 11 • Configuring Filesystems With ZFS 93 . set the mount point for the home directory: # zfs set mountpoint=/export/home tank/home 6 Finally. That is. 1 2 Open a terminal window.Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Creating a Filesystem and /home Directories The objective of this lab exercise is to learn how to set up a filesystem with several /home directories. Create the /var/mail filesystem: # zfs create tank/mail 3 Set the mount point for the /var/mail filesystem: # zfs set mountpoint=/var/mail tank/mail 4 Create the home directory: # zfs create tank/home 5 Then. tank/home/developer1 is automatically mounted at /export/home/developer1 because tank/home is mounted at /export/home. create home directories for all of your developers: # zfs create tank/home/developer1 # zfs create tank/home/developer2 # zfs create tank/home/developer3 # zfs create tank/home/developer4 The mountpoint property is inherited as a pathname prefix. we’ll use the zfs command to create a filesystem and set its mountpoint. In this lab.

The above command is just an example of using disk slices in a storage pool. You need at least two disks for a RAID-Z configuration. /dev/dsk/c0t0d4s0 is identical to c0t0d4s0 by itself. except that the raidz keyword is used instead of mirror. Note that there is no requirement to use disk slices in a RAID-Z configuration. Creating a RAID-Z pool is identical to a mirrored pool. 2006 . the disk must have been pre-formatted to have an appropriately sized slice zero. Other than that. 94 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Disks can be specified using their full path. 1 2 Open a terminal window. Create a pool with a single RAID-Z device consisting of 5 disk slices: # zpool create tank raidz c0t0d0s0 c0t0d1s0 c0t0d2s0 c0t0d3s0 c0t0d4s0 In the above example. You might want to configure RAID-Z instead of mirrored pools for greater redundancy. no special hardware is required to create a RAID-Z configuration.Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Configuring RAID-Z The objective of this lab exercise is to introduce you to the RAID-Z configuration.

You can use this driver as a template for building a complex driver. working driver. 95 .12 M O D U L E 1 2 Writing a Template Character Device Driver Objectives This module shows you how to develop a very simple. and test the driver. load the driver. This driver demonstrates the minimum functionality that any character driver must implement. compile the driver. This module explains how to write the driver and configuration file. The driver that is shown in this module is a pseudo device driver that merely writes a message to a system log every time an entry point is entered.

2006 .Writing a Template Character Device Driver Additional Resources I I Writing Device Drivers. Inc. Solaris Modular Debugger Guide. Sun Microsystems.. 2005. Sun Microsystems. 96 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Inc.. 2005.

and _fini(9E). reading from and writing to the device node. read(9E). 8. and write(9E). Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 97 .c. getinfo(9E). and unloading the driver. Create the driver configuration file dummy. Create a directory where you can develop your driver and open a new text file named dummy. 6. 4. Write the entry points for loadable module configuration: _init(9E). Build and install the driver. and prop_op(9E). Define the data structures: the character and block operations structure cb_ops(9S). Write the entry points for autoconfiguration: attach(9E). and the module linkage structures modldrv(9S) and modlinkage(9S).conf. the device operations structure dev_ops(9S). Write the entry points for user context: open(9E). _info(9E). close(9E). 3. 5.Overview of the Template Driver Example Overview of the Template Driver Example This example guides you through the following steps: 1. detach(9E). 2. Test the driver by loading the driver. 7.

The _fini(9E) routine prepares a loadable module for unloading.Writing the Template Driver Writing the Template Driver This section describes the entry points and data structures that are included in this driver and shows you how to define them. the _fini(9E) routine must undo everything that the _init(9E) routine did. You do not need to investigate what the values of the arguments of these functions should be. and mod_remove(9F) functions are used in exactly the same way in every driver. You can copy these function calls from this example and paste them into every driver you write. This section describes the following entry points and data structures: I I I I I I Loadable module configuration entry points Autoconfiguration entry points User context entry points Character and block operations structure Device operations structure Module linkage structures First. In this section. open a new text file named dummy. When mod_remove(9F) is successful. The _init(9E) routine must at least call the mod_install(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_install(9F). This driver is named dummy because this driver does not do any real work. 2006 . The _info(9E) routine returns information about a loadable module. Next. The _fini(9E) routine must at least call the mod_remove(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_remove(9F).c source file: 98 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.c. All of these data structures and almost all of these entry points are required for any character device driver. the following code is added to the dummy. mod_info(9F). create a directory where you can develop your driver. regardless of the functionality of the driver. The _info(9E) routine must at least call the mod_info(9F) function and return the value that is returned by mod_info(9F). I I The mod_install(9F). Writing the Loadable Module Configuration Entry Points Every kernel module of any type must define at least the following three loadable module configuration entry points: I The _init(9E) routine initializes a loadable module.

h header file. The cmn_err(9F) function requires you to include the cmn_err.h header file. but the names of these routines are not unique. The cmn_err(9F) function takes two arguments. _info(9E). } Declaring the Loadable Module Configuration Entry Points The _init(9E).c. modinfop)).h header file. The _init(9E) routine must call the mod_install(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_install(9F). Use the cmn_err(9F) function to write a message to a system log. The mod_install(9F) function takes an argument that is a modlinkage(9S) structure. This driver is supposed to write a message each time an entry point is entered. return(mod_info(&ml. "Inside _init"). These three routines are declared in the modctl.h header file. the ddi.c file. Defining the Module Initialization Entry Point The _init(9E) routine returns type int and takes no arguments. "Inside _fini").Writing the Template Driver /* Loadable module configuration entry points */ int _init(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. "Inside _info").h header file in your dummy. You customize the behavior of these routines when you define them in your module. Do not declare these three routines in dummy. } int _info(struct modinfo *modinfop) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. The cmn_err(9F) function usually is used to report an error condition. You need to include the modctl. The cmn_err(9F) function also is useful for debugging in the same way that you might use print statements in a user program. and _fini(9E) routine names are not unique to any particular kernel module. } int _fini(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. return(mod_remove(&ml)). and the sunddi. return(mod_install(&ml)). The first Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 99 .

2006 . The _info(9E) routine must return the value that is returned by the mod_info(9F) function. The mod_info(9F) function returns the module information or returns zero if an error occurs. } Defining the Module Information Entry Point The _info(9E) routine returns type int and takes an argument that is a pointer to an opaque modinfo structure. int _init(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. return(mod_info(&ml. Use the cmn_err(9F) function to write a message to the system log in the same way that you used the cmn_err(9F) function in your _init(9E) entry point. The modinfop argument is a pointer to an opaque structure that the system uses to pass module information.c file. The ml structure is the modlinkage(9S) structure. The following code is the _init(9E) routine that you should enter into your dummy. The message written by this driver is not an error message but is simply a test message. The following code is the _info(9E) routine that you should enter into your dummy. "Inside _init"). "Inside _info"). } Defining the Module Unload Entry Point The _fini(9E) routine returns type int and takes no arguments. The second argument the cmn_err(9F) function takes is a string message. Use CE_NOTE for the value of this severity constant. return(mod_install(&ml)). The _fini(9E) routine must call the mod_remove(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_remove(9F). modinfop)). int _info(struct modinfo *modinfop) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. 100 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The mod_info(9F) function takes two arguments. The second argument to mod_info(9F) is the same modinfo structure pointer that is the argument to the _info(9E) routine. The first argument to mod_info(9F) is a modlinkage(9S) structure.c file.Writing the Template Driver argument is a constant that indicates the severity of the error message.

If the driver is not busy. close anything that was opened. A module depends on this driver if the module was linked using the -N option with this driver named as the argument to that -N option. the module determines that devices were not detached. Use the cmn_err(9F) function to write a message to the system log in the same way that you used the cmn_err(9F) function in your _init(9E) entry point. and _fini(9E) continues its cleanup work. and the module cannot be unloaded. the _fini(9E) routine often fails. and destroy anything that was created in the _init(9E) routine. If mod_remove(9F) fails.c file. int _fini(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. If detach(9E) succeeds. and the module can be unloaded. In normal operation. The _fini(9E) routine must call mod_remove(9F) because the _init(9E) routine called mod_install(9F). The _fini(9E) routine can be called at any time when a module is loaded. This driver is busy if one of the following conditions is true: I I A device node that is managed by this driver is open. The mod_remove(9F) function takes an argument that is a modlinkage(9S) structure.Writing the Template Driver When mod_remove(9F) is successful. See the ld(1) man page for more information. The _fini(9E) routine must deallocate anything that was allocated. then mod_remove(9F) succeeds. This behavior is normal because the kernel allows the module to determine whether the module can be unloaded. If mod_remove(9F) is successful. return(mod_remove(&ml)). "Inside _fini"). I I If the driver is busy. I I If detach(9E) fails. Another module that depends on this driver is open. then mod_remove(9F) fails and _fini(9E) fails. } Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 101 . the _fini(9E) routine must undo everything that the _init(9E) routine did. then the kernel calls the detach(9E) entry point of the driver. then mod_remove(9F) fails and _fini(9E) fails. the module determines that devices were detached. The following code is the _fini(9E) routine that you should enter into your dummy. The following actions take place when mod_remove(9F) is called: I The kernel checks whether this driver is busy.

if (ddi_create_minor_node(dip. #include #include #include #include <sys/modctl.h header file. and mod_install(9F) functions require you to include the modctl. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. 2006 . S_IFCHR.h header file. Include this code near the top of your dummy.Writing the Template Driver Including Loadable Module Configuration Header Files The _init(9E). _fini */ all entry points for this driver */ all entry points for this driver */ all entry points for this driver */ Writing the Autoconfiguration Entry Points Every character driver must define at least the following autoconfiguration entry points. _info(9E). The kernel calls these routines when the device driver is loaded. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function provides the information the system needs to create the device files.c file.h header file.h> <sys/ddi.0) 102 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. I I I In this section. The prop_op(9E) routine returns requested device driver property information through a pointer.h header file. _fini(9E).h> <sys/cmn_err. I The attach(9E) routine must call ddi_create_minor_node(9F). ddi_get_instance(dip). the ddi. The following header files are required by the three loadable module configuration routines that you have written in this section. The getinfo(9E) routine returns requested device driver information through one of its arguments. The detach(9E) routine must undo everything that the attach(9E) routine did. DDI_PSEUDO. the following code is added: /* Device autoconfiguration entry points */ static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip.h> /* /* /* /* used used used used by by by by _init. "Inside dummy_attach"). Use the prop_op(9E) entry point to customize the behavior of the ddi_prop_op(9F) function. _info. The cmn_err(9F) function requires you to include the cmn_err. "0". switch(cmd) { case DDI_ATTACH: dummy_dip = dip.h> <sys/sunddi. and the sunddi. The detach(9E) routine must call ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) to deallocate everything that was allocated by ddi_create_minor_node(9F). You can call the ddi_prop_op(9F) function instead of writing your own prop_op(9E) entry point.

NULL). switch(cmd) { case DDI_DETACH: dummy_dip = 0. return DDI_SUCCESS. return(DDI_FAILURE). "Inside dummy_detach"). "Inside dummy_getinfo"). dev_info_t *dip. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. default: return DDI_FAILURE. } } static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. switch(cmd) { case DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO: *resultp = dummy_dip. case DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE: *resultp = 0. default: return DDI_FAILURE. } else return DDI_SUCCESS. } } static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. "%s%d: attach: could not add character node. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. ddi_remove_minor_node(dip.". 0). "dummy". void **resultp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. default: return DDI_FAILURE. void *arg. return DDI_SUCCESS. } } static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. return DDI_SUCCESS.Writing the Template Driver != DDI_SUCCESS) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 103 .

dev_info_t *dip. caddr_t valuep. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. The attach(9E) routine takes two arguments. Choose a prefix to use with each entry point routine. In the example shown in this module. Note – By convention. caddr_t valuep. 2006 . In a realistic driver. The first argument is a pointer to the dev_info structure for this driver. char *name. static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. int *lengthp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. Defining the Device Attach Entry Point The attach(9E) routine returns type int. char *name. All of the autoconfiguration entry point routines except for prop_op(9E) return either DDI_SUCCESS or DDI_FAILURE. The second argument is a constant that specifies the attach type. All of the autoconfiguration entry point routines take a dev_info argument.lengthp)). ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd). return(ddi_prop_op(dev. Each instance of the driver has its own copy of the state 104 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd).dip. The attach(9E) routine must return either DDI_SUCCESS or DDI_FAILURE.name. The DDI_ATTACH code must initialize a device instance. void **resultp). Note that each of these functions is declared static. static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev.flags. detach(9E). getinfo(9E).c file. static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip.valuep. int flags. the prefix used for function and data names that are unique to this driver is either the name of this driver or an abbreviation of the name of this driver. Use the same prefix throughout the driver. This practice makes debugging much easier. The value that is passed through this second argument is either DDI_ATTACH or DDI_RESUME. int *lengthp). The following declarations are the autoconfiguration entry point declarations you should have in your dummy. and prop_op(9E) entry point routines need to be uniquely named for this driver. void *arg.Writing the Template Driver int flags. "Inside dummy_prop_op"). you define and manage multiple instances of the driver by using a state structure and the ddi_soft_state(9F) functions. Every attach(9E) routine must define behavior for at least DDI_ATTACH.h. dummy_ is used for the prefix to each function and data name that is unique to this example. } Declaring the Autoconfiguration Entry Points The attach(9E).prop_op. These two constants are defined in sunddi.

One of the pieces of data that is specific to each instance is the device instance pointer. this driver does not use a state structure. static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. /* keep track of one instance */ The following code is the dummy_attach() routine that you should enter into your dummy. You need to save this pointer value in the global variable so that you can use this pointer to get information about this instance from dummy_getinfo() and detach this instance in dummy_detach(). Each instance of the device driver is represented by a separate device file in /devices. Each device instance file is pointed to by a separate device instance pointer. switch(cmd) { case DDI_ATTACH: dummy_dip = dip. Then provide DDI_ATTACH behavior. return(DDI_FAILURE). This driver still must declare a device instance pointer and initialize the pointer value in the attach(9E) routine. default: return DDI_FAILURE. } else return DDI_SUCCESS. S_IFCHR.c file. first assign the device instance pointer from the dummy_attach() argument to the dummy_dip variable that you declared above. This dummy driver allows only one instance. if (ddi_create_minor_node(dip. Because this driver allows only one instance. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. } } First. "0".0) != DDI_SUCCESS) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 105 . Within the DDI_ATTACH code.Writing the Template Driver structure that holds data specific to that instance. In this dummy_attach() routine. 0). The device instance pointer and the instance number both are used by ddi_create_minor_node(9F) to create a new device node. ddi_get_instance(dip). DDI_PSEUDO. Enter the following code near the beginning of dummy. "%s%d: attach: could not add character node. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log.c to declare a device instance pointer for this driver: dev_info_t *dummy_dip.". "Inside dummy_attach"). the device instance pointer is used by the ddi_get_instance(9F) function to return the instance number. "dummy".

you need to reset the variable that pointed to the dev_info structure for this node. The following code is the dummy_detach() routine that you should enter into your dummy. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) man page lists the possible node types. This is not a clone device. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function takes six arguments. In the DDI_ATTACH code in your attach(9E) routine. static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. The DDI_DETACH code must undo everything that the DDI_ATTACH code did. The fourth argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function is the minor number of this minor device. The sixth argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function specifies whether this is a clone device. The detach(9E) routine must deallocate anything that was allocated. You also need to call the ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) function to remove this node. The fifth argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function is the node type. The second argument is the name of this minor node. so set this argument value to 0. 2006 . This dummy driver uses the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function to create a device node. switch(cmd) { case DDI_DETACH: 106 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The third argument is S_IFCHR if this device is a character minor device or is S_IFBLK if this device is a block minor device. "Inside dummy_detach"). you saved the address of a new dev_info structure and you called the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function to create a new node. and destroy anything that was created in the attach(9E) routine. The DDI_PSEUDO node type is for pseudo devices. return DDI_SUCCESS. The first argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function is the device instance pointer that points to the dev_info structure of this device. If the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) call is not successful. The second argument is a constant that specifies the detach type. The ddi_get_instance(9F) function returns this instance number. This dummy driver is a character driver. In the DDI_DETACH code in this detach(9E) routine. The value that is passed through this second argument is either DDI_DETACH or DDI_SUSPEND. Every detach(9E) routine must define behavior for at least DDI_DETACH. If the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) call is successful. If this dummy_attach() routine receives any cmd other than DDI_ATTACH. The first argument is a pointer to the dev_info structure for this driver. return DDI_FAILURE. close anything that was opened.Writing the Template Driver A realistic driver probably would use the ddi_soft_state(9F) functions to create and manage a device node. write a message to the system log and return DDI_FAILURE. This number is also called the instance number.c file. Defining the Device Detach Entry Point The detach(9E) routine takes two arguments.

then ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) removes all instances of this device. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 107 . this dummy driver supports only one instance. If the value of the cmd argument to this dummy_detach() routine is DDI_DETACH. Next. The second argument to the getinfo(9E) routine is a constant that specifies what information the getinfo(9E) routine must return. ddi_remove_minor_node(dip. The first argument is the device instance pointer that points to the dev_info structure of this device. } } First. The ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) function takes two arguments. The second argument is the name of the minor node you want to remove. If the value of the minor node argument is NULL. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. The third argument to the getinfo(9E) routine is a pointer to a device number. This dummy driver supports only one instance. Then provide DDI_DETACH behavior.Writing the Template Driver dummy_dip = 0. The first argument is a pointer to the dev_info structure for this driver. The pointer or instance number requested from the getinfo(9E) routine is returned through a pointer argument. Within the DDI_DETACH code. The value of this second argument is either DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO or DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE. return DDI_SUCCESS. default: return DDI_FAILURE. The fourth argument is a pointer to the place where the getinfo(9E) routine must store the requested information. Because the DDI_DETACH code of this driver always removes all instances. You cannot reset this device instance pointer unless you remove all instances of the device. remove all instances of this device and return DDI_SUCCESS. The return value of the getinfo(9E) routine is DDI_SUCCESS or DDI_FAILURE. Defining the Get Driver Information Entry Point The getinfo(9E) routine takes a pointer to a device number and returns a pointer to a device information structure or returns a device instance number. If this dummy_detach() routine receives any cmd other than DDI_DETACH. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log. return DDI_FAILURE. The getinfo(9E) routine takes four arguments. This dev_info structure argument is obsolete and is no longer used by the getinfo(9E) routine. call the ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) function to remove this device node. NULL). first reset the dummy_dip variable that you set in dummy_attach() above. The information stored at this location depends on the value you passed in the second argument to the getinfo(9E) routine.

provide DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE behavior. TABLE 12–1 Get Driver Information Entry Point Arguments cmd arg resultp DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE Device number Device number Device information structure pointer Device instance number The following code is the dummy_getinfo() routine that you should enter into your dummy. This dummy driver supports only one instance.c file. This dummy driver supports only one instance and does not use a state structure. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. 108 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Next. default: return DDI_FAILURE. case DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE: *resultp = 0. simply return the one device information structure pointer that the dummy_attach() routine saved. Then provide DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO behavior. } } First. A realistic driver would use arg to get the instance number of this device node. "Inside dummy_getinfo"). static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. 2006 . simply return 0. switch(cmd) { case DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO: *resultp = dummy_dip. return DDI_SUCCESS.Writing the Template Driver The following table describes the relationship between the second and fourth arguments to the getinfo(9E) routine. Within the DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE code. void **resultp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. In the DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO code of this dummy_getinfo() routine. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log. A realistic driver would then call the ddi_get_soft_state(9F) function and return the device information structure pointer from that state structure. void *arg. return DDI_SUCCESS. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. The instance number of that one instance is 0.

caddr_t valuep. int *lengthp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.Writing the Template Driver Defining the Report Driver Property Information Entry Point The prop_op(9E) entry point is required for every driver.c file for the four autoconfiguration routines you have written in this section and the three loadable module configuration routines you wrote in the previous section. The dummy_attach() routine calls the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function. The prop_op(9E) entry point and the ddi_prop_op(9F) function both take the same seven arguments. Drivers that create and manage their own properties need a custom prop_op(9E) routine.h header file. static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev.lengthp)). } First. return(ddi_prop_op(dev. _info.h header files. Then call the ddi_prop_op(9F) function with exactly the same arguments as the dummy_prop_op() function. This dummy driver uses a prop_op(9E) routine to call cmn_err(9F) before calling the ddi_prop_op(9F) function. The following code is the dummy_prop_op() routine that you should enter into your dummy.h header file. int flags. If your driver does not need to customize the behavior of the prop_op(9E) entry point. These arguments are not discussed here because this dummy driver does not create and manage its own properties.h> /* defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 109 . _fini */ #include <sys/types. The following code is the list of header files that you now should have included in your dummy. #include <sys/modctl. The prop_op(9E) entry point and the ddi_prop_op(9F) function both require that you include the types.h> /* used by prop_op. then your driver can use the ddi_prop_op(9F) function for the prop_op(9E) entry point.h and sunddi. ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/stat.h> /* used by _init. Including Autoconfiguration Header Files All of the autoconfiguration entry point routines and all of the user context entry point routines require that you include the ddi.valuep.dip.c file.name. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. "Inside dummy_prop_op"). You already included these two header files for the cmn_err(9F) function. The prop_op(9E) and the ddi_prop_op(9F) functions require the types.flags. dev_info_t *dip. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function requires the stat.h header file. char *name. See the prop_op(9E) man page to learn about the prop_op(9E) arguments.prop_op. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log.

cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. struct uio *uiop. 110 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. int flag. int otyp. the open(9E) routine can be nulldev(9F). I I In this section. The close(9E) routine must undo everything that the open(9E) routine did.Writing the Template Driver #include <sys/cmn_err. int otyp. read(9E). cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. The read(9E) routine reads data from the device node. "Inside dummy_close"). When a system call opens a device file. "Inside dummy_read"). All character and block drivers must define the open(9E) user context entry point. return DDI_SUCCESS. return DDI_SUCCESS. The close(9E). the following code is added: /* Use context entry points */ static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. } static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. The close(9E) routine relinquishes access to the device. The write(9E) routine writes data to the device node. */ ddi_get_instance. int flag. I I The open(9E) routine gains access to the device. then the open(9E) routine in the driver for that device is called. } static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. "Inside dummy_open"). and ddi_prop_op */ Writing the User Context Entry Points User context entry points correspond closely to system calls.h> /* /* /* used by all entry points for this driver */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_get_instance.h> /* #include <sys/ddi.h> /* /* #include <sys/sunddi. However. ddi_prop_op */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_create_minor_node. and write(9E) user context routines are optional. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. 2006 .

The open(9E) routine takes four arguments. The following code is the dummy_open() routine that you should enter into your dummy. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. The following declarations are the entry point declarations you should have in your dummy. return DDI_SUCCESS. caddr_t valuep. static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. struct uio *uiop.Writing the Template Driver return DDI_SUCCESS. cred_t *cred). This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_open() routine does not use any of the open(9E) arguments. } Declaring the User Context Entry Points The user context entry point routines need to be uniquely named for this driver. char *name. void **resultp). static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. void *arg. struct uio *uiop. int flag. int otyp. struct uio *uiop. int flag. cred_t *cred). "Inside dummy_write"). return DDI_SUCCESS. Use the same prefix for each of the user context entry points that you used for each of the autoconfiguration entry point routines. static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd). Write a message to the system log and return success. int otyp. int flag. "Inside dummy_open").c file. } Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 111 . int flags. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd).c file: static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. The open(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. cred_t *credp). int otyp. dev_info_t *dip. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. int *lengthp). cred_t *credp). cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. Defining the Open Device Entry Point The open(9E) routine returns type int. static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. } static int dummy_write(dev_t dev.

cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. 2006 . This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_write() routine does not use any of the write(9E) arguments. and destroy anything that was created in the open(9E) routine.Writing the Template Driver Defining the Close Device Entry Point The close(9E) routine returns type int. return DDI_SUCCESS. 112 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. int otyp. int flag. The read(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. } Defining the Read Device Entry Point The read(9E) routine returns type int. The read(9E) routine takes three arguments. In this dummy driver. This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_read() routine does not use any of the read(9E) arguments. The close(9E) routine takes four arguments. The close(9E) routine must undo everything that the open(9E) routine did. struct uio *uiop. The following code is the dummy_read() routine that you should enter into your dummy.c file. close anything that was opened. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.c file. static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. return DDI_SUCCESS. Write a message to the system log and return success. The write(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. "Inside dummy_read"). This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_close() routine does not use any of the close(9E) arguments. Write a message to the system log and return success. the open(9E) routine is so simple that nothing needs to be reclaimed or undone in the close(9E) routine. "Inside dummy_close"). } Defining the Write Device Entry Point The write(9E) routine returns type int. The close(9E) routine must deallocate anything that was allocated. The close(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. The following code is the dummy_close() routine that you should enter into your dummy. The write(9E) routine takes three arguments.

The following code is the list of header files that you now should have included in your dummy.h header file.h. close. open.h> /* /* /* used by modlinkage. _info. } Including User Context Header Files The four user context entry point routines require your module to include several header files. static int dummy_write(dev_t dev.h> /* #include <sys/open. read. You already have included the types. close */ used by open.c file. close. */ ddi_get_instance. write. read.h> /* #include <sys/ddi. errno.Writing the Template Driver The following code is the dummy_write() routine that you should enter into your dummy. You need to include the file. close. and uio. cred.h. and ddi_prop_op */ Writing the Driver Data Structures All of the data structures described in this section are required for every device driver.h> /* #include <sys/errno.h header files. All drivers must define a dev_ops(9S) device operations structure.h header file. read. you must define the cb_ops(9S) structure first. close. */ and _fini */ used by open.h. "Inside dummy_write"). The modldrv(9S) linkage structure for loadable Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 113 . modldrv. return DDI_SUCCESS. Because the dev_ops(9S) structure includes a pointer to the cb_ops(9S) character and block operations structure. the ddi.h> /* #include <sys/cred. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. Write a message to the system log and return success.h> /* /* #include <sys/types.h> /* #include <sys/uio. and the sunddi. struct uio *uiop.h header file. write */ used by open.h> /* #include <sys/cmn_err.h> /* /* /* #include <sys/sunddi. read */ used by read */ defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ used by all entry points for this driver */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_get_instance and */ ddi_prop_op */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_create_minor_node.h> /* #include <sys/stat. write */ used by open.c file for all the entry points you have written in this section and the previous two sections: #include <sys/modctl. _init.h> /* /* #include <sys/file. */ and ddi_prop_op */ used by open.h. prop_op.

dummy_write.h */ CB_REV.Writing the Template Driver drivers includes a pointer to the dev_ops(9S) structure. /* cb_ops revision number */ nodev. /* streamtab struct.nodev returns ENXIO */ nodev. nulldev. /* no segmap */ nochpoll. NULL. /* no strategy . The loadable module configuration entry points are not initialized in driver data structures. /* no identify . /* no ioctl */ nodev. /* dev_ops structure */ static struct dev_ops dummy_dev_ops = { DEVO_REV. In this section. 0. Except for the loadable module configuration entry points. Initializing the entry points in these data structures enables the driver to be dynamically loaded. /* no mmap */ nodev. /* no aread */ nodev /* no awrite */ }. /* returns ENXIO for non-pollable devices */ dummy_prop_op. /* no dump */ dummy_read. The _init(9E). _info(9E). 114 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. the following code is added: /* cb_ops structure */ static struct cb_ops dummy_cb_ops = { dummy_open. and _fini(9E) entry points are required for all kernel modules and are not specific to device driver modules. /* no devmap */ nodev.nulldev returns 0 */ nulldev. nodev. nodev. dummy_close. Some optional entry points and other related data also are initialized in these data structures. all above */ /* fields are ignored */ D_NEW | D_MP. all of the required entry points for a driver are initialized in the character and block operations structure or in the device operations structure. /* no print */ nodev. /* compatibility flags: see conf. 2006 . The modlinkage(9S) module linkage structure includes a pointer to the modldrv(9S) structure. /* reference count */ dummy_getinfo. /* no probe */ dummy_attach. if not NULL.

See the description that follows the code sample.Writing the Template Driver dummy_detach. (struct bus_ops *)NULL. /* no reset . /* keep track of one instance */ Defining the Character and Block Operations Structure The cb_ops(9S) structure initializes standard character and block interfaces. dummy_write. &md. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 115 . NULL }.c file: static struct cb_ops dummy_cb_ops = { dummy_open. */ &dummy_dev_ops }. nodev /* no power */ }.nodev returns ENXIO */ &dummy_cb_ops. dummy_close. /* modlinkage structure */ static struct modlinkage ml = { MODREV_1. This is a driver. /* dev_info structure */ dev_info_t *dummy_dip. The following code is the cb_ops(9S) structure that you should enter into your dummy. /* no print */ nodev. /* no dump */ dummy_read. /* Type of module. See the cb_ops(9S) man page to learn what each element is and what the value of each element should be. nodev. /* no strategy . use the same dummy_ prefix that you used for the names of the autoconfiguration routines and the names of the user context routines. When you name this structure. /* Name of the module. This dummy driver does not use all of the elements in the cb_ops(9S) structure. /* modldrv structure */ static struct modldrv md = { &mod_driverops. nodev.nodev returns ENXIO */ nodev. Prepend the static type modifier to the declaration. */ "dummy driver".

Initialize all of these unused function elements to nodev(9F). print(9E). The strategy(9E). Enter the names of the read(9E) and write(9E) entry points for this driver as the values of the sixth and seventh elements of this structure. and dump(9E) routines are for block drivers only. or segmap(9E) entry points because this driver does not support memory mapping. 2006 . This driver does not define an ioctl(9E) entry point because this driver does not use I/O control commands. See the conf. Enter the name of the prop_op(9E) entry point for this driver as the value of the thirteenth element in this structure. Specify the nochpoll(9F) function for the chpoll(9E) element of the cb_ops(9S) structure because this driver is not for a pollable device. All drivers must be multithreaded-safe. dummy_prop_op. This driver does not does not define aread(9E) or awrite(9E) entry points because this driver does not perform any asynchronous reads or writes.h header file.h header file. nodev. This dummy driver does not define these three routines because this driver is a character driver. and must specify this D_MP flag. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* no ioctl */ no devmap */ no mmap */ no segmap */ returns ENXIO for non-pollable devices */ streamtab struct. all above */ fields are ignored */ compatibility flags: see conf. D_NEW | D_MP. The D_NEW flag means this driver is a new-style driver. nodev }. if not NULL. CB_REV.h */ cb_ops revision number */ no aread */ no awrite */ Enter the names of the open(9E) and close(9E) entry points for this driver as the values of the first two elements of this structure. nochpoll. The nodev(9F) function returns the ENXIO error code. The D_64BIT flag means this driver supports 64-bit offsets and block numbers. The D_MP flag means this driver safely allows multiple threads of execution.h header file for more compatibility flags. 116 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The CB_REV element of the cb_ops(9S) structure is the cb_ops(9S) revision number. The compatibility flags are defined in the conf. NULL. nodev. mmap(9E). nodev. This driver does not define devmap(9E).Writing the Template Driver nodev. CB_REV is defined in the devops. nodev. Specify NULL for the streamtab(9S) STREAMS entity declaration structure because this driver is not a STREAMS driver.

Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 117 . Initialize this structure element to nulldev. The following code is the dev_ops(9S) structure that you should enter into your dummy.h header file. Initialize this value to zero. Enter &dummy_cb_ops for the value of the pointer to the cb_ops(9S) structure.nodev returns ENXIO */ &dummy_cb_ops. The nulldev(9F) function returns success. 0. Set this value to NULL because this driver is a leaf driver. The next six elements of the dev_ops(9S) structure are the names of the getinfo(9E). attach(9E). use the same dummy_ prefix that you used for the names of the autoconfiguration routines and the names of the user context routines. /* no identify . nulldev. See the description that follows the code sample. The DEVO_REV element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is the driver build version. /* no reset . dummy_detach. Initialize the reset() function to nodev(9F). Prepend the static type modifier to the declaration. Only nexus drivers have bus operations structures. The driver cannot be unloaded if any instances of the driver are still open. Initialize this structure element to nulldev(9F). detach(9E). The identify(9E) function is obsolete. This dummy driver is not a nexus driver. /* reference count */ dummy_getinfo. The second element in this structure is the driver reference count. The probe(9E) function determines whether the corresponding device exists and is valid.c file: static struct dev_ops dummy_dev_ops = { DEVO_REV. When you name this structure.Writing the Template Driver Defining the Device Operations Structure The dev_ops(9S) structure initializes interfaces that are used for operations such as attaching and detaching the driver. nodev. This dummy driver does not use all of the elements in the dev_ops(9S) structure. and reset() functions for this particular driver. DEVO_REV is defined in the devops. probe(9E). /* no probe */ dummy_attach.nulldev returns 0 */ nulldev. (struct bus_ops *)NULL. The driver reference count is the number of instances of this driver that are currently open. The reset() function is obsolete. The next element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is a pointer to the cb_ops(9S) structure for this driver. identify(9E). See the dev_ops(9S) man page to learn what each element is and what the value of each element should be. nodev /* no power */ }. The next element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is a pointer to the bus operations structure. This dummy driver does not define a probe(9E) function.

h header file. The modlinkage(9S) module linkage structure is used by the _init(9E). Set this value to the address of the mod_driverops structure. */ &dummy_dev_ops }.c source file. Set this value to MODREV_1. */ "dummy driver". Enter the value NULL to terminate this list of linkage structures. See the man pages for each structure to learn what each element is and what the value of each element should be. The first element in the modldrv(9S) structure is a pointer to a structure that tells the kernel what kind of module this is. Usually this string contains the name of this module and the version number of this module. remove. The first element in the modlinkage(9S) structure is the revision number of the loadable modules system. 118 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. You already included the modctl. Set the value of this structure element to nodev. This is a driver. The mod_driverops structure is declared in the modctl. so do not declare the mod_driverops structure in dummy. Enter the address of the md structure for the value of this element of the modlinkage(9S) structure. The following code defines the modldrv(9S) and modlinkage(9S) structures for the driver shown in this module: static struct modldrv md = { &mod_driverops. &md.c module is a loadable driver module.Writing the Template Driver The last element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is the name of the power(9E) routine for this driver. The power(9E) routine operates on a hardware device. and retrieve information from a module. static struct modlinkage ml = { MODREV_1.c. NULL }.c file. The second element in the modldrv(9S) structure is a string that describes this module. _info(9E). The modldrv(9S) linkage structure for loadable drivers exports driver-specific information to the kernel. The next element of the modlinkage(9S) structure is the address of a null-terminated array of pointers to linkage structures. The last element of the modldrv(9S) structure is a pointer to the dev_ops(9S) structure for this driver. Defining the Module Linkage Structures Two other module loading structures are required for every driver.h header file in your dummy. /* Name of the module. /* Type of module. 2006 . The mod_driverops structure is defined in the modctl. and _fini(9E) routines to install. This driver does not drive a hardware device. Driver modules have only one linkage structure. The mod_driverops structure tells the kernel that the dummy.

h> /* used by modlinkage. close. close.h> /* used by all entry points for this driver */ #include <sys/ddi. read. modldrv.h> /* used by open.h> /* defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ #include <sys/cmn_err. close. */ /* and ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/file. */ /* and _fini */ #include <sys/types. prop_op. read.h> /* used by all entry points for this driver */ /* also used by cb_ops. The modlinkage(9S) and modldrv(9S) structures require you to include the modctl.h header files.h header file for the loadable module configuration entry points. read.h> /* used by all entry points for this driver */ /* also used by cb_ops. write */ #include <sys/open. close.Writing the Template Driver Including Data Structures Header Files The cb_ops(9S) and dev_ops(9S) structures require you to include the conf.h and devops. _init. and */ /* ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/sunddi. ddi_create_minor_node. read */ #include <sys/uio.h> /* used by dev_ops and cb_ops */ #include <sys/modctl. write */ #include <sys/cred.h header file. The following code is the complete list of header files that you now should have included in your dummy.h> /* used by open. */ /* ddi_get_instance.h> /* used by open. and ddi_prop_op */ Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 119 .h> /* used by open. write. ddi_get_instance. close */ #include <sys/errno.h> /* used by read */ #include <sys/stat. You already included the modctl. _info.h> /* used by open.h> /* used by dev_ops */ #include <sys/conf.c file: #include <sys/devops.

Writing the Device Configuration File

Writing the Device Configuration File
This driver requires a configuration file. The minimum information that a configuration file must contain is the name of the device node and the name or type of the device’s parent. In this simple example, the node name of the device is the same as the file name of the driver. Create a file named dummy.conf in your working directory. Put the following single line of information into dummy.conf:
name="dummy" parent="pseudo";

120

Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Building and Installing the Template Driver

Building and Installing the Template Driver
This section shows you how to build and install the driver for a 32-bit platform. Compile and link the driver. Use the -D_KERNEL option to indicate that this code defines a kernel module. The following example shows compiling and linking for a 32-bit architecture using the Sun Studio C compiler:
% cc -D_KERNEL -c dummy.c % ld -r -o dummy dummy.o

Make sure you are user root when you install the driver. Install drivers in the /tmp directory until you are finished modifying and testing the _info(), _init(), and attach() routines. Copy the driver binary to the /tmp directory. Link to the driver from the kernel driver directory.
# cp dummy /tmp

Link to the following directory for a 32-bit architecture:
# ln -s /tmp/dummy /usr/kernel/drv/dummy

Copy the configuration file to the kernel driver area of the system.
# cp dummy.conf /usr/kernel/drv

Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver

121

Testing the Template Driver

Testing the Template Driver
This dummy driver merely writes a message to a system log each time an entry point routine is entered. To test this driver, watch for these messages to confirm that each entry point routine is successfully entered. The cmn_err(9F) function writes low priority messages such as the messages defined in this dummy driver to /dev/log. The syslogd(1M) daemon reads messages from /dev/log and writes low priority messages to /var/adm/messages. In a separate window, enter the following command and monitor the output as you perform the tests described in the remainder of this section:
% tail -f /var/adm/messages

Adding the Template Driver
Make sure you are user root when you add the driver. Use the add_drv(1M) command to add the driver:
# add_drv dummy

You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages:
date time machine dummy: [ID 513080 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _info date time machine dummy: [ID 874762 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _init date time machine dummy: [ID 678704 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_attach

The _info(9E), _init(9E), and attach(9E) entry points are called in that order when you add a driver. The dummy driver has been added to the /devices directory:
% ls -l /devices/pseudo | grep dummy drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 date time dummy@0 crw------- 1 root sys 92, 0 date time dummy@0:0

The dummy driver also is the most recent module listed by modinfo(1M):
% modinfo Id Loadaddr 180 ed192b70 Size Info Rev Module Name 544 92 1 dummy (dummy driver)

The module name, dummy driver, is the value you entered for the second member of the modldrv(9S) structure. The value 92 is the major number of this module.
122 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Testing the Template Driver

% grep dummy /etc/name_to_major dummy 92

The Loadaddr address of ed192b70 is the address of the first instruction in the dummy driver. This address might be useful, for example, in debugging.
% mdb -k > dummy‘_init $m BASE LIMIT ed192b70 ed192ff0 > $q

SIZE NAME 480 dummy

The dummy driver also is the most recent module listed by prtconf(1M) in the pseudo device section:
% prtconf -P pseudo, instance #0 dummy, instance #0 (driver not attached)

A driver is automatically loaded when a device that the driver manages is accessed. A driver might be automatically unloaded when the driver is not in use. If your driver is in the /devices directory but modinfo(1M) does not list your driver, you can use either of the following methods to load your driver:
I I

Use the modload(1M) command. Access the device. The driver is loaded automatically when a device that the driver manages is accessed. The following section describes how to access the dummy device.

Reading and Writing the Device
Make sure you are user root when you perform the tests described in this section. If you are not user root, you will receive “Permission denied” error messages when you try to access the /devices/pseudo/dummy@0:0 special file. Test reading from the device. Your dummy device probably is named /devices/pseudo/dummy@0:0. The following command reads from your dummy device even if it has a slightly different name:
# cat /devices/pseudo/dummy*

You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages:
date time machine dummy: [ID 136952 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_open date time machine dummy: [ID 623947 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_getinfo date time machine dummy: [ID 891851 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_prop_op

Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver

123

notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_detach date time machine dummy: [ID 812373 kern.notice] kern.notice] NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside dummy_getinfo dummy_prop_op dummy_getinfo dummy_read dummy_close Test writing to the device: # echo hello > ‘ls /devices/pseudo/dummy*‘ You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages: date date date date date date date date time time time time time time time time machine machine machine machine machine machine machine machine dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID 136952 623947 891851 623947 891851 623947 672780 550206 kern. Using the cat(1) command causes the kernel to access the read(9E) entry point of the driver.Testing the Template Driver date date date date date time time time time time machine machine machine machine machine dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID 623947 891851 623947 709590 550206 kern. this output from the write test is almost identical to the output you saw from the read test.notice] kern.notice] kern. Using the echo(1) command causes the kernel to access the write(9E) entry point of the driver.notice] kern.notice] kern.notice] kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _fini The dummy device is no longer in the /devices directory: # ls /devices/pseudo/dummy* /devices/pseudo/dummy*: No such file or directory 124 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Use the rem_drv(1M) command to unload the driver and remove the device from the /devices directory: # rem_drv dummy You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages: date time machine dummy: [ID 513080 kern.notice] NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside dummy_open dummy_getinfo dummy_prop_op dummy_getinfo dummy_prop_op dummy_getinfo dummy_write dummy_close As you can see.notice] kern. 2006 . The text argument that you give to echo(1) is ignored because this driver does not do anything with that data.notice] kern. Removing the Template Driver Make sure you are user root when you unload the driver.notice] kern. The only difference is in the seventh line of the output.notice] kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _info date time machine dummy: [ID 617648 kern.notice] kern.

*/ /* and ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/file. the driver is automatically loaded.h> /* used by dev_ops and cb_ops */ #include <sys/modctl. write */ Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 125 . */ /* and _fini */ #include <sys/types.o * Copy the driver and the configuration file to /usr/kernel/drv: * cp dummy. close. write */ #include <sys/open.conf /usr/kernel/drv * cp dummy /tmp * ln -s /tmp/dummy /usr/kernel/drv/dummy * Add the driver: * add_drv dummy * Test (1) read from driver (2) write to driver: * cat /devices/pseudo/dummy@* * echo hello > ‘ls /devices/pseudo/dummy@*‘ * Verify the tests in another window: * tail -f /var/adm/messages * Remove the driver: * rem_drv dummy */ #include <sys/devops.h> /* used by modlinkage.h> /* used by dev_ops */ #include <sys/conf. You can use the modunload(1M) command to unload the driver but not remove the device from /devices. * Writes a message whenever a routine is entered. Then the next time you read from or write to the dummy device. read.h> /* used by open. * * Build the driver: * cc -D_KERNEL -c dummy.h> /* used by open.c * ld -r -o dummy dummy. modldrv. close.h> /* used by open. _init. close */ #include <sys/errno. Press Control-C to stop tailing the /var/adm/messages messages. prop_op. _info. read. read.Testing the Template Driver The next time you want to read from or write to the dummy device. close.h> /* used by open. you must load the driver again using add_drv(1M). write. Dummy Driver Source The following code is the complete source for the dummy driver described in this module: /* * Minimalist pseudo-device.

/* cb_ops structure */ static struct cb_ops dummy_cb_ops = { dummy_open. /* no segmap */ nochpoll. static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. cred_t *cred). /* returns ENXIO for non-pollable devices */ dummy_prop_op. static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. void **resultp). struct uio *uiop. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. int flags.h> /* /* /* <sys/cred.h> <sys/ddi. dev_info_t *dip. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. dummy_close. /* no ioctl */ nodev. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd). /* no mmap */ nodev. nodev. cred_t *credp). int *lengthp). 2006 . static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. ddi_get_instance. int otyp. /* no strategy . int flag.h> <sys/cmn_err. read */ used by read */ defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ used by all entry points for this driver */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by cb_ops. /* cb_ops revision number */ nodev. /* no aread */ nodev /* no awrite */ }. and */ ddi_prop_op */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by cb_ops. int otyp.Testing the Template Driver #include #include #include #include #include /* /* /* /* /* /* /* #include <sys/sunddi.nodev returns ENXIO */ nodev. ddi_create_minor_node. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd). struct uio *uiop. all above */ /* fields are ignored */ D_NEW | D_MP. int flag. close. NULL. void *arg. char *name. if not NULL. cred_t *credp).h> <sys/stat.h */ CB_REV. /* no dump */ dummy_read. dummy_write. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op.h> <sys/uio. cred_t *cred). static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. /* streamtab struct. 126 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. nodev.h> used by open. */ ddi_get_instance. and ddi_prop_op */ static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. /* no devmap */ nodev. /* no print */ nodev. caddr_t valuep. /* compatibility flags: see conf.

*/ "dummy driver". /* reference count */ dummy_getinfo. &md. "Inside _info"). /* modldrv structure */ static struct modldrv md = { &mod_driverops. /* modlinkage structure */ static struct modlinkage ml = { MODREV_1. nulldev. nodev /* no power */ }. /* dev_info structure */ dev_info_t *dummy_dip. /* Type of module. 0.nodev returns ENXIO */ &dummy_cb_ops. */ &dummy_dev_ops }. /* no probe */ dummy_attach. /* no identify . dummy_detach. (struct bus_ops *)NULL. nodev.Testing the Template Driver /* dev_ops structure */ static struct dev_ops dummy_dev_ops = { DEVO_REV. } int _info(struct modinfo *modinfop) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. /* keep track of one instance */ /* Loadable module configuration entry points */ int _init(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. return(mod_install(&ml)). NULL }. /* Name of the module. "Inside _init"). /* no reset . Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 127 . This is a driver.nulldev returns 0 */ nulldev.

modinfop)). DDI_PSEUDO. switch(cmd) { case DDI_DETACH: dummy_dip = 0.". } } static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. "%s%d: attach: could not add character node. NULL). ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. 2006 . } else return DDI_SUCCESS. } } 128 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. "Inside dummy_detach").Testing the Template Driver return(mod_info(&ml. return DDI_SUCCESS. "0". ddi_get_instance(dip). 0). S_IFCHR. } /* Device configuration entry points */ static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. } int _fini(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. default: return DDI_FAILURE. switch(cmd) { case DDI_ATTACH: dummy_dip = dip. "Inside dummy_attach"). "dummy".0) != DDI_SUCCESS) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. default: return DDI_FAILURE. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. return(mod_remove(&ml)). if (ddi_create_minor_node(dip. "Inside _fini"). return(DDI_FAILURE). ddi_remove_minor_node(dip.

cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. } } /* Main entry points */ static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. "Inside dummy_prop_op").lengthp)). return DDI_SUCCESS. return DDI_SUCCESS. "Inside dummy_open"). int *lengthp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. int flag. "Inside dummy_getinfo"). void **resultp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. } static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. dev_info_t *dip.name. struct uio *uiop. return DDI_SUCCESS. switch(cmd) { case DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO: *resultp = dummy_dip. return(ddi_prop_op(dev. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. int otyp. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 129 . } static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. caddr_t valuep. int flags. default: return DDI_FAILURE. cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.Testing the Template Driver static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip.dip.flags. int otyp. char *name. return DDI_SUCCESS. case DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE: *resultp = 0. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd.valuep. void *arg. "Inside dummy_close").prop_op. "Inside dummy_read"). int flag. } static int dummy_close(dev_t dev.

return DDI_SUCCESS. 2006 . "Inside dummy_write"). struct uio *uiop. } static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. } 130 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.Testing the Template Driver return DDI_SUCCESS.

13 M O D U L E 1 3 Debugging Drivers With DTrace Objectives The objective of this module is to learn about how you can use DTrace to debug your driver development projects by reviewing a case study. 131 .

This cumbersome process requires guesswork. debugging a device driver required that a developer use function calls like cmn_err() to log diagnostic information to the /var/adm/messages file. DTrace can be used to capture information on only the events that you as a developer wish to view. The magnitude of the benefit provided by DTrace can best be provided through a few simple examples. and system reboots to uncover software coding errors. However. Instead of sifting through the /var/adm/messages file or pages of truss output.warning] WARNING: system call missing from bind file Searching for the system call missing message. DTrace provides a diagnostic short-cut.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS This case study focuses on leveraging the DTrace capability for device driver development. historical approaches to kernel development and debugging are quite time-consuming.c. } fbt::mod_getsysnum:return { 132 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. First copy the prototype driver to /usr/kernel/fs and attempt to modload it by hand: # modload /usr/kernel/fs/smbfs can’t load module: Out of memory or no room in system tables And the /var/adm/messages file contains: genunix: [ID 104096 kern. re-compilation. Developers with a talent for assembly language can use adb and create custom modules in C for mdb to diagnose software errors. 2006 . reveals it is in the function mod_getsysent() in the file modconf. After the driver compiles successfully. Instead of manually searching the flow of mod_getsysnum() from source file to source file. First. on a failed call to mod_getsysnum. create an smbfs driver template based on Sun’s nfs driver. here’s a simple DTrace script to enable all entry and return events in the fbt (Function Boundary Tracing) provider once mod_getsynum() is entered. test that the driver can be loaded and unloaded successfully. Historically. #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt::mod_getsysnum:entry /execname == "modload"/ { self->follow = 1.

strcmp 0 <.c.d’ matched 35750 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> mod_getsysnum 0 -> find_mbind 0 -> nm_hash 0 <. Viewing the source to find_mbind() in /usr/src/uts/common/os/modsubr.nm_hash 0 -> strcmp 0 <. A quick look at find_mbind() reveals that a return value of 0 indicates an error state.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS self->follow = 0.mod_getsysnum 41 4294967295 7 0 4294967295 Thus either find_mbind() returning ’0’. } Note – trace(arg1) displays the function’s return value.d script: Module 13 • Debugging Drivers With DTrace 133 . or nm_hash() returning ’41’ is the culprit./mod_getsysnum.find_mbind 0 <.d dtrace: script ’.strcmp 0 -> strcmp 0 <. trace(arg1). reveals that we’re searching for a char string in a hash table. } fbt:::entry /self->follow/ { } fbt:::return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1). To view the contents of the search string we add a strcmp() trace to our previous mod_getsysnum. Let’s use DTrace to display the contents of the search string and hash table./mod_getsysnum. Executing this script and running the modload command in another window produces the following output: # .

) After rebooting the driver can be loaded successfully. the hash table. # modload /usr/kernel/fs/smbfs Verify that the driver is loaded with the modinfo command: 134 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. } Here are the results of our next attempt to load our driver: # . ’smbfs 177’ (read_binding_file() is read once at boot time. stringof(arg0). 2006 ./mod_getsysnum. which takes as its arguments a config file. and a function pointer.mod_getsysnum 4294967295 So we’re looking for smbfs in a hash table. It looks like we forgot to include a configuration entry for my driver.c.nm_hash 41 0 -> strcmp 0 | strcmp:entry name:smbfs.find_mbind 0 0 <. hash:%s"./mod_getsysnum.d’ matched 35751 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> mod_getsysnum 0 -> find_mbind 0 -> nm_hash 0 <. How does smbfs get into this hash table? Let’s return to find_mbind() and observe that the hash table variable sb_hashtab is passed to the failing nm_hash() function. and it’s not present. A quick search of the source code reveals that sb_hashtab is initialized with a call to read_binding_file().strcmp 7 0 <. Add the following to the /etc/name_to_sysnum file and reboot.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS fbt::strcmp:entry { printf("name:%s. stringof(arg1)). hash:timer_getoverrun 0 <. hash:lwp_sema_post 0 <. A few more clicks on our source code browser reveal the contents of the config file to be defined as /etc/name_to_sysnum in the file /usr/src/uts/common/os/modctl.strcmp 4294967295 0 -> strcmp 0 | strcmp:entry name:smbfs.d dtrace: script ’.

But now. } It seems that the smbfs code is not being accessed by modunload.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS # modinfo | grep 160 feb21a58 160 feb21a58 160 feb21a58 160 feb21a58 smbfs 351ac 351ac 351ac 351ac 177 24 25 26 1 1 1 1 smbfs smbfs smbfs smbfs (SMBFS syscall. which explains this output. let’s use DTrace to look at modunload with this script: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt::modunload:entry Module 13 • Debugging Drivers With DTrace 135 . since the smbfs driver is a loaded module. and comm) (network filesystem) (network filesystem version 2) (network filesystem version 3) Note – Remember that this driver was based on an nfs template. Let’s make sure we can also unload the module: # modunload -i 160 can’t unload the module: Device busy This is most likely due to an EBUSY errno return value. client. using this simple DTrace script: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt:smbfs::entry { } fbt:smbfs::return { trace(arg1). we now have access to 1002 entry and return events contained in the driver. So. These 1002 function handles allow us to debug my work without a special ’instrumented code’ version of the driver! Let’s monitor all smbfs calls when modunload is called. we have access to all of the smbfs functions: # dtrace -l fbt:smbfs:: | wc -l 1002 This is amazing! Without any special coding.

trace(arg0). trace(execname)./modunload. } Here’s the output of this script: # . trace(arg1). } fbt::modunload:return { self->follow = 0.mod_release_mod 3602566648 0 <.d dtrace: script ’.mod_hold_by_modctl 0 0 <.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS { self->follow = 1.mod_circdep 0 0 -> mod_hold_by_modctl 0 <.mod_hold_by_id 3602566648 0 -> moduninstall 0 <.modunload 16 136 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.moduninstall 16 0 -> mod_release_mod 0 -> mod_release 0 <.mod_release 3602566648 0 <. 2006 . } fbt:::entry /self->follow/ { } fbt:::return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1).d’ matched 36695 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> modunload modunload 160 0 | modunload:entry 0 -> mod_hold_by_id 0 -> mod_circdep 0 <./modunload.

} fbt::moduninstall:return { self->follow = 0. printf("mod_prim:%d\n". } fbt::kobj_lookup:entry /self->follow/ { } fbt::kobj_lookup:return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1). so let’s look at the following possibilities: 1. Module 13 • Debugging Drivers With DTrace 137 . Let’s take a look at the source code for moduninstall. printf("mod_loadflags:%d\n". ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_ref). trace(arg1). ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_loadflags). printf("mod_nenabled:%d\n". ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_prim). moduninstall returns EBUSY in a few locations. if (mp->mod_prim || mp->mod_ref || mp->mod_nenabled != 0) return (EBUSY). printf("mod_ref:%d\n". ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_nenabled). "_fini") == NULL ) 4. A failed call to smbfs _fini() routine We can’t directly access all of these possibilities. We’ll use the following script to display the contents of the various structures and return values in moduninstall: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt::moduninstall:entry { self->follow = 1.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS Observe that the EBUSY return value ’16’ is coming from moduninstall. 2. but let’s approach them from a process of elimination. if ( detach_driver(mp->mod_modname) != 0 ) return (EBUSY). if ( kobj_lookup(mp->mod_mp. 3.

kobj_lookup 0 <. } Changing the return value to ’0’ and recompiling the code results in a driver that we can now load and unload. it must be the status returned via the status = (*func)(). } This script produces the following output: # .d’ matched 6 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> moduninstall mod_prim:0 mod_ref:0 mod_nenabled:0 mod_loadflags:1 0 -> detach_driver 0 <. 138 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. which calls the smbfs _fini() routine. thus we have completed the objectives of this exercise. by a process of elimination./moduninstall./moduninstall. Thus. Note that fbt is only one of DTrace’s many providers.moduninstall 0 4273103456 16 Comparing this output to the code tells us that the failure is not due to the mp structure values or the return values from detach_driver() of kobj_lookup(). And here’s what the smbfs _fini() routine contains: int _fini(void) { /* don’t allow module to be unloaded */ return (EBUSY).d dtrace: script ’. call. 2006 .detach_driver 0 -> kobj_lookup 0 <.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS } fbt::detach_driver:entry /self->follow/ { } fbt::detach_driver:return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1). We’ve used the Function Boundary Tracing provider exclusively in these examples.

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