Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project

Student Guide

Sun Microsystems, Inc. ,

Part No: 819–5580–10 March, 2006

Copyright 2006 Sun Microsystems, Inc.

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All rights reserved.

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Contents

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What is the OpenSolaris Project? .................................................................................................... 7 Web Resources for OpenSolaris ...................................................................................................... 10 Discussions .........................................................................................................................................11 Communities ......................................................................................................................................11 Projects ................................................................................................................................................11 OpenGrok .......................................................................................................................................... 12

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Planning the OpenSolaris Environment ...................................................................................... 15 Development Environment Configuration ................................................................................... 17 Networking ........................................................................................................................................ 18

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OpenSolaris Policies ........................................................................................................................ 21 Development Process and Coding Style ......................................................................................... 23

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Features of the OpenSolaris Project ............................................................................................. 25 Overview ............................................................................................................................................ 26 Security Technology: Least Privilege ............................................................................................... 26 Predictive Self-Healing ..................................................................................................................... 26 Zones .................................................................................................................................................. 28 Branded Zones (BrandZ) ................................................................................................................. 28 Zettabyte Filesystem (ZFS) .............................................................................................................. 29 Dynamic Tracing (DTrace) .............................................................................................................. 29 Modular Debugger (MDB) .............................................................................................................. 30

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................... 55 Enabling User Mode Probes ............................................................................................ 71 Software Memory Management ....................... 45 Enabling Simple DTrace Probes ..................................................... 49 Programming in D ...................................................... 92 Creating a Filesystem and /home Directories ......... 52 7 Debugging Applications With DTrace .......................................................................................... 38 Kernel Overview .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 41 Process Debugging ................ 58 8 Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace ................................................................................ 36 CPU Scheduling ..............................................................................Contents 5 Programming Concepts ............................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Threaded Programming .................................................... 43 6 Getting Started With DTrace .................... 2006 ......... 31 Process and System Management ........................................................... 87 DTracing a Process Running in a Zone .................................................................................................................................................................................. 88 11 Configuring Filesystems With ZFS ................................................. 57 DTracing Applications ............................................................... 89 Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems ............. 73 Using DTrace and MDB to Examine Virtual Memory ....................................................... 93 4 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.................................................... 91 Creating Mirrored Storage Pools .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 85 Global and Non-Global Zones ................................................................................................................................................................................. 62 9 Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB ............................................................................ 61 Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program ...................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Listing Traceable Probes ........... 74 10 Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace ....................................................................................

............................................................................. 113 Writing the Device Configuration File ....................................121 Testing the Template Driver ..................................................................125 13 Debugging Drivers With DTrace ................................................................................................................................................................................131 Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS ............................................................................................................................................................Configuring RAID-Z ..............................................97 Writing the Template Driver ......................................................................123 Removing the Template Driver .........................................................................120 Building and Installing the Template Driver .122 Reading and Writing the Device ............................................... 110 Writing the Driver Data Structures ...................98 Writing the Autoconfiguration Entry Points .........................................................................................................................................................................................122 Adding the Template Driver ................................................................102 Writing the User Context Entry Points ..........132 ..................................................................................................................................94 12 Writing a Template Character Device Driver .............................................................................................................................................................................................................124 Dummy Driver Source .......................................................................................95 Overview of the Template Driver Example ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 Writing the Loadable Module Configuration Entry Points ......................................................................................................................................................

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communities. and source browser for the OpenSolaris project. Then. Finally. We’ll start by showing you where to go to access the code.1 Objectives M O D U L E 1 What is the OpenSolaris Project? The objective of this course is to learn about operating system computing by using the Solaris™ Operating System source code that is freely available through the OpenSolaris project. we’ll work through the following labs which are designed to demonstrate typical operating system issues by using OpenSolaris: I Process Debugging I I I I Enabling Simple DTrace Probes Listing Traceable Probes Programming in D Enabling User Mode DTrace Probes I Application Debugging I I DTracing Applications Using DTrace to Profile and Debug a C++ Program I Memory Management I Using DTrace and MDB to Examine Virtual Memory I Observing Processes I DTracing a Process Running in a Zone I Configuring Filesystems I I Creating Mirrored ZFS Storage Pools Creating a Filesystem and /home Directories 7 . discussions. we’ll briefly describe how the features and documentation enable straightforward configuration of a development environment and initiation into the development process. projects.

What is the OpenSolaris Project? I I Configuring RAID-Z Device Drivers I I Writing a Template Character Device Driver Debugging a Device Driver with DTrace 8 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2006 .

In the first eight months. complete. and rock-solid code base Availability under the OSI-approved Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) allows royalty-free use. and derived works I I I I I Module 1 • What is the OpenSolaris Project? 9 . exciting. The OpenSolaris project is currently sponsored by Sun Microsystems. Inc. system administrators. It is a nexus for a community development effort where contributors from Sun and elsewhere can collaborate on developing and improving operating system technology. innovative. over 12. and end users of the Solaris Operating System. Teaching with the OpenSolaris project provides the following advantages over instructional operating systems: I I Access to code for the revolutionary technologies in the Solaris 10 operating system Access to code for a commercial OS that is used in many environments and that scales to large systems Hardware platform support including SPARC. modification. seamless. 2005 to create a community development effort using the Solaris OS code as a starting point. other operating system projects. third-party products and distributions of interest to the community. The engineering community is continually growing and changing to meet the needs of developers. including being the basis for future versions of the Solaris OS product. x86 and AMD x64 architectures Leadership on 64–bit computing $0.What is the OpenSolaris Project? Relevance The OpenSolaris project was launched on June 14. The OpenSolaris source code will find a variety of uses.00 for infinite right-to-use Free.000 participants have become registered members.

as shown in the upper-left of the graphic. communities. In addition. 2006 . The icons in the upper-right of the OpenSolaris web pages link you to discussions. and source browser resources as shown in the following graphic. downloads. the OpenSolaris web site provides search across all of the site content and aggregated blogs. view the license terms and access instructions for building source and installing the pre-built archives at: http://www.Web Resources for OpenSolaris Web Resources for OpenSolaris You can download the OpenSolaris source.opensolaris. projects. 10 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.org/os/downloads.

opensolaris.org web site are collaborative efforts that produce objects such as code changes. Communities Communities provide connections to other participants with similar interests in the OpenSolaris project.opensolaris. and user groups.org/os/discussions for the complete list of forums to which you can subscribe. or joint-authored products. See http://www. support.org/os/communities for the complete list.opensolaris. documents.org/os/community/os_user_groups Academic and Research DTrace ZFS Zones Documentation Device Drivers Tools User Groups These are only a few of over 30 communities actively working on OpenSolaris.org/os/projects for the current list of new projects. Projects have code repositories and committers and may live within a community or independently.opensolaris. Discussions also provide an archive of previous conversations that you can reference for answers to your questions.opensolaris.opensolaris.org/os/community/documentation http://www.opensolaris.org/os/community/dtrace http://www.org/os/community/tools http://www.org/os/community/zones http://www.Web Resources for OpenSolaris Discussions Discussions provide you with access to the experts who are working on new open source technologies. See http://www. Communities form around interest groups.org/os/community/device_drivers http://www. Projects Projects hosted on the opensolaris. technologies. for example: http://www. See http://opensolaris. Projects that are submitted and accepted by at least one other interested participant are given space on the projects page to get started.opensolaris. Module 1 • What is the OpenSolaris Project? 11 .org/os/community/zfs http://www.opensolaris. New projects are initiated by participants by request on the discussions.opensolaris.org/os/community/edu http://www. tools. graphics.

2006 . See http://cvs. extensively commented code that reads like a book. RCS. you can download the complete codebase. OpenGrok understands various program file formats and version control histories like SCCS.org/source to try it out! The first project to be hosted on opensolaris. so that you can better understand the open source. If you just need to know how some features work in the Solaris OS.opensolaris.opensolaris. The following graphic shows the results of an OpenGrok file path search on fbt.org was OpenGrok. Take an online tour of the source and you’ll discover cleanly written. the source code browser provides a convenient alternative.Web Resources for OpenSolaris OpenGrok OpenGrok™ is the fast and usable source code search and cross reference engine used in OpenSolaris. If you’re interested in working on an OpenSolaris project. and CVS. See http://www.org/os/project/opengrok to find out about the ongoing development project. 12 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.

Web Resources for OpenSolaris Module 1 • What is the OpenSolaris Project? 13 .

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support information and documentation available for the OpenSolaris project installation and configuration.M O D U L E Planning the OpenSolaris Environment 2 2 Objectives The objective of this module is to understand the system requirements. 15 .

Click Sun Studio 11 Collection to see Sun Studio books about dbx. 2005..sun. Inc. 2005.com/bigadmin/features/articles/laptop_resources. Resources for Running Solaris OS on a Laptop: http://www. 2006 .. Performance Analyzer. Inc. Sun Microsystems. and other software development topics. dmake.Planning the OpenSolaris Environment Additional Resources I I Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations. Sun Studio 11: C User’s Guide. Sun Microsystems.html I 16 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.

bz2 file is provided if you are installing from pre-built archives.PLATFORM. Build 32 or newer. AMD64. and documentation provided for the OpenSolaris project. see the Solaris OS Hardware Compatibility List at http://www. Consider the following features of OpenSolaris as you plan your development environment: TABLE 2–1 Configurable Lab Component Support Configurable Component Support From the OpenSolaris Project Hardware OpenSolaris supports systems that use the SPARC® and x86 families of processor architectures: UltraSPARC®. The unique challenges of kernel development and access to root privileges for a system are made simpler by the tools.com/bigadmin/hcl.org/gswiki/Download-form. try http://www.gnusolaris. Source files Install images BFU archives The on-bfu-DATE. SPARC64.sun. Build tools Module 2 • Planning the OpenSolaris Environment 17 .tar.tar. forums. For the OpenSolaris kernel with the GNU user environment.opensolaris.org/os/downloads for detailed instructions about how how to build from source.bz2 file is provided if you build from source. Pre-built OpenSolaris distributions are limited to the Solaris Express: Community Release [DVD Version]. The SUNWonbld-DATE. and Xeon EM64T.Development Environment Configuration Development Environment Configuration There is no substitute for hands-on experience with operating system code and direct access to kernel modules.PLATFORM. Pentium. For supported systems. See http://www.

org/ os/community/tools/gcc for the gcc community. See http://www. an open-source virtual machine monitor developed by the Xen team at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. 1GB recommended Disk space requirement: 350M bytes Virtual OS environments Zones and Branded Zones in OpenSolaris provide protected and virtualized operating system environments within an instance of Solaris.opensolaris. I Memory/Disk Requirements I Memory requirement: 256M minimum. OpenSolaris is also a VMWare™ guest.org/ os/community/xen/ for details and links to the Xen project. I Speeds application performance by about 50 percent by using an enhanced TCP/IP stack 18 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Networking The OpenSolaris project meets future networking challenges by radically improving your network performance without requiring changes to your existing applications.opensolaris.Development Environment Configuration TABLE 2–1 Configurable Lab Component Support Configurable Component (Continued) Support From the OpenSolaris Project Compilers and tools Sun Studio 10 compilers and tools are freely available for use by OpenSolaris developers. See http://www. refer to http://www. OpenSolaris supports Xen. allowing one or more processes to run in isolation from other activity on the system.opensolaris. Also.org/ os/community/tools/sun_studio_tools/ for instructions about how to download and install the latest versions.org/os/project/content/articles/vmware for draft version of a recent article describing how to get started. Refer to Module 2 for more information about how Zones and Branded Zones enable kernel and user mode development of Solaris and Linux applications without impacting developers in separate zones. 2006 . see http://opensolaris.

Development Environment Configuration I Supports many of the latest networking technologies. and Voice over IP (VoIP) networking features through extended routing and protocol support Supports current IPv6 specifications I I Find out more about ongoing networking developments in the OpenSolaris project here: http://opensolaris. wireless networking. Your lab environment becomes self-sustaining when hosted on OpenSolaris because you are always running the latest and greatest environment. Module 2 • Planning the OpenSolaris Environment 19 .org/os/community/networking/. streaming. Participation in the OpenSolaris project can improve overall performance across your network with the latest technologies. such as 10 Gigabit Ethernet. and hardware offloading Accommodates high-availability. empowered to update it yourself.

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21 .M O D U L E OpenSolaris Policies 3 3 Objectives The objective of this module is to understand at a high-level the development process steps and the coding style that is used in the OpenSolaris project.

http://www.org/os/community/documentation/getting_started_docs/ I 22 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.opensolaris.OpenSolaris Policies Additional Resources I OpenSolaris Development Process. 2006 . http://www.opensolaris.org/os/community/onnv/os_dev_process/ C Style and Coding Standards for SunOS.

which means conducting reviews for code. Search for an existing bug or file a new bug or request for enhancement (RFE) by using the http://bugs. The announcement has the following benefits: I I I I Precipitate discussion of the change or enhancement Determine the complexity of the proposed change(s) Gauge community interest Identify potential team members 2. Integration Integration happens after all reviews have been completed and permission to integrate has been granted. The Integration phase is to make sure everything that was supposed to be done has in fact been done.org/os/community/documentation/getting_started_docs/ I I I I Writing the test suites Passing various unit and pre-integration tests Writing or updating the user documentation.org web page. if needed Identifying code reviewers in preparation for integration 4.opensolaris. Implementation The Implementation phase consists of the following: I Writing of the actual code in accordance with policies and standards Download C Style and Coding Standards for SunOS here:http://www. Idea First. Module 3 • OpenSolaris Policies 23 . and completeness. someone has an idea for an enhancement or has a gripe about a defect.opensolaris.Development Process and Coding Style Development Process and Coding Style The development process for the OpenSolaris project follows the following high-level steps: 1. complete the following next steps: I I I I Identify design and architectural reviewers Write a design document Write a test plan Conduct design reviews and get the appropriate approvals 3. announce it to other developers on the appropriate E-mail list. Next. If a formal review is needed. Design The Design phase determines whether or not a formal design review is even needed. documentation.

This style is described in detail at http://opensolaris. Maintainability – OpenSolaris must be architected so that common subroutines are combined into libraries or kernel modules that can be used by an arbitrary number of consumers. 2006 . and hdrchk(1) for checking the style of C and C++ headers. Compatibility – New subsystems and interfaces must be extensible and versioned in order to allow for future enhancements and changes without sacrificing compatibility. Manageability – It must allow for the management of individual components. That document also details the following design principles and core values that are to be applied to source code development for the OpenSolaris project: I Reliability – OpenSolaris must perform correctly. automate the diagnosis. with mechanisms in place in order to audit changes done to the system and by whom. Two tools for checking many elements of the coding style are available as part of the OpenSolaris distribution. software or hardware.opensolaris. Platform Neutrality – OpenSolaris must continue to be platform neutral and lower level abstractions must be designed with multiple and future platforms in mind. Availability – Services must be designed to be restartable in the event of an application failure and OpenSolaris itself must be able to recover from non-fatal hardware failures. Like many projects. in a consistent and straightforward manner. I I I I I I I I Refer to http://www. Serviceability – It must be possible to diagnose both fatal and transient issues and wherever possible.org/os/community/onnv/. Performance – The performance of OpenSolaris must be second to none when compared to other operating systems running on identical environments. These tools are cstyle(1) for verifying compliance of C code with most style guidelines. providing accurate results with no data loss or corruption. OpenSolaris enforces a coding style on contributed code. 24 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. regardless of its source.Development Process and Coding Style The formal process document for OpenSolaris describes the previous steps in greater detail. Security – OpenSolaris security must be designed into the operating system.org/os/community/onnv/os_dev_process/ for more detailed information about the process that is used for collaborative development of OpenSolaris code. with flow charts that illustrate the development phases.

M O D U L E Features of the OpenSolaris Project 4 4 Objectives The objective of this module is to describe the major features of the OpenSolaris project and how the features have fundamentally changed operating system computing. 25 .

for building resilient error handlers. Predictive Self-Healing Predictive self-healing was implemented in two ways in the Solaris 10 OS. automated diagnosis software. 2006 . let’s briefly talk about the following features of the operating environment: I I I I I I I Security Technology: Least Privilege Services Management Facility (SMF) Zones Branded Zones (BrandZ) Zetabyte File System (ZFS) Dynamic Tracing Facility (DTrace) Modular Debugger (MDB) Security Technology: Least Privilege UNIX® has historically had an all-or-nothing privilege model that imposes the following restrictions: I I I I No way to limit root user privileges No way for non-root users to perform privileged operations Applications needing only a few privileged operations must run as root Very few are trusted with root privileges and virtually no students are so trusted In the Solaris OS we’ve developed fine-grained privileges. participate in research. including the CPU and Memory error handling for UltraSPARC III and IV. the UltraSPARC 26 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. and maintain a portion of the campus or department infrastructure. Fault Management Architecture (FMA) The Solaris OS provides a new architecture. response agents. Fine-grained privileges allows applications and users to run with just the privileges they need. The least privilege allows students to be granted the privileges that they need to complete their course work. error telemetry. This section describes the new Fault Management Architecture and Services Management Facility that make up the self-healing technology.Overview Overview Now that you have considered the components. processes. and a consistent model of system failures for a management stack. FMA. and guidelines for OpenSolaris development. Many parts of Solaris are already participating in FMA.

The Fault Management tools and architecture enable development of self-healing content for software and hardware failures. all with a unified. the OpenSolaris project provides application-level features and functionality to create separate and protected run-time environments. Module 4 • Features of the OpenSolaris Project 27 . and I/O faults on Opteron. software bugs. Services Management Facility (SMF) SMF creates a supported. including full support for CPU. A variety of projects are underway. Opteron support is scheduled for build 34. and observation Access to service-based resource management Simplified boot-process debugging I I I See http://opensolaris. conversion of key device drivers. or uncorrectable hardware errors A single API for service management.Overview PCI HBAs. and more. The smf(5) framework replaces (in a compatible manner) the existing init. promoting the service to a first-class operating system object. and telemetry events are produced that drive automated diagnosis and response. When a subsystem is converted to participate in Fault Management. and integration with various management stacks. See http://opensolaris. and remote command execution in the OpenSolaris project. error handling is made resilient so that the system can continue to operate despite some underlying failure. for both microscopic and macroscopic system resources. configuration. Beyond consistent error handling. In addition to service-level management improvements.d(4) startup mechanism and includes an enhanced inetd(1M) . simple view for administrators and system management software. ftp requests. SMF gives developers the following: I Automated restart of services in dependency order due to administrative errors.org/os/community/fm for information about how to participate in the Fault Management community or to download the Fault Management MIB that is currently in development. unified model for management of an enormous number of services. such as email delivery. The sophisticated resource management facilities of zones addresss the unique challenges of application development and testing in shared environments.org/os/community/smf/scfdot to see a graph of the SMF services and their dependencies on an x86 system freshly installed with the Solaris OS Nevada build 24. Memory.

and includes the tools necessary to install a CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution inside a zone on a Solaris system. To ease the labor of managing multiple applications and their environments. only 32-bit Linux applications are able to run. The lx brand enables user-level Linux software to run on a machine with a OpenSolaris kernel. Zones provide protected environments for Solaris applications. This feature is only available for x86 and AMD x64 architectures at this time. The lx brand will run on x86/x64 systems booted with either a 32-bit or 64-bit kernel. the resource management facilities can be used to prevent processes in one zone from using too much of a system resource or to guarantee them a certain service level. for example. and are usually managed as one entity. or as complex as a complete Linux user space. Regardless of the underlying kernel. the OpenSolaris project takes zones a step further and provides separate and protected run-time environments.Overview Zones A zone is a virtual operating system abstraction that provides a protected environment in which applications run. Refer to http://opensolaris. which are zones that contain non-native operating environments. Branded Zones (BrandZ) BrandZ is a framework that extends the zones infrastructure to create Branded Zones. within zones that are running a complete Linux user space. for Linux applications. Zones can be combined with the resource management facilities which are present in OpenSolaris to provide more complete. 2006 . name space and fault isolation. Additionally. porting to SPARC might be an interesting community project because BrandZ lx is still very much a work in progress. A branded zone may be as simple as an environment where the standard Solaris utilities are replaced by their GNU equivalents. zones and resource management are often referred to as containers. However. using BrandZ. The OpenSolaris project addresses the unique challenges of operating system development and testing for application performance using features like zones. See http://opensolaris. they co-exist within one operating system instance. isolated environments. 28 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.org/os/community/zones/faq/ for answers to a large number of common questions about zones and links to the latest administration documentation.org/os/community/brandz/install/ for the installation requirements and instructions. The applications are protected from each other to provide software fault isolation. The lx brand enables Linux binary applications to run unmodified on Solaris. filesystem partitioning for kernel development is simplified by the ZFS code in the OpenSolaris project. While the zone supplies the security. Together.

ZFS uses variable-width RAID stripes so that all writes are full-stripe writes. similar to RAID-5. In addition to enhanced configuration and administration features that simplify and support developer requirements. They grow automatically within the space allocated to the storage pool. The combined I/O bandwidth of all devices in the pool is available to all filesystems at all times. the code made available in the OpenSolaris project provides a sophisticated dynamic tracing facility (DTrace) for debugging kernel and application behavior. Each storage pool is comprised of one or more virtual devices. In RAID-Z. In addition to pooled storage. wasted bandwidth. ZFS presents a pooled storage model that eliminates the concept of volumes and the associated problems of partitions. RAID-Z is the world’s first software-only solution to the RAID-5 write hole. and stranded storage. provisioning.opensolaris. and service personnel to concisely answer arbitrary questions about the behavior of the operating system and user programs. which describe the layout of physical storage and its fault characteristics. ZFS provides RAID-Z data redundancy configuration. This is only possible because ZFS integrates filesystem and device management in such a way that the filesystem’s metadata has enough information about the underlying data replication model to handle variable-width RAID stripes. DTrace enables you to do the following: I I I I I I Dynamically enable and manage thousands of probes Dynamically associate predicates and actions with probes Dynamically manage trace buffers and probe overhead Examine trace data from a live system or from a system crash dump Implement new trace data providers that plug into DTrace Implement trace data consumers that provide data display 29 Module 4 • Features of the OpenSolaris Project . so they can be created easily and quickly like directories. developers.org/os/community/zfs/demos/basics/ for 100 Mirrored Filesystems in 5 Minutes. Dynamic Tracing (DTrace) DTrace provides a powerful infrastructure to permit administrators. RAID-Z is a virtual device that stores data and parity on multiple disks.Overview Zettabyte Filesystem (ZFS) ZFS filesystems are not constrained to specific devices. See http://www. a demonstration of administering mirrored pools with ZFS.

examination of core files. Generally.opensolaris. user process core files.Overview I Implement tools that configure DTrace probes Find the DTrace community pages here http://www. Modular Debugger (MDB) MDB is a debugger designed to facilitate analysis of problems that require low-level debugging facilities.org/os/community/dtrace. MDB is available as two commands that share common features: mdb and kmdb. the OpenSolaris project provides debugging facilities for low-level types of development.org/os/community/mdb 30 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. There is an active community for MDB. object files. for example. You can use the kmdb command to debug the live operating system kernel and device drivers when you also need to control and halt the execution of the kernel.opensolaris. You can use the mdb command interactively or in scripts to debug live user processes. the live operating system. kernel and device developers rely on mdb to determine why and where their code went wrong. and other files. kernel crash dumps. device driver development. See http://www. where you can ask the experts or review previous conversations and common questions. 2006 . and knowledge of assembly language to diagnose and correct. In addition to DTrace.

as follows: Threaded Programming Kernel Overview CPU Scheduling Process Debugging 31 .M O D U L E Programming Concepts 5 I I I I 5 Objectives This module provides a high-level description of the fundamental concepts of the OpenSolaris programming environment.

Inc. by Rich Teer Multithreaded Programming Guide. Sun Microsystems.. Inc. 2006) by Jim Mauro and Richard McDougall Solaris Systems Programming.. Prentice Hall PTR (August 19. 2005. 2005. Sun Microsystems. Solaris 64-bit Developer’s Guide. 2005. Sun Microsystems.Programming Concepts Additional Resources I Solaris Internals (2nd Edition). STREAMS Programming Guide. 2006 . Prentice Hall PTR (May 12. 2004).. I I I I 32 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Inc.

Also. either all processes in a given task or a project will be bound to a new pool. When the pools facility is disabled. Two pools (default and foo) are associated with the same processor set (default). Module 5 • Programming Concepts 33 . grouped. and labelled such that workload components are associated with a subset of a system’s total resources. and processor sets are managed through the pset() system call. By default. all processes belong to the same pool. Processor sets and other entities are configured. When the pools facility is enabled. If we search OpenGrok for pool. The resource pools facility brings together process-bindable resources into a common abstraction called a pool. That is. Process IDs (PIDs) are numbered sequentially throughout the system. each user is assigned by the system administrator to a project. note that processes in Task 2 are bound to different pools.c. The following picture shows one possible pool configuration with three pools and three processor sets.Process and System Management Process and System Management The basic unit of workload is the process. New pools can be created and associated with processor sets. which is a grouping mechanism for processes. Note that processor set "foo" is not associated with any pools and therefore cannot have any processes bound to it. A task contains the login process as well as subsequent child processes. Threads or LWPs of the same process do not have pool bindings. pool_default. Processes in a given task or a given project can only be bound to different pools if they were rebound individually one by one as single processes. we find that the code comments provide a graphical representation of these relationships: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The operation that binds tasks and projects to pools is atomic. Processes may be bound to pools that have non-empty resource sets. or (in case of an error) they will be all left bound to the old pool. and are bound to the same resource sets associated with the resource pool of that process. which is a network-wide administrative identifier. processor sets must be managed by using the pools facility. Each successful login to a project creates a new task.

... often for security purposes........|.. A zone can be thought of as a container in which one or more applications run isolated from all other applications on the system.......... projects. New types of resource sets will be added in the future....... 34 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March... 2006 ......... Zones are setup by system administrators...::..: Task 1 Task 2 Task N | | | | | | | +-----------+ | +-----------+ +--| Project 1 |--+ | Project N | +-----------+ +-----------+ This is just an illustration of relationships between processes..| p | : : +---+ :: +---+ +---+ +---+ :: +---+ +---+ : :... tasks. in order to isolate groups of users or processes from one another...|.........|.|... Processes can be optionally be run inside a zone...Process and System Management 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Processor Sets +---------+ +--------------+========================> | default | a| | +---------+ s| | || s| | +---------+ o| | | foo | c| | +---------+ i| | || a| | +---------+ t| | +------> | bar | e| | | +---------+ d| | | | | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ Pools | default |======| foo |======| bar | +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ @ @ @ @ @ @ b| | | | | | o| | | | | | u| +-----+ | +-------+ | +---+ n| | | | | | .... pools....|... and processor sets. : | :: | | | :: | | : : +---+ :: +---+ +---+ +---+ :: +---+ +---+ : Processes : | p | :: | p | | p | | p | :: | p |.......::..........d|...

Applications which require direct access to certain devices. These interposition points are only applied to processes in a branded zone. and performs no other I/O. recompiling an application is not necessary in order to run it inside a zone. set at zone configuration time. /dev/kmem. Applications which require direct access to these devices may need to be modified to work correctly. will usually work if the zone is configured correctly. should continue to be used within the global zone. Each brand may provide pre-boot and post-boot scripts that allow us to do any final boot-time setup or configuration. Since zones do not change the OpenSolaris Application Programming Interface (APIs) or Application Binary Interface (ABI). should work correctly. Each brand provides its own installation routine. An example might be the ability to change the system’s time-of-day clock. Fundamentally different brands may require new interposition points. in some cases this may increase security risks. For example.Process and System Management Most software that runs on OpenSolaris will run unmodified in a zone. etc. a disk partition. The few applications which fall into this category may need applications to run properly inside a zone or in some cases. a brand may choose to supplement or replace the standard behavior of the Solaris OS. for example. The zonecfg and zoneadm tools can set and report a zone’s brand type. I I BrandZ extends the Zones infrastructure in user space in the following ways: I I A brand is an attribute of a zone. which allows us to install an arbitrary collection of software in the branded zone. or a network device. thread creation path. I I I Module 5 • Programming Concepts 35 . Here are some guidelines: I An application which accesses the network and files. At each of these points. process loading path. A small number of applications which are normally run as root or with certain privileges may not run inside a zone if they rely on being able to access or change some global resource. I I BrandZ provides a set of interposition points in the kernel: I These points are found in the syscall path. However. Applications should instead use one of the many IP services.

The pthread_create() function is called with attr that has the necessary state behavior. const pthread_attr_t *tattr. or to access specific data. zones. In OpenSolaris. read/write locks. I Mutex locks allow only one thread at a time to execute a specific section of code. 2006 . and semaphores. the thread that is trying to access the resource blocks. Condition variables block threads until a particular condition is true. To modify a resource. When start_routine returns. data produced by one thread is immediately available to all the other threads. The libraries are libpthread for POSIX threads. condition variables. Go to /on/usr/src/lib/libc/spec/threads. The four synchronization objects are mutex locks. An exclusive write lock is not permitted until all read locks have been released. When the count is reached. projects. a process is also an address space. Any other return value indicates that an error occurred. and libthread for OpenSolaris threads. Use pthread_create(3C) to add a new thread of control to the current process. resource pools. Each process contains a single thread. void *arg). multithreading support for both sets of interfaces is provided by the standard C library. int pthread_create(pthread_t *tid. Traditional UNIX already supports the concept of threads.Process and System Management Threaded Programming Now that we’ve learned about processes in the context of tasks. and creating a process involves creating a new address space. Multithreading provides flexibility by decoupling kernel-level and user-level resources. Communication between the threads of one process is simple because the threads share everything. and branded zones. Read/write locks permit concurrent reads and exclusive writes to a protected shared resource. start_routine is the function with which the new thread begins execution. Thread synchronization enables you to control program flow and access to shared data for concurrently executing threads. a thread must first acquire the exclusive write lock. I I I 36 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. let’s discuss processes in the context of threads. pthread_create() returns zero when the call completes successfully. So. Counting semaphores typically coordinate access to resources. The count is the limit on how many threads can have access to a semaphore.spec in OpenGrok for the complete list of pthread functions and declarations. void*(*start_routine)(void *). inlcuding a common address space and open file descriptors. the thread exits with the exit status set to the value returned by start_routine. But. so programming with multiple processes is programming with multiple threads.

Two models are supported: TI_VERSION == 1 Under this model libthread provides rw_rwlock/rw_unlock..so.. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Implementation of all threads interfaces between ld. Lower level locking is derived from internally bound _lwp_ interfaces.init has completed). Threads in different processes can communicate with each other through synchronization objects that are placed in threads-controlled shared memory. Code comments in the mutex. The use of mutexes over reader/writer locks also enables the use of condition variables for controlling thread concurrency (allows access to objects only after their . The synchronization objects can have lifetimes beyond the life of the creating process. This removes recursive problems encountered when obtaining locking interfaces from libthread. Module 5 • Programming Concepts 37 . through which we vector all rt_mutex_lock/rt_mutex_unlock calls. Synchronization objects can also be placed in files. In a non-threaded environment all thread interfaces are vectored to noops. Both libthreads block signals under the bind_guard/bind_clear interfaces.1 and libthread.Process and System Management Synchronization Synchronization objects are variables in memory that you access just like data.c file reveal the following: 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 . When called via _ld_concurrency() from libthread these vectors are reassigned to real threads interfaces. TI_VERSION == 2 Under this model only libthreads bind_guard/bind_clear and thr_self interfaces are used. The threads can communicate with each other even though the threads in different processes are generally invisible to each other. Under lib/libthread these interfaces provided _sigon/_sigoff (unlike lwp/libthread that provided signal blocking via bind_guard/bind_clear.

Process and System Management

OpenGrok results for a full search on POSIX reveal the POSIX.pod file that includes the module, as described in the following comments:
POSIX 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ... Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1 =head1 SYNOPSIS use POSIX; use POSIX qw(setsid); use POSIX qw(:errno_h :fcntl_h); printf "EINTR is %d\n", EINTR; $sess_id = POSIX::setsid(); $fd = POSIX::open($path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0644); # note: that’s a filedescriptor, *NOT* a filehandle =head1 DESCRIPTION The POSIX module permits you to access all (or nearly all) the standard POSIX 1003.1 identifiers. Many of these identifiers have been given Perl-ish interfaces. Things which are C<#defines> in C, like EINTR or O_NDELAY, are automatically exported into your namespace. All functions are only exported if you ask for them explicitly. Most likely people will prefer to use the fully-qualified function names. This document gives a condensed list of the features available in the POSIX module.

Now that you understand a bit about how synchronization objects are defined in multi-threaded programming, let’s learn how these objects are managed by using scheduling classes.

CPU Scheduling
Processes run in a scheduling class with a separate scheduling policy applied to each class, as follows:
I

Realtime (RT) – The highest-priority scheduling class provides a policy for those processes that require fast response and absolute user or application control of scheduling priorities. RT scheduling can be applied to a whole process or to one or more lightweight processes (LWPs) in a process. You must have the proc_priocntl privilege to use the Realtime class. See the privileges(5) man page for details.

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Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Process and System Management

I

System (SYS) – The middle-priority scheduling class, the system class cannot be applied to a user process. Timeshare (TS) – The lowest-priority scheduling class is TS ,which is also the default class. The TS policy distributes the processing resource fairly among processes with varying CPU consumption characteristics. Other parts of the kernel can monopolize the processor for short intervals without degrading the response time seen by the user. Inter-Active (IA) – The IA policy distributes the processing resource fairly among processes with varying CPU consumption characteristics, while also providing good responsiveness for user interaction. Fair Share (FSS) – The FSS policy distributes the processing resource fairly among projects, independent of the number of processes they own by specifying shares to control the process entitlement to CPU resources. Resource usage is remembered over time, so that entitlement is reduced for heavy usage and increased for light usage with respect to other projects. Fixed-Priority (FX) – The FX policy provides a fixed priority preemptive scheduling policy for those processes requiring that the scheduling priorities do not get dynamically adjusted by the system and that the user or application have control of the scheduling priorities. This class is a useful starting point for affecting CPU allocation policies.

I

I

I

I

A scheduling class is maintained for each lightweight process (LWP). Threads have the scheduling class and priority of their underlying LWPs. Each LWP in a process can have a unique scheduling class and priority that are visible to the kernel. Thread priorities regulate contention for synchronization objects. The RT and TS scheduling classes both call priocntl(2) to set the priority level of processes or LWPs within a process. Using OpenGrok to search the code base for priocntl, we find the variables that are used in the RT and TS scheduling classes in the rtsched.c file as follows:
27 #pragma ident "@(#)rtsched.c 1.10 05/06/08 SMI" 28 29 #include "lint.h" 30 #include "thr_uberdata.h" 31 #include <sched.h> 32 #include <sys/priocntl.h> 33 #include <sys/rtpriocntl.h> 34 #include <sys/tspriocntl.h> 35 #include <sys/rt.h> 36 #include <sys/ts.h> 37 38 /* 39 * The following variables are used for caching information 40 * for priocntl TS and RT scheduling classs. 41 */

Module 5 • Programming Concepts

39

Process and System Management

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ...

struct pcclass ts_class, rt_class; static static static static static static static rtdpent_t *rt_dptbl; int rt_rrmin; int rt_rrmax; int rt_fifomin; int rt_fifomax; int rt_othermin; int rt_othermax; /* RT class parameter table */

Typing the man priocntl command in a terminal window shows the details of each scheduling class and describes attributes and usage. For example:
% man priocntl Reformatting page. Please Wait... done User Commands NAME priocntl - display or set scheduling parameters of specified process(es) SYNOPSIS priocntl -l priocntl -d [-i idtype] [idlist] priocntl -s [-c class] [ class-specific i idtype] [idlist] priocntl -e [-c class] [ class-specific [argument(s)] options] [priocntl(1)

options] command

DESCRIPTION The priocntl command displays or sets scheduling parameters of the specified process(es). It can also be used to display the current configuration information for the system’s process scheduler or execute a command with specified scheduling parameters. Processes fall into distinct classes with a separate scheduling policy applied to each class. The process classes currently supported are the real-time class, time-sharing class, interactive class, fair-share class, and the fixed

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Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Provides applications with system services such as I/O management. Schedules and switches threads. and services hardware interrupts and exceptions. Code that runs in kernel space has greater privilege than code that runs in user space. services resource requests. threads. Kernel modules have higher execution privilege. let’s discuss the kernel and how kernel modules are different from user programs. virtual memory. processes. the --More--(4%) Kernel Overview Now that you have a high-level understanding of processes. System software is protected from user programs. The Solaris kernel does the following: I I Manages the system resources. The characteristics of these classes and the class-specific options they accept are described below in the USAGE section under the headings Real-Time Class. TimeSharing Class. and scheduling.Process and System Management priority class. I I I The following section discusses several important differences between kernel modules and user programs. Coordinates interactions of all user processes and system resources. pages memory. Kernel modules do not execute sequentially. Execution Differences Between Kernel Modules and User Programs The following characteristics of kernel modules highlight important differences between the execution of kernel modules and the execution of user programs: I Kernel modules have separate address space. A user program typically executes sequentially and performs a single task from beginning to end. and Fixed-Priority Class. Assigns priorities. A kernel module registers itself in order to serve future requests. A module runs in kernel space. and swaps processes. Inter-Active Class. With appropriate permissions. and scheduling. and physical devices. Kernel space and user space have their own memory address spaces. 41 I I Module 5 • Programming Concepts . A kernel module does not execute sequentially. An application runs in user space. including file systems. Fair-Share Class.

Kernel modules can include header files that are shared by user programs if the user and kernel interfaces within such shared header files are defined conditionally using the _KERNEL macro. Kernel modules must be preemptable. your driver could be executing concurrently on more than one CPU. Kernel modules do not link in the same libraries that user programs link in. a kernel module is a collection of subroutines and data. Kernel modules can be customized for hardware. Kernel modules. So. Design your driver data structures carefully to keep multiple threads of execution separate. while the kernel can dedicate certain registers to certain roles. the data structures and routines that constitute a driver are shared by all threads that use the driver. including device drivers. I I I I 42 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. You cannot assume that your driver code is safe just because your driver code does not block. declare symbols as static. More than one process can request your driver at the same time.Process and System Management I Kernel modules can be interrupted. Kernel code can be optimized for a specific processor. Different threads of an application program need not share data. For example. You can also have customized libraries as well. I I Structural Differences Between Kernel Modules and User Programs The following characteristics of kernel modules highlight important differences between the structure of kernel modules and the structure of user programs: I Kernel modules do not define a main program. By contrast. Using this prefix for private symbols within the module also is a good practice. Kernel modules are linked only to the kernel. something which OpenSolaris has for some of the more recent x86/x64 and UltraSPARC platforms. The only functions a kernel module can call are functions that are exported by the kernel. The required header files are listed in the man page for each function. Kernel modules use different header files. As much as possible. Kernel modules should avoid global variables. Kernel modules can dedicate process registers to specific roles. Kernel modules require a different set of header files than user programs require. Your driver must be able to handle contention issues that result from multiple requests. Avoiding global variables in kernel modules is even more important than avoiding global variables in user programs. give them a prefix that is unique within the kernel. Design your driver assuming your driver might be preempted. Kernel modules can share data. 2006 . In a symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) system. an interrupt handler can request your driver at the same time that your driver is serving a system call. When you must use global symbols. Instead. have no main() routine. otherwise customized code can be written for both kernel and user/libraries.

Process Debugging Debugging processes at all levels of the development stack is a key part of writing kernel modules. we 47 * implement a libthread_db "cache" in this file.4 05/06/08 SMI" 28 29 /* 30 * libthread_db (tdb) cache 31 * 32 * In order to properly debug multi-threaded programs. reveals the following code comments in the mdb_tdb. You can add functionality to the kernel while the system is up and running. mdb is designed so that multiple targets can be 43 * active simultaneously. and if it is 49 * not already open. so we 38 * must be prepared to switch modes on-the-fly. 54 */ Module 5 • Programming Concepts 43 .so and 46 * the other using /usr/lib/lwp/libthread. This loadable module can then be statically or dynamically linked into the kernel and unlinked from the kernel. A full search for libthread in OpenGrok. There are also two possible 39 * libthread implementations (one in /usr/lib and one in /usr/lib/lwp) so we 40 * cannot link mdb against libthread_db directly.Process and System Management I Kernel modules can be loaded and unloaded on demand. This mechanism also has the nice property that we don’t bother 53 * loading libthread_db until we need it. The proc target calls 48 * mdb_tdb_load() with the pathname of a libthread_db to load.so. we dlopen() it. This might happen if you were looking at two multi-threaded 45 * user processes inside of a crash dump. instead. You can test new versions of your driver without rebooting your system.so the victim 42 * process has open. one using /usr/lib/libthread. or using the services provided by libthread_db (if 36 * the process is linked with libthread).c 1. The collection of subroutines and data that constitute a device driver can be compiled into a single loadable module of object code. 50 * and fill in an ops vector which we return to the caller.c file that describe the connection between multi-threaded debugging and how mdb works: #pragma ident "@(#)mdb_tdb. the proc target must be 33 * able to query and modify information such as a thread’s register set using 34 * either the native LWP services provided by libproc (if the process is not 35 * linked with libthread). a process may begin 37 * life as a single-threaded process and then later dlopen() libthread. so we could even have *both* libthread_db’s open at 44 * the same time. Additionally. look up the symbols we need to reference. Once an object is 51 * loaded. Finally. we must dlopen the 41 * appropriate libthread_db on-the-fly based on which libthread. To meet these requirements. so the debugger starts up faster. we don’t bother unloading it unless the entire cache is explicitly 52 * flushed.

44 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The process can subsequently be continued by prun(1) or it can be resumed by applying MDB or another debugger. 2006 .. pid::attach Attaches to process by using the pid. I I I DTrace probes are constructed in a manner similar to MDB queries. Set a breakpoint at the specified locations. These commands to set conditional breakpoints are often useful. We’ll start the hands-on lab exercises with DTrace and then add MDB when the debugging becomes more complex. or process ID.. $L Prints the LWP IDs of each LWP in the target if the target is a user process. [ addr ] ::bp [+/-dDestT] [-c cmd] [-n count] sym . ::release Releases the previously attached process or core file. address::context Context switch to the specified process. addr ::delete [id | all] Delete the event specifiers with the given ID number.Process and System Management The following mdb commands can be used to access the LWPs of a multi-threaded program: I I I I $l Prints the LWP ID of the representative thread if the target is a user process.

45 .M O D U L E Getting Started With DTrace 6 6 Objectives The objective of this lab is to introduce you to DTrace using a probe script for a system call using DTrace.

46 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.. 2006 .Getting Started With DTrace Additional Resources I Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide. Sun Microsystems. 2005. Inc.

1 2 Open a terminal window. Since you haven’t enabled any other probes and BEGIN only fires once. You can use the dtrace(1M) utility’s -n option to enable a probe using its string name. Once you see this output.Getting Started With DTrace Enabling Simple DTrace Probes Completion of the lab exercise will result in basic understanding of DTrace probes. Enable the probe: # dtrace -n BEGIN After a brief pause. the integer name of the CPU on which this probe fired is displayed. Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace 47 . are printed. press Control-C in your shell to exit dtrace and return to your shell prompt: 3 Return to your shell prompt by pressing Control-C: # dtrace -n BEGIN dtrace: description ’BEGIN’ matched 1 probe CPU ID FUNCTION:NAME 0 1 :BEGIN ^C # The output tells you that the probe named BEGIN fired once and both its name and integer ID. Notice that by default. 1. you will see dtrace tell you that one probe was enabled and you will see a line of output indicating that the BEGIN probe fired. In this example. the CPU column indicates that the dtrace command was executing on CPU 0 when the probe fired. dtrace remains paused waiting for other probes to fire. We’re going to start learning DTrace by building some very simple requests using the probe named BEGIN. which fires once each time you start a new tracing request.

Let’s create a simple request using two probes by adding the END probe to the previous example command. 4 Add the END probe: # dtrace -n BEGIN -n END dtrace: description ’BEGIN’ matched 1 probe dtrace: description ’END’ matched 1 probe CPU ID FUNCTION:NAME 0 ^C 0 2 :END # 1 :BEGIN The END probe fires once when tracing is completed. DTrace reports this probe firing before exiting. As you can see. 48 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The END probe fires once when tracing is completed. 2006 . pressing Control-C to exit DTrace triggers the END probe.Getting Started With DTrace You can construct DTrace requests using arbitrary numbers of probes and actions.

Name .The name of the Unix module or application library of the probe. Provider . For example.Internal ID of the probe listed. In the preceding examples. 1 2 Open a terminal window.Getting Started With DTrace Listing Traceable Probes The objective of this lab is to explore probes in more detail and to show you how to list the probes on a system. 49 I I I Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace . you learned to use two simple probes named BEGIN and END. Function .The name of the probe. But where did these probes come from? DTrace probes come from a set of kernel modules called providers. Providers are used to classify the probes. Type the following command: # dtrace The dtrace command options are printed to the output. This is also the method of instrumentation. the syscall provider provides probes in every system call and the fbt provider provides probes into every function in the kernel.Name of the Provider. You can then enable and bind your tracing actions to any of the probes that have been published.The name of the function in which the probe exists. Module . When you use DTrace. each of which performs a particular kind of instrumentation to create probes. each provider is given an opportunity to publish the probes it can provide to the DTrace framework. 3 Type the dtrace command with the -l option: # dtrace -l | more ID PROVIDER 1 dtrace 2 dtrace 3 dtrace 4 lockstat 5 lockstat 6 lockstat 7 lockstat --More-MODULE FUNCTION NAME BEGIN END ERROR mutex_enter adaptive-acquire mutex_enter adaptive-block mutex_enter adaptive-spin mutex_exit adaptive-release genunix genunix genunix genunix The probes that are available on your system are listed with the following five pieces of data: I I ID .

The number will vary depending on your system type. # dtrace -l -m ufs ID PROVIDER 15 sysinfo 16 sysinfo 356 fbt MODULE FUNCTION NAME ufs ufs_idle_free ufsinopage ufs ufs_iget_internal ufsiget ufs allocg entry Only the probes that are in the UFS module are listed in the output. # dtrace -l -n start ID PROVIDER 506 proc 2766 io 2768 io 5909 io MODULE unix genunix genunix nfs FUNCTION lwp_rtt_initial default_physio aphysio nfs4_bio NAME start start start start 50 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 5 Add one of the following options to filter the list: I I I I -P for provider -m for module -f for function -n for name Consider the following examples: # dtrace -l -P lockstat ID PROVIDER MODULE 4 lockstat genunix 5 lockstat genunix 6 lockstat genunix 7 lockstat genunix FUNCTION mutex_enter mutex_enter mutex_enter mutex_exit NAME adaptive-acquire adaptive-block adaptive-spin adaptive-release Only the probes that are available in the lockstat provider are listed in the output.Getting Started With DTrace 4 Pipe the previous command to wc to find the total number of probes in your system: # dtrace -l | wc -l 30122 The number of probes that your system is currently aware of is listed in the output. 2006 . # dtrace -l -f open ID PROVIDER 4 syscall 5 syscall 116 fbt 117 fbt MODULE FUNCTION open open open open NAME entry return entry return genunix genunix Only the probes with the function name open are listed.

Getting Started With DTrace The above command lists all the probes that have the probe name start. Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace 51 .

Run the program by using the dtrace -s option: # dtrace -s hello. The second statement uses the function exit() to indicate that DTrace should cease tracing and exit the dtrace command.d file. In a text editor.Getting Started With DTrace Programming in D Now that you understand a little bit about naming. Unlike the previous example.d dtrace: script ’hello. you can also write them in text files using the D programming language. dtrace printed the same output as before followed by the text “hello. when the BEGIN probe fires. The actions are listed as a series of statements enclosed in braces { } following the probe name. 52 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. you did not have to wait and press Control-C. Each D program consists of a series of clauses. These changes were the result of the actions you specified for your BEGIN probe in hello. 2006 .d. "Hello. you’re ready to write the DTrace version of everyone’s first program. in addition to constructing DTrace experiments on the command line. enabling. and then print it out. world # As you can see.).d’ matched 1 probe CPU ID FUNCTION:NAME 0 1 :BEGIN hello. either. and an optional set of actions to perform when the probe fires. world"). Let’s explore the structure of your D program in more detail in order to understand what happened. world”. Type in your first D program: BEGIN { trace("hello. 1 2 3 Open a terminal window. Each statement ends with a semicolon (. Your first statement uses the function trace() to indicate that DTrace should record the specified argument. world”. and listing probes. exit(0). World. each clause describing one or more probes to enable. create a new file called hello. the string “hello.d." This lab demonstrates that. } 4 5 Save the hello.

let’s take a step back from language rules and learn more about how DTrace works. By now. you specify its name followed by a parenthesized list of arguments. D is derived from a large subset of C combined with a special set of functions and variables to help make tracing easy. and then we’ll return to learning how to build more interesting D programs. The complete set of D functions is described in Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide. you will be able to immediately transfer most of your knowledge to building tracing programs in D. if you’re familiar with the C programming language. If you’ve never written a C program before. But first. you’ve probably realized from the name and our examples that DTrace’s D programming language is very similar to C and awk(1). Module 6 • Getting Started With DTrace 53 . To call a function. Indeed. If you’ve written a C program before.Getting Started With DTrace DTrace provides a set of useful functions like trace() and exit() for you to call in your D programs. learning D is still very easy.

54 .

55 .M O D U L E Debugging Applications With DTrace 7 7 Objectives The objective of this module is to use DTrace to monitor application events.

56 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2006 .. 2005. Sun Microsystems.Debugging Applications With DTrace Additional Resources Application Packaging Developer’s Guide. Inc.

Enabling User Mode Probes Enabling User Mode Probes DTrace allows you to dynamically add probes into user level functions. special flags.out(executable) name of the function entry for function entry return for function return function: Module 7 • Debugging Applications With DTrace 57 . or even a restart. A probe description has the following syntax: pid:mod:function:name I I I I pid: mod: name: format pidprocessid (for example pid5234) name of the library or a. The user code does not need any recompilation. DTrace probes can be turned on just by calling the provider.

Enabling User Mode Probes DTracing Applications In this exercise we will learn to use DTrace on user applications. leave the predicate part empty. In the action section. # dtrace -qs proc_func. $1 is the first argument that you will send to your script. 1 2 From the Application or Program menu. 3 Follow the steps below to create a D-script that counts the number of times any function in the gcalctool is called. add an aggregate to count the number of times the function is called using the aggregate statement @[probefunc]=count(). This lab builds on the use of a process ID in the probe description to trace the associated application. pid$1:::entry { @[probefunc]=count(). Press Control+C in the window where you ran the D-script. Find the process ID of the process you just started # pgrep gcalctool 8198 This number is the process ID of the calc process. a.d procid Replace procid with the process ID of your gcalctool e.d. Use pid$1:::entry as the probe-description. create a new file called proc_func. } d. Run the script that you just wrote. In a text editor. b. start the calculator. c. 2006 . f. 58 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. increasing the amount and depth of information about the application behavior that is output. Perform a calculation on the calculator. The steps increase in complexity to the end of the exercise. we will call it procid.

6 Finally. If you do not need to print the aggregation you collected. a.d file to the following: pid$1:libc::entry c. modify the script to only count functions from the libc library. modify the script to find how much time is spent in each function. Write the second probe as follows: pid$1:::return d. Now run the script. # dtrace -qs proc_libc. Timestamp is a DTrace built-in that counts the number of nanoseconds from a point in the past. Create a file and name it func_time. We will use two probe descriptions in func_time. Perform a calculation on the calculator. b. Modify the probe description in the proc_libc. b. Copy the proc_func.Enabling User Mode Probes Note – The DTrace script collects data and waits for you to stop the collection by pressing Control+C.d to proc_libc. 4 Now.d. Module 7 • Debugging Applications With DTrace 59 . In the action section of the first probe. Your new script should look like the following: pid$1:libc::entry { } 5 @[probefunc]=count(). Press Control+C in the window where you ran the D-script to see the output.d. b. DTrace will print it for you.d. Write the first probe as follows: pid$1:::entry c. save timestamp in variable ts.d procid Replace procid with the process ID of your gcalctool a. a.

Enabling User Mode Probes e..d script: # dtrace -qs func_time. 2006 .d procid Replace procid with the process ID of your gcalctool a. b.ts) f. pid$1:::return /ts/ @[probefunc]=sum(timestamp . Perform a calculation on the calculator. Press Control+C in the window where you ran the D-script to see the output. ^C gdk_xid__equal _XSetLastRequestRead _XDeq . 60 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The time is in nanoseconds. Run the new func_time. 2468 2998 3092 The left column shows you the name of the function and the right column shows you the amount of wall clock time that was spent in that function.ts). The new func_time..d script should match the following: pid$1:::entry { } { } 7 ts = timestamp. In the action section of the second probe calculate nanoseconds that have passed using the following aggregation: @[probefunc]=sum(timestamp .

These examples are also used to compare DTrace with other application debugging tools. including Sun Studio 10 software and mdb. 61 .M O D U L E Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 8 8 Objectives The examples in this module demonstrate the use of DTrace to diagnose C++ application errors.

2006 .. and to distinguish instances of the same name declared in different namespaces and classes. If your C++ application was compiled with gcc/g++.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program A sample program CCtest was created to demonstrate an error common to C++ applications -. CCtest 53|FUNC 47|FUNC 37|FUNC 71|FUNC 37|FUNC 71|FUNC 16|OBJT 16|FUNC |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |GLOB |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |9 |9 |9 |9 |9 |9 |18 |9 |__1cJTestClass2T5B6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2T6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t5B6Mpc_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t6M_v_ |__1cJTestClass2t6Mpc_v_ |__1cJTestClassG__vtbl_ |__1cJTestClassJClassName6kM_pc_ Note – Source code and makefile for CCtest are included at the end of this module. and c++filt.. you may correctly assume that a number of these mangled symbols are associated with a class named TestClass. but the examples were tested with both Sun Studio 9 and 10. but never destroyed. you may notice that your compiler converts some C++ names into mangled. Note – Sun Studio 10 software is used here. destructors. From this output. but you cannot readily determine whether these symbols are associated with constructors.. The Sun Studio compiler includes the following three utilities that can be used to translate the mangled symbols to their C++ counterparts: nm -C. [61] | 134549248| [85] | 134549301| [76] | 134549136| [62] | 134549173| [64] | 134549136| [89] | 134549173| [80] | 134616000| [91] | 134549348| . For example. When debugging a C++ program. to provide valid external names for C++ function names that include special characters. and such is the case with the program contained in this module.in addition to c++filt. This name mangling is an implementation detail required for support of C++ function overloading. or class functions. using nm to extract the symbol table from a sample program named CCtest produces the following output: # /usr/ccs/bin/nm . In many cases. dem. a memory leak occurs when an object is created.the memory leak. you have an additional choice for demangling your application -.. which recognizes both Sun Studio and 62 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. semi-intelligible strings of characters and digits.

the open source gc++filt found in /usr/sfw/bin can be used to demangle the symbols contained in your g++ application.. To test our constructor/destructor theory. Examples: Sun Studio symbols without c++filt: # nm [65] [56] [92] .. And finally. CCtest | grep TestClass | 134549280| 37|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |__1cJTestClass2t6M_v_ | 134549352| 54|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |__1cJTestClass2t6Mi_v_ | 134549317| 35|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |__1cJTestClass2t6Mpc_v_ Sun Studio symbols with c++filt: # nm [65] [56] [92] . CCtest | grep TestClass | c++filt | 134549280| 37|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass() | 134549352| 54|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(int) | 134549317| 35|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(char*) g++ symbols without gc++filt: [86] | 134550070| 41|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |_ZN9TestClassC1EPc [110] | 134550180| 68|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |_ZN9TestClassC1Ei [114] | 134549984| 43|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |_ZN9TestClassC1Ev . displaying symbols with nm -C: [64] | 134549344| 71|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass() [__1cJTestClass2t6M_v_] [87] | 134549424| 70|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(const char*) [__1cJTestClass2t6Mpkc_v_] [57] | 134549504| 95|FUNC |GLOB |0 |9 |TestClass::TestClass(int) [__1cJTestClass2t6Mi_v_] Let’s use this information to create a DTrace script to perform an aggregation on the object calls associated with our test program... let’s start by counting the following: Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 63 . g++ symbols with gc++filt: # nm gCCtest | grep TestClass | gc++filt [86] | 134550070| 41|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |TestClass::TestClass(char*) [110] | 134550180| 68|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |TestClass::TestClass(int) [114] | 134549984| 43|FUNC |GLOB |0 |12 |TestClass::TestClass() . We can use the DTrace pid provider to enable probes associated with our mangled C++ symbols....Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program GNU mangled names..

Caution – You can’t exit the DTrace script with a ^C as you would do normally because c++filt will be killed along with DTrace and you’re left with no output. with the following caution. } Start the CCtest program in one window. To display the output of this command.d): #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_: { @n[probefunc] = count(). } pid$1::__1c2k6Fpv_v_: { @d[probefunc] = count(). } END { printa(@n). then execute the script we just created in another window as follows: # dtrace -s .calls to new() The number of objects destroyed -.d ‘pgrep CCtest‘ | c++filt The DTrace output is piped through c++filt to demangle the C++ symbols. 2006 .Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program I I The number of objects created -. }’‘ | egrep "new|delete" __1c2k6Fpv_v_ == void operator delete(void*) __1c2n6FI_pv_ == void*operator new(unsigned) The corresponding DTrace script is used to enable probes on new() and delete() (saved as CCagg. printa(@d). go to another window on your system and type: # pkill dtrace Use this sequence of steps for the rest of the exercises: 64 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March./CCagg.calls to delete() Use the following script to extract the symbols corresponding to the new() and delete() functions from the CCtest program: # dem ‘nm CCtest | awk -F\| ’{ print $NF.

} Execute this script: # dtrace -s . Let’s check the memory addresses of our objects and attempt to match the instances of new() and delete(). } /* call to delete() */ pid$1::__1c2k6Fpv_v_:entry { printf("%s: %x\n". probefunc. we should see the same pointer value as arg0 in the call to delete(). probefunc. The DTrace argument variables are used to display the addresses associated with our objects./CCtest Window 2: # dtrace -s scriptname | c++filt Window 3: # pkill dtrace The output of our aggregation script in window 2 should look like this: void*operator new(unsigned) void operator delete(void*) 12 8 So. arg0).d ‘pgrep CCtest‘ | c++filt Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 65 . arg1). With a slight modification to our initial script. we now have the following script. Since a pointer to the object is contained in the return value of new(). named CCaddr.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Window 1: # .d: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option quiet /* __1c2k6Fpv_v_ == void operator delete(void*) __1c2n6FI_pv_ == void*operator new(unsigned) */ /* return from new() */ pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_:return { printf("%s: %x\n". we may be on the right track with the theory that we are creating more objects than we are deleting./CCaddr.

} Execute CCstack. probefunc. then type pkill dtrace in Window 3 to print the following output: 66 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. arg1).d in Window 2. } pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_:return { printf("%s: %x\n". Including a call to ustack() on entry to new() provides a hint. } pid$1::__1c2k6Fpv_v_:entry { printf("%s: %x\n". renamed CCstack.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Wait for a bit.d: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option quiet /* __1c2k6Fpv_v_ == void operator delete(void*) __1c2n6FI_pv_ == void*operator new(unsigned) */ pid$1::__1c2n6FI_pv_:entry { ustack(). probefunc. It seems that the first new() of the repeating pattern does not have a corresponding call to delete(). Here’s the modification to our previous script. We still do not know what type of class is associated with the object created at address 809e480. 2006 . At this point we have identified the source of the memory leak! Let’s continue with DTrace and see what else we can learn from this information. a pattern emerges. then type this in window 3: # pkill dtrace Our output looks like a repeating pattern of three calls to new() and two calls to delete(): void*operator void*operator void*operator void operator void operator new(unsigned): new(unsigned): new(unsigned): delete(void*): delete(void*): 809e480 8068a70 809e4a0 8068a70 809e4a0 As you inspect the repeating output. arg0).

1‘void*operator new(unsigned) CCtest‘main+0x57 CCtest‘0x8050cda void*operator new(unsigned): 8068a70 libCrun.so./CCstack. at main+0x19.d ‘pgrep CCtest‘ | c++filt libCrun.-0x30(%ebp) main+0xc: movl %esi.so..1478 Loading modules: [ libc.so.so. we can use mdb as follows: # gcore ‘pgrep CCtest‘ gcore: core.%esp main+0x1c: movl %eax.1‘void*operator new(unsigned) CCtest‘main+0x9a CCtest‘0x8050cda void*operator new(unsigned): 80a2bf0 void operator delete(void*): 8068a70 void operator delete(void*): 80a2bf0 The ustack() data tells us that new() is called from main+0x19.1 ] > main::dis main: pushl %ebp main+1: movl %esp. main+0x57.-0x34(%ebp) main+0xf: movl %edi.1 ld.1‘void*operator new(unsigned) CCtest‘main+0x19 CCtest‘0x8050cda void*operator new(unsigned): 80a2bd0 libCrun.%eax main+0x22: pushl %eax main+0x23: call +0x1d5 <__1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_> . Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 67 .so.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program # dtrace -s .%esp main+6: movl %esp.%ebp main+3: subl $0x38..-0x10(%ebp) main+0x1f: movl -0x10(%ebp). and main+0x9a -we’re interested in the object associated with the first call to new().1478 dumped # mdb core. To determine the type of constructor called at main+0x19.-0x38(%ebp) main+0x12: pushl $0x8 main+0x14: call -0x2e4 <PLT=libCrun.-0x2c(%ebp) main+9: movl %ebx.1‘__1c2n6FI_pv_> main+0x19: addl $0x4.so.

It’s clear that the first use of the variable t = new TestClass().cc source file reveals: ..").. This example is intended to model the DTrace approach to interactive process debugging.."). The DTrace pid provider allows you to enable a probe at any instruction associated with a process that is being examined. The dem and c++filt commands in Sun Studio software and the gc++filt in gcc were used to extract the function probes from the program symbol table and display the DTrace output in a source-compatible format. t = new TestClass((const char *)"Hello. a call to new TestClass() at main+0x19 is the cause of the memory leak. displaying function arguments and return values. we have identified a call to the constructor __1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ that is never destroyed. TestClass(int i). virtual ~TestClass(). cout << t->ClassName(). at offset main+0x23. virtual char *ClassName() const. cout << tt->ClassName(). cout << t->ClassName(). delete(t).Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program Our constructor is called after the call to new. is overwritten by the second use: t = new TestClass((const char *)"Hello. So. Source files created for this example: EXAMPLE 8–1 TestClass. ..h class TestClass { public: TestClass()."). t = new TestClass(). 2006 .. tt = new TestClass((const char *)"Goodbye. Using dem to demangle this symbol produces: # dem __1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ __1cJTestClass2t5B6M_v_ == TestClass::TestClass #Nvariant 1() Thus. 68 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Examining the CCtest. TestClass(const char *name). The memory leak has been identified and a fix can be implemented. delete(tt). and viewing the user call stack. DTrace features used in this example include: aggregations.

h> <stdio. } EXAMPLE 8–2 CCtest. char **argv) Module 8 • Debugging C++ Applications With DTrace 69 . } char *TestClass::ClassName() const { return str. "Integer = %d". } TestClass::TestClass(int i) { str=(char *)malloc(128).h> "TestClass. sprintf(str.h> "TestClass.h> <string. } TestClass::~TestClass() { if ( str ) free(str). } TestClass::TestClass(const char *name) { str=strdup(name).h> <stdlib.h (Continued) private: char *str.cc #include #include #include #include #include <iostream.cc: #include #include #include #include #include <stdio.h> <unistd. }.Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program EXAMPLE 8–1 TestClass.h" int main(int argc.h" TestClass::TestClass() { str=strdup("empty."). TestClass.h> <unistd. i).h> <stdlib.

Using DTrace to Profile and Debug A C++ Program EXAMPLE 8–2 CCtest. tt = new TestClass((const char *)"Goodbye. t = new TestClass((const char *)"Hello. while (1) { t = new TestClass()." clean: rm $(OBJS) $(PROGS) CCtest: $(OBJS) $(CC) -o CCtest $(OBJS) . } } EXAMPLE 8–3 Makefile OBJS=CCtest. 2006 . cout << t->ClassName().o TestClass. cout << tt->ClassName(). delete(tt).o PROGS=CCtest CC=CC all: $(PROGS) echo "Done.cc (Continued) { TestClass *t."). sleep(1). cout << t->ClassName().o: $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $< 70 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. delete(t).cc. TestClass *tt.").

M O D U L E Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 9 9 Objectives This module will build on what we’ve learned about using DTrace to observe processes by examining a page fault. 71 . we’ll incorporate low-level debugging with MDB to find the problem in the code. Then.

Inc.Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB Additional Resources Solaris Modular Debugger Guide. 72 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Sun Microsystems. 2006 .. 2005.

Most of the data structures involved in the software side of memory management are defined in /usr/include/vm/*. Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 73 . In this module.h. we’ll examine the code and data structures used to handle page faults.Software Memory Management Software Memory Management OpenSolaris memory management uses software constructs called segments to manage virtual memory of processes as well as the kernel itself.

Note – In this module.Software Memory Management Using DTrace and MDB to Examine Virtual Memory The objective of this lab is to examine a page fault using DTrace and MDB. } entry /self->in == 1/ { } return /self->in == 1/ { } 74 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. args[0]).d with the following script: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent pagefault:entry /execname == $$1/ { printf("fault occurred on address = %p\n". We’ll start with a DTrace script to trace the actions of a single page fault for a given process. exit(0). 1 2 Open a terminal window. } pagefault:return /self->in == 1/ { self->in = 0. and then traces every function that is called from the time of the fault until the page fault handler returns. Create a file called pagefault. The script prints the user virtual address that caused the fault. 2006 . Look for the <----symbol to find associated text in the output. self->in = 1. We’ll use the output of the script to determine what source code needs to be examined for more detail. we’ve added text to the extensive code output to guide the exercise.

c -> as_segat -> avl_find <-.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.i86pc/vm/hat_i86.i86pc/vm/vm_machdep.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.c <.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <./pagefault.as_segat -> segvn_fault <-. Note – You need to specify mozilla-bin as the executable name.containing fault address -> as_segcompar <-. so you’ll see various calls to mutex_owner().as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <. as mozilla is not an exact match with the name.common/vm/seg_vn. Assertions are turned on only for debug kernels.c -> hat_probe <-.i86pc/vm/htable. Also.c or sun4/vm/vm_dep.avl_find <.Software Memory Management 3 Run the script on Mozilla.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <. which is only used with ASSERT().htable_lookup -> htable_va2entry <. # ./pagefault. for instance.c or sfmmu/vm/hat_sfmmu.common/vm/vm_as.d mozilla-bin dtrace: script ’.c -> htable_getpage <-.page tables are hashed on x86 -> htable_getpte <-. (not SEGV) <-.c -> as_fault <-.generic address space fault common/vm/vm_as.segments are in AVL tree -> as_segcompar <-. assertions are turned on.look for page table entry for page <-.search segments for segment <.segment containing fault is found.as_segcompar <-.d’ matched 42626 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> pagefault fault occurred on address = fb985ea2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | pagefault:entry <-.htable_va2entry Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 75 .as_segcompar <.c -> htable_lookup <.as_segcompar -> as_segcompar <.

2006 .driver sets up dma and starts page in <.page_lookup_create <-.read block device (disk) common/os/driver.common/io/dktp/disk/cmdk.logged ufs read -> bdev_strategy <-.page wasn’t in memory -> bmap_read <-.common/vm/vm_page.bmap_has_holes -> page_lookup <-.c <.cmdkstrategy 76 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.pvn_read_kluster -> pageio_setup <-.c -> cmdkstrategy <-.x86pte_access_pagetable -> x86pte_release_pagetable <.dadk_strategy <.setup page(s) for io common/os/bio.x86pte_get <.page_lookup -> ufs_getpage_miss <-.common disk driver (cmdk(7D)) <-.c <.hat_probe -> fop_getpage <-.create page if needed <.hat_kpm_pfn2va <.create some pages <.file operation to retrieve page(s) -> ufs_getpage <-.get block number of page from inode -> bread_common -> getblk_common <.page_create_va -> segvn_kluster <.check for page already in memory -> page_lookup_create <-.htable_getpage -> htable_release <.pageio_setup -> lufs_read_strategy <-.bmap_read -> pvn_read_kluster &lt-.bread_common <.c) -> bmap_has_holes <-.file is in ufs fs (common/fs/ufs/ufs_vnops.c -> dadk_strategy <-.segvn_kluster <.read some pages (common/vm/vm_pvn.c) <-.htable_getpte <.c) -> page_create_va &lt-.used for ide disks (common/io/dktp/dcdev/dadk.getblk_common <.check for sparse file <.direct attached disk (dad(7D)) <-.return a page table entry -> x86pte_access_pagetable -> hat_kpm_pfn2va <.htable_release <.x86pte_release_pagetable <.Software Memory Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -> x86pte_get <-.

save old context <.fop_getpage -> segvn_faultpage <-.call hat to load pte(s) for page(s) -> hat_memload -> page_pptonum <-.x86pte_release_pagetable <..pageio_done -> pvn_plist_init <.wait for pagein to complete common/os/bio.ufs_getpage_miss <-.c -> sema_p <-.get page frame number <.disp -> resume <-.let someone else run (common/disp/disp.s or sun4/ml/swtch.someone else is running here.x86_hm_enter -> hment_prepare <.undo pageio_setup <.bdev_strategy -> biowait <-.pvn_plist_init <.c) -> disp <-.sema_p <.ufs_getpage <.restore context (we’ve been awakened) <.restorectx <.dispatch to next thread to run <.wakeup via sema_v from completion interrupt -> swtch <-.resume <.page is in memory <.s -> savectx <-.hat_kpm_pfn2va <.intel/ia32/ml/swtch.Software Memory Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <.hment_prepare -> x86pte_set <-.hment_assign Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 77 .x86pte_set -> hment_assign <.swtch <.build page table entry <.hati_mkpte -> hati_pte_map <-.locate entry in page table -> x86_hm_enter <.actual switching occurs here <-.page_pptonum -> hati_mkpte <-.fill in pte into page table -> x86pte_access_pagetable -> hat_kpm_pfn2va <.savectx <-.biowait -> pageio_done <-. -> restorectx <-..x86pte_access_pagetable -> x86pte_release_pagetable <.

other threads will run. If the page already exists (but has been freed). Then we call a device driver strategy routine. the page is not already in memory. see strategy(9E) for an overview of what the strategy routine is supposed to do. If no such segment is found.hati_pte_map <. At this point. 2006 . Here. so we call ufs_getpage(). When pagefault() returns.segvn_fault <. When the paging I/O has completed. At a high level. the following has happened on the page fault: I I I The pagefault() routine is called to handle page faults. a segment specific fault handler is called. the virtual address that caused the page fault should now be mapped to a valid physical page.pagefault Remember that the above output has been shortened.segvn_faultpage <. The pagefault() routine calls as_fault() to handle faults on a given address space..Software Memory Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # -> x86_hm_exit <.x86_hm_exit <. this is segvn_fault() segvn_fault() looks for the faulting page already in memory.as_fault <. At this point. segvn_fault() then calls segvn_faultpage(). I I I I I I I I I I 78 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. For most segments. segvn_faultpage() calls the HAT (Hardware Address Translation) layer to load the page table entry(s) (PTE)s for the page. If the segment is found. as_fault() walks an AVL tree of seg structures looking for a segment containing the faulting address.hat_memload <. it is "reclaimed" off the free list. The disk driver returns through the file system code out to segvn_fault(). we need to page it in. switches out) via a call to swtch(). the process is sent a SIGSEGV (segmentation violation) signal. the instruction causing the page fault will be retried and should now complete successfully. While the page is being read. If the page does not already exist. the disk driver interrupt handler wakes up the blocked mozilla-bin thread. the thread causing the page fault blocks (i.e. ufs_getpage() finds the block number(s) of the page(s) within the file system by calling bmap_read().

Use mdb to locate the segment containing the fault address.find the mozilla-bin process R 933 919 887 885 100 0x42014000 ffffffff81d6a040 mozilla-bin > ffffffff81d6a040::print proc_t p_as | ::walk seg | ::print struct seg <-. Using an AVL tree shortens the search! c. --> { s_base = 0xfb800000 <-. you can just run mdb within an editor buffer.. 0xffffffff82fa7c80 ] avl_pcb = 0xffffffff82fa796d } s_ops = segvn_ops s_data = 0xffffffff82d85070 } Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 79 . See calls to as_segcompar in the DTrace output above. Find the number of segments used by mozilla by using pmap as follows: # pmap -x ‘pgrep mozilla-bin‘ | wc 368 2730 23105 # The output shows that there are approximately 368 segments. fault addr (fb985ea2) s_size = 0x561000 <-.this is the seg we want. # mdb -k Loading modules: [ unix krtld genunix specfs dtrace ufs ip sctp usba random fctl s1394 nca lofs crypto nfs audiosup sppp cpc fcip ptm ipc ] > ::ps !grep mozilla-bin <-.Lots of output has been omitted. Note – If you want to follow along. Note – The search for the segment containing the fault address found the correct segment after 8 segments.greater/equal to base and < base+size s_szc = 0 s_flags = 0 s_as = 0xffffffff828b61d0 s_tree = { avl_child = [ 0xffffffff82fa7920. b. Open a terminal window. you may want to use: ::log /tmp/logfile in mdb and then !vi /tmp/logfile to search.Software Memory Management 4 Use mdb to examine the kernel data structures and locate the page of physical memory that corresponds to the fault as follows: a. Or..

walk list of pages on vnode_t 1236 1236 21012 <-.lots of pages omitted in output --> { p_offset = 0x185000 <-.rounding down to page boundary gives 185000 (4kpage size) > ffffffff82f9e480::walk page !wc <-.points to a vnode_t anon_index = 0 amp = 0 <-. 2006 .from s_data { lock = { _opaque = [ 0 ] } segp_slock = { _opaque = [ 0 ] } pageprot = 0x1 prot = 0xd maxprot = 0xf type = 0x2 offset = 0 vp = 0xffffffff82f9e480 <-.1236 pages.walk page list on vnode <-. (not all are necessarily valid) > ffffffff82f9e480::walk page | ::print page_t <-.so" > fb985ea2-fb800000=K <-.we’ll look at anonymous space later vpage = 0xffffffff82552000 cred = 0xffffffff81f95018 swresv = 0 advice = 0 pageadvice = 0x1 flags = 0x490 softlockcnt = 0 policy_info = { mem_policy = 0x1 mem_reserved = 0 } } > ffffffff82f9e480::print vnode_t v_path v_path = 0xffffffff82f71090 "/usr/sfw/lib/mozilla/components/libgklayout.Software Memory Management <-.here is matching page p_vnode = 0xffffffff82f9e480 80 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.offset within segment 185ea2 <-.and lots more output omitted --> > ffffffff82d85070::print segvn_data_t <-.

the page frame number of page p_share = 0 p_sharepad = 0 p_msresv_1 = 0 p_mlentry = 0x185 p_msresv_2 = 0 } <-.dump 16 64-bit hex values at physical address 0xbd62ea2: 2ccec81ec8b55 e8575653f0e48300 32c3815b00000000 5d89d46589003ea7 840ff6850c758be0 e445c7000007df 1216e8000000 dbe850e4458d5650 7d830cc483ffeeea 791840f00e4 c085e8458904468b 500c498b088b2474 8b17eb04c483d1ff e8458de05d8bd465 c483ffeeeac8e850 458b0000074ce904 Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 81 .here is physical address of page > bd62000+ea2.and lots more output omitted --> > bd62*1000=K <-.10/K <-.multiple page frame number time page size (hex) bd62000 <-.Software Memory Management p_selock = 0 p_selockpad = 0 p_hash = 0xfffffffffae21c00 p_vpnext = 0xfffffffffaca9760 p_vpprev = 0xfffffffffb3467f8 p_next = 0xfffffffffad8f800 p_prev = 0xfffffffffad8f800 p_lckcnt = 0 p_cowcnt = 0 p_cv = { _opaque = 0 } p_io_cv = { _opaque = 0 } p_iolock_state = 0 p_szc = 0 p_fsdata = 0 p_state = 0 p_nrm = 0x2 p_embed = 0x1 p_index = 0 p_toxic = 0 p_mapping = 0xffffffff82d265f0 p_pagenum = 0xbd62 <-.

%esi 0xfb985ec8: je +0x7e5 <0xfb9866ad> 0xfb985ece: movl $0x0.-0x1c(%rbp) > 0::context debugger context set to kernel > ffffffff81d6a040::print proc_t p_as <-.10/ai <-.-0x1c(%rbp) > ffffffff81d6a040::context <-.looks like a match 0xfb985ea3: movl %esp.-0x2c(%rbp) 0xbd62ec0: movl %ebx.10/ai <-.get as for mozilla-bin 82 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.%ebp 0xfb985ea5: subl $0x2cc.%ebx 0xbd62ebd: movl %esp.%esi 0xfb985ec6: testl %esi.-0x20(%rbp) 0xfb985ec3: movl 0xc(%rbp). the address of the process > fb985ea2.%esp 0xbd62eae: pushq %rbx 0xbd62eaf: pushq %rsi 0xbd62eb0: pushq %rdi 0xbd62eb1: call +0x5 <0xbd62eb6> 0xbd62eb6: popq %rbx 0xbd62eb7: addl $0x3ea732. let’s try dumping as code 0xbd62ea2: 0xbd62ea2: pushq %rbp 0xbd62ea3: movl %esp.%esi 0xbd62ec8: je +0x7e5 <0xbd636ad> 0xbd62ece: movl $0x0. 2006 .change context from kernel to mozilla-bin debugger context set to proc ffffffff81d6a040.%esi 0xbd62ec6: testl %esi.%ebp 0xbd62ea5: subl $0x2cc.Software Memory Management > bd62000+ea2.%esp 0xbd62eab: andl $0xfffffff0.and dump from faulting virtual address 0xfb985ea2: 0xfb985ea2: pushq %rbp <-.%esp 0xfb985eae: pushq %rbx 0xfb985eaf: pushq %rsi 0xfb985eb0: pushq %rdi 0xfb985eb1: call +0x5 <0xfb985eb6> 0xfb985eb6: popq %rbx 0xfb985eb7: addl $0x3ea732.%ebx 0xfb985ebd: movl %esp.-0x20(%rbp) 0xbd62ec3: movl 0xc(%rbp).-0x2c(%rbp) 0xfb985ec0: movl %ebx.data looks like code.%esp 0xfb985eab: andl $0xfffffff0.

check our work virtual fb985ea2 mapped to physical bd62ea2 <-. We then check the physical address by using the vtop (virtual-to-physical) mdb command. we print the segvn_data structure. We locate the page corresponding to the offset within the segment.physical address matches Once the segment is found. Module 9 • Managing Memory with DTrace and MDB 83 . we have the page frame number. a vnode_t maps the segment data. It turns out this data is code.Software Memory Management p_as = 0xffffffff828b61d0 > fb985ea2::vtop -a ffffffff828b61d0 <-. In this segment. The vnode_t contains a list of pages that "belong to" the vnode_t. Once the page_t is located. We then convert the page frame number to a physical address and examine some of the data at the address.

84 .

85 .10 M O D U L E 1 0 Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace Objectives The objective of this module is to build on knowledge of DTrace to observe processes that run inside a zone.

Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace Additional Resources I System Administration Guide: Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Solaris Zones 86 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. 2006 .

who uses the zone administration command zoneadm to install software at the package level into the file system hierarchy established for the zone. If the zone is associated with a pool that has its pool. a single zone can be bound to a specific pool. At first login. The global administrator can log in to the installed zone by using the zlogin command. Every OpenSolaris system contains a global zone. let’s work on debugging applications that run in zones. the internal configuration for the zone is completed. Module 10 • Observing Processes in Zones With DTrace 87 . all zones including the global zone have one (1) fair share scheduler share assigned to them. The sparse root zone model optimizes the sharing of objects. There are two types of non-global zone root file system models: sparse and whole root. Multiple zones can share a resource pool or in order to meet service guarantees. Percentage of the CPU the zone is entitled to is the ratio of its shares and the total number of shares for all zones bound to a particular resource pool. By default. The global administrator uses the zonecfg command to configure a zone by specifying various parameters for the zone’s virtual platform and application environment. The zone is then installed by the global administrator.scheduler property set to a valid scheduling class. The zoneadm command is then used to boot the zone. The global zone is both the default zone for the system and the zone used for system-wide administrative control. You can also set the scheduling class for a zone through the dynamic resource pools facility. The scheduling class for a non-global zone is set to the scheduling class for the system. then processes running in the zone run in that scheduling class by default.Global and Non-Global Zones Global and Non-Global Zones Now that we have some knowledge of debugging applications. The whole root zone model provides the maximum file system configurability. The global zone has a dual function.

From the global zone. 2006 .Global and Non-Global Zones DTracing a Process Running in a Zone This lab will focus on observing processes running in a zone. Log into the global zone: % zlogin password: # 3 Count the number of I/O operations per zone: # dtrace -n io:::start{@[zonename] = count()} 88 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. DTrace may be used from the global zone and supports a zonename variable and the pr_zoneid field in psinfo_t for use with the proc provider. 1 2 Open a terminal window. ps(1) and truss(1) can be used to observe processes in other zones. process tools like prstat(1M).

11 M O D U L E 1 1 Configuring Filesystems With ZFS Objectives The objective of this lesson is to provide an introduction to ZFS by showing you how to create a simple ZFS pool with a mirrored filesystem. 89 .

2006 .org/os/community/zfs/docs/ 90 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.Configuring Filesystems With ZFS Additional Resources ZFS Administration Guide and man pages: http://opensolaris.

the storage is fragmented across disks. which describe the layout of physical storage and its fault characteristics. this is a hard drive that is visible to the system in the /dev/dsk directory. ZFS formats the disk using an EFI label to contain a single. Module 11 • Configuring Filesystems With ZFS 91 . A storage device can be a whole disk (c0t0d0) or an individual slice (c0t0d0s7). In traditional storage configurations which use partitions or volumes.Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Each storage pool is comprised of one or more virtual devices. Then we’ll show you how to configure RAID-Z. large slice. The most basic building block for a storage pool is a piece of physical storage. This can be any block device of at least 128 Mbytes in size. The recommended mode of operation is to use an entire disk. we’ll start by learning about mirrored storage pool configuration. ZFS uses pooled storage to eliminate the management problems associated with volumes and to enable all storage to be shared. in which case the disk does not need to be specially formatted. In this module. The value of shared storage is the ability to repair damaged data. Typically.

Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Creating Mirrored Storage Pools The objective of this lab exercise is to create and list a mirrored storage pool using the zpool command.7G CAP HEALTH 28% ONLINE ALTROOT - 4 Create a mirror of tank: # zpool create tank mirror c1t2d0 c2t2d0 The storage pool is mirrored on c2t2d0. Create a single-disk storage pool named tank: # zpool create tank c1t2d0 You now have a single-disk storage pool named tank. 3 Validate that the pool was created: # zpool list NAME tank SIZE 80. 92 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. so let’s get on with it! It’s time to create your first pool: 1 2 Open a terminal window.0G USED 22. 2006 . with a single filesystem mounted at /tank. ZFS is easy.3G AVAIL 47.

1 2 Open a terminal window. Create the /var/mail filesystem: # zfs create tank/mail 3 Set the mount point for the /var/mail filesystem: # zfs set mountpoint=/var/mail tank/mail 4 Create the home directory: # zfs create tank/home 5 Then. In this lab. That is. tank/home/developer1 is automatically mounted at /export/home/developer1 because tank/home is mounted at /export/home. Module 11 • Configuring Filesystems With ZFS 93 . we’ll use the zfs command to create a filesystem and set its mountpoint.Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Creating a Filesystem and /home Directories The objective of this lab exercise is to learn how to set up a filesystem with several /home directories. create home directories for all of your developers: # zfs create tank/home/developer1 # zfs create tank/home/developer2 # zfs create tank/home/developer3 # zfs create tank/home/developer4 The mountpoint property is inherited as a pathname prefix. set the mount point for the home directory: # zfs set mountpoint=/export/home tank/home 6 Finally.

Creating a RAID-Z pool is identical to a mirrored pool. Note that there is no requirement to use disk slices in a RAID-Z configuration. Create a pool with a single RAID-Z device consisting of 5 disk slices: # zpool create tank raidz c0t0d0s0 c0t0d1s0 c0t0d2s0 c0t0d3s0 c0t0d4s0 In the above example. 2006 . /dev/dsk/c0t0d4s0 is identical to c0t0d4s0 by itself. 94 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Disks can be specified using their full path. Other than that. You might want to configure RAID-Z instead of mirrored pools for greater redundancy. the disk must have been pre-formatted to have an appropriately sized slice zero. except that the raidz keyword is used instead of mirror. You need at least two disks for a RAID-Z configuration. The above command is just an example of using disk slices in a storage pool.Creating Pools With Mounted Filesystems Configuring RAID-Z The objective of this lab exercise is to introduce you to the RAID-Z configuration. no special hardware is required to create a RAID-Z configuration. 1 2 Open a terminal window.

You can use this driver as a template for building a complex driver. The driver that is shown in this module is a pseudo device driver that merely writes a message to a system log every time an entry point is entered. load the driver. This driver demonstrates the minimum functionality that any character driver must implement. 95 . compile the driver.12 M O D U L E 1 2 Writing a Template Character Device Driver Objectives This module shows you how to develop a very simple. and test the driver. working driver. This module explains how to write the driver and configuration file.

2006 . Solaris Modular Debugger Guide. Inc. Inc.. Sun Microsystems.. 2005.Writing a Template Character Device Driver Additional Resources I I Writing Device Drivers. 2005. 96 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Sun Microsystems.

getinfo(9E). Test the driver by loading the driver. Build and install the driver. Create a directory where you can develop your driver and open a new text file named dummy. 5. 4. Write the entry points for autoconfiguration: attach(9E). the device operations structure dev_ops(9S). reading from and writing to the device node. 3. 2. Write the entry points for user context: open(9E). Define the data structures: the character and block operations structure cb_ops(9S). 6. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 97 .Overview of the Template Driver Example Overview of the Template Driver Example This example guides you through the following steps: 1. Create the driver configuration file dummy. and the module linkage structures modldrv(9S) and modlinkage(9S). and write(9E). Write the entry points for loadable module configuration: _init(9E).conf. and _fini(9E). close(9E). detach(9E). _info(9E). 8. read(9E). 7. and prop_op(9E).c. and unloading the driver.

The _info(9E) routine must at least call the mod_info(9F) function and return the value that is returned by mod_info(9F). The _info(9E) routine returns information about a loadable module. The _fini(9E) routine prepares a loadable module for unloading. mod_info(9F). 2006 . The _init(9E) routine must at least call the mod_install(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_install(9F). The _fini(9E) routine must at least call the mod_remove(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_remove(9F). This driver is named dummy because this driver does not do any real work. In this section. All of these data structures and almost all of these entry points are required for any character device driver. the following code is added to the dummy. open a new text file named dummy. Writing the Loadable Module Configuration Entry Points Every kernel module of any type must define at least the following three loadable module configuration entry points: I The _init(9E) routine initializes a loadable module. This section describes the following entry points and data structures: I I I I I I Loadable module configuration entry points Autoconfiguration entry points User context entry points Character and block operations structure Device operations structure Module linkage structures First. You can copy these function calls from this example and paste them into every driver you write. You do not need to investigate what the values of the arguments of these functions should be.c. create a directory where you can develop your driver.c source file: 98 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. When mod_remove(9F) is successful. and mod_remove(9F) functions are used in exactly the same way in every driver. I I The mod_install(9F).Writing the Template Driver Writing the Template Driver This section describes the entry points and data structures that are included in this driver and shows you how to define them. the _fini(9E) routine must undo everything that the _init(9E) routine did. Next. regardless of the functionality of the driver.

} int _info(struct modinfo *modinfop) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. but the names of these routines are not unique.Writing the Template Driver /* Loadable module configuration entry points */ int _init(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. "Inside _fini"). } Declaring the Loadable Module Configuration Entry Points The _init(9E). Use the cmn_err(9F) function to write a message to a system log. The first Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 99 . Do not declare these three routines in dummy. "Inside _info"). return(mod_remove(&ml)). The mod_install(9F) function takes an argument that is a modlinkage(9S) structure. return(mod_info(&ml.c. The cmn_err(9F) function takes two arguments.h header file. and the sunddi. The cmn_err(9F) function also is useful for debugging in the same way that you might use print statements in a user program.h header file. _info(9E). The _init(9E) routine must call the mod_install(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_install(9F). the ddi. "Inside _init").h header file. These three routines are declared in the modctl. Defining the Module Initialization Entry Point The _init(9E) routine returns type int and takes no arguments. The cmn_err(9F) function usually is used to report an error condition. You customize the behavior of these routines when you define them in your module.c file. This driver is supposed to write a message each time an entry point is entered. modinfop)). You need to include the modctl. The cmn_err(9F) function requires you to include the cmn_err.h header file in your dummy. return(mod_install(&ml)). } int _fini(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. and _fini(9E) routine names are not unique to any particular kernel module.h header file.

The ml structure is the modlinkage(9S) structure. "Inside _init"). The following code is the _info(9E) routine that you should enter into your dummy. return(mod_install(&ml)). } Defining the Module Information Entry Point The _info(9E) routine returns type int and takes an argument that is a pointer to an opaque modinfo structure. The second argument to mod_info(9F) is the same modinfo structure pointer that is the argument to the _info(9E) routine. int _info(struct modinfo *modinfop) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.c file. 2006 . return(mod_info(&ml. The _info(9E) routine must return the value that is returned by the mod_info(9F) function. The first argument to mod_info(9F) is a modlinkage(9S) structure. modinfop)). int _init(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. Use the cmn_err(9F) function to write a message to the system log in the same way that you used the cmn_err(9F) function in your _init(9E) entry point. The mod_info(9F) function takes two arguments. 100 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Use CE_NOTE for the value of this severity constant. "Inside _info"). The mod_info(9F) function returns the module information or returns zero if an error occurs.c file. } Defining the Module Unload Entry Point The _fini(9E) routine returns type int and takes no arguments. The message written by this driver is not an error message but is simply a test message.Writing the Template Driver argument is a constant that indicates the severity of the error message. The second argument the cmn_err(9F) function takes is a string message. The _fini(9E) routine must call the mod_remove(9F) function and return the success or failure value that is returned by mod_remove(9F). The modinfop argument is a pointer to an opaque structure that the system uses to pass module information. The following code is the _init(9E) routine that you should enter into your dummy.

and destroy anything that was created in the _init(9E) routine. the _fini(9E) routine must undo everything that the _init(9E) routine did. Another module that depends on this driver is open. Use the cmn_err(9F) function to write a message to the system log in the same way that you used the cmn_err(9F) function in your _init(9E) entry point. int _fini(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. then mod_remove(9F) fails and _fini(9E) fails. A module depends on this driver if the module was linked using the -N option with this driver named as the argument to that -N option. In normal operation. and _fini(9E) continues its cleanup work. then mod_remove(9F) succeeds. } Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 101 . The mod_remove(9F) function takes an argument that is a modlinkage(9S) structure. If mod_remove(9F) is successful. return(mod_remove(&ml)). If mod_remove(9F) fails. the module determines that devices were detached. close anything that was opened. "Inside _fini"). then the kernel calls the detach(9E) entry point of the driver. the _fini(9E) routine often fails. and the module cannot be unloaded. If detach(9E) succeeds. I I If detach(9E) fails.Writing the Template Driver When mod_remove(9F) is successful. The _fini(9E) routine can be called at any time when a module is loaded. This driver is busy if one of the following conditions is true: I I A device node that is managed by this driver is open. then mod_remove(9F) fails and _fini(9E) fails. The following actions take place when mod_remove(9F) is called: I The kernel checks whether this driver is busy. and the module can be unloaded. The _fini(9E) routine must deallocate anything that was allocated. If the driver is not busy. See the ld(1) man page for more information.c file. The _fini(9E) routine must call mod_remove(9F) because the _init(9E) routine called mod_install(9F). The following code is the _fini(9E) routine that you should enter into your dummy. This behavior is normal because the kernel allows the module to determine whether the module can be unloaded. I I If the driver is busy. the module determines that devices were not detached.

0) 102 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The kernel calls these routines when the device driver is loaded.h> /* /* /* /* used used used used by by by by _init. DDI_PSEUDO. "0". switch(cmd) { case DDI_ATTACH: dummy_dip = dip.Writing the Template Driver Including Loadable Module Configuration Header Files The _init(9E). S_IFCHR. _info(9E). Use the prop_op(9E) entry point to customize the behavior of the ddi_prop_op(9F) function. #include #include #include #include <sys/modctl. ddi_get_instance(dip). The following header files are required by the three loadable module configuration routines that you have written in this section. The detach(9E) routine must undo everything that the attach(9E) routine did.h> <sys/cmn_err. _info. _fini */ all entry points for this driver */ all entry points for this driver */ all entry points for this driver */ Writing the Autoconfiguration Entry Points Every character driver must define at least the following autoconfiguration entry points. if (ddi_create_minor_node(dip. 2006 . _fini(9E). and mod_install(9F) functions require you to include the modctl.h> <sys/ddi. Include this code near the top of your dummy. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function provides the information the system needs to create the device files. You can call the ddi_prop_op(9F) function instead of writing your own prop_op(9E) entry point. the ddi. "Inside dummy_attach"). ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.h header file.h> <sys/sunddi. I The attach(9E) routine must call ddi_create_minor_node(9F). the following code is added: /* Device autoconfiguration entry points */ static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. The detach(9E) routine must call ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) to deallocate everything that was allocated by ddi_create_minor_node(9F).h header file. The prop_op(9E) routine returns requested device driver property information through a pointer. The cmn_err(9F) function requires you to include the cmn_err.h header file. and the sunddi. The getinfo(9E) routine returns requested device driver information through one of its arguments.c file.h header file. I I I In this section.

NULL). } } static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. return DDI_SUCCESS. case DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE: *resultp = 0. "Inside dummy_detach"). } else return DDI_SUCCESS. "%s%d: attach: could not add character node. dev_info_t *dip. default: return DDI_FAILURE.". switch(cmd) { case DDI_DETACH: dummy_dip = 0. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. "Inside dummy_getinfo"). "dummy". switch(cmd) { case DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO: *resultp = dummy_dip. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 103 .Writing the Template Driver != DDI_SUCCESS) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. default: return DDI_FAILURE. void **resultp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. } } static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. default: return DDI_FAILURE. } } static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. return DDI_SUCCESS. void *arg. ddi_remove_minor_node(dip. return DDI_SUCCESS. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. return(DDI_FAILURE). 0).

char *name. In the example shown in this module. dev_info_t *dip.c file. The value that is passed through this second argument is either DDI_ATTACH or DDI_RESUME. caddr_t valuep. caddr_t valuep. Note that each of these functions is declared static.valuep. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. void *arg. int *lengthp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. In a realistic driver. int flags. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd). Defining the Device Attach Entry Point The attach(9E) routine returns type int. char *name.dip. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. The second argument is a constant that specifies the attach type.prop_op. and prop_op(9E) entry point routines need to be uniquely named for this driver. The attach(9E) routine takes two arguments. return(ddi_prop_op(dev. The DDI_ATTACH code must initialize a device instance. you define and manage multiple instances of the driver by using a state structure and the ddi_soft_state(9F) functions. static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. The attach(9E) routine must return either DDI_SUCCESS or DDI_FAILURE. Each instance of the driver has its own copy of the state 104 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. All of the autoconfiguration entry point routines take a dev_info argument. } Declaring the Autoconfiguration Entry Points The attach(9E). These two constants are defined in sunddi.h. 2006 . "Inside dummy_prop_op").name. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd). static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. The following declarations are the autoconfiguration entry point declarations you should have in your dummy. detach(9E). Note – By convention. static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. Every attach(9E) routine must define behavior for at least DDI_ATTACH. Use the same prefix throughout the driver. void **resultp).lengthp)). This practice makes debugging much easier.flags. dummy_ is used for the prefix to each function and data name that is unique to this example. The first argument is a pointer to the dev_info structure for this driver. int *lengthp). All of the autoconfiguration entry point routines except for prop_op(9E) return either DDI_SUCCESS or DDI_FAILURE. the prefix used for function and data names that are unique to this driver is either the name of this driver or an abbreviation of the name of this driver.Writing the Template Driver int flags. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. Choose a prefix to use with each entry point routine. getinfo(9E).

0) != DDI_SUCCESS) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. the device instance pointer is used by the ddi_get_instance(9F) function to return the instance number. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. /* keep track of one instance */ The following code is the dummy_attach() routine that you should enter into your dummy. Each device instance file is pointed to by a separate device instance pointer. Within the DDI_ATTACH code. One of the pieces of data that is specific to each instance is the device instance pointer. } else return DDI_SUCCESS. You need to save this pointer value in the global variable so that you can use this pointer to get information about this instance from dummy_getinfo() and detach this instance in dummy_detach().c file. default: return DDI_FAILURE. S_IFCHR. } } First. DDI_PSEUDO. This driver still must declare a device instance pointer and initialize the pointer value in the attach(9E) routine.Writing the Template Driver structure that holds data specific to that instance. static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. ddi_get_instance(dip). if (ddi_create_minor_node(dip. "Inside dummy_attach"). 0). Each instance of the device driver is represented by a separate device file in /devices. "0". In this dummy_attach() routine. Enter the following code near the beginning of dummy. "dummy".". Then provide DDI_ATTACH behavior. "%s%d: attach: could not add character node. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 105 . use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log. first assign the device instance pointer from the dummy_attach() argument to the dummy_dip variable that you declared above. The device instance pointer and the instance number both are used by ddi_create_minor_node(9F) to create a new device node. Because this driver allows only one instance. This dummy driver allows only one instance. switch(cmd) { case DDI_ATTACH: dummy_dip = dip. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. this driver does not use a state structure. return(DDI_FAILURE).c to declare a device instance pointer for this driver: dev_info_t *dummy_dip.

If the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) call is not successful. In the DDI_DETACH code in this detach(9E) routine. you need to reset the variable that pointed to the dev_info structure for this node. The fifth argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function is the node type. so set this argument value to 0. switch(cmd) { case DDI_DETACH: 106 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. This dummy driver is a character driver. If the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) call is successful. write a message to the system log and return DDI_FAILURE. The third argument is S_IFCHR if this device is a character minor device or is S_IFBLK if this device is a block minor device. You also need to call the ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) function to remove this node. The first argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function is the device instance pointer that points to the dev_info structure of this device. return DDI_SUCCESS. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function takes six arguments. The DDI_DETACH code must undo everything that the DDI_ATTACH code did. static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. you saved the address of a new dev_info structure and you called the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function to create a new node. In the DDI_ATTACH code in your attach(9E) routine. If this dummy_attach() routine receives any cmd other than DDI_ATTACH. The sixth argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function specifies whether this is a clone device. The detach(9E) routine must deallocate anything that was allocated. The value that is passed through this second argument is either DDI_DETACH or DDI_SUSPEND. return DDI_FAILURE. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. 2006 . close anything that was opened.Writing the Template Driver A realistic driver probably would use the ddi_soft_state(9F) functions to create and manage a device node. The fourth argument to the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function is the minor number of this minor device. The ddi_get_instance(9F) function returns this instance number. "Inside dummy_detach"). and destroy anything that was created in the attach(9E) routine. The first argument is a pointer to the dev_info structure for this driver. Every detach(9E) routine must define behavior for at least DDI_DETACH. This number is also called the instance number. This dummy driver uses the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function to create a device node. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) man page lists the possible node types. The second argument is the name of this minor node. Defining the Device Detach Entry Point The detach(9E) routine takes two arguments. The second argument is a constant that specifies the detach type.c file. The following code is the dummy_detach() routine that you should enter into your dummy. The DDI_PSEUDO node type is for pseudo devices. This is not a clone device.

call the ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) function to remove this device node. The third argument to the getinfo(9E) routine is a pointer to a device number. The value of this second argument is either DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO or DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE. this dummy driver supports only one instance. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 107 .Writing the Template Driver dummy_dip = 0. Because the DDI_DETACH code of this driver always removes all instances. return DDI_SUCCESS. You cannot reset this device instance pointer unless you remove all instances of the device. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log. remove all instances of this device and return DDI_SUCCESS. The getinfo(9E) routine takes four arguments. NULL). If the value of the minor node argument is NULL. The ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) function takes two arguments. return DDI_FAILURE. The return value of the getinfo(9E) routine is DDI_SUCCESS or DDI_FAILURE. } } First. Within the DDI_DETACH code. This dummy driver supports only one instance. Then provide DDI_DETACH behavior. Next. The first argument is a pointer to the dev_info structure for this driver. first reset the dummy_dip variable that you set in dummy_attach() above. The second argument to the getinfo(9E) routine is a constant that specifies what information the getinfo(9E) routine must return. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. The pointer or instance number requested from the getinfo(9E) routine is returned through a pointer argument. ddi_remove_minor_node(dip. This dev_info structure argument is obsolete and is no longer used by the getinfo(9E) routine. The first argument is the device instance pointer that points to the dev_info structure of this device. The information stored at this location depends on the value you passed in the second argument to the getinfo(9E) routine. The fourth argument is a pointer to the place where the getinfo(9E) routine must store the requested information. Defining the Get Driver Information Entry Point The getinfo(9E) routine takes a pointer to a device number and returns a pointer to a device information structure or returns a device instance number. If this dummy_detach() routine receives any cmd other than DDI_DETACH. The second argument is the name of the minor node you want to remove. default: return DDI_FAILURE. If the value of the cmd argument to this dummy_detach() routine is DDI_DETACH. then ddi_remove_minor_node(9F) removes all instances of this device.

provide DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE behavior. return DDI_SUCCESS. TABLE 12–1 Get Driver Information Entry Point Arguments cmd arg resultp DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE Device number Device number Device information structure pointer Device instance number The following code is the dummy_getinfo() routine that you should enter into your dummy. simply return 0. return DDI_SUCCESS. Within the DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE code. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd.Writing the Template Driver The following table describes the relationship between the second and fourth arguments to the getinfo(9E) routine. switch(cmd) { case DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO: *resultp = dummy_dip. 2006 .c file. case DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE: *resultp = 0. 108 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. simply return the one device information structure pointer that the dummy_attach() routine saved. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log. void *arg. This dummy driver supports only one instance and does not use a state structure. void **resultp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. This dummy driver supports only one instance. "Inside dummy_getinfo"). Next. A realistic driver would use arg to get the instance number of this device node. default: return DDI_FAILURE. } } First. The instance number of that one instance is 0. A realistic driver would then call the ddi_get_soft_state(9F) function and return the device information structure pointer from that state structure. Then provide DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO behavior. In the DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO code of this dummy_getinfo() routine.

h and sunddi. Then call the ddi_prop_op(9F) function with exactly the same arguments as the dummy_prop_op() function.c file for the four autoconfiguration routines you have written in this section and the three loadable module configuration routines you wrote in the previous section.flags. These arguments are not discussed here because this dummy driver does not create and manage its own properties.dip. #include <sys/modctl. You already included these two header files for the cmn_err(9F) function. ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/stat. This dummy driver uses a prop_op(9E) routine to call cmn_err(9F) before calling the ddi_prop_op(9F) function. The prop_op(9E) entry point and the ddi_prop_op(9F) function both require that you include the types. The following code is the dummy_prop_op() routine that you should enter into your dummy.h> /* used by prop_op. } First. The prop_op(9E) and the ddi_prop_op(9F) functions require the types.name.valuep. dev_info_t *dip. as you did in your _init(9E) entry point. The ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function requires the stat.h> /* defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 109 . The following code is the list of header files that you now should have included in your dummy. int flags. See the prop_op(9E) man page to learn about the prop_op(9E) arguments. "Inside dummy_prop_op"). then your driver can use the ddi_prop_op(9F) function for the prop_op(9E) entry point.h header file.h header file.Writing the Template Driver Defining the Report Driver Property Information Entry Point The prop_op(9E) entry point is required for every driver. caddr_t valuep.h> /* used by _init. static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. return(ddi_prop_op(dev. Including Autoconfiguration Header Files All of the autoconfiguration entry point routines and all of the user context entry point routines require that you include the ddi. _info. If your driver does not need to customize the behavior of the prop_op(9E) entry point. int *lengthp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op.lengthp)).prop_op.h header files. char *name.c file.h header file. Drivers that create and manage their own properties need a custom prop_op(9E) routine. use cmn_err(9F) to write a message to the system log. _fini */ #include <sys/types. The dummy_attach() routine calls the ddi_create_minor_node(9F) function. The prop_op(9E) entry point and the ddi_prop_op(9F) function both take the same seven arguments.

The read(9E) routine reads data from the device node. 2006 . int otyp.h> /* #include <sys/ddi.h> /* /* /* used by all entry points for this driver */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_get_instance.h> /* /* #include <sys/sunddi. I I In this section. return DDI_SUCCESS. 110 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. int flag. struct uio *uiop. int flag. When a system call opens a device file. ddi_prop_op */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_create_minor_node. The write(9E) routine writes data to the device node. cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. } static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. All character and block drivers must define the open(9E) user context entry point. "Inside dummy_open"). return DDI_SUCCESS. "Inside dummy_read"). The close(9E). the open(9E) routine can be nulldev(9F). The close(9E) routine must undo everything that the open(9E) routine did. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. the following code is added: /* Use context entry points */ static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. then the open(9E) routine in the driver for that device is called. However. "Inside dummy_close"). and ddi_prop_op */ Writing the User Context Entry Points User context entry points correspond closely to system calls.Writing the Template Driver #include <sys/cmn_err. } static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. */ ddi_get_instance. cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. and write(9E) user context routines are optional. read(9E). int otyp. The close(9E) routine relinquishes access to the device. I I The open(9E) routine gains access to the device.

"Inside dummy_open"). static int dummy_write(dev_t dev.c file. cred_t *credp).Writing the Template Driver return DDI_SUCCESS. struct uio *uiop. The following code is the dummy_open() routine that you should enter into your dummy. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. cred_t *credp). ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd). static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. void *arg. int flag. The open(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. int otyp. cred_t *cred). static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. Write a message to the system log and return success. } static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. Use the same prefix for each of the user context entry points that you used for each of the autoconfiguration entry point routines. void **resultp). } Declaring the User Context Entry Points The user context entry point routines need to be uniquely named for this driver. int otyp. static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_open() routine does not use any of the open(9E) arguments. cred_t *cred). int *lengthp). int flags. The open(9E) routine takes four arguments. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. The following declarations are the entry point declarations you should have in your dummy. caddr_t valuep. dev_info_t *dip. static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. "Inside dummy_write"). return DDI_SUCCESS. Defining the Open Device Entry Point The open(9E) routine returns type int. static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. } Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 111 . int otyp. struct uio *uiop. struct uio *uiop. int flag. return DDI_SUCCESS. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd). int flag.c file: static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. char *name.

int flag. The following code is the dummy_close() routine that you should enter into your dummy. The write(9E) routine takes three arguments. The write(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_read() routine does not use any of the read(9E) arguments. The close(9E) routine must undo everything that the open(9E) routine did. The close(9E) routine takes four arguments. This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_close() routine does not use any of the close(9E) arguments. close anything that was opened. static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. In this dummy driver. static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. "Inside dummy_close"). the open(9E) routine is so simple that nothing needs to be reclaimed or undone in the close(9E) routine. Write a message to the system log and return success. struct uio *uiop. int otyp. The read(9E) routine takes three arguments.c file. 2006 . } Defining the Write Device Entry Point The write(9E) routine returns type int. The following code is the dummy_read() routine that you should enter into your dummy. return DDI_SUCCESS. return DDI_SUCCESS. The close(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number.Writing the Template Driver Defining the Close Device Entry Point The close(9E) routine returns type int. } Defining the Read Device Entry Point The read(9E) routine returns type int. and destroy anything that was created in the open(9E) routine. Write a message to the system log and return success. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.c file. cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. The read(9E) routine should return either DDI_SUCCESS or the appropriate error number. This dummy driver is so simple that this dummy_write() routine does not use any of the write(9E) arguments. "Inside dummy_read"). 112 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. The close(9E) routine must deallocate anything that was allocated.

return DDI_SUCCESS. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. */ and ddi_prop_op */ used by open. modldrv. All drivers must define a dev_ops(9S) device operations structure. and ddi_prop_op */ Writing the Driver Data Structures All of the data structures described in this section are required for every device driver.h. read */ used by read */ defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ used by all entry points for this driver */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_get_instance and */ ddi_prop_op */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by ddi_create_minor_node. read.h> /* /* /* #include <sys/sunddi. errno. and uio.h. */ ddi_get_instance.h> /* #include <sys/open. write.h> /* #include <sys/uio.h. */ and _fini */ used by open. } Including User Context Header Files The four user context entry point routines require your module to include several header files. close.Writing the Template Driver The following code is the dummy_write() routine that you should enter into your dummy. _init. prop_op.c file. write */ used by open. _info. cred.h> /* #include <sys/errno. close */ used by open. "Inside dummy_write").h header files.h. and the sunddi.h header file.h> /* /* #include <sys/file.h> /* #include <sys/cmn_err.h> /* #include <sys/cred. Because the dev_ops(9S) structure includes a pointer to the cb_ops(9S) character and block operations structure. write */ used by open. close. close. you must define the cb_ops(9S) structure first.h> /* #include <sys/stat. open. struct uio *uiop.h header file. read.h> /* /* /* used by modlinkage. You need to include the file.h> /* #include <sys/ddi.c file for all the entry points you have written in this section and the previous two sections: #include <sys/modctl. the ddi. The following code is the list of header files that you now should have included in your dummy. Write a message to the system log and return success. static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. close.h> /* /* #include <sys/types. read.h header file. You already have included the types. The modldrv(9S) linkage structure for loadable Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 113 .

/* no identify . /* dev_ops structure */ static struct dev_ops dummy_dev_ops = { DEVO_REV.nulldev returns 0 */ nulldev. dummy_write. 2006 . /* no dump */ dummy_read. all of the required entry points for a driver are initialized in the character and block operations structure or in the device operations structure. NULL. 0. nulldev. /* no ioctl */ nodev. if not NULL. nodev. /* no probe */ dummy_attach. The loadable module configuration entry points are not initialized in driver data structures.h */ CB_REV. /* streamtab struct. Some optional entry points and other related data also are initialized in these data structures.Writing the Template Driver drivers includes a pointer to the dev_ops(9S) structure. and _fini(9E) entry points are required for all kernel modules and are not specific to device driver modules. nodev. /* cb_ops revision number */ nodev. Except for the loadable module configuration entry points.nodev returns ENXIO */ nodev. /* no mmap */ nodev. _info(9E). /* compatibility flags: see conf. /* no strategy . /* no segmap */ nochpoll. 114 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Initializing the entry points in these data structures enables the driver to be dynamically loaded. In this section. dummy_close. /* returns ENXIO for non-pollable devices */ dummy_prop_op. all above */ /* fields are ignored */ D_NEW | D_MP. /* reference count */ dummy_getinfo. The _init(9E). /* no print */ nodev. The modlinkage(9S) module linkage structure includes a pointer to the modldrv(9S) structure. /* no devmap */ nodev. the following code is added: /* cb_ops structure */ static struct cb_ops dummy_cb_ops = { dummy_open. /* no aread */ nodev /* no awrite */ }.

Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 115 . /* no reset . Prepend the static type modifier to the declaration. /* no strategy . See the cb_ops(9S) man page to learn what each element is and what the value of each element should be.nodev returns ENXIO */ nodev. dummy_close. (struct bus_ops *)NULL. nodev /* no power */ }. When you name this structure. This is a driver. */ "dummy driver". use the same dummy_ prefix that you used for the names of the autoconfiguration routines and the names of the user context routines. /* no print */ nodev. /* Type of module. /* keep track of one instance */ Defining the Character and Block Operations Structure The cb_ops(9S) structure initializes standard character and block interfaces. nodev. /* dev_info structure */ dev_info_t *dummy_dip.c file: static struct cb_ops dummy_cb_ops = { dummy_open. nodev. &md. /* modlinkage structure */ static struct modlinkage ml = { MODREV_1. dummy_write. This dummy driver does not use all of the elements in the cb_ops(9S) structure. /* Name of the module. */ &dummy_dev_ops }.nodev returns ENXIO */ &dummy_cb_ops. The following code is the cb_ops(9S) structure that you should enter into your dummy.Writing the Template Driver dummy_detach. /* no dump */ dummy_read. See the description that follows the code sample. NULL }. /* modldrv structure */ static struct modldrv md = { &mod_driverops.

CB_REV. This driver does not does not define aread(9E) or awrite(9E) entry points because this driver does not perform any asynchronous reads or writes. The strategy(9E). The D_MP flag means this driver safely allows multiple threads of execution. This dummy driver does not define these three routines because this driver is a character driver. D_NEW | D_MP. nodev. See the conf. and must specify this D_MP flag. nodev }. All drivers must be multithreaded-safe. nochpoll. or segmap(9E) entry points because this driver does not support memory mapping.h */ cb_ops revision number */ no aread */ no awrite */ Enter the names of the open(9E) and close(9E) entry points for this driver as the values of the first two elements of this structure. NULL.h header file. The CB_REV element of the cb_ops(9S) structure is the cb_ops(9S) revision number. all above */ fields are ignored */ compatibility flags: see conf. Specify NULL for the streamtab(9S) STREAMS entity declaration structure because this driver is not a STREAMS driver. Enter the names of the read(9E) and write(9E) entry points for this driver as the values of the sixth and seventh elements of this structure. nodev. The compatibility flags are defined in the conf. 116 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. if not NULL. nodev. The D_NEW flag means this driver is a new-style driver. This driver does not define devmap(9E). The D_64BIT flag means this driver supports 64-bit offsets and block numbers. Initialize all of these unused function elements to nodev(9F).h header file for more compatibility flags.Writing the Template Driver nodev. Enter the name of the prop_op(9E) entry point for this driver as the value of the thirteenth element in this structure. dummy_prop_op. and dump(9E) routines are for block drivers only. CB_REV is defined in the devops. 2006 . nodev. The nodev(9F) function returns the ENXIO error code.h header file. Specify the nochpoll(9F) function for the chpoll(9E) element of the cb_ops(9S) structure because this driver is not for a pollable device. This driver does not define an ioctl(9E) entry point because this driver does not use I/O control commands. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* no ioctl */ no devmap */ no mmap */ no segmap */ returns ENXIO for non-pollable devices */ streamtab struct. print(9E). mmap(9E).

nodev /* no power */ }. dummy_detach.h header file. Only nexus drivers have bus operations structures. Initialize this value to zero. /* no identify . detach(9E). DEVO_REV is defined in the devops.nulldev returns 0 */ nulldev. The next element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is a pointer to the bus operations structure. See the dev_ops(9S) man page to learn what each element is and what the value of each element should be. The DEVO_REV element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is the driver build version. 0. Initialize the reset() function to nodev(9F). (struct bus_ops *)NULL. The reset() function is obsolete. Initialize this structure element to nulldev(9F). attach(9E). Initialize this structure element to nulldev. Prepend the static type modifier to the declaration. Set this value to NULL because this driver is a leaf driver. This dummy driver is not a nexus driver. See the description that follows the code sample. The driver cannot be unloaded if any instances of the driver are still open. /* reference count */ dummy_getinfo. probe(9E). This dummy driver does not use all of the elements in the dev_ops(9S) structure. When you name this structure. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 117 .c file: static struct dev_ops dummy_dev_ops = { DEVO_REV. The following code is the dev_ops(9S) structure that you should enter into your dummy. The next element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is a pointer to the cb_ops(9S) structure for this driver. The next six elements of the dev_ops(9S) structure are the names of the getinfo(9E). /* no reset . nodev. This dummy driver does not define a probe(9E) function. The identify(9E) function is obsolete. nulldev. The probe(9E) function determines whether the corresponding device exists and is valid. use the same dummy_ prefix that you used for the names of the autoconfiguration routines and the names of the user context routines. /* no probe */ dummy_attach. and reset() functions for this particular driver. The driver reference count is the number of instances of this driver that are currently open. identify(9E).nodev returns ENXIO */ &dummy_cb_ops. The nulldev(9F) function returns success. Enter &dummy_cb_ops for the value of the pointer to the cb_ops(9S) structure.Writing the Template Driver Defining the Device Operations Structure The dev_ops(9S) structure initializes interfaces that are used for operations such as attaching and detaching the driver. The second element in this structure is the driver reference count.

The next element of the modlinkage(9S) structure is the address of a null-terminated array of pointers to linkage structures. The second element in the modldrv(9S) structure is a string that describes this module.Writing the Template Driver The last element of the dev_ops(9S) structure is the name of the power(9E) routine for this driver. 2006 . Driver modules have only one linkage structure. 118 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. _info(9E). Set this value to MODREV_1. The modlinkage(9S) module linkage structure is used by the _init(9E). &md. Enter the address of the md structure for the value of this element of the modlinkage(9S) structure.c file. Set this value to the address of the mod_driverops structure. This driver does not drive a hardware device. NULL }. /* Type of module. The mod_driverops structure is declared in the modctl. You already included the modctl.c source file. See the man pages for each structure to learn what each element is and what the value of each element should be. The mod_driverops structure tells the kernel that the dummy. The modldrv(9S) linkage structure for loadable drivers exports driver-specific information to the kernel. */ "dummy driver". This is a driver. The first element in the modldrv(9S) structure is a pointer to a structure that tells the kernel what kind of module this is. static struct modlinkage ml = { MODREV_1. The last element of the modldrv(9S) structure is a pointer to the dev_ops(9S) structure for this driver. The mod_driverops structure is defined in the modctl. */ &dummy_dev_ops }. Set the value of this structure element to nodev. The first element in the modlinkage(9S) structure is the revision number of the loadable modules system. and retrieve information from a module. The power(9E) routine operates on a hardware device. The following code defines the modldrv(9S) and modlinkage(9S) structures for the driver shown in this module: static struct modldrv md = { &mod_driverops.h header file in your dummy. Usually this string contains the name of this module and the version number of this module. /* Name of the module. Defining the Module Linkage Structures Two other module loading structures are required for every driver. so do not declare the mod_driverops structure in dummy. and _fini(9E) routines to install.h header file. remove. Enter the value NULL to terminate this list of linkage structures.c module is a loadable driver module.c.

h> /* used by dev_ops */ #include <sys/conf. modldrv.h and devops. and */ /* ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/sunddi.h> /* defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ #include <sys/cmn_err. close.h> /* used by open.h> /* used by dev_ops and cb_ops */ #include <sys/modctl. _init. ddi_get_instance. The modlinkage(9S) and modldrv(9S) structures require you to include the modctl. read. read. _info. read. */ /* and _fini */ #include <sys/types. write */ #include <sys/cred. and ddi_prop_op */ Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 119 . The following code is the complete list of header files that you now should have included in your dummy.h> /* used by all entry points for this driver */ /* also used by cb_ops. close.h header files.h> /* used by all entry points for this driver */ /* also used by cb_ops. close. read */ #include <sys/uio. close */ #include <sys/errno.h> /* used by modlinkage.h> /* used by open. */ /* and ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/file.h> /* used by open.h header file. */ /* ddi_get_instance. prop_op. write */ #include <sys/open. close. write.h> /* used by open. ddi_create_minor_node.h header file for the loadable module configuration entry points.Writing the Template Driver Including Data Structures Header Files The cb_ops(9S) and dev_ops(9S) structures require you to include the conf.h> /* used by open.h> /* used by all entry points for this driver */ #include <sys/ddi.c file: #include <sys/devops. You already included the modctl.h> /* used by read */ #include <sys/stat.

Writing the Device Configuration File

Writing the Device Configuration File
This driver requires a configuration file. The minimum information that a configuration file must contain is the name of the device node and the name or type of the device’s parent. In this simple example, the node name of the device is the same as the file name of the driver. Create a file named dummy.conf in your working directory. Put the following single line of information into dummy.conf:
name="dummy" parent="pseudo";

120

Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Building and Installing the Template Driver

Building and Installing the Template Driver
This section shows you how to build and install the driver for a 32-bit platform. Compile and link the driver. Use the -D_KERNEL option to indicate that this code defines a kernel module. The following example shows compiling and linking for a 32-bit architecture using the Sun Studio C compiler:
% cc -D_KERNEL -c dummy.c % ld -r -o dummy dummy.o

Make sure you are user root when you install the driver. Install drivers in the /tmp directory until you are finished modifying and testing the _info(), _init(), and attach() routines. Copy the driver binary to the /tmp directory. Link to the driver from the kernel driver directory.
# cp dummy /tmp

Link to the following directory for a 32-bit architecture:
# ln -s /tmp/dummy /usr/kernel/drv/dummy

Copy the configuration file to the kernel driver area of the system.
# cp dummy.conf /usr/kernel/drv

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121

Testing the Template Driver

Testing the Template Driver
This dummy driver merely writes a message to a system log each time an entry point routine is entered. To test this driver, watch for these messages to confirm that each entry point routine is successfully entered. The cmn_err(9F) function writes low priority messages such as the messages defined in this dummy driver to /dev/log. The syslogd(1M) daemon reads messages from /dev/log and writes low priority messages to /var/adm/messages. In a separate window, enter the following command and monitor the output as you perform the tests described in the remainder of this section:
% tail -f /var/adm/messages

Adding the Template Driver
Make sure you are user root when you add the driver. Use the add_drv(1M) command to add the driver:
# add_drv dummy

You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages:
date time machine dummy: [ID 513080 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _info date time machine dummy: [ID 874762 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _init date time machine dummy: [ID 678704 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_attach

The _info(9E), _init(9E), and attach(9E) entry points are called in that order when you add a driver. The dummy driver has been added to the /devices directory:
% ls -l /devices/pseudo | grep dummy drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 date time dummy@0 crw------- 1 root sys 92, 0 date time dummy@0:0

The dummy driver also is the most recent module listed by modinfo(1M):
% modinfo Id Loadaddr 180 ed192b70 Size Info Rev Module Name 544 92 1 dummy (dummy driver)

The module name, dummy driver, is the value you entered for the second member of the modldrv(9S) structure. The value 92 is the major number of this module.
122 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March, 2006

Testing the Template Driver

% grep dummy /etc/name_to_major dummy 92

The Loadaddr address of ed192b70 is the address of the first instruction in the dummy driver. This address might be useful, for example, in debugging.
% mdb -k > dummy‘_init $m BASE LIMIT ed192b70 ed192ff0 > $q

SIZE NAME 480 dummy

The dummy driver also is the most recent module listed by prtconf(1M) in the pseudo device section:
% prtconf -P pseudo, instance #0 dummy, instance #0 (driver not attached)

A driver is automatically loaded when a device that the driver manages is accessed. A driver might be automatically unloaded when the driver is not in use. If your driver is in the /devices directory but modinfo(1M) does not list your driver, you can use either of the following methods to load your driver:
I I

Use the modload(1M) command. Access the device. The driver is loaded automatically when a device that the driver manages is accessed. The following section describes how to access the dummy device.

Reading and Writing the Device
Make sure you are user root when you perform the tests described in this section. If you are not user root, you will receive “Permission denied” error messages when you try to access the /devices/pseudo/dummy@0:0 special file. Test reading from the device. Your dummy device probably is named /devices/pseudo/dummy@0:0. The following command reads from your dummy device even if it has a slightly different name:
# cat /devices/pseudo/dummy*

You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages:
date time machine dummy: [ID 136952 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_open date time machine dummy: [ID 623947 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_getinfo date time machine dummy: [ID 891851 kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_prop_op

Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver

123

notice] kern.notice] kern.notice] kern. Use the rem_drv(1M) command to unload the driver and remove the device from the /devices directory: # rem_drv dummy You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages: date time machine dummy: [ID 513080 kern.notice] kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _fini The dummy device is no longer in the /devices directory: # ls /devices/pseudo/dummy* /devices/pseudo/dummy*: No such file or directory 124 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March.notice] NOTICE: Inside dummy_detach date time machine dummy: [ID 812373 kern.notice] NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside dummy_getinfo dummy_prop_op dummy_getinfo dummy_read dummy_close Test writing to the device: # echo hello > ‘ls /devices/pseudo/dummy*‘ You should see the following messages in the window where you are viewing /var/adm/messages: date date date date date date date date time time time time time time time time machine machine machine machine machine machine machine machine dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID 136952 623947 891851 623947 891851 623947 672780 550206 kern.Testing the Template Driver date date date date date time time time time time machine machine machine machine machine dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: dummy: [ID [ID [ID [ID [ID 623947 891851 623947 709590 550206 kern. this output from the write test is almost identical to the output you saw from the read test.notice] kern.notice] kern.notice] NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: NOTICE: Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside dummy_open dummy_getinfo dummy_prop_op dummy_getinfo dummy_prop_op dummy_getinfo dummy_write dummy_close As you can see. The only difference is in the seventh line of the output.notice] kern. Using the cat(1) command causes the kernel to access the read(9E) entry point of the driver.notice] kern. 2006 . The text argument that you give to echo(1) is ignored because this driver does not do anything with that data.notice] kern.notice] kern.notice] NOTICE: Inside _info date time machine dummy: [ID 617648 kern.notice] kern. Removing the Template Driver Make sure you are user root when you unload the driver. Using the echo(1) command causes the kernel to access the write(9E) entry point of the driver.

close.h> /* used by dev_ops and cb_ops */ #include <sys/modctl.conf /usr/kernel/drv * cp dummy /tmp * ln -s /tmp/dummy /usr/kernel/drv/dummy * Add the driver: * add_drv dummy * Test (1) read from driver (2) write to driver: * cat /devices/pseudo/dummy@* * echo hello > ‘ls /devices/pseudo/dummy@*‘ * Verify the tests in another window: * tail -f /var/adm/messages * Remove the driver: * rem_drv dummy */ #include <sys/devops. close */ #include <sys/errno.h> /* used by open.c * ld -r -o dummy dummy.h> /* used by open. read.o * Copy the driver and the configuration file to /usr/kernel/drv: * cp dummy.h> /* used by open. _info.h> /* used by dev_ops */ #include <sys/conf.h> /* used by open. You can use the modunload(1M) command to unload the driver but not remove the device from /devices. * Writes a message whenever a routine is entered. write */ Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 125 . you must load the driver again using add_drv(1M). modldrv. _init. Press Control-C to stop tailing the /var/adm/messages messages. read. */ /* and _fini */ #include <sys/types. read. write */ #include <sys/open.h> /* used by modlinkage. write. Dummy Driver Source The following code is the complete source for the dummy driver described in this module: /* * Minimalist pseudo-device. close. the driver is automatically loaded. * * Build the driver: * cc -D_KERNEL -c dummy. Then the next time you read from or write to the dummy device. prop_op. close. */ /* and ddi_prop_op */ #include <sys/file.Testing the Template Driver The next time you want to read from or write to the dummy device.

dev_info_t *dip. cred_t *cred). char *name.h> <sys/stat.h */ CB_REV. static int dummy_read(dev_t dev. static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. int otyp. nodev. and ddi_prop_op */ static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. /* no devmap */ nodev. ddi_create_minor_node. /* no aread */ nodev /* no awrite */ }. /* compatibility flags: see conf. all above */ /* fields are ignored */ D_NEW | D_MP. if not NULL.h> /* /* /* <sys/cred. 2006 . static int dummy_close(dev_t dev. int flag. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd). static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. dummy_close. struct uio *uiop. ddi_get_instance. dummy_write. /* no dump */ dummy_read. cred_t *cred). close. void **resultp).nodev returns ENXIO */ nodev. /* no mmap */ nodev. 126 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. /* no ioctl */ nodev. static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev. /* no strategy . /* no print */ nodev. */ ddi_get_instance. caddr_t valuep. /* returns ENXIO for non-pollable devices */ dummy_prop_op.h> <sys/ddi. cred_t *credp).h> <sys/uio. /* cb_ops revision number */ nodev. void *arg. cred_t *credp). int flag.Testing the Template Driver #include #include #include #include #include /* /* /* /* /* /* /* #include <sys/sunddi. ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd). /* streamtab struct. static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. /* cb_ops structure */ static struct cb_ops dummy_cb_ops = { dummy_open. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. /* no segmap */ nochpoll.h> used by open.h> <sys/cmn_err. int otyp. nodev. int flags. read */ used by read */ defines S_IFCHR used by ddi_create_minor_node */ used by all entry points for this driver */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by cb_ops. int *lengthp). static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. and */ ddi_prop_op */ used by all entry points for this driver */ also used by cb_ops. NULL. struct uio *uiop.

dummy_detach. /* no reset . nodev /* no power */ }.Testing the Template Driver /* dev_ops structure */ static struct dev_ops dummy_dev_ops = { DEVO_REV. */ &dummy_dev_ops }. /* dev_info structure */ dev_info_t *dummy_dip. 0. /* reference count */ dummy_getinfo. */ "dummy driver". } int _info(struct modinfo *modinfop) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. /* modldrv structure */ static struct modldrv md = { &mod_driverops.nulldev returns 0 */ nulldev. nodev. /* no probe */ dummy_attach. /* Type of module. /* Name of the module. /* no identify . Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 127 . &md.nodev returns ENXIO */ &dummy_cb_ops. nulldev. NULL }. "Inside _init"). return(mod_install(&ml)). /* modlinkage structure */ static struct modlinkage ml = { MODREV_1. "Inside _info"). /* keep track of one instance */ /* Loadable module configuration entry points */ int _init(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. This is a driver. (struct bus_ops *)NULL.

default: return DDI_FAILURE. "Inside dummy_detach"). default: return DDI_FAILURE. return(DDI_FAILURE). DDI_PSEUDO.0) != DDI_SUCCESS) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. "Inside dummy_attach"). } int _fini(void) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. S_IFCHR. NULL). "dummy". 2006 . modinfop)). ddi_remove_minor_node(dip. 0). } /* Device configuration entry points */ static int dummy_attach(dev_info_t *dip. ddi_get_instance(dip). switch(cmd) { case DDI_ATTACH: dummy_dip = dip. } else return DDI_SUCCESS.". switch(cmd) { case DDI_DETACH: dummy_dip = 0. if (ddi_create_minor_node(dip. return DDI_SUCCESS. return(mod_remove(&ml)). "Inside _fini"). } } static int dummy_detach(dev_info_t *dip. ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.Testing the Template Driver return(mod_info(&ml. "%s%d: attach: could not add character node. } } 128 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. "0". ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.

dev_info_t *dip. void **resultp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. return DDI_SUCCESS. return(ddi_prop_op(dev. default: return DDI_FAILURE. case DDI_INFO_DEVT2INSTANCE: *resultp = 0. caddr_t valuep. int otyp. } static int dummy_read(dev_t dev.flags. int flag. int *lengthp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. return DDI_SUCCESS. ddi_info_cmd_t cmd. "Inside dummy_prop_op"). cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. "Inside dummy_close"). } static int dummy_open(dev_t *devp. int otyp.name. cred_t *cred) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE.prop_op. switch(cmd) { case DDI_INFO_DEVT2DEVINFO: *resultp = dummy_dip.Testing the Template Driver static int dummy_getinfo(dev_info_t *dip. "Inside dummy_read").lengthp)). int flag. "Inside dummy_open"). struct uio *uiop. return DDI_SUCCESS. int flags. Module 12 • Writing a Template Character Device Driver 129 . cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. char *name. "Inside dummy_getinfo"). } static int dummy_close(dev_t dev.valuep. return DDI_SUCCESS.dip. void *arg. ddi_prop_op_t prop_op. } } /* Main entry points */ static int dummy_prop_op(dev_t dev.

return DDI_SUCCESS.Testing the Template Driver return DDI_SUCCESS. cred_t *credp) { cmn_err(CE_NOTE. } static int dummy_write(dev_t dev. struct uio *uiop. } 130 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. "Inside dummy_write"). 2006 .

131 .13 M O D U L E 1 3 Debugging Drivers With DTrace Objectives The objective of this module is to learn about how you can use DTrace to debug your driver development projects by reviewing a case study.

on a failed call to mod_getsysnum. The magnitude of the benefit provided by DTrace can best be provided through a few simple examples. test that the driver can be loaded and unloaded successfully. Developers with a talent for assembly language can use adb and create custom modules in C for mdb to diagnose software errors. DTrace provides a diagnostic short-cut. Instead of manually searching the flow of mod_getsysnum() from source file to source file.warning] WARNING: system call missing from bind file Searching for the system call missing message.c.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS This case study focuses on leveraging the DTrace capability for device driver development. After the driver compiles successfully. create an smbfs driver template based on Sun’s nfs driver. here’s a simple DTrace script to enable all entry and return events in the fbt (Function Boundary Tracing) provider once mod_getsynum() is entered. #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt::mod_getsysnum:entry /execname == "modload"/ { self->follow = 1. debugging a device driver required that a developer use function calls like cmn_err() to log diagnostic information to the /var/adm/messages file. First. DTrace can be used to capture information on only the events that you as a developer wish to view. First copy the prototype driver to /usr/kernel/fs and attempt to modload it by hand: # modload /usr/kernel/fs/smbfs can’t load module: Out of memory or no room in system tables And the /var/adm/messages file contains: genunix: [ID 104096 kern. historical approaches to kernel development and debugging are quite time-consuming. 2006 . and system reboots to uncover software coding errors. } fbt::mod_getsysnum:return { 132 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. reveals it is in the function mod_getsysent() in the file modconf. However. re-compilation. Instead of sifting through the /var/adm/messages file or pages of truss output. Historically. This cumbersome process requires guesswork.

or nm_hash() returning ’41’ is the culprit.d dtrace: script ’.d’ matched 35750 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> mod_getsysnum 0 -> find_mbind 0 -> nm_hash 0 <. } Note – trace(arg1) displays the function’s return value. } fbt:::entry /self->follow/ { } fbt:::return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1).strcmp 0 -> strcmp 0 <.strcmp 0 <. reveals that we’re searching for a char string in a hash table. Viewing the source to find_mbind() in /usr/src/uts/common/os/modsubr. A quick look at find_mbind() reveals that a return value of 0 indicates an error state./mod_getsysnum.c.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS self->follow = 0. Let’s use DTrace to display the contents of the search string and hash table. trace(arg1). Executing this script and running the modload command in another window produces the following output: # .mod_getsysnum 41 4294967295 7 0 4294967295 Thus either find_mbind() returning ’0’.find_mbind 0 <. To view the contents of the search string we add a strcmp() trace to our previous mod_getsysnum./mod_getsysnum.d script: Module 13 • Debugging Drivers With DTrace 133 .nm_hash 0 -> strcmp 0 <.

stringof(arg0).mod_getsysnum 4294967295 So we’re looking for smbfs in a hash table. hash:%s".nm_hash 41 0 -> strcmp 0 | strcmp:entry name:smbfs. hash:timer_getoverrun 0 <. and it’s not present./mod_getsysnum./mod_getsysnum.d’ matched 35751 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> mod_getsysnum 0 -> find_mbind 0 -> nm_hash 0 <. which takes as its arguments a config file. and a function pointer.) After rebooting the driver can be loaded successfully. A few more clicks on our source code browser reveal the contents of the config file to be defined as /etc/name_to_sysnum in the file /usr/src/uts/common/os/modctl.strcmp 7 0 <. How does smbfs get into this hash table? Let’s return to find_mbind() and observe that the hash table variable sb_hashtab is passed to the failing nm_hash() function.strcmp 4294967295 0 -> strcmp 0 | strcmp:entry name:smbfs. ’smbfs 177’ (read_binding_file() is read once at boot time. stringof(arg1)).find_mbind 0 0 <.d dtrace: script ’. A quick search of the source code reveals that sb_hashtab is initialized with a call to read_binding_file(). 2006 .c. hash:lwp_sema_post 0 <. the hash table. # modload /usr/kernel/fs/smbfs Verify that the driver is loaded with the modinfo command: 134 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. Add the following to the /etc/name_to_sysnum file and reboot. } Here are the results of our next attempt to load our driver: # . It looks like we forgot to include a configuration entry for my driver.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS fbt::strcmp:entry { printf("name:%s.

which explains this output. Let’s make sure we can also unload the module: # modunload -i 160 can’t unload the module: Device busy This is most likely due to an EBUSY errno return value. But now. So. let’s use DTrace to look at modunload with this script: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt::modunload:entry Module 13 • Debugging Drivers With DTrace 135 . client. we have access to all of the smbfs functions: # dtrace -l fbt:smbfs:: | wc -l 1002 This is amazing! Without any special coding. using this simple DTrace script: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt:smbfs::entry { } fbt:smbfs::return { trace(arg1). we now have access to 1002 entry and return events contained in the driver.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS # modinfo | grep 160 feb21a58 160 feb21a58 160 feb21a58 160 feb21a58 smbfs 351ac 351ac 351ac 351ac 177 24 25 26 1 1 1 1 smbfs smbfs smbfs smbfs (SMBFS syscall. since the smbfs driver is a loaded module. These 1002 function handles allow us to debug my work without a special ’instrumented code’ version of the driver! Let’s monitor all smbfs calls when modunload is called. and comm) (network filesystem) (network filesystem version 2) (network filesystem version 3) Note – Remember that this driver was based on an nfs template. } It seems that the smbfs code is not being accessed by modunload.

modunload 16 136 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. trace(execname).mod_hold_by_id 3602566648 0 -> moduninstall 0 <./modunload. } Here’s the output of this script: # .d dtrace: script ’.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS { self->follow = 1.d’ matched 36695 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> modunload modunload 160 0 | modunload:entry 0 -> mod_hold_by_id 0 -> mod_circdep 0 <. } fbt::modunload:return { self->follow = 0.mod_release_mod 3602566648 0 <.mod_hold_by_modctl 0 0 <.mod_release 3602566648 0 <.mod_circdep 0 0 -> mod_hold_by_modctl 0 <.moduninstall 16 0 -> mod_release_mod 0 -> mod_release 0 <. } fbt:::entry /self->follow/ { } fbt:::return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1). trace(arg0)./modunload. trace(arg1). 2006 .

We’ll use the following script to display the contents of the various structures and return values in moduninstall: #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s #pragma D option flowindent fbt::moduninstall:entry { self->follow = 1. ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_ref). if (mp->mod_prim || mp->mod_ref || mp->mod_nenabled != 0) return (EBUSY). printf("mod_ref:%d\n". printf("mod_nenabled:%d\n". Module 13 • Debugging Drivers With DTrace 137 . 2. but let’s approach them from a process of elimination. printf("mod_loadflags:%d\n". Let’s take a look at the source code for moduninstall.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS Observe that the EBUSY return value ’16’ is coming from moduninstall. if ( kobj_lookup(mp->mod_mp. so let’s look at the following possibilities: 1. if ( detach_driver(mp->mod_modname) != 0 ) return (EBUSY). "_fini") == NULL ) 4. A failed call to smbfs _fini() routine We can’t directly access all of these possibilities. trace(arg1). moduninstall returns EBUSY in a few locations. } fbt::moduninstall:return { self->follow = 0. printf("mod_prim:%d\n". ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_nenabled). ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_prim). 3. } fbt::kobj_lookup:entry /self->follow/ { } fbt::kobj_lookup:return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1). ((struct modctl *)arg0)->mod_loadflags).

/moduninstall./moduninstall. it must be the status returned via the status = (*func)().moduninstall 0 4273103456 16 Comparing this output to the code tells us that the failure is not due to the mp structure values or the return values from detach_driver() of kobj_lookup(). 2006 . call.detach_driver 0 -> kobj_lookup 0 <. And here’s what the smbfs _fini() routine contains: int _fini(void) { /* don’t allow module to be unloaded */ return (EBUSY). 138 Introduction to Operating Systems: A Hands-On Approach Using the OpenSolaris Project • March. } Changing the return value to ’0’ and recompiling the code results in a driver that we can now load and unload. which calls the smbfs _fini() routine.kobj_lookup 0 <. Note that fbt is only one of DTrace’s many providers. } This script produces the following output: # .d’ matched 6 probes CPU FUNCTION 0 -> moduninstall mod_prim:0 mod_ref:0 mod_nenabled:0 mod_loadflags:1 0 -> detach_driver 0 <. Thus.Porting the smbfs Driver from Linux to the Solaris OS } fbt::detach_driver:entry /self->follow/ { } fbt::detach_driver:return /self->follow/ { trace(arg1). by a process of elimination.d dtrace: script ’. thus we have completed the objectives of this exercise. We’ve used the Function Boundary Tracing provider exclusively in these examples.

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