Mobility Management (MM

)
Different MM schemes for CS and PS mode • MM states t t • Involved protocols • P Procedures d

References: • Kaaranen, Ahtiainen, Laitinen, Naghian, Niemi: UMTS Networks – Architecture, Mobility and Services. Wiley 2001, Ch. 5.2 (MM states) and 10.3 (MM procedures) • 3G 23.060 GPRS Service Description • 3G 24.007 Mobile radio interface signaling layer 3, General aspects
UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 1

Mobility Management (MM) Basics
Mobility Management – covers all procedures methods and identities procedures, – required to maintain knowledge about the UE´s locations when it is moving in the network Involved entities – UE – CN

– in MM/PMM connected mode – in case of roaming
• visited PLMN

• SGSN (PS mode, transitions between PMM states) • MSC/VLR (CS mode, transitions between MM states) • HLR (in home network) (i h t k) • RNC (cell and/or URA updates) • GGSN/GMSC

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim

12-Nov-08

2

CS Mobility Management States MM in CS mode is highly related to connection management no active call (nor signaling) MMIdle active call (or signaling) MMMM Connecte d cell known LA known (pag g po b ) (paging possible) IMSI detach IMSI attach or LA update (UE is switched on) call completion call setup or LA update MMDetached D t h d LA unknown (no paging) UE switched off it h d ff MM state is maintained in UE and MSC/VLR UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 3 .

Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 4 .PS (GPRS) Mobility Management States M S M M S tates PM M DET ACHED 3G -S G S N M M S tates PM MDET ACHED GPRS detach P S D etac h GPRS attach P S S ignalling C onn ection R ele ase P M M -ID L E S M -A C T IV E o r IN A C T IV E P S S ignalling C onn ection E s ta blish P S A ttach D etac h. P S A ttach R eject.0 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. P S A ttach R eject.Radio Network Temporary Identity Source: 3GPP 23. availability of IP address & traffic activity PMM is independent of the number and state of PDP contexts for the subscriber In both the PMM-IDLE and the PMM-CONNECTED states. R A U R eje ct PM MC O N N E C TE D S M -A C T IV E o r IN A C T IV E PM M C O N N EC TED S M -A C T IV E o r S M -A C T IV E o r P S S ignalling IN A C T IV E IN A C T IV E C onn ection E s ta blish Paging only (no signaling connection between MS and SGSN) d Signaling g g connection between MS and SGSN (addressing by U-RNTI) PS Mobility Management (PMM) is independent of Session Management (SM).060-4. session management may or may not have activated a PDP context (assigned a dynamic IP address) S ervin g R N C reloc ation U RNTI: U-RNTI: UTRAN .g. R A U R eje ct P S D etac h P S A ttach P S S ignalling C onn ection R ele ase P M M -ID L E D etac h.1. (SM) e.

P-TMSI • Signaling connection exists (MM/PMM-CONNECTED state) – Addressing by U-RNTI g y – UE position can be known on different levels: .301-4.Signaling Connection • No – – – signaling connection exists (MM/PMM-IDLE state) UE has no relation to UTRAN. TMSI. which can be identified on the broadcast channel (BCCH) .Dedicated transport channels (DCH) Source: 3GPP 25.2 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Common transport channels (RACH. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 5 . DSCH) . FACH.URA level (UTRAN registration area): URA is a specified set of cells.Cell level: Different channel types can be used for data transfer: . only to CN no data transfer paging identification by IMSI. CPCH. ch 6.0.1.

HLR) Signaling connection (UE-SGSN) RRC state (UE-RNC) PDCP address inactive active detached idle connected none yes UTRAN idle connected (cell_DCH. SGSN. or URA_PCH) Paging using TMSI/P-TMSI UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Relations between CM/SM. MM/PMM and RRC States CM/SM state(s) SubscripSubscrip tion (UE-SGSN-GGSN) Core Network MM/PMM state (UE. cell_FACH. cell_PCH. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 Addressing using RNTI 6 .

PS Mobility Management States PMM-DETACHED State: • No communication between the MS and the SGSN • MS and SGSN hold no valid location or routing information for the MS • MS MM state machine does not react to system information related to the SGSN • MS is not reachable by the PLMN. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 7 o . as the MS location is not known to the SGSN MM context establishment: • GPRS-attach procedure: establish MM contexts in the MS and the SGSN – When PS signalling connection is established between the MS and the SGSN for performing the GPRS attach. the state changes to PMM-CONNECTED in the SGSN and in the MS – The PS signalling connection is made up of two parts: an RRC connection and an Iu connection UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

PS Mobility Management States PMM-CONNECTED State: • • • • • • • • MS location is known in the SGSN with an accuracy of a serving RNC Location of the MS is tracked by the serving RNC MS performs the routing area update procedure when RAI changes A PS signaling connection is established between the MS and the SGSN In SGSN: PS signalling connection release or failed downlink transfer with cause "IMSI unknown in RNC" changes the state to PMM-IDLE In MS: enter the PMM-IDLE state when its PS signaling connection to the SGSN has been released or broken (release or failure is explicitly indicated by the RNC to the MS or detected by the MS –> RRC connection failure) Signaling connection i also released if a URA update fails b Si li ti is l l d d t f il because of "RRC f connection not established".g. or if the URA update timer expires while the MS is out of coverage SGSN may decide to release the PS signaling connection after a signaling procedure (e. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 8 o Release of signaling connection (move to PMM-IDLE state): R l f i li ti ( t PMM IDLE t t ) MM context release: • UMTS Networks . routing area update) GPRS detach changes the state to PMM-DETACHED Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

for signalling o de each MS e g fo • MS and SGSN have established MM contexts • MS performs a routing area update if the RA changes p g p g (signaling towards the HLR is needed if the (new) SGSN does not have an MM context for this MS) Establishment of signaling connection (move to PMM-CONNECTED state): • MS and SGSN enter the PMM-CONNECTED state when the PS signalling connection is established between the MS and the SGSN MM context release: • GPRS detach procedure changes the state to PMM-DETACHED • SGSN may perform an i li it GPRS detach any ti f implicit d t h time after th MS ft the reachable timer expiry. the HLR may be informed about the deletion UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.g. preferably after a certain (implementation dependent) time. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 9 o .PS Mobility Management States PMM-IDLE State: • MS location is known in the SGSN with an accuracy of a routing area • Paging is needed in order to reach the MS. the MS's MM context is deleted. e.

Mobility Management – Involved Protocols (PS mode) Protocols used by MM procedures • Uu: RRC protocol • Iu: RANAP protocol • Gr (SGSN and HLR): MAP protocol ( ) p • Gf (SGSN and EIR): MAP protocol • Gs (SGSN and VLR): BSSAP+ protocol Source: 3GPP 23.060-4. Ch 6.4 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.0. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 10 o .1.

ch 10. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 11 .Mobility Management – Procedures Connected state • C ll update (PS mode): UE-UTRAN interaction Cell d d ) UE UTRAN i i • URA update (PS mode): UE-UTRAN interaction Idle state • RA Update (PS mode): UE-CN interaction (transparent to UTRAN) • LA U d t (CS mode): UE-CN i t Update d ) UE CN interaction (t ti (transparent t UTRAN) t to See also Kaaranen.3 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 .Cell Update (PS) UE RNC PS mode: d -> explicit cell update procedure Reasons for cell update – cell reselection – periodic cell update – uplink data transmission – paging response g g – re-entered service area – radio link failure – unrecoverable RLC error reason for cell update RRC: cell update RRC: cell update confirm exchange of RRC msgs g g CS mode: continuous exchange of cell information du g call (or transaction) o at o during ca (o t a sact o ) 12 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

URA Update (PS) UE RNC PS mode: -> explicit URA update procedure > Reasons for URA update p – URA identity changes – periodic URA update reason for URA update RRC: URA update RRC: URA update confirm exchange of RRC msgs g g UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 13 .

RA Upd A date (w chang of SGSN with c ge S N) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 14 .

9 Update Location 10a. 10a Iu Release Complete 10. SRNS Data Forward Command 6. Cancel Location Ack Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. SGSN Context Ack 5. Forward Packets C2 8. SGSN Context Response 3. Routeing Area Update Request g p q 2. Forward Packets 7. Security Functions 4. SRNS Context Response 2.R RA Up pdate (deta ails) MS new SRNS old SRNS new 3G-SGSN old 3G-SGSN GGSN new MSC/VLR HLR old MSC/VLR 1. Update PDP Context Response Source 3GPP 23. Update PDP Context Request 8. 2 SGSN C t t R Context Request t C1 2a. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 15 o 10. Iu Release Command 10a. Cancel Location UMTS Networks . SRNS Context Request 2a.0 e: 060 9.

. Insert Subscriber Data Ack 12. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 16 o .R RA Up pdate (deta ails) MS new SRNS old SRNS new 3G-SGSN old 3G-SGSN GGSN new MSC/VLR HLR old MSC/VLR 11. Location Update Request Combine LA/RA up ed pdate 14a. Insert Subscriber Data Ack 14f. Cancel Location Ack 14d. Routeing Area Update Complete 18.. Location Update Accept C2 16. Insert Subscriber Data 14e. Update Location 14b. I t S b ib D t 11 Insert Subscriber Data Reaso for RA update ons R es • En ntering a new RA A • Ex xpiration of period RA dic timer • . 11. 14b Cancel Location 14c. TMSI Reallocation Complete UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Update Location Ack p 13. Update Location Ack 15. Routeing Area Update Accept C3 17.

if not already done. old P-TMSI Signature) to the old SGSN to get the MM and PDP contexts for the MS. Update Type shall indicate: – RA Update if the RA Update is triggered by a change of RA. an RA update is either an intra-SGSN or inter-SGSN RA update. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. shall send an SGSN Context Request (IMSI. The new SGSN shall ignore the MS Network C i th N t k Capability contained i MM bilit t i d in Context of SGSN Context Response only when it has previously received an MS Network Capability in the Routeing Area Request. – Periodic RA Update if the RA update is triggered by p y p . the expiry of the Periodic RA Update timer. If the MS is not known in the old SGSN. If the old P-TMSI Signature was valid or if the new SGSN indicates that it has authenticated the MS the old SGSN MS. either initiated by an MS in PMM-CONNECTED (only valid after a Serving RNS Relocation Procedure. MS Validated indicates that the new SGSN has authenticated the MS. see clause 6. All the RA update cases are contained in the procedure illustrated in the figure. The MS sends a Routeing Area Update Request message (P-TMSI. 1) The RRC connection is established. old RAI. old RAI. MS Validated) message to the old SGSN. etc. MM Context. the new SGSN y. In Iu mode. IMSI.2.Routeing Area Update Procedure – Details (1) A routeing area update takes place when – an attached MS detects that it has entered a new RA – when the periodic RA update timer has expired – when RRC connection is released with cause "Directed Signalling connection re-establishment" – when the MS has to indicate new access capabilities to h h h d bl the network The SGSN detects that it is an intra-SGSN routeing area update by noticing that it also handles the old RA. either combined RA / LA update or only RA update. follow on request. A periodic RA update is always an intra-SGSN routeing area update. the old SGSN responds with an appropriate error cause. Update Type. The old SGSN starts a timer. responds with SGSN Context Response (Cause. – Combined RA/LA Update if the MS is also IMSIattached UMTS Networks 2) If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN Routeing area update and if the MS was in PMM-IDLE state. old RAI. In this case.) to the new SGSN. The old SGSN validates the old P-TMSI Si lid h ld P TMSI Signature and responds d d with an appropriate error cause if it does not match the value stored in the old SGSN. the new SGSN sends an SGSN Context Request message (old P-TMSI. the SGSN has the necessary information about the MS and there is no need to inform the GGSNs or the HLR f about the new MS location. PDP contexts). Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 17 o .2) or in PMM-IDLE state. old P-TMSI Signature. If the security functions authenticate the MS correctly. This should initiate the security functions in the new SGSN.9.

Iu Transport Association) message to the SRNS. and the new SGSN shall send a reject indication to the old SGSN. 7) If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN RA Update. The old SGSN shall continue as if the SGSN Context Request was never received. the old SGSN sends an SRNS Context Request (IMSI) message to the old SRNS to retrieve the sequence numbers for the PDP context for inclusion in the SGSN Context Response message from the SRNS. the SRNS buffers and stops sending downlink PDUs to the MS and returns an SRNS Context Response (IMSI. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 18 o . in case of an intra-SGSN RA update. If the security functions do not authenticate the MS correctly. GGSNs. 3) Security functions may be executed. GTP-SNUs. updated if the MS initiates a routeing area update procedure back to the old SGSN before completing the ongoing routeing area update procedure. in case of an intra-SGSN RA update. The old SGSN marks in its context that the MSC/VLR association and the information in the GGSNs and the HLR are invalid. ID Transport Layer Address. For each active PDP context using acknowledged mode.Routeing Area Update Procedure – Details (2) 2a) If the MS is PMM-CONNECTED state in the old PMM CONNECTED 3G-SGSN or. the old 3G SGSN 3G-SGSN tunnels the GTP PDUs to the new 3G-SGSN 3G SGSN. the SRNS also includes the uplink PDCP sequence number (PDCP-SNU). the routeing area update shall be rejected. UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. The SRNS shall include for each PDP context the next in-sequence GTP sequence number to be sent to the MS and the GTP sequence number of the next uplink PDU to be tunnelled to the GGSN. if the MS is PMM connected and the RAU was received over another Iu connection than the established one. This triggers the MSC/VLR the GGSNs and the HLR to be MSC/VLR. These procedures are defined in clause "Security Function". Upon reception of this message. if the MS is in the PMM-CONNECTED state and the RAU was received over another Iu connection than the established one. the old 3G-SGSN sends an SRNS Data Forward Command (RAB ID. GTP-SNDs. the new SGSN sends an SGSN Context Acknowledge message to the old SGSN. 5) If the MS is in PMM-CONNECTED state in the old 3GSGSN or. and start d li ti and tunnelling the buffered GTP PDUs to t t duplicating d t lli th b ff d PDU t the old 3G-SGSN. PDCP-SNU shall be the next in-sequence PDCP sequence number expected from the MS (per each active radio bearer) bearer). 4) If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN Routeing area Inter SGSN update. Upon receipt of the SRNS Data Forward Command message from the 3G-SGSN. PDCP-SNUs) message. the SRNS shall start the data-forwarding timer. 6) The SRNS shall start tunnelling the partly transmitted and the transmitted but not acknowledged PDCP-PDUs together with the PDCP downlink sequence number.

the new SGSN informs the HLR of the change of SGSN by sending Update Location (SGSN Number. If due to regional subscription restrictions the MS cannot attach to the RA. the HLR nter SGSN sends Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI.) to the GGSNs concerned. subscription data) to the new SGSN. SGSN Address. the new SGSN sends Update PDP Context Request (new SGSN Address. SGSN Area Restricted) message to the HLR. Location Update Type shall indicate normal location update. If the timer described in step 2 is not running. The old SGSN acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI). 10a) On receipt of Cancel Location. and may return an Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI. the HLR sends Cancel Location (IMSI. It also ensures that the MM context is kept in the old SGSN in case the MS initiates another inter SGSN routeing area update before completing the ongoing routeing area update to p g g g g p the new SGSN. Location Update Type shall indicate IMSI attach if Update Type in step 1 indicated combined RA / LA update with ISI attach requested. the HLR acknowledges the Update Location by sending Update Location Ack (IMSI) to the new SGSN. When the data-forwarding timer has expired. the Update PDP Context Request message is sent as described in subclause "Serving RNS Relocation Procedures". QoS Negotiated. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. the SGSN rejects the Routeing Area Update Request with an appropriate cause. the old 3G-SGSN . The VLR number is translated from the RAI via a p table in the SGSN. 12) If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN RA Update. The new SGSN validates the MS's presence in the (new) RA. The SGSN starts the location update procedure towards the new MSC/VLR upon receipt of the first Insert Subscriber Data message from the HLR in step 8). and the new SGSN sends a Location Update Request (new LAI. UMTS Networks 11) If the RA update is an nter-SGSN RA Update. Location Update Type) to the VLR. Otherwise.Routeing Area Update Procedure – Details (3) 8) If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN RA Update and if Inter SGSN the MS wasnot in PMM-CONNECTED state in the new 3GSGSN. HLR 10) If the RA update is an nter-SGSN RA Update. Otherwise. the SRNS responds with an Iu Release Complete message. The GGSNs update their PDP context fields and return an Update PDP Context Response (Tunnel Endpoint Identifier). 13) If Update Type indicates combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach requested. P d " 9) If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN RA Update. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 19 o . the association has to be established. the SGSN constructs an MM context for the MS and returns an Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI) message to the HLR. Cancellation Type) to the old SGSN with Cancellation Type set to Update Procedure. Note: If the RA update is an Inter-SGSN routeing area update initiated by an MS in PMM-CONNECTED state in the new 3G-SGSN. If all checks are successful. Tunnel Endpoint Identifier. if the MS is PMM-CONNECTED in the old 3G-SGSN. IMSI. sends an Iu Release Command message to the old SRNC. the old running SGSN removes the MM context. or if the LA changed with the routeing area update. the contexts are removed only when the timer expires. The VLR creates or updates the association with the SGSN by storing SGSN Number. SGSN Number. IMSI) to the HLR.

the new SGSN establishes MM context for the MS. 15) The new VLR allocates a new TMSI and responds with ) p Location Update Accept (VLR TMSI) to the SGSN. 15. t i f d UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. the SGSN rejects the routeing area update with an appropriate cause. b) The HLR cancels the data in the old VLR by sending Cancel Location (IMSI) to the old VLR. e) The new VLR acknowledges with Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI) (IMSI). 17) The MS confirms the reallocation of the TMSIs by returning a Routeing Area Update Complete message to the SGSN. The new SGSN responds to the MS with Routeing Area Update Accept p g p p (P-TMSI. P-TMSI Signature). c) The old VLR acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI). If all checks are successful. VLR TMSI. d) The HLR sends Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI. the new VLR informs the HLR. GSM subscriber data) to the new VLR. Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 20 o . 16) The new SGSN validates the MS's presence in the new RA. or if subscription checking fails. and 18 are performed only if step 12 is performed. f) The HLR responds with Update Location Ack (IMSI) to the new VLR. NOTE 3: Steps 14. The HLR cancels the old VLR and inserts subscriber data in the new VLR (this signalling is not modified from existing GSM signalling and is included here for illustrative purposes): a) The new VLR sends an Update Location (new VLR) to the HLR.Routeing Area Update Procedure – Details (4) 14) If the subscriber data in the VLR is marked as not confirmed by the HLR. 18) The new SGSN sends a TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the new VLR if the MS confirms the VLR TMSI. If due to roaming restrictions the MS cannot RA attach to the SGSN. VLR TMSI is optional if the VLR has not changed.

Jens Mückenheim 12-Nov-08 21 .LA Upd A date (C CS) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.