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(linguistics) (communication science)


(computer science)
:
(epistemology)
:
1.(empiricism):(experience)
(sensory experience)(John Locke)
:(1)(2)
(3)
(4);

(association)
(induction)(deduction)
2.(rationalism):
(interpretative mechanism)
Wilhelm Wundt(1907)
(structuralism) (functionalism)
(behaviorism)

:Charles Bell (1830)


(stimulus)(response)Muller(1837)
Flourens(1824)

:
Wundt (idea)(feeling)(impulse)

:
(goal)
;

: John Watson(1913)

Watson
(laws of frequency and of recency)
(neo-behaviorism):
:Watson

(generalize)
Gibson
(perceptual learning);
(differentiation)

1956 Chomsky(1959)
Skinner Skinner (language
comprehension)(language production)
(novelty)
(complexity)
:(bottom-up and top-down processing):

(regulatory system)
(cognitive system)
2


:
.(symbol manipulation and computation)
.
.(capacity or channel limitation)
.
.(cognitive strategy)

.
.(self-monitoring)(
)(self-control)
(metacognition)
(conscious and unconscious cognition):
(prosopagnosia)

(functional approach):

:.
.
.
(reductional approach):

(brain imaging techniques)


(computerized axial tomogram CT CAT)(magnetic resonance
imaging MRI)(positron emission tomography
PET)

:
.: Descartes (linguistic creativity)
:()(originality):

()(infinity):

(appropriateness of linguistic expression):

(changeability):

.:?
(linguistic rules)

(explicit)(implicit)
:()()
()
(iteration)
.:():

(co-occurrence relation)()
:
(ambiguous sentence)
():

Chomsky -
Chomsky 1957 (syntactic structures)-
(surface structure)(deep structure)

(transformational
rules)
;(simple)(active)(affirmative)
(declarative) SAAD (phrase-structure rules)

(past)(passive)(negative)(interrogative)

:(rewrite rules)

S NP VP N V
T
R-1 SNP+VP R-2 NPT+N R-3 VPV+NP R-4 T
R-5 N R-6 V

SNPVPN V
SAAD
(structure changeSC)
(SA): SP()V()NP()
(SC):NP()SP()V()
-(psychological reality)

: A:John is easy to please B:John is eager to please


John B A John
B A :
Chomsky
:Mehler (coding hypothesis)

(transformational tag)Was the house bought by the man


the man buys the house(
)

(articulatory apparatus)

:(phonetics)
(articulatory mechanism)
(articulatory phonetics)
(acoustic phonetics)

(speech perception)
:(split brain)

Broca (Brocas area):Broca (frontal lobe)


()
(aphasia):()
()(telegraphic speech):
(): Broca

The girl that the boy is chasing is tall


Wernicke (Wernickes area):(temporal lobe)
Wernicke
:():
():
(anomia)
(brain lateralization for language)
3-20

:Lenneberg

:(sound spectrograph)
(frequency)(intensity)
:

(categorical)

(categorical perception)
:
(speech production)

:
1.Skinner : Skinner
Mands
Tacts Echos
2.:(feedback model)

(feedback)
3.(deaf):

4.(delayed auditory feedback DAF):

200
(stuttering)
5.:
6.:

:
1.(babbling stage):

2.:
3.:(one-word, holophrastic stage)
4.:(two-word stage)
7

5.:(developing grammar)
6.:(near-adult grammar)
:

:Bruner

:
:

1.:

2.Sperling :
3.:(recoding)

::()()()

1.Broadbent :
2.Treisman :(attenuation theory)

3.:

4.(feature-integration theory):

::

Stroop (color-naming):

:
:
;
;

(a theory of things interesting):

(template-matching theory):

(prototype-matching theory):

(feature-matching theory):

1.(pandemonium):

2.:

Biederman (recognition-by-components):
(geon)

130259

()

()visual agnosia

apperceptive agnosia
associative agnosia

()prosopagnosia

()word
recognition

10

()the whole-word hypothesis


the whole-word
hypothesis cattell,1886
5 10

()sophisticated guessingBroadbent1967

()criterion-bias

()retention model

()

memory
forgetting

meaning fulness
familiarity

serial learning
26
paired associate learning
11


visual mode
auditory mode

()direct test
1.recognition

2.recall
(1)free recall
(2)sequential recall
(3)ordered recall

(4)cued recall
()indirect test
1.perceptual identification
perceptual identification 30

2.word-fragment identification

3.word-stem completion

4.relearning

short-term storage
long-term storage primary memory
secondary memory
hippocampus

anterograde amnesia
retrograde amnesia

functional dissociation
12

short-term memory

immediate recall
acquisition
retentionretrieval
forgetting
()

()encoding of information

()limited capacityG..Miller1965

()
()

()

13

()

()referendum

()
()
1.

2. 1 2 3 9

()

()

()

()
()
()

()
()

()DRM

()

()

14

()
()

()

()

()

()Milner

(ease-of-learning judgments)(judgments of degree of


learning JOL)

(selection
of kind of processing)(allocation of study time)
(termination of study)

15

Hart --(recall-judgment-recognition RJR)


Hart
Hart

Leibniz

William Carpenter

19

()
1.Korsakoff Korsakoff 1887-89 46
()

2.
3.
(1)
(2)

(3)
16

4.Jacoby

Jacoby

()

()

()

Wittgenstein
Wittgenstein Wittgenstein

()

()
1.

2.

()
17

1. Zadhe

()

()

()

()

()

(mental lexicon)(internal lexicon)

18



lexicalconceptual

mental
intermal lexicon

Morton logogen
Morton logogen

---
1.

2.
19


--

Quilllian


LNRLindsayNorman Rumelhart

script plan memory


organization packets MOPS
1.
2.
3. MOPS

20

Reber&Allen,1978

Nissen&Bullemer,1987

Berry&Broadbent1984

LewickiHill&Sasaki,1989

21


10

SQ3RRobinson,1946


TM
RET


Krashen1981a1981b


1.
2.

Flower&Hayes1980a
-

Thorndike



22

--




1.
2.

23

judgment

--





1.
2.
24


Getzels&Jackson1962



25

Sternberg

Sternberg --

Flavell
1.
2.

1.
2.
3.


--


--
1.

2.

26


--

1.--
2.--

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