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Subject Code : 06CV64 Internal Assessment Marks : 25
PART A
UNIT 3
1. STRESSES IN SOIL
1.1 Boussinesq’s and Westergard’s Theories for Concentrated, Circular, Rectangular,
Line and Strip loads
1.2 Comparison of Boussinesq’s and Westergard’s Analyses
1.3 Newmark’s Chart
1.4 Pressure Distribution Diagrams
1.5 Contact Pressure
(6 Hours)
Chapter 3
STRESSES IN SOILS
3.1 Introduction
Stresses in soil are caused due to
a) Self weight of soil
b) Structural loads, applied at or below the surface
The estimation of vertical stresses at any point in a soil mass due to external loading is
essential to the prediction of settlements of buildings, bridges and pressure.
The stresses induced in a soil due to applied loads depend upon its Stress – Strain
characteristics. The stress strain behaviour of soils is extremely complex and it depend
upon a large number of factors, such as drainage conditions, water content, void ratio, rate
of loading, the load level, and the stress path. However simplifying assumptions are
generally made in the analysis of soil behaviour to obtain stresses. It is generally assumed
that the soil mass is homogeneous and isotropic. The stress strain relationship is assumed
to be linear. The theory of elasticity is used to determine the stresses in the soil mass.
Though it involves considerable simplification of real soil behaviour and the stresses
computed are approximate, the results are good enough for soil problems usually
encountered in the practice.
Fig.3.1 Typical Stressstrain curve for soils
3.2 Geostatic stress:
Stresses due to self weight are known as geostatic stresses.
3.3 Boussinesq’s Theory / Solution
Boussinesq (1885) has given the solution for the stresses caused by the application of the
point load at the surface of a elastic medium with the aid of the mathematical theory of
elasticity.
3.3.1 Assumptions
1) The soil medium is an elastic continuum having a constant value of modulus of
elasticity (E). i.e. it obeys Hooke’s law
2) The soil is homogeneous, i.e. it has identical elastic properties at all points in identical
directions.
3) The soil is isotropic, i.e. it has identical elastic properties in all direction at a point.
4) The soil mass is semiinfinite, i.e. it extends to infinity in the downward directions
and lateral directions. In other words, it is limited on its top but a horizontal plane and
extends to infinity in all other directions.
5) The self weight of the soil is ignored.
6) The soil is initially unstressed i.e. it is free from residual stresses before the
application of the load.
7) The top surface of the medium is free of shear stresses and is subjected to only the
point load at a specified location.
8) Continuity of stress is considered to exist in the medium.
9) The stresses are distributed symmetrically with respect to z axis (vertical axis).
3.4 Vertical stresses due to a concentrated load
Fig.3.2 Derivation of vertical stress at a point due to point load acting on the
ground surface
Figure 3.2 shows a horizontal surface of an elastic continuum subject to a point load Q at
a point O. Using logarithmic stress function for solution of elasticity problem, Bossinesq
proved that the polar stress o
R
at point P is given by
o
R
=
3
2n
(
0 cosß
R
2
) (3.1)
where R = Polar distance between the origin O and point t
þ = angle which the line OP makes with the vertical
or R = Vr
2
+Z
2
Where r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
Sinþ =
¡
R
and cosþ =
z
R
Now, the vertical stress(o
z
)at Point P is given by
o
z
= o
R
cos
2
þ (3.2)
=
3
2n
(
0 cosß
R
2
) cos
2
þ
=
30
2n
(
cos
3
ß
R
2
)
=
30
2n
(
(
Z
R
)
3
R
2
)
o
z
=
30
2n
(
z
3
R
S
) (3.3)
=
30
2n
(
z
2
z
2
z
3
R
S
)
=
30
2n
(
z
S
z
2
R
S
)
o
z
=
30
2n
1
z
2
(
z
S
(¡
2
+z
2
)
S
2
)
o
z
3O
2a
1
Z
2

1
(1+(
r
z
)
2
)
5
2
· (3.4)
or,
z
=
I
B
O
Z
2
 (3.5)
Where I
B
=
3
2n
(
1
(1+(
r
z
)
2
)
S
2
) (3.6)
The coefficient I
B
is known as the Boussinesq influence for the vertical stress. The value
of I
B
can be determined for the given value of r/Z from Eq. 3.6.
o
x
=
0
2n
(
3x
2
z
R
S
 (1  2v) I
x
2
y
2
R ¡
2
(R+z)
+
y
2
z
R
3
¡
2
] (3.7)
o
y
=
0
2n
(
3y
2
z
R
S
(1 2v) I
y
2
x
2
R ¡
2
(R+z)
+
x
2
z
R
3
¡
2
](3.8)
If v = 0.5
o
x
=
30
2n
x
2
z
R
S
o
y
=
30
2n
y
2
z
R
S
The following points are to be noted while using Eq. (3.5)
1) The vertical stress does not depend upon the modulus of elasticity (E) and the poisson
ratio (v). But the solution has been derived assuming that the soil is linearly elastic.
2) The Intensity of vertical stress just below the load point is given by
o
z
= u.477S
0
z
2
(˙.˙ when, r/z = 0, I
B
= 0.4775)
3) At the surface (z = 0), the vertical stress just below the load is theoretically infinite.
However, in an actual case, the soil under the load yields due to very high stresses.
The load point spreads over a small but finite area and, therefore, only finite stresses
develop.
4) The vertical stress (o
z
) decreases rapidly with an increase in r/z ratio.
Theoretically, the vertical stress would be zero only at an infinite distance from the
koad point. Actually, at r/z = 5, or more, the vertical stress becomes extremely small
and is neglected.
5) In actual practice, foundation loads are not applied directly on the ground surface.
However, it has been established that the Boussinesq’s solution can be applied
conservatively to field problems concerning loads at shallow depths, provided the
distance ‘z’ is measured from the point of application of the load.
6) Boussinesq’s solution can even be used for negative (upward) loads. For example if
the vertical stress decrease due to an excavation is required, the negative load is equal
to the weight of the soil removed. However, as the soil is not fully elastic the stresses
determined are (necessarily) approximate.
7) The field measurements indicate that the actual stresses are generally smaller than the
theoretical values given by Boussinesq’s solution especially at shallow depths. Thus,
the Boussinesq’s solution gives conservative values and is commonly used in soil
engineering problems.
3.5 Limitations
1) The solution was derived assuming the soil as an elastic medium, but the soil doesnot
behave as an elastic material.
2) When the stress decrease occurs in soil, the relation between the stress and the strain
is not linear as assumed, therefore, the solution is not strictly applicable.
3) In deep sand deposits, the modulus of elasticity increases with an increase in depth
and therefore, the Boussinesq’s solution will not give satisfactory results.
4) The point loads applied below ground surface causes somewhat smaller stresses than
are caused by surface loads, and, therefore, the solution is not strictly applicable.
Numerical Example
Find intensity of vertical pressure at a point 3 m directly below 25 kN point load acting
on a horizontal ground surface. What will be the vertical pressure at a point 2m
horizontally away from the axis of loading and at same depth of 3 m? Use Boussinesq’s
equation. [6MVTUJuly/Aug2005]
Solution:
Case (i)
Here, Q = 25 kN
z = 3 m
r = 0
2
2
5
2 2
/ 33 . 1
1
1
2
3
m kN
z
r
z
Q
z
=

.

\

+
=
π
σ
Case (ii)
Here,
r = 2 m
2
/ 53 . 0 m kN
z
= σ
3.6 Stress Isobar or pressure bulb
An ‘isobar’ is a stress contour or a curve which connects all points below the ground surface
at which the vertical pressure is the same. An isobar is a spatial curved surface and resembles
a bulb in shape. The stress isobar is also called ‘pressure bulb’.
Any number of pressure bulb may be drawn for any applied load, since each one corresponds
to an arbitrarily chosen value of stress. The isobar of a particular intensity can be obtained by:
o
z
=
I
B
0
z
2
An isobar consisting of a system of isobars appears somewhat as shown in Fig.3.3.
Fig. 3.3 Pressure bulb for a point load
3.6.1 Procedure
The procedure for plotting an isobar is as follows:
Let it be required to plot an isobar for which o
z
= 0.1Q per unit area (10 % isobar)
We know that
o
z
=
I
B
0
z
2
0.1Q =
I
B
0
z
2
I
B
= 0.1Z
2
Assuming various values of z, the corresponding I
B
values are computed. For the values of I
B
,
the corresponding r/z values are determined and hence the values of r are obtained.
An isobar is symmetrical about the load axis, the other half can be drawn from symmetry.
When r = 0, I
B
= 0.4775; the isobar crosses the line of action of the load at a depth of
Z=¹
I
B
0.1
= ¹
0.4775
0.1
= V4.77S = 2.185 units
The shape of an isobar approaches a lemniscates curve (not circle) as shown in Fig.3.3
The calculations are best performed in the form of a table as given below:
When r = 0, I
B
=
3
2n
(
1
(1+(
r
z
)
2
)
S
2
)
=
3
2n
= 0.4775
Table 3.1 Data for isobar of
z
= 0.1Q per unit area
Depth Z (units) Influence
coefficient I
B
r/Z r (units)
z
0.5 0.0250 1.501 0.750 0.1Q
1.0 0.1000 0.932 0.932 0.1Q
1.5 0.2550 0.593 0.890 0.1Q
2.0 0.4000 0.271 0.542 0.1Q
2.185 0.4775 0 0 0.1Q
3.7 Pressure distribution
It is possible to calculate the following pressure distribution by Eq.3.5 of Boussinesq and
present them graphically
3.7.1 Vertical pressure distribution on horizontal plane
The vertical stress on horizontal plane at depth ‘z’ is given by
o
z
=
I
B
0
z
2
Z being a specified depth
For several assumed values of r, r/Z is calculated and the influence factor I
B
is found for
each, the value of o
z
is then computed.
For r=0, o
z
is the maximum of u.477S
0
z
2
Fig.3.4 Vertical pressure distribution on horizontal plane
Theoretically, the stress approaches zero at infinity. However, practically it reaches a
negligible value at a short finite distance. The maximum pressure ordinate is relatively
high at shallow elevations and it decreases with increase depth. In other words, the bell
shaped fig flattens out with increasing depth. The vertical stress distribution diagram on a
horizontal plane can also be obtained graphically if the isobars of different intensities are
available. The horizontal plane is drawn on the isobar diagram. The points of intersection
of the horizontal plane with the isobar of a particular intensity give that vertical stress.
3.7.2 Vertical stress distribution on a vertical plane
The vertical stress distribution on a vertical plane at a radial distance of ‘r’ can be
obtained from
o
z
=
I
B
0
z
2
The variation of vertical stress with depth at a constant radial distance from the axis of the
load is as shown in Fig.3.5
a) directly under the point load b) at a distance from point load
Fig.3.5 Vertical pressure distribution on vertical plane
In this case radial distance ‘r’ is constant and the depth ‘z’ changes. As z increases, r/z
decreases, for a constant value of ‘r’. As r/z decreases I
B
value in the equation for o
z
increases, but, since z
2
is involved in the denominator of the expression for o
z
, its value
first increases with depth, attains a maximum value, and then decreases with further
increase in depth.
The maximum vertical stress occur at r/Z=0.817.this corresponds to the point of
intersection of the vertical plane with the line drawn at 39
0
13’53.5” to the vertical axis of
the load.
3.8 Vertical stress due to a line load
Certain road and rail traffic loads, and loads from walls may be resolved into line load, which
has length along a given line but not breadth (theoretical)
The vertical stress in a soil mass due to a vertical line load can be obtained using
boussinesq’s solution. Let the vertical line load be of intensity q per unit length, along the y
axis, acting on the surface of a semiinfinite soil mass as shown in Fig.3.6
Fig. 3.6 Vertical stress due to a line load
Let us consider the load acting on a small length dy. The load can be taken as a point load of
q’ dy. using boussinesq’s solution the vertical stress at P is given by
Ao
z
=
3(q
dy)
2n
z
3
(¡
2
+z
2
)
S
2
(3.9)
.˙. o
z
=
30
2n
1
z
2

z
S
(¡
2
+z
2
)
S
2
+
The vertical stress at P due to line load extending from · to +· is obtained by integration,
o
z
=
3q
z
3
2n
]
dy
(¡
2
+z
2
)
S
2
·
·
o
z
=
3q
z
3
2n
]
dy
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
S
2
·
·
(3.10)
Substituting x
2
+Z
2
= u
2
in Eq. 3.10 we get
o
z
=
3q
z
3
2n
]
dy
(u
2
+y
2
)
S
2
·
·
(3.11)
Let y = u tan0 (dy = u sec
2
0.d0)
When, y = ·, tan0 = ·, 0 = a/2
Y = +·, tan0 = ·, 0 = a/2
Eqn (3.11) can be written as
o
z
=
3q
z
3
2n
]
uscc
2
0 d0
(u
2
+u
2
tun
2
0)
S
2
a¡2
0
o
z
=
3q
z
3
2n
]
uscc
2
0 d0
u
S
scc
S
0
a¡2
0
{˙.˙ (1+ton
2
0) = scc
2
0}
o
z
=
3q
z
3
2nu
4
] cos
3
0. J0
a¡2
0
(3.12)
Let Sin0 = t
Cos0.d0 = dt Also cos
3
0J0 = cos
2
0 . cos0. J0
When 0 = 0, sin0 = 0
0 = a/2, sin0 = 1 cos
2
0 + sin
2
0 = 1
or cos
2
0 = (1sin
2
0)
. ˙ . cos
3
0 J0 = (1  sin
2
0) cos0 d0
(3.12) becomes,
o
z
=
3q
z
3
nu
4
] (1 t
2
). Jt
1
0
=
3q
z
3
nu
4
( t
1
3
t
3
)
0
1
o
z
=
3q
z
3
nu
4
2
3
=
2q
z
3
nu
4
=
2q
z
3
n(x
2
+z
2
)
2
o
Z
=
2q

aZ
(
1
1+(
x
z
)
2
)
2
 (3.13)
o
z
= (I
B
)
L
q
z
(I
B
)
L
= Boussinesq’s influence factor for line load
=
2
n
(
1
1+(
x
z
)
2
)
2
When the point P lies vertically below the line load x = 0
o
z
=
2q
nz
Numerical Example
2) A line load of 100 kN/m run extends to a long distance. Determine the intensity of vertical
stress at a point, 2m below the surface for the following two cases:
i) Directly under the line load, and
ii) At a distance of 2 m perpendicular to the line load.
Use Boussinesq’s theory
Solution:
Data:
q' =100 kN/m
z = 2 m
Using Boussinesq’s theory, the stress at any depth ‘z’ for line load is given by:
Case (i)
x = 0
.˙. o
z
= 31.83 kN/m
2
Case (ii)
x = 2 m; z = 2; x/z = 1
.˙. o
z
= 7.96 kN/m
2
3.9 Vertical stress due to a Strip load
The expression for vertical stress at any point ‘P’ under a strip load can be derived from Eq.
(3.13) of the line load. The expression will depend upon whether the point P lies below the
centre of the strip load or away from the centre.
3.9.1 Point P below the centre of the strip
Fig. 3.7 Vertical stress due to a strip load point ‘P’ below the centre
2
2
1
1 2

.

\

+
′
=
z
x
z
q
z
π
σ
Consider a strip load of width B (= 2b) and intensity ‘q’ as shown in the Fig.3.7
Let us consider the load acting on a small elementary width dx at a distance x from the centre
of the load. This small load of (q dx) can be considered as a line load of intensity q´.
From Eq. 3.13, we have
Ao
z
=
2q
nz
(
1
1+(
x
z
)
2
)
2
where q´ = q dx
The stress due to entire strip load is obtained as
o
z
=
2q
nz
] (
1
1+(
x
z
)
2
)
2
+b
b
. Jx (3.14)
Let
x
z
= tonu , dx = zscc
2
u Ju
o
z
=
2o
nZ
2J
z scc
2
u
(1 +ton
2
u)
2
n
0
. Ju
Where, 0 = tan
1
b
z
o
z
=
4q
n
] cos
2
u
0
0
. Ju
=
4q
n
]
1+cos2u
z
0
0
. Ju
=
2q
n
u +
sìn2u
2

0
0
=
2q
n
0 +
sìn20
2

o
Z
=
q
a
20 + xn20]  (3.15)
3.9.2 Point P not below the centre of the strip
Fig. 3.8 Vertical stress due to a strip load point ‘P’ not at the centre
Fig. 3.8 shows the case when the point P is not below the centre of the strip. Let the
extremities of the strip make angles of [
1
and [
2
with the vertical at P. Similar to the
previous case, the load q dx acting on a small length dx can be considered as a line load. The
Vertical stress at P given by Eq. 3.13 as
Ao
z
=
2(qdx)
nz
(
1
1+(
x
z
)
2
)
2
Now substituting x = Z ton[ dx = z scc
2
[J[
Ao
z
=
2q(zscc
2
ßdß)
nz
(
1
1+tun
2
ß
)
2
Ao
z
=
2o
n
cos
2
[J[
o
z
=
2q
n
]
1+cos2ß
2
ß
2
ß
21
J[
Or o
z
=
q
n
[ +
sìn2ß
2

ß
1
ß
2
o
z
=
q
n
[ + sin[ cos[]
ß
1
ß
2
o
z
=
q
n
(([
2
[
1
) + (sin[
2
cos[
2
sin[
1
cos[
1
) ˙.˙ (sin2þ = 2sinþ cosþ)
substituting [
2
[
1
= 20
o
Z
=
q
a
(20 +xnB
2
cuxB
2
xnB
1
cuxB
1
)  (3.16)
If [
2
+ [
1
= 2o, it can be shown that
sin[
2
cos[
2
sin[
1
cos[
1
= sin20 cos2O
o
Z
=
q
a
(20 + xn20 cux2O)  (3.17)
Numerical Example
3) A strip footing 2 m wide is loaded on the ground surface with a pressure of 150
kN/m
2
. A 4 m thick soft clay layer exists at a depth of 10 m below the foundation.
Find the average increase in vertical stress at the centre of clay layer below the
centre line and at the edge of footing. Adopt Boussinesq’s theory for strip load.
[8MBangalore UniversityFeb 1996]
Solution: q = 150 kPa
GL
B = 2 m
10 m
4 m Clay layer
Case (i): Point at the centre of clay layer below the centre line of strip load
q = 150 kPa
1 m 1 m
Z = 12 m
2
4 m P
= tan
1
(1/12) = 4°4549 = 0.083 rad
.˙. 2 = 0.166 rad
or o
z
= 15.83 kN/m
2
Case (ii): Point at the centre of clay layer below the edge of footing (strip load)
q = 150 kPa
1 m 1 m
Z = 12 m
2
4 m A
2 = tan
1
(2/12) = 9°2744 = 0.166 rad
= 15.72 kN/m
2
[ ] θ θ
π
σ 2 sin 2 + =
q
z
[ ] θ θ
π
σ 2 sin 2 + =
q
z
3.10 Vertical Stress under a uniform loaded circular area
Fig. 3.9 Vertical Stress under a uniform loaded circular area
This problem may arise in connection with settlement studies of structures on circular
foundations, such as gasoline tanks, grain elevators, and storage bins.
The Boussinesq’s equation for vertical stress due to a point load can be extended to find the
vertical stress at any point beneath the centre of a uniformly loaded circular area.
Let q = intensity of the load per unit area
And R = the radius of the loaded area
Let us consider an elementary ring of radius r and thickness ‘dr’ of the loaded area.
The load on the elementary ring = q(2ar)dr
But we know that
o
z
=
30
2n
1
z
2
(
1
(1+(
r
Z
)
2
)
S
2
)
Ao
z
=
3(q2n¡d¡)
2n
1
z
2
(
1
(1+(
r
Z
)
2
)
S
2
)
Ao
z
=
3q¡d¡
(¡
2
+z
2
)
S
2
Z
3
The vertical stress due to to full load is given by
o
•
= € o z
3
]
¡ d¡
(¡
2
+z
2
)
S
2
R
0
(3.18)
•ct r
2
+Z
2
= u
2
when r = 0, u = Z
2
2r Jr = Ju r = R, u = R
2
+Z
2
Eq. 3.18 becomes,
o
•
= € o z
3
]
du
2(u)
S
2
R
2
+z
2
z
2
o
•
= € o z
3
(
1
I
€
2
]
) ‚u
3
2
ƒ
z
2
R
2
+z
2
= qz
3
‚
1
(R
2
+z
2
)
3
2
„

1
(z
2
)
3
2
„
ƒ
= qz
3
‚
1
(z
2
)
3
2
„

1
(R
2
+z
2
)
3
2
„
ƒ
o
z
= …1  (
1
1+(
†
Z
)
2
)
3
2
‡ (3.19)
o
•
= I
c
o (3.20)
Where, I
c
is the influence coefficient for the circular area and is given by
I
c
= …1 (
1
1+(
R
Z
)
2
)
3
2
‡ (3.21)
Eq. 3.21 for the influence coefficient I
c
can be written in terms of the angle 20 subtended at
point P by the load.
Now tan0 = R/Z I
c
= 1 (
1
1+( tun )
2
)
3
2

=(1(cos
2
0)
3
2
„
I
c
= 1 cos
3
0  (3.22)
Numerical Example
4) A circular area 6 m in diameter, carries uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m
2
.
Determine the vertical stress at a depth of 2m, 4 m and 8 m. Plot the variation of
vertical stress with depth. [ VTU July 2006 – 8 M]
Solution:
According to Boussinesq’s theory for a circular loaded area, the vertical pressure at any
point below the centre of the loading is given by:
Here R = 3 m and q = 10 kN/m
2
At z = 2 m, o
z
= 8.29 kN/m
2
At z = 4 m, o
z
= 4.88 kN/m
2
At z = 8 m, o
z
= 1.79 kN/m
2
2 m 8.29 kN/m
2
4 m 4.88 kN/m
2
8 m 1.79 kN/m
2
3.11 Uniform load on rectangular area
The more common shape of a loaded area in foundation engineering practice is a rectangle,
especially in the case of buildings.
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦

.

\

+
− =
2
3
2
1
1
1
z
R
q
z
Fig. 3.10 Common shape of foundations
3.11.1 Vertical stress under corner of a uniformly loaded rectangular area
The vertical stresses under a corner of a rectangular area with a uniformly distributed load of
intensity q can be obtained from Boussinesq’s solution.
Fig. 3.11 Vertical stress under corner of a uniformly loaded rectangular area
( )
( )
2
5
2 2 2
3
1
2
3
z y x
z dy dx q
z
+ +
× ⋅ ⋅
= ∆
π
σ
By integration,
(3.23)
Newmark (1935) has done the integration which is quite complicated and has expressed in
the form:
(3.24)
Where m = (B/Z) and n = (L/Z)
or (3.25)
Where is Newmark’s influence coefficient
Note: The value of m and n can be interchanged without any effect on the value of
3.12 Vertical stress at any point under a rectangular area
The equation as developed above can also be used for finding the vertical stress at a point
which is not loaded below the corner of loaded area. The rectangular area is subdivided into
rectangles such that each rectangle has a corner at the point where the vertical stress is
determined using the principle of superposition.
The following cases can occur:
3.12.1 Point anywhere below the rectangular area
Fig. 3.12 Point anywhere below the rectangular area
( ) ( )
− + +
+ +
+


.

\

+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
−
2 2 2 2
2 2
1
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
1
1 2
tan
1
2
1
1 2
4 n m n m
n m mn
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn q
z
π
σ
( )
í í
+ +
⋅ ⋅
=
B L
z
z y x
dy dx q qz
0 2
5
2 2 2
0
3
2
3
π
σ
Fig. 3.12 shows the location of the point P below the rectangular area ABCD. The
given rectangle is subdivided into four small rectangles (AEPH, EBFP, HPGD and PFCG)
each having one corner at
p. the vertical stress at P due to the given rectangular load is equal to that from the four small
rectangles.
o
z
= q [I
N1
+ I
N2
+ I
N3
+I
N4
]
Where, I
N1
, I
N2
, I
N3
, and I
N4
, are Newmark’s influence factors for the four rectangles marked
1, 2, 3, 4.
For the special case, when the point ‘P’ is at the centre of the rectangle ABCD (Fig.3.13), all
the four small rectangles are equal, and the above equation becomes
Fig. 3.13 Point at the centre of the rectangular area
o
z
= 4 I
N
q
Where I
N
= influence factor for the small rectangle.
3.12.2 Point outside the loaded rectangular area
Fig. 3.14 Point at the centre of the rectangular area
Fig. 3.14 shows the point P outside the loaded area ABCD. In this case, a large rectangle
AEPF is drawn with its one corner at P.
Now rectangle ABCD = rectangle AEPF – rectangle BEPH – rectangle DGPF + rectangle
CGPH
The last rectangle CGPH is given plus sign because this area has been deducted twice (once
in rectangle BEPH and once in DGPF)
The stress at P due to a load on rectangle ABCD is given by
ˆ
‰
=Š(‹
Œ
)
1
• (‹
Œ
)
2
• (‹
Œ
)
€
+ (‹
Œ
)
4
]
Where, (‹
Œ
)
1
Ž(‹
Œ
)
2
Ž (‹
Œ
)
€
Ž (‹
Œ
)
4
are the influence coefficient for the rectangles AEPF,
BEPH, DGPF, CGPH respectively.
3.12.3 Point below the edge of the loaded rectangular area
Fig. 3.15 Point below the edge of the loaded rectangular area
If the point P is below the edge of the loaded area ABCD (Fig. 3.15), the given rectangle is
divided into two small rectangles APED and PBCE
ˆ
‰
=Š(‹
Œ
)
1
+ (‹
Œ
)
2
]
Where, (‹
Œ
)
1
Ž(‹
Œ
)
2
are influence coefficient for rectangles 1 & 2
3.13 Westergaard’s Solution
Boussinesq’s solution assumes that the soil deposit is isotropic. Actual sedimentary deposits
are generally anisotropic. There are thin layers of sand embedded in homogeneous clay strata.
Westergaard’s solution assumes that there are thin sheets of rigid materials sandwiched in a
homogeneous soil mass. These thin sheets are closely spaced and are of infinite rigidity and
therefore prevent the medium from undergoing lateral strain. These permit only downward
displacement of the soil mass as a whole without any lateral displacement. Therefore
Westergaard’s solution represents more closely the actual sedimentary deposits.
According to Westergaard the vertical stress at a point ‘P’ at a depth ‘z’ below the
concentrated load Q is given by
ˆ
‰
=
•
2•
„
‚‘
2
+
’
‰
2
ƒ
€
2
„
“
‰
2
(3.26)
Where, C depends upon the Poisson ratio (v) and is given by
C = ¹
(1•2v)
(2•2v)
(3.27)
For a elastic material, the value of ”v' varies between 0 to 0.5
Since it is assumed that there is lateral restrained, v = , C =
V
ˆ
‰
=
1
•‚1+ 2
’
‰
2
ƒ
€
2
„
“
‰
2
= ‹
•
“
‰
2
(3.28)
Where ‹
•
=
1
•‚1+ 2
’
‰
2
ƒ
€
2
„
is known as Westergaard’s influence factor
3.14 Newmark’s Influence Chart
3.14.1 Introduction:
The vertical stress at any particular depth in the soil due to the action of vertical load
on the surface of the ground was given and explained by the famous Boussinesq’s theory.
This theory gave formulae to calculate vertical stresses at a point for different types of
vertical loading, taking into consideration only a few well defined and standard shape of
loading like a point loading, line loading, strip loading, rectangular loading and circular
loading. When some complex shape of loading, like a plan of a structure was given, it
became very cumbersome to calculate the vertical stress using these formulas. Hence, a need
for more simpler and faster method of stress calculation was realized. Newmark formulated a
new simple graphical method to calculate the vertical stress at any particular depth caused
due to any shape of vertical uniformly distributed loading in the interior of an elastic,
homogeneous and isotropic medium, which is bounded by horizontal planes (i.e. semiinfinite
medium).
3.14.2 Theory behind construction of Newmark’s Influence chart:
Newmark’s chart utilizes the equation given by Boussinesq for vertical stress caused due to
uniformly distributed load on a circular area (vertical load) at any particular depth.
Where σ
z
= vertical stress at depth of
q = load intensity
I
c
= Boussinesq’s influence value for circular loading.
The Boussinesq’s influence factor, I
c
depends on the radius of circular loaded area, R and on
the depth, z, at which the stress is required. It is given by:
From this equation the ratio (r/z) is expressed as:
) 20 . 3 ( q I
c z
= σ
( ) [ ]
2
3
2
/ 1
1
1
z R
I
c
+
− =
) 29 . 3 ( 1 1
3
2
−
− + =
−
q z
R
z
σ
This ratio (r/z) represents the relative size or relative radii of circular loaded bearing area,
which gives a particular value of vertical stress to applied load ration (σ
z
/q). The ratio (σ
z
/q)
can vary from 0 to 1. By substituting various values of (σ
z
/q) with any desired interval (i) say
0.1 or 0.05 etc. we can get various relative size ratio i.e. (r/z). Now let us assign a series of
values for the ratio (σ
z
/q), such as 0, 0.1, 0.2,…., 0.9, and 1. A corresponding set of values for
the relative radii, (R/z) may be obtained. If a particular depth is specified, then a series of
concentric circles can be drawn. Since the first circle has a zero radius and the eleventh has
infinite radius. In practice, only nine circles are drawn. Each ring or annular space causes a
stress of q/10 at a point beneath the center at the specified depth z, since the number of
annular space (c) is ten. Thus, each loaded area enclosed between any two successive circles
contributes the same influence on the vertical stress at the point we require. The typical
tabulation of (R/z) and (σ
z
/q) values are shown with an interval, i = 0.1.
Table 3.2: Relative radii for Newmark’s Influence chart
Sl. No. of
circle
(σ
z
/q) Relative radii
(R/z)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.000
0.270
0.400
0.518
0.637
0.766
0.918
1.110
1.387
1.908
∞
From this table it can be seen that the widths of the annular slices or rings are greater
the farther away they are from the center. The circle for an influence of 1.0 has an infinitely
large radius. Now let us assume that a set of equally spaced rays, say ‘s’ in number, is drawn
emanating from the center of the circles, thus dividing each annular area into s sectors, and
the total number area into cs sectors. If the usual value of 20 is adopted for s, the total number
of sectors in this case will be 10x20 or 200. Each sector will cause a vertical stress of 1/200
th
of the total value at the center at the specified depth and is referred to as a ‘mesh’ or an
‘influence unit’. The value 1/200 or 0.005 is said to be the ‘influence value’ or ‘influence
factor’ (I) for the chart. Each mesh may thus be understood to represent an influence area.
The value of ‘c’ and ‘s’ are so selected that it gives the accuracy we desire for. Higher value
of ‘c’ and ‘s’ gives more meshes and hence higher accuracy.
3.14.3 Construction of Newmark’s Influence chart
For the specified depth z, say 10 m, the radii of the circles, R, are calculated from the
relative radii of Table 1. (2.70m, 4.00m, 5.18m, …and so on). The circles are then drawn to a
convenient scale (say, 1 cm = 2 m or 1:200). A suitable number of uniformly spaced rays (to
get required influence value) are drawn, emanating from the center of the circles. The
resulting diagram will appear as shown in Fig. 3.16. On the figure is drawn a line AB,
representing the depth z to the scale used in drawing the circles. If the scale used is 1 cm = 2
m, then AB will be 5 cm. The influence value for this chart will be I = (1/c x s).
The same chart can be used for other values of the depth ‘z’. The length AB is taken
equal to the depth ‘z’ of the given problem and to that scale the loaded diagram is plotted on
a tracing sheet to be superimposed later on the Newmark’s chart to obtain the vertical stress
at the desired point.
Fig. 3.16 Newmark’s chart
3.14.4 Application of Newmark’s Influence chart
Application of Newmark’s Influence chart in solving problems is quite easy and
simple. The plan of the loaded area is first drawn on a tracing sheet to the same scale as the
scale of the line segment AB on the chart representing the depth ‘z’. The location of the point
where the vertical stress is required is marked on the plan, say as ‘P’. Now, the tracing sheet
is placed over the chart, such that the point ‘P’ comes exactly over the center of the chart
from where the rays are emanating. Now the number of mesh covered by the plan is counted.
In case of partly covered mesh an intelligent judgement of the fraction of mesh covered is
required. Let the total number of mesh be equal to ‘n’ . Then the vertical stress at the desired
depth is given by:
σ
z
= I x n x q
Where I = Influence value = 1/(c x s)
n = Number of meshes under the loaded area
q = uniformly distributed load
c = No. of concentric areas
s = No. of radial lines
3.15 Approximate method
The method discussed in the preceding sections are relatively more accurate, but are time
consuming. Sometimes, the engineer is interested to estimate the vertical stresses
approximately. For preliminary designs, thus saving time and labour without sacrificing
accuracy to any significant degree.
They are also used to determine the stress distribution in soil under the influence of complex
loading and/ or shapes of loaded areas.
Two commonly used approximate methods are:
3.15.1 Equivalent point load method
The vertical stress at a point under a loaded area of any of any shape can be determined by
dividing the loaded area into small area and replacing the distributed load on each on small
area by an equivalent point load acting at the centroid of the small area. The principle of
superposition is then applied and the required stress at a specified point is obtained by
summing up the contributions of the individual. Point loads from each of the units by
applying the approximate point load formula, such as that of Boussinesq’s or Westergaard’s.
Fig.3.17 Equivalent point load method
As shown in the Fig.3.17, if a square area of size B is acted on by a uniform load q, the same
area can be divided into four small area. And the load on each area can be converted into an
equivalent point load assumed to act at its centroid. Then the vertical stress at any point
below or outside the loaded area is equal to the sum of the vertical stresses due to these
equivalent point loads. Then
ˆ
‰
=
“
1
(‹
–
)
1
+ “
2
(‹
–
)
2
+ “
€
(‹
–
)
€
+ ———.+ “
n
(‹
–
)
n
]
‰
2
(3.30)
ˆ
‰
=
1
‰
2
˜ “
™
(‹
–
)
™
n
™=1
(3.31)
Note : Eq. 3.31 gives fairly accurate results if the side a of the small unit is equal to or less than
one third of the depth Z at which the vertical stresses is required.
3.15.2 Two is to one (2:1) load distribution method
The actual distribution of load with the depth is complex. However, it can be assumed to
spread approximately at a slope of two (vertical) to one (horizontal). Thus the vertical
pressure at any depth Z below the soil surface can be determined approximately by
constructing a frustum of pyramid (or cone) of depth Z and side Slope(2:1), the pressure
distribution is assumed to the uniform on a horizontal plane at that depth.
Fig.3.18 Two is to one (2:1) load distribution method
The average vertical stress
z
,depends upon the shape of the loaded area, as given below:
1) Square area (BxB) ;
( )
2
2
z B
qB
z
+
= σ
2) Rectangular area (B x L );
( )
( ) ( ) x L z B
L B q
z
+ +
×
= σ
3) Strip area (width B x unit length)
( )
( )1
1
z B
B q
z
+
×
= σ
4) Circular area (diameter D)
( )
2
2
z D
qD
z
+
= σ
3.16 Contact pressure
The upward pressure due to soil on the underside of the footing or foundation is termed
contact pressure.
In the derivations of vertical stress below the loaded areas using Boussinesq’s theory or
Westergaard’s theory, it has been assumed that the footing is flexible and the contact pressure
distribution is uniform and equal to ‘q’. Actual footings are not flexible as assumed. The
actual distribution of the contact pressure depends on a number of factors.
3.16.1 Factors affecting contact pressure distribution
The factors are:
1. Flexural rigidity of base of footing
2. Type of soil
3. Confinement
3.16.1.1 Flexural rigidity of base of footing
Uniform loading on a flexible base induces uniform contact pressure on any type of soil,
while a rigid base induces nonuniform pressure. Foundation bases are usually thick massive
concrete structures, which cannot be treated as ideally flexible.
3.16.1.2 Type of soil
The contact pressure distribution also depends on the elastic properties of the soil. The elastic
properties of soil depends on the type of soil.
a. Sandy soil
Fig. 3.19 Contact pressure diagram on sand
Fig 3.19 a & b shows the qualitative contact pressure distribution under
flexible and rigid footing resting on a sandy soil and subjected to a uniformly
distributed load q. when the footing is flexible, the edges undergo a large
settlement than at centre. The soil at centre is confined and therefore has a high
modulus of elasticity and deflects less for the same contact pressure. The
contact pressure is uniform.
When the footing is rigid the settlement is uniform. The contact pressure is
parabolic with zero intensity at the edge sand maximum at the centre.
b. Clayey soils
Fig. 3.20 Contact pressure diagram on saturated clay
Fig. 3.20 shows the qualitative contact pressure distribution under flexible and
rigid footings resting on saturated clay and subjected to a uniformly distributed
load q.
When the footing is flexible, it deforms into the shape of a bowel, with the
maximum deflection at the centre. The contact pressure distribution is uniform
If the footing is rigid, the settlement is uniform. The contact pressure
distribution is minimum at the centre and the maximum at the edges(infinite
theoretically). The stresses at the edges in real soil cannot be infinite as
theoretically determined for an elastic mass. In real soils, beyond a certain
limiting values of stress, the plastic flow occurs and the pressure becomes
infinite as shown in Fig.3.20
c. CØ soil
For a c – Ø soil, the contact pressure for a flexible footing will be uniform as
shown in Fig. 3.21(a). For a rigid footing, the pressure distribution will be as
shown in the Fig. 3.21 (b), it is more at the edge and less at the centre.
Fig. 3.21 Contact pressure diagram on c – Ø soil
3.16.1.3 Confinement
For surface loading in sand contact pressure is zero and for clayey soils, it is very high. When
the footings are confined then the edge stresses and the contact pressure distribution changes.
In sand, if the foundation is embedded or confined, then there would be some finite contact
pressure at the edges. In clayey soil the contact pressure at the edges slightly reduces as
confinement increase at the edges to surface loading
The more the foundation is below the surface of the sand, the more the shear resistance
developed at the edges due to increase in the overburden pressure and as a consequence, the
contact pressure distribution tends to be more uniform as compared to being parabolic to
surface loading.
3.17 Typical past VTU Exam questions
1. List the assumption of Boussinesq analysis for the pressure distribution in a soil layer.
[6 M VTUJuly 2006]
2. What do you understand by “pressure bulb”? Illustrate with sketches.
[6 MVTUJuly/Aug 2002] and [6MVTUJuly 2006New Scheme]
3. Using Boussinesq’s equation, construct isobar of intensity 0.1 Q, where Q is point load
acting on surface. [6 M  VTUJuly/2007]
4. Derive an expression to find vertical pressure under a uniformly loaded circular area
[8 M  VTUJan/Feb2005]
5.
Chapter 3 STRESSES IN SOILS 3.1 Introduction
Stresses in soil are caused due to a) Self weight of soil b) Structural loads, applied at or below the surface The estimation of vertical stresses at any point in a soil mass due to external loading is essential to the prediction of settlements of buildings, bridges and pressure. The stresses induced in a soil due to applied loads depend upon its Stress – Strain characteristics. The stress strain behaviour of soils is extremely complex and it depend upon a large number of factors, such as drainage conditions, water content, void ratio, rate of loading, the load level, and the stress path. However simplifying assumptions are generally made in the analysis of soil behaviour to obtain stresses. It is generally assumed that the soil mass is homogeneous and isotropic. The stress strain relationship is assumed to be linear. The theory of elasticity is used to determine the stresses in the soil mass. Though it involves considerable simplification of real soil behaviour and the stresses computed are approximate, the results are good enough for soil problems usually encountered in the practice.
Fig.3.1 Typical Stressstrain curve for soils 3.2 Geostatic stress: Stresses due to self weight are known as geostatic stresses.
3.3 Boussinesq’s Theory / Solution Boussinesq (1885) has given the solution for the stresses caused by the application of the point load at the surface of a elastic medium with the aid of the mathematical theory of elasticity. 3.3.1 Assumptions 1) The soil medium is an elastic continuum having a constant value of modulus of elasticity (E). i.e. it obeys Hooke’s law 2) The soil is homogeneous, i.e. it has identical elastic properties at all points in identical directions. 3) The soil is isotropic, i.e. it has identical elastic properties in all direction at a point. 4) The soil mass is semiinfinite, i.e. it extends to infinity in the downward directions and lateral directions. In other words, it is limited on its top but a horizontal plane and extends to infinity in all other directions.
1) where R = Polar distance between the origin O and point t = angle which the line OP makes with the vertical . 6) The soil is initially unstressed i.5) The self weight of the soil is ignored. it is free from residual stresses before the application of the load.4 Vertical stresses due to a concentrated load Fig. Using logarithmic stress function for solution of elasticity problem. 9) The stresses are distributed symmetrically with respect to z axis (vertical axis). 8) Continuity of stress is considered to exist in the medium.2 shows a horizontal surface of an elastic continuum subject to a point load Q at a point O. 3.2 Derivation of vertical stress at a point due to point load acting on the ground surface Figure 3.3. Bossinesq proved that the polar stress R at point P is given by ) (3. 7) The top surface of the medium is free of shear stresses and is subjected to only the point load at a specified location.e.
(3. can be determined for the given value of r/Z from Eq.7) .2) ) cos2 ) ) (3. The value of +.6) The coefficient +. z = ! .(3. 3.or Where r2 = x2 + y2 Sin = and cos = Now.4) Where +. the vertical stress( z)at Point P is given by z = = = = = = = = R cos2 (3. is known as the Boussinesq influence for the vertical stress. )* or.5) $ .3) z z !" $! # % # # ' & ! ! (.(3. / 0 / 1 213 4 / 56 6 78.6.(3.
therefore. However. Thus. r/z = 0.<<= (˙. (3. 7) The field measurements indicate that the actual stresses are generally smaller than the theoretical values given by Boussinesq’s solution especially at shallow depths. 4) The vertical stress ( ) decreases rapidly with an increase in r/z ratio. However. or more. the vertical stress becomes extremely small and is neglected. at r/z = 5. the Boussinesq’s solution gives conservative values and is commonly used in soil engineering problems. However. 2) The Intensity of vertical stress just below the load point is given by 9:. only finite stresses develop. 6) Boussinesq’s solution can even be used for negative (upward) loads. the soil under the load yields due to very high stresses. IB = 0. the vertical stress would be zero only at an infinite distance from the koad point. Theoretically. it has been established that the Boussinesq’s solution can be applied conservatively to field problems concerning loads at shallow depths. provided the distance ‘z’ is measured from the point of application of the load. the negative load is equal to the weight of the soil removed. Actually.8) If = 0. But the solution has been derived assuming that the soil is linearly elastic.5) 1) The vertical stress does not depend upon the modulus of elasticity (E) and the poisson ratio ( . 5) In actual practice. For example if the vertical stress decrease due to an excavation is required.6 0 6 1 213 4 6 5/ / 78(3. as the soil is not fully elastic the stresses determined are (necessarily) approximate. in an actual case. The load point spreads over a small but finite area and.4775) 3) At the surface (z = 0). . foundation loads are not applied directly on the ground surface.5 / / 6 6 The following points are to be noted while using Eq. the vertical stress just below the load is theoretically infinite.˙ when.
therefore. Numerical Example Find intensity of vertical pressure at a point 3 m directly below 25 kN point load acting on a horizontal ground surface. the modulus of elasticity increases with an increase in depth and therefore. 3) In deep sand deposits. the solution is not strictly applicable.5 Limitations 1) The solution was derived assuming the soil as an elastic medium. Solution: Case (i) Here. therefore. the relation between the stress and the strain is not linear as assumed. r=2m σ z = 0. the solution is not strictly applicable. and. 4) The point loads applied below ground surface causes somewhat smaller stresses than are caused by surface loads. but the soil doesnot behave as an elastic material. What will be the vertical pressure at a point 2m horizontally away from the axis of loading and at same depth of 3 m? Use Boussinesq’s equation. Q = 25 kN z=3m r=0 5 2 [6MVTUJuly/Aug2005] σz = 3 Q 2π z 2 1 r 1+ z 2 = 1. the Boussinesq’s solution will not give satisfactory results.3. 2) When the stress decrease occurs in soil.33 kN / m 2 Case (ii) Here.53 kN / m 2 .
3.3.1 Procedure The procedure for plotting an isobar is as follows: Let it be required to plot an isobar for which We know that z= z = 0. Any number of pressure bulb may be drawn for any applied load.6. 3.3 Pressure bulb for a point load 3.1Q per unit area (10 % isobar) >? . The stress isobar is also called ‘pressure bulb’. The isobar of a particular intensity can be obtained by: z= >? An isobar consisting of a system of isobars appears somewhat as shown in Fig. An isobar is a spatial curved surface and resembles a bulb in shape. Fig.3. since each one corresponds to an arbitrarily chosen value of stress.6 Stress Isobar or pressure bulb An ‘isobar’ is a stress contour or a curve which connects all points below the ground surface at which the vertical pressure is the same.
750 0.4775 Table 3. the corresponding r/z values are determined and hence the values of r are obtained.3.1Q per unit area r/Z 1.4775 Influence 0.5 2.1Q 0. the other half can be drawn from symmetry.1Q 0. +.932 0. IB = 0.:<<= = 2.1 Data for isobar of Depth Z (units) 0.185 z . When r = 0.3 The calculations are best performed in the form of a table as given below: When r = 0.542 0 z coefficient )* 0.4000 0.185 units The shape of an isobar approaches a lemniscates curve (not circle) as shown in Fig. the corresponding IB values are computed.0250 0.1000 0.593 0. = 0.501 0.0 2.932 0.1Q = >? +. the isobar crosses the line of action of the load at a depth of Z=@A:? = @ > A:BCCD A: = . = 0.4775.5 1.0 1.1 Assuming various values of z.1Q 0.1Q 0.890 0.0. An isobar is symmetrical about the load axis.1Q . For the values of IB.2550 0. = = 0.271 0 r (units) 0.
In other words. 3.<<= Fig.3.2 Vertical stress distribution on a vertical plane .1 Vertical pressure distribution on horizontal plane The vertical stress on horizontal plane at depth ‘z’ is given by z= >? Z being a specified depth For several assumed values of r. The horizontal plane is drawn on the isobar diagram. the bell shaped fig flattens out with increasing depth.5 of Boussinesq and present them graphically 3. r/Z is calculated and the influence factor +. the value of zis z is then computed. the stress approaches zero at infinity. However. The vertical stress distribution diagram on a horizontal plane can also be obtained graphically if the isobars of different intensities are available. practically it reaches a negligible value at a short finite distance.7. The maximum pressure ordinate is relatively high at shallow elevations and it decreases with increase depth. For r=0.7 Pressure distribution It is possible to calculate the following pressure distribution by Eq.7.4 Vertical pressure distribution on horizontal plane Theoretically. is found for each.3.3. The points of intersection of the horizontal plane with the isobar of a particular intensity give that vertical stress. the maximum of 9:.
5 Vertical pressure distribution on vertical plane In this case radial distance ‘r’ is constant and the depth ‘z’ changes. attains a maximum value. z its value first increases with depth.this corresponds to the point of intersection of the vertical plane with the line drawn at 39013’53. value in the equation for z.3.817.3. since E is involved in the denominator of the expression for increase in depth.The vertical stress distribution on a vertical plane at a radial distance of ‘r’ can be obtained from z= >? The variation of vertical stress with depth at a constant radial distance from the axis of the load is as shown in Fig.5 a) directly under the point load b) at a distance from point load Fig. but. The maximum vertical stress occur at r/Z=0. decreases. As r/z decreases +. As z increases. and then decreases with further . for a constant value of ‘r’. r/z increases.5” to the vertical axis of the load.
Let the vertical line load be of intensity q per unit length. 3. and loads from walls may be resolved into line load. which has length along a given line but not breadth (theoretical) The vertical stress in a soil mass due to a vertical line load can be obtained using boussinesq’s solution. along the y axis. z G H6 (3.3.9) J = I The vertical stress at P due to line load extending from .3.˙.to + is obtained by integration. . using boussinesq’s solution the vertical stress at P is given by F . acting on the surface of a semiinfinite soil mass as shown in Fig.8 Vertical stress due to a line load Certain road and rail traffic loads. The load can be taken as a point load of q’ dy.6 Vertical stress due to a line load Let us consider the load acting on a small length dy.6 Fig.
11) K 5 N H6 6 Let y = u tan (dy = u sec2 . = /2 Eqn (3. []Y X ^X = (1 .Y_ X) cos d W (3. ˙ .12) becomes. 3.d ) When.. y = .˙ (1+UVW X) = YZ[ X} (3. tan = . G N\ or []Y X = (1Y_ X) W K 2 1 U : ^U A ./2 Y = + .. tan = .10) M in Eq. sin = 1 []Y X + Y_ X = 1 W Also []Y X^X []Y X : []YX: ^X . sin = 0 = /2.d = dt When = 0.11) can be written as G K A K A N\ A T N N N O P HP N Q RS P G G T N O P HP O P T {˙.10 we get (3.G G K 5 K 5 / H6 H6 Substituting L G 6 (3. = .12) K []Y X: ^X Let Sin = t Cos .
Use Boussinesq’s theory Solution: Data: q =100 kN/m z=2m .(3. 2m below the surface for the following two cases: i) ii) Directly under the line load. When the point P lies vertically below the line load x = 0 G Numerical Example 2) A line load of 100 kN/m run extends to a long distance.U 1 0 N\ = = N\ G / $ +. = Boussinesq’s influence factor for line load = d . c !`a "$ G # # b ! ! .13) c +. and At a distance of 2 m perpendicular to the line load.= G G G N\ ( t. Determine the intensity of vertical stress at a point.
z = 7.point ‘P’ below the centre . the stress at any depth ‘z’ for line load is given by: 2 σz = Case (i) x=0 .1 Point P below the centre of the strip Fig.83 kN/m2 Case (ii) x = 2 m. x/z = 1 .9. The expression will depend upon whether the point P lies below the centre of the strip load or away from the centre. z 2 q′ π z 1 x 1+ z 2 = 31.9 Vertical stress due to a Strip load The expression for vertical stress at any point ‘P’ under a strip load can be derived from Eq.13) of the line load.Using Boussinesq’s theory.96 kN/m2 3.˙.˙. 3. z = 2. (3.7 Vertical stress due to a strip load. 3.
From Eq.7 Let us consider the load acting on a small elementary width dx at a distance x from the centre of the load.3.14) Let UVWM . where q = q dx The stress due to entire strip load is obtained as G / K 5e e d . X BG P i 5 jk e K []Y M : ^M A KA P N l N S l P S = = = $ BG G G : ^M A P 0M 0X 8 " ` m!n op q!nr .Consider a strip load of width B (= 2b) and intensity ‘q’ as shown in the Fig. : ^L (3. dx = zYZ[ M ^M 3f E YZ[ M 3h g 2 UVW M A : ^M Where. we have F G d .(3. This small load of (q dx) can be considered as a line load of intensity q . 3.15) 8 .13.
3. Similar to the previous case.3. The GH/ Fig. the load q dx acting on a small length dx can be considered as a line load.13 as F t]u YMvYU_ Ww L UMU_ F F Gx O H y d . UVWs Q RS dx = z YZ[ s^s G 3f []Y s^s g K z ^s 8 z z Or G G 0s l S ms Y_ []Ysr Ws . Let the Vertical stress at P given by Eq.8 Vertical stress due to a strip load. 3.8 shows the case when the point P is not below the centre of the strip.9. 3.2 Point P not below the centre of the strip Fig.point ‘P’ not at the centre extremities of the strip make angles of s and s with the vertical at P.
16) !n op q!n }o!~ .(3. Adopt Boussinesq’s theory for strip load. [8MBangalore UniversityFeb 1996] Solution: GL B=2m q = 150 kPa 10 m 4m Clay layer .˙ (sin2 = 2sin cos ) If s Y_ []Ys 1 Y_ []Ys Ws Ws $ " ` s = 2 .G YMvYU_ Ww s 1 s = 2 UMU_ $ " ` s 1s Y_ []Ys 1 Y_ []Ys Ws Ws ˙.17) Numerical Example 3) A strip footing 2 m wide is loaded on the ground surface with a pressure of 150 kN/m2.(3. A 4 m thick soft clay layer exists at a depth of 10 m below the foundation. Find the average increase in vertical stress at the centre of clay layer below the centre line and at the edge of footing. it can be shown that !n op ! }o{! 1 op # }o{# q{ q{ Y_ W3X []Y3~ .
166 rad σz = or z q = 15.˙.Case (i): Point at the centre of clay layer below the centre line of strip load q = 150 kPa 1m 1m Z = 12 m 2 4m P = tan1(1/12) = 4°45 49 = 0. 2 = 0.083 rad .83 kN/m2 π [2θ + sin 2θ ] Case (ii): Point at the centre of clay layer below the edge of footing (strip load) q = 150 kPa 1m 1m Z = 12 m 2 4m A 2 = tan1(2/12) = 9°27 44 = 0.166 rad σz = q π [2θ + sin 2θ ] = 15.72 kN/m2 .
3. Let q = intensity of the load per unit area And R = the radius of the loaded area Let us consider an elementary ring of radius r and thickness ‘dr’ of the loaded area. 3. The Boussinesq’s equation for vertical stress due to a point load can be extended to find the vertical stress at any point beneath the centre of a uniformly loaded circular area.10 Vertical Stress under a uniform loaded circular area Fig. such as gasoline tanks. The load on the elementary ring = q(2 r)dr But we know that z = G H  z =  z = G H . and storage bins.9 Vertical Stress under a uniform loaded circular area This problem may arise in connection with settlement studies of structures on circular foundations. grain elevators.
(3. Now tan = R/Z + 02 1 Q RS „ 8 + =(1([]Y X 2 1 []Y X . • €fE K €fE = qE ‚ = qE ‚ HN N • 5 2 ‚M ƒ 1€ 437 „ 1 „ ƒ ƒ ! „ 1 # # „ …# 1 • Where.21) Eq.18) when r = 0.21 for the influence coefficient + can be written in terms of the angle 2X subtended at point P by the load.20) + …2 1 ‡ (3.22) .The vertical stress due to to full load is given by • € f E KA M H (3.(3.18 becomes. 3. 3. u= •ZU 3 ^ ^M Eq. + is the influence coefficient for the circular area and is given by + f † ! $ ‡.19) (3. u = r = R.
79 kN/m2 z z 2m 4m 8. At z = 4 m. At z = 8 m. especially in the case of buildings.88 kN/m2 8m 1.Numerical Example 4) A circular area 6 m in diameter.79 kN/m2 3. [ VTU.11 Uniform load on rectangular area The more common shape of a loaded area in foundation engineering practice is a rectangle.88 kN/m2 = 1.29 kN/m2 = 4. carries uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m2. 4 m and 8 m.29 kN/m2 4. Determine the vertical stress at a depth of 2m. Plot the variation of vertical stress with depth. z = 8. the vertical pressure at any point below the centre of the loading is given by: 3 2 z = q 1− 1+ 1 R z 2 Here R = 3 m and q = 10 kN/m2 At z = 2 m.July 2006 – 8 M] Solution: According to Boussinesq’s theory for a circular loaded area. .
Fig.10 Common shape of foundations 3. Fig. 3.1 Vertical stress under corner of a uniformly loaded rectangular area The vertical stresses under a corner of a rectangular area with a uniformly distributed load of intensity q can be obtained from Boussinesq’s solution. 3.11.11 Vertical stress under corner of a uniformly loaded rectangular area ∆σ z = 3(q ⋅ dx ⋅ dy )× z 3 2π 1 (x 2 + y2 + z2 ) 5 2 .
12 Point anywhere below the rectangular area .1 Point anywhere below the rectangular area Fig.By integration.24) q 2mn m 2 + n 2 + 1 m 2 + n 2 + 2 −1 2 mn σz = + tan 4π m 2 + n 2 + 1 + m 2 n 2 m 2 + n 2 + 1 m2 + n2 + 1 − m2n2 Where m = (B/Z) and n = (L/Z) or Where (3.23) Newmark (1935) has done the integration which is quite complicated and has expressed in the form: m 2 + n 2 + 1 (3.25) is Newmark’s influence coefficient ( ) ( ) Note: The value of m and n can be interchanged without any effect on the value of 3.12. 3qz 3 σz = 2π L B q ⋅ dx ⋅ dy 0 0 (x 2 + y2 + z 5 2 2 ) (3.12 Vertical stress at any point under a rectangular area The equation as developed above can also be used for finding the vertical stress at a point which is not loaded below the corner of loaded area. The following cases can occur: 3. 3. The rectangular area is subdivided into rectangles such that each rectangle has a corner at the point where the vertical stress is determined using the principle of superposition.
HPGD and PFCG) each having one corner at p. the vertical stress at P due to the given rectangular load is equal to that from the four small rectangles. are Newmark’s influence factors for the four rectangles marked 1. The given rectangle is subdivided into four small rectangles (AEPH. IN2. 3. For the special case. 3.3. and the above equation becomes Fig. all the four small rectangles are equal. IN1.13 Point at the centre of the rectangular area z = 4 IN q Where IN = influence factor for the small rectangle. 2. when the point ‘P’ is at the centre of the rectangle ABCD (Fig.13). and IN4. EBFP.12 shows the location of the point P below the rectangular area ABCD. z = q [IN1+ IN2 + IN3 +IN4] Where.Fig. 4. . 3. IN3.
Now rectangle ABCD = rectangle AEPF – rectangle BEPH – rectangle DGPF + rectangle CGPH The last rectangle CGPH is given plus sign because this area has been deducted twice (once in rectangle BEPH and once in DGPF) The stress at P due to a load on rectangle ABCD is given by ˆ‰ Šm ‹Œ 2 • ‹Œ 3 • ‹Œ Where.3 Point below the edge of the loaded rectangular area Fig. DGPF. 3.2 Point outside the loaded rectangular area Fig.15 Point below the edge of the loaded rectangular area . are the influence coefficient for the rectangles AEPF. r . ‹Œ 2 Ž ‹Œ 3 BEPH. a large rectangle AEPF is drawn with its one corner at P. 3.14 Point at the centre of the rectangular area Fig.14 shows the point P outside the loaded area ABCD.12.12. Ž ‹Œ € € Ž ‹Œ ‹Œ . In this case.3. CGPH respectively. 3. 3.
If the point P is below the edge of the loaded area ABCD (Fig. C depends upon the Poisson ratio ( ) and is given by C=@ 3•3 2•3 (3. the value of ” varies between 0 to 0.15). .27) For a elastic material. Actual sedimentary deposits are generally anisotropic. These thin sheets are closely spaced and are of infinite rigidity and therefore prevent the medium from undergoing lateral strain. Therefore Westergaard’s solution represents more closely the actual sedimentary deposits.28) Where ‹• •‚2 €„ ’3 3 3‰ ƒ 2 is known as Westergaard’ s influence factor .26) Where. Westergaard’s solution assumes that there are thin sheets of rigid materials sandwiched in a homogeneous soil mass. There are thin layers of sand embedded in homogeneous clay strata.13 Westergaard’s Solution Boussinesq’s solution assumes that the soil deposit is isotropic. According to Westergaard the vertical stress at a point ‘P’ at a depth ‘z’ below the concentrated load Q is given by •„ 3• ‰ ˆ‰ ‚‘ 3 €„ ’3 3 ƒ ‰3 “ (3.C= ˆ‰ •‚2 €„ ’3 3 3 ƒ ‰ 2 ‰3 “ ‹• ‰3 “ (3. 3. the given rectangle is divided into two small rectangles APED and PBCE ˆ‰ Šm ‹Œ Where. ‹Œ 2 Ž ‹Œ 2 ‹Œ 3 r 3 are influence coefficient for rectangles 1 & 2 3. These permit only downward displacement of the soil mass as a whole without any lateral displacement.5 Since it is assumed that there is lateral restrained.
Hence. Ic depends on the radius of circular loaded area. This theory gave formulae to calculate vertical stresses at a point for different types of vertical loading. a need for more simpler and faster method of stress calculation was realized. line loading.29) . When some complex shape of loading.14. 3. σ z = Ic q Where σz = vertical stress at depth of q = load intensity Ic = Boussinesq’ s influence value for circular loading.1 Introduction: The vertical stress at any particular depth in the soil due to the action of vertical load on the surface of the ground was given and explained by the famous Boussinesq’ s theory.e. strip loading.2 Theory behind construction of Newmark’s Influence chart: Newmark’ s chart utilizes the equation given by Boussinesq for vertical stress caused due to uniformly distributed load on a circular area (vertical load) at any particular depth. (3. taking into consideration only a few well defined and standard shape of loading like a point loading. rectangular loading and circular loading.20) The Boussinesq’ s influence factor. which is bounded by horizontal planes (i. it became very cumbersome to calculate the vertical stress using these formulas. It is given by: I c = 1− 1 [1+ (R / z ) ] 2 3 2 From this equation the ratio (r/z) is expressed as: R =+ z 1− σz q − 2 3 −1 (3. Newmark formulated a new simple graphical method to calculate the vertical stress at any particular depth caused due to any shape of vertical uniformly distributed loading in the interior of an elastic. z. semiinfinite medium). like a plan of a structure was given.3. R and on the depth. homogeneous and isotropic medium.14 Newmark’s Influence Chart 3. at which the stress is required.14.
766 0. of circle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0. In practice. Since the first circle has a zero radius and the eleventh has infinite radius. Table 3. 0.0 has an infinitely . If a particular depth is specified.3 0. By substituting various values of (σz/q) with any desired interval (i) say 0.e. we can get various relative size ratio i.. then a series of concentric circles can be drawn. No.1. (r/z).000 0.2 0.9 1. which gives a particular value of vertical stress to applied load ration (σz/q). 0.918 1.1 0. The ratio (σz/q) can vary from 0 to 1.8 0. Each ring or annular space causes a stress of q/10 at a point beneath the center at the specified depth z. (R/z) may be obtained.2. Now let us assign a series of values for the ratio (σz/q).9.270 0.6 0. only nine circles are drawn.2: Relative radii for Newmark’s Influence chart Sl. 0.1.1 or 0. A corresponding set of values for the relative radii.400 0. since the number of annular space (c) is ten.518 0.…. such as 0.05 etc. each loaded area enclosed between any two successive circles contributes the same influence on the vertical stress at the point we require. The typical tabulation of (R/z) and (σz/q) values are shown with an interval. The circle for an influence of 1.110 1.4 0. Thus. and 1.0 0.908 ∞ From this table it can be seen that the widths of the annular slices or rings are greater the farther away they are from the center.7 0.637 0.387 1. i = 0.This ratio (r/z) represents the relative size or relative radii of circular loaded bearing area.0 (σz/q) Relative radii (R/z) 0.5 0.
representing the depth z to the scale used in drawing the circles. On the figure is drawn a line AB.00m. . are calculated from the relative radii of Table 1. The same chart can be used for other values of the depth ‘z’ .3 Construction of Newmark’s Influence chart For the specified depth z. Each mesh may thus be understood to represent an influence area. If the scale used is 1 cm = 2 m. The length AB is taken equal to the depth ‘z’ of the given problem and to that scale the loaded diagram is plotted on a tracing sheet to be superimposed later on the Newmark’ s chart to obtain the vertical stress at the desired point. 3. …and so on). The resulting diagram will appear as shown in Fig. The circles are then drawn to a convenient scale (say. Higher value of ‘c’ and ‘s’ gives more meshes and hence higher accuracy.16. then AB will be 5 cm. 1 cm = 2 m or 1:200). the radii of the circles. say ‘s’ in number. (2. The influence value for this chart will be I = (1/c x s). 5.18m. the total number of sectors in this case will be 10x20 or 200. 3.14.large radius. A suitable number of uniformly spaced rays (to get required influence value) are drawn. is drawn emanating from the center of the circles. The value of ‘c’ and ‘s’ are so selected that it gives the accuracy we desire for. and the total number area into cs sectors. 4. Each sector will cause a vertical stress of 1/200th of the total value at the center at the specified depth and is referred to as a ‘mesh’ or an ‘influence unit’ . Now let us assume that a set of equally spaced rays.005 is said to be the ‘influence value’ or ‘influence factor’ (I) for the chart. The value 1/200 or 0. If the usual value of 20 is adopted for s. R. say 10 m. thus dividing each annular area into s sectors.70m. emanating from the center of the circles.
the tracing sheet is placed over the chart.16 Newmark’s chart 3. The plan of the loaded area is first drawn on a tracing sheet to the same scale as the scale of the line segment AB on the chart representing the depth ‘z’ .Fig. In case of partly covered mesh an intelligent judgement of the fraction of mesh covered is required. Then the vertical stress at the desired depth is given by: σz = I x n x q . Now.14. say as ‘P’ .4 Application of Newmark’s Influence chart Application of Newmark’ s Influence chart in solving problems is quite easy and simple. such that the point ‘P’ comes exactly over the center of the chart from where the rays are emanating. 3. Now the number of mesh covered by the plan is counted. Let the total number of mesh be equal to ‘n’ . The location of the point where the vertical stress is required is marked on the plan.
the engineer is interested to estimate the vertical stresses approximately. but are time consuming. Fig.Where I = Influence value = 1/(c x s) n = Number of meshes under the loaded area q = uniformly distributed load c = No. Point loads from each of the units by applying the approximate point load formula. of radial lines 3.3. of concentric areas s = No.1 Equivalent point.17 Equivalent point. The principle of superposition is then applied and the required stress at a specified point is obtained by summing up the contributions of the individual. They are also used to determine the stress distribution in soil under the influence of complex loading and/ or shapes of loaded areas. such as that of Boussinesq’ s or Westergaard’ s.load method .15.load method The vertical stress at a point under a loaded area of any of any shape can be determined by dividing the loaded area into small area and replacing the distributed load on each on small area by an equivalent point load acting at the centroid of the small area. Sometimes. thus saving time and labour without sacrificing accuracy to any significant degree.15 Approximate method The method discussed in the preceding sections are relatively more accurate. Two commonly used approximate methods are: 3. For preliminary designs.
3.18 Two is to one (2:1) load distribution method . However. Then ˆ‰ ˆ‰ m“ 2 ‹– 2 2 “3 ‹– 3 “ € ‹– € ‰3 ™ ———: “k ‹– k r (3. the same area can be divided into four small area.31) ‰3 ˜k 2 “ ™ ‹– ™ Note : Eq. Fig. And the load on each area can be converted into an equivalent point load assumed to act at its centroid. Thus the vertical pressure at any depth Z below the soil surface can be determined approximately by constructing a frustum of pyramid (or cone) of depth Z and side Slope(2:1). 3. the pressure distribution is assumed to the uniform on a horizontal plane at that depth.17. Then the vertical stress at any point below or outside the loaded area is equal to the sum of the vertical stresses due to these equivalent point loads. it can be assumed to spread approximately at a slope of two (vertical) to one (horizontal).2 Two is to one (2:1) load distribution method The actual distribution of load with the depth is complex. if a square area of size B is acted on by a uniform load q.15.31 gives fairly accurate results if the side a of the small unit is equal to or less than one third of the depth Z at which the vertical stresses is required.3.30) (3.3.As shown in the Fig.
while a rigid base induces nonuniform pressure. σ z = 3) Strip area (width B x unit length) σ z = 4) Circular area (diameter D) σ z = qD 2 ( D + z )2 3. as given below: 1) Square area (BxB) .16.2 Type of soil The contact pressure distribution also depends on the elastic properties of the soil. .16. Foundation bases are usually thick massive concrete structures. The actual distribution of the contact pressure depends on a number of factors. Confinement 3. Type of soil 3. it has been assumed that the footing is flexible and the contact pressure distribution is uniform and equal to ‘q’ .16. The elastic properties of soil depends on the type of soil. 3.16 Contact pressure The upward pressure due to soil on the underside of the footing or foundation is termed contact pressure.depends upon the shape of the loaded area. which cannot be treated as ideally flexible. Flexural rigidity of base of footing 2. In the derivations of vertical stress below the loaded areas using Boussinesq’ s theory or Westergaard’ s theory.1.The average vertical stress z . 3. σ z = ( B + z )2 q (B × L ) (B + z ) (L + x ) q (B × 1) (B + z ) 1 qB 2 2) Rectangular area (B x L ).1 Flexural rigidity of base of footing Uniform loading on a flexible base induces uniform contact pressure on any type of soil.1 Factors affecting contact pressure distribution The factors are: 1. Actual footings are not flexible as assumed.1.
20 Contact pressure diagram on saturated clay Fig.20 shows the qualitative contact pressure distribution under flexible and rigid footings resting on saturated clay and subjected to a uniformly distributed load q.a. it deforms into the shape of a bowel. Sandy soil Fig.19 a & b shows the qualitative contact pressure distribution under flexible and rigid footing resting on a sandy soil and subjected to a uniformly distributed load q. The contact pressure is parabolic with zero intensity at the edge sand maximum at the centre. b. when the footing is flexible. The contact pressure distribution is uniform . the edges undergo a large settlement than at centre. with the maximum deflection at the centre. 3. When the footing is rigid the settlement is uniform. The soil at centre is confined and therefore has a high modulus of elasticity and deflects less for the same contact pressure. The contact pressure is uniform.19 Contact pressure diagram on sand Fig 3. Clayey soils Fig. 3. 3. When the footing is flexible.
For a rigid footing.20 c. 3. it is more at the edge and less at the centre.3 Confinement For surface loading in sand contact pressure is zero and for clayey soils.21(a). When the footings are confined then the edge stresses and the contact pressure distribution changes. The stresses at the edges in real soil cannot be infinite as theoretically determined for an elastic mass. then there would be some finite contact pressure at the edges. CØ soil For a c – Ø soil.16.21 Contact pressure diagram on c – Ø soil 3. The contact pressure distribution is minimum at the centre and the maximum at the edges(infinite theoretically). In clayey soil the contact pressure at the edges slightly reduces as confinement increase at the edges to surface loading The more the foundation is below the surface of the sand. beyond a certain limiting values of stress.If the footing is rigid. In sand. . the settlement is uniform. the plastic flow occurs and the pressure becomes infinite as shown in Fig. Fig. In real soils. 3. the contact pressure distribution tends to be more uniform as compared to being parabolic to surface loading. it is very high.21 (b). the more the shear resistance developed at the edges due to increase in the overburden pressure and as a consequence. the pressure distribution will be as shown in the Fig.3. 3. if the foundation is embedded or confined.1. the contact pressure for a flexible footing will be uniform as shown in Fig.
Using Boussinesq’ s equation.3.VTUJuly 2006] 2. Derive an expression to find vertical pressure under a uniformly loaded circular area 5.17 Typical past VTU Exam questions 1.VTUJan/Feb2005] 4.VTUJuly/2007] [8 M . [6 M . . [6 M.1 Q. where Q is point load acting on surface. construct isobar of intensity 0. [6 MVTUJuly/Aug 2002] and [6MVTUJuly 2006New Scheme] 3. List the assumption of Boussinesq analysis for the pressure distribution in a soil layer. What do you understand by “pressure bulb”? Illustrate with sketches.