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Model United Nations the concept

Model United Nations (informally abbreviated as Model UN or MUN) is an academic simulation of the United Nations that aims to educate participants about civics, effective communication, globalization and multilateral diplomacy. In Model UN, students take on roles as foreign diplomats and participate in a simulated session of an intergovernmental organization. Participants research a country, take on roles as diplomats, investigate international issues, deliberate, consult, and then develop solutions to world problems. We, the members of Caucus, are extremely passionate about this format of public speaking. We find it to be an excellent test of a speakers researching skills, in-depth comprehension of the agenda topics as well as spontaneity.

The International Hindu Model United Nations 2010

The IHMUN conference will take place over a period of 4 days from 17-20 August 2010. The venue will be the VPCI Conference Center in the Delhi University North Campus.


Committees and their agendas

Security Council Representation of Taiwan in UN Israels Blockade of Gaza General Assembly Iranian Oil Bourse UN Peacekeeping: Looking into the Future Status of Displaced Persons due to Climate Change United Nations Development Programme Feminization of Poverty Role of Local Bodies in Aiding Development Human Rights Council Safeguarding Human Rights of the Mentally Disabled, with Special emphasis on Solitary Confinement & Degrading Medical Treatment Protection of Journalists & News Media Personnel in Areas of Conflict International Court of Justice Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v/s United States of America) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v/s Serbia and Montenegro)


Tentative schedule of the conference

TUESDAY: AUGUST 17 09:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 11:45 am 11:45 am 12:00 pm 12:00 pm 01:45 pm 01:45 pm 02:45 pm 02:45 pm 04:30 pm WEDNESDAY: AUGUST 18 10:00 am 11:45 am 11:45 am 12:00 pm 12:00 pm 01:45 pm 01:45 pm 02:45 pm 02:45 pm 04:30 pm THURSDAY: AUGUST 19 10:00 am 11:45 am 11:45 am 12:00 pm 12:00 pm 01:45 pm 01:45 pm 02:45 pm 02:45 pm 04:30 pm FRIDAY: AUGUST 20 10:00 am 11:45 am 11:45 am 12:00 pm 12:00 pm 01:45 pm 01:45 pm 02:45 pm 02:45 pm 04:30 pm : : : : : Session 9 Tea Session 10 Lunch Closing Ceremony & Prize Distribution : : : : : Session 6 Tea Session 7 Lunch Session 8 : : : : : Session 3 Tea Session 4 Lunch Session 5 : : : : : : Registration Opening Ceremony & Briefing by Chairpersons Tea Session 1 Lunch Session 2


Flow of debate & motions

The Chairperson will announce each countrys name. After a delegate hears their country called, they should answer present.


The first order of business for the committee shall be the consideration of the agenda. The only motion in order at this time will be in the form of The nation of [country name] moves that [topic area x] be placed first on the agenda. The motion requires a second and is debatable. A provisional speakers list shall be established with two people speaking for and two people speaking against the motion; after the provisional speakers list is exhausted, the committee shall move into an immediate vote. A simple majority is required for the motion to pass. A motion to proceed to the second topic area is in order only after the committee has voted on resolutions regarding the first topic area or tabled the topic.



The Chairperson will ask all of those delegates who would like to make a speech and be on the speakers list to raise their placards. The Chairperson will then choose delegates to be placed on the speakers list. A country can only appear on the speakers list once. After a country has spoken, they may be added to the speakers list again by sending a note to the Chairperson saying: the delegation of [country name] would like to be added to the speakers list. Speaking time is set through a motion from a delegate. If no motions are made, the default time is 90 seconds. When the committee is in formal debate all rules of procedure are enforced.

A moderated caucus is a mixture of both formal and informal debate. When a motion for a moderated caucus is passed, the Chair calls upon delegates as they raise their placards to address the committee for a specific amount of time. Un-Moderated Caucus An un-moderated caucus is a temporary recess. Rules of procedure are suspended during caucusing. During this time delegates can meet informally with each other and the committee staff to discuss draft resolutions and other issues. Working Papers and Draft Resolutions Delegations work together to create resolutions. In addition, delegates may present amendments to these documents, which are changes to the draft resolutions.

Moderated Caucus

END OF LIST Once the speakers list has been exhausted, the committee will automatically move to immediate
voting procedure

Once a delegate feels that they have mad their countrys position clear and that there are enough draft resolutions on the floor, he or she may make a motion to proceed into voting procedure for by moving for the closure of debate.


Once a motion to close debate has been approved, the committee moves into voting procedures. Amendments are voted upon first, then resolutions. Once all of the resolutions are voted upon, the committee can move to the next topic on the agenda.







To object to a Procedure For a personal privilege To request for procedural clarification

This may be introduced in order to complain about improper parliamentary procedure, however the Chairperson may over rule the point, and the decision is not subject to appeal. This may be introduced in order to remove a personal discomfort.


Point of Personal privilege ** Point of Inquiry Point of Information


3. 4.

This may be introduced in case a delegate wishes to seek clarification of parliamentary procedures and protocols. This may be introduced if a delegate yields to questions after her/his speech. All questions must be directed through the Chair; only one question can be asked at a time. If one wishes to cross question, it may be done by Requesting Follow up. The first order of business for the committee shall be the adoption of the agenda. A simple majority vote would decide the order in which the agendas are to be discussed. This may be introduced when a delegate feels that a particular issue needs to be discussed in greater detail, one may interrupt the formal speakers list for a Caucus; Parliamentary procedures must follow during the course of a moderated caucus. The delegate has to specify the topic and the time of the caucus as well as for each speaker; however the time may be extended or reduced at the discretion of the Chairperson. This interrupts a formal debate for a time period decided by the house. Delegates are permitted to leave their seats and indulge in informal debate and negotiations. This right is exercised if any delegate has made a derogatory remark, false accusation or hurt the popular sentiment of another country. The complaint is lodged in written or verbally and the delegate under scanner would have to be answerable to the council. The chair may direct the concerned delegate to submit a written/verbal apology. During the discussion of any matter, the committee may consider a motion to table debate on the issue under discussion at the recommendation of the Chair or any delegate. A two-thirds majority is required for its passing. If the same is passed, no further actions or votes will be taken on the topic. The topic may be reintroduced to the committee only when the alternate issue taken up has seen a successful passing of resolution.

None None


To question another Delegate with regard to their speech To adopt an agenda

Motion to set the agenda for debate Motion for a Moderated Caucus



To address a specific issue in the agenda

Second as well as simple Majority


For informal Motion for an discussion and un-moderated forming blocs Caucus To correct false claims by another delegate To suspend debate temporarily Right to Reply

Second as well as Majority None



Motion to Table Debate

Second as well as 2/3 Majority


For Adjournment of the Meeting For summoning delegates or representatives


Motion to adjourn During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may move for the for recess adjournment of the meeting. Such a motion shall not be debated but shall be immediately put to a vote. After adjournment, the committee shall reconvene at its next regularly scheduled meeting time; adjournment of the final meeting shall adjourn the session. Request for summoning the delegate/ representative of Motion to reconsider decision



Appeal to the Chairs Decision

During the debate if a delegate feels that clarification on the stand of a country is required and another delegate of the same country in a different committee would be better versed on the issue she/he may summon that delegate; also a representative of a particular organization such as the IAEA, Interpol, UNICEF etc. may be summoned for seeking advice or clarification (this right may be exercised in case of an Crisis situation also). This motion is made when a delegate feels that the Chairperson has made an incorrect decision and does so by formally making a verbal or written appeal to the Chairpersons decision. The Chair has to be accountable to the entire council (though the Chair may choose to eschew the same).



* A point of order can also be raised to point out a factual error in a delegates statement. * A point of order can interrupt the flow of formal debate ** A point of personal privilege can interrupt the flow of formal debate.

Speakers List
The Chair shall open the speakers list for each topic to be discussed at the request of a delegate. Any delegate wishing to be added to the speakers list shall indicate so when asked by the Chair or shall submit such a request in writing to the dais. Limitation on Speaking Time The Chair may limit the time allotted to each speaker. However, delegates can motion to increase (or decrease) the speaking time, which will be voted upon by the committee. When a delegate exceeds her/his allotted time, the Chair may call the speaker to order without delay. If a delegate finishes his speech before the expiry of the time limit, she/he may yield their time to points of information, to another delegate (with the prior permission from the delegate) or to the Chair.

What is a Resolution? Actions of the United Nations are expressed in resolutions that are submitted in draft form under the sponsorship of one or more delegations. Resolutions may simply register an opinion or may recommend action to be taken by a U.N. organ or related agency. Only the Security Council may make decisions that bind Member States to a certain course of action. Submission of Draft Resolutions Draft resolutions, shall be submitted to the Director with the proper number of signatories. The Chair may permit discussion and consideration of proposals and amendments once approved - even if the documents may not have been circulated through the committee. Introducing Draft Resolutions Once a draft resolution has been approved by the Director and has been copied and distributed, a delegate may raise a motion to introduce the draft resolution, which is automatically approved and does not require

rules & procedures

a vote. During introduction of a draft resolution, the sponsor would be required to present all its operative clauses. Additional questions and comments regarding the resolution are encouraged to be raised through the speakers list, yields and moderated caucuses, only after the sponsor completes the presentation. Format of a Resolution United Nations resolutions follow a common format. Each resolution has three parts: the heading, the perambulatory and the operative clauses. It is one long sentence with commas and semicolons throughout and a period at the very end. Drafts should be single-spaced with each line following a reference number in the left hand margin. The first word in each clause should be underlined, and each clause in the preamble should end with a comma. All operative clauses end with a semicolon except the final clause, which ends with a period. * A copy of a sample resolution will be attached for your reference (Appendix 1) * Commonly used perambulatory and operative clauses have also been attached (Appendix 2)

What is an Amendment? Once a resolution has been discussed, it is opened to amendments, i.e. proposed changes in certain clauses of the resolution. After the amendment is taken up by the Chair, it is put to debate. In time for the amendment, the delegate who introduces the amendment explains her/ his point, other speeches for the amendment follow, however, in time against the amendment, the sponsors and the signatories may defend the original resolution. There are two types of amendments, friendly and unfriendly. Both friendly and unfriendly amendments require the approval of the Chair. An amendment is considered friendly if all of the sponsors of the initial draft resolution are signatories of the amendment. Such an amendment is adopted automatically without discussion or vote, it. Unfriendly amendments will be followed by a discussion before being put to vote. Amendment to an Amendment These are changes to an amendment, which may be introduced in time against the amendment.

rules & procedures

They will follow the same procedure as amendments; if an amendment to an amendment passes, the amendment passes, if the amendment to an amendment fails, the original amendment remains open for discussion, however an amendment, to an amendment to an amendment is not in order. * If 2/3 of the clauses of a Resolution are amended, the Resolution is considered failed.

Methods of Decision All procedural decisions, except for the closure and adjournment of debate, shall be made by a simple majority of the delegations present. Delegations physically present in the committee may not abstain on procedural motions. Decisions on draft resolutions and amendments shall require a simple majority in favour. However, the passage of all resolutions and amendments in the Security Council requires nine affirmative votes and an affirmative vote or an abstention on the part of all permanent members (Peoples Republic of China, France, Russian Federation, United States of America and United Kingdom). Voting Rights Each present delegate shall have one vote. Observing nations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) cannot vote on substantive matters. Each vote may be a Yes, No or Abstain. On procedural motions, members may not abstain. Members present and voting shall be defined as members casting an affirmative or negative vote (no abstentions) on all substantive votes. Conduct While in Voting Procedure After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting, no representative may enter or leave the room, nor shall any representative interrupt the voting except on a Point of Personal Privilege, Point of Inquiry, or a Point of Order in connection with the actual conduct of the voting. Communication between delegates is strictly forbidden. A member of the staff shall secure the doors during voting procedure. Method of Voting Delegations may vote in favour of or against a proposal or may abstain from voting. The committee shall normally vote by show of placards, but

rules & procedures

any delegate may request a roll call vote on substantive matters. The roll call vote shall be taken in alphabetical order of the English names of the countries present. During a roll call vote, delegations may answer with an affirmative vote, a negative vote, an abstention (when appropriate) or may pass. Delegations passing in the first round of voting will be called upon alphabetically in a second round, at which time they may only answer with an affirmative or negative vote. Delegations that appear to be voting out of policy, while casting an affirmative or negative vote, may reserve the right to explain their vote by Voting with Rights. Delegations must announce that they are voting with Rights at the time they cast their vote. The Chair may permit delegations voting with Rights to explain their votes after voting has concluded but before the decision has been announced.

Joint statements
The chair of any committee may suggest any two opposing countries, to come up with a Joint Statement which contains terms and conditions agreeable to both parties. This can be suggested only if the focus of the topic concerns very specific issue relating to two particular countries. (Ex. Indo-Pak issue, Israel-Palestine)

Position papers
The Position paper should include a brief introduction and a comprehensive breakdown of the countrys position on the topics that are being discussed within the committee. An excellent position paper includes: A clear statement of policy on each topic; The countrys background on the topic, including: Political and/or foreign policy; Action taken by your government in relation to the topic; Resolutions and declarations that your country supports Quotes taken from speeches made by heads of government; Action of the United Nations that your country supports; Suggestions on future course of action.

rules & procedures

The Position paper should be typed out on an A4 size format, in Font Arial and Size 11 or 12. * A sample position paper has been attached for you reference (Appendix 3).

Dress code
Gentlemen are required to wear a full suit - comprising of a formal jacket and trousers, full sleeved shirts, ties and formal footwear. Ladies are required to wear a full suit or formal jackets with skirts, ties or scarves and appropriate formal footwear.

English shall be the official working language of the conference. All speeches must be made in third person. The delegates shall address themselves as The delegate of (country name)/ or (Country name).

Other information
Registration August 17: 9:00 am to 9:45 am. All delegates have to pay a registration fee of Rs.500/They will be provided with country placards, delegate badges and other as soon as they register. Accommodation Delegates who are non-residents of Delhi would be accommodated in either of the University Guest House, the International Guest House, or the International Womens Guest House (all within campus) booked from August 16 (noon) to August 21 (noon). The delegates will have to pay a Rs. 300/- per day to avail the accommodation facilities. (The rooms are air conditioned with proper sanitation, dining facilities, and other modern amenities) Travel Guidelines The venue, the Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Auditorium, is at a very short distance from the accommodation: 20 minutes walking 10 minutes by a Rickshaw (maximum fare Rs.20 for 2 people)

rules & procedures

Use of informal language is discouraged and delegates using abusive languages will be penalised.

Appendix 1
Resolution GA/3/1.1 General Assembly Third Committee Sponsors Signatories Topic : : : United States, Austria and Italy Greece, Tajikistan, Japan, Canada, Mali, the Netherlands and Gabon Strengthening UN coordination of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies

The General Assembly, Reminding all nations of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the inherent dignity, equality and inalienable rights of all global citizens, Reaffirming its Resolution 33/1996 of 25 July 1996, which encourages Governments to work with UN bodies aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance, Noting with satisfaction the past efforts of various relevant UN bodies and nongovernmental organizations, Stressing the fact that the United Nations faces significant financial obstacles and is in need of reform, particularly in the humanitarian realm, 1. Encourages all relevant agencies of the United Nations to collaborate more closely with countries at the grassroots level to enhance the carrying out of relief efforts;

3. Requests that all nations develop rapid deployment forces to better enhance the coordination of relief efforts of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies; 4. Calls for the development of a United Nations Trust Fund that encourages voluntary donations from the private transnational sector to aid in funding the implementation of rapid deployment forces;


2. Urges member states to comply with the goals of the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs to streamline efforts of humanitarian aid;

5. Stresses the continuing need for impartial and objective information on the political, economic and social situations and events of all countries; 6. Calls upon states to respond quickly and generously to consolidated appeals for humanitarian assistance; and 7. Requests the expansion of preventive actions and assurance of postconflict assistance through reconstruction and development.

Appendix 2
Pre-ambulatory clauses Acknowledging Affirming Alarmed Anxious Approving Aware Bearing in mind Being convinced Believing Cognizant Concerned Confident Conscious Considering Contemplating Convinced Declaring Operative clauses Operative clauses are set out to achieve the committees main policy goals on the topic. Each operative clause begins with a number and ends with a semicolon (the final clause ends with a period). Operative clauses should be organized in a logical progression, and each clause should contain a single idea or policy proposal. Keep in mind that all resolutions except those passed by the Security Council are non-binding. Deeply disturbed Desiring Determined Emphasizing Encouraged Endorsing Expressing appreciation deep appreciation Expecting Fulfilling Fully aware believing bearing in mind Grieved Guided by Having adopted approved considered examined further received reviewed Keeping in mind Mindful Noting further with approval with concern with deep concern with grave concern with regret with satisfaction Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Regretting Reiterating Seeking Stressing Welcoming


Acknowledging Affirming Alarmed Anxious Approving Aware Bearing in mind Being convinced Believing Cognizant Concerned Confident Conscious Considering Contemplating Convinced Declaring

Deeply disturbed Desiring Determined Emphasizing Encouraged Endorsing Expressing appreciation deep appreciation Expecting Fulfilling Fully aware believing bearing in mind Grieved Guided by

Having adopted approved considered examined further received reviewed Keeping in mind Mindful Noting further with approval with concern with deep concern with grave concern with regret with satisfaction

Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Regretting Reiterating Seeking Stressing Welcoming

Appendix 3
Committee Topic Country Delegate : : : : Commission on Human Rights Violence against Women The Kingdom of Denmark William Hayward Wilson, Shea University

The Kingdom of Denmark believes that in order to end violence against women, nations must look to empower women in all aspects of society. This includes promoting equal gender roles in government, civil society, education and business. However, Denmark also recognizes the need to combat human rights abuses against women as they occur, and no nation is immune to gender violence. In 2002, the Danish Government launched an extensive action plan to combat domestic violence against women. The plan includes measures to help treat abused women, identify and prosecute the perpetrators, and incorporate professional medical and psychological staff into the rehabilitation process. The action plan currently reaches out to both


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Although this doctrine was adopted in 1948, the world has fallen quite short of this goal. Violence against women pervades all states and it is the duty of the international community to ensure that all persons are afforded equality and respect. Despite cooperative efforts at combating gross human rights abuses, such as the adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the United Nations has not been able to alleviate the injustice women worldwide experience daily.

governmental and nongovernmental groups on the local level throughout the nation. The Danish Centre for Human Rights in Copenhagen, Denmarks foremost national human rights institution also promotes and protects human rights. Based on the Centres research, Denmarks parliament can promote human rights-based legislation and education/awareness programs throughout the nation. The Centre also addresses the UN Commission on Human Rights annually regarding human rights developments in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has no record of committing major human rights violations, most importantly any targeted at women. In its 2003 Annual Report, Amnesty International also found no human rights violations against Danish women. Women are invaluable to Denmarks society and have achieved significant economic and social gains in the 20th century. Currently, 75 percent of medical students in Denmark are women. Denmark is confident that this Commission can bring about an end to violence against women without compromising the sovereignty of member states. Education remains perhaps the most useful tool in protecting victims of gender-based violence. Governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can plan a coordinated campaign that educates national populations on the various ways women are violently targeted. Similarly, harmful traditions, such as honour killings and female genital mutilation, must be stopped by reforming traditional views of women in society. Children of both sexes need to be taught at an early age to value the rights of women in order to prevent such violence in their generation. Another way to stop gender violence would be to reproach member states that consistently violate treaties such as the Convention on Political Rights of Women (1952), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979), and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993). Although this Committee cannot impose sanctions, it can pass resolutions verbally condemning states that commit human rights violations. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights can also meet with representatives of governments that violate the above treaties to discuss possible solutions. In order to prevent gender violence, nations must work together to build a culture of support, equality and community. As such, the Kingdom of Denmark looks forward to offering its support, in whatever form possible, to nations firmly committed to ending violence against women in all its forms.


Appendix 4