..

FUNDAMENTALS

OF
A STEAM TURBINE

.'

MTT·
MHI Turbo-Techno

Co.

TRAINING CENTER
Data No. TR-51a
. Rev. 0 (1997,9,30)

IN

DEX
page

1.

General information about a Steam Turbine

3

2.
3.

Construction and function of major parts

29 63
81

Performance of steam turbine

4.

Appendix

-

1-

-2-

. /TURBINE

I

100

I

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/1

J

I'

COMPRESSOR MARINE SCREW

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050
0:

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./ , /
#

I ,

#.

• I

/

GENERATOR

/

./#/
~/

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80
RPM
(%)

100 "05

l:\ooI=TLit
G02

1=

49

1. 1-1

General information about a steam turbine Category of steam turbines
1)

Steam turbines are classified by application as follows.

GENERATOR TURBINE MECHANICAL TURBINE MARINE TURBINE
2)
-----f-

Compressor driver Blower driver Pump driver

On these pages, we will discuss the steam turbine as a compressor driver. Characteristics
(1) (2) (3)

of a steam turbine for compressor driver are

Variable speed from 80 to 105% of normal speed in generally. Characteristic of turbine torque shown as in the picture. Comparatively high speed operation. (API-612 3rd EDITION 1987)

(4) API Standard should be applied on almost every case.

3) Steam turbine torque Steam turbine output torque is nearly constant through all revolution, so throttling work for inlet steam flow is required to meet driven equipment starting up characteristic.

-

3-

-4-

TYPE OF THE STEAM TURBINE
TURBINES ARE CLASSIFIED BY TYPE AS FOLLOWS:
r----

BACK PRESSURE TURBINES
EXTRACTION TURBINES

~ ~ t. t~htfINV

1--1---

CONDENSING TURBINES""_f'!/"J~~\~
EXTRACTION CONDENSING TURBINES ~ EXTRACTION BACK PRESSURE TURBINES MIXING TURBINES MIXING CONDENSING TURBINES MIXING BACK PRESSURE TURINES
ki?fj

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v-r (

In (,

i) 0 I

r

T

'p ~

£ I·

t f1. V ~ (' ""'-.I

D

I---

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EXTRACTION AND MIXING TURBINES

7

1-2

Types of steam turbines Turbines are also classified by type as on the list. 1) Back pressure turbine is operated in back pressure which is higher pressure than atmospheric pressure. 2) Condensing turbine exhaust steam flows to steam condenser and exhaust pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure. 3) Extraction turbine consists of higher pressure section and lower pressure section. A part of exhaust steam of higher pressure section turbine flows out to medium steam header through extraction nozzle of turbine casing. 4) Mixing turbine also consists of higher and lower pressure section and mixing steam flows into lower pressure section through mixing nozzle of turbine casing. 5) Extraction and mixing turbine is a combination of Extraction turbine and Mixing turbine. 6) The type applied primarily depends upon the steam balance of the process plant that reduces fuel usage to minimum. A secondary consideration is for easiness of plant operation.

-

5-

-

6-

BAC~ P~ESSURE TURBliNE

· ...

L~,,~.

STOP; VALVE

,~~rl
..•.~G.

T.

v.

v.

WET STEAM

ENTROPY (8)

/STOP

VALVE,

~~~~~.""_'p.
~OR;.;;.···· ..

LP EXHAUST PIPING HEADER

1-2-1 1)

A back pressure turbine The steam from main steam header flows into back pressure turbine through the stop valve, trip and throttle valve (T.T.V.) and governing valve, and changes thermal energy to kinetic energy in the turbine. 2) T.T.V. works tripping action when emergency stoppage is required and throttling inlet steam flow of turbine during start up to meet requirement of speed and time in start. Governing valve controls required speed and power of steam turbine by adjusting the inlet steam flow quantities. 3) On a back pressure turbine, the exhaust steam from the turbine flows out to the steam piping at medium or low

pressure. Basically, the exhaust steam can he used effectively in any other machines or equipment in the plant and finally converted to condensed water which returns to boiler. The cycle of steam on Morrier Chart are as shown in above figure.

__

'7

6

CONDENSING TURBINE

MAIN

STEAM ~

HEADER STOP VALVE

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...J

He

« :r:
I-

z

UJ

~T.
~G.

T. V.

v.

ENTROPY (s)

CONDENSER

01

1-2-2

A condensing turbine 1) On a condensing turbine, full steam quantities entering the turbine through the T.T.V. and governing valve are exhausted, and converted to condensate water in a condenser. The latent energy in exhaust steam will be taken out in a condenser. 2) The exhaust steam pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure. This turbine is generally used when the required power should be obtained with minimum steam flow or medium or low pressure steam is not required by plant process~. ~

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U )-/r

\

ih.t..9...}

r-"-'

~S'.\-\ -,- ....
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me

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nmm

arm

- 10 -

EXTRACTION CONDENSING TURBINE

MAIN STEAM HEADER /" STOP VALVE

I_"""'__

T.T.V.

I

G.V.
/

i. i!:
~
ENTROPY (s)

>a.

EXTRACTION CONTROL VALVE

"
I
MP OR LP STEAM HEADER

EXTRACTION NON RETURN VALVE / STOP VALVE

1-2-3

An extraction condensing turbine 1) A part of steam quantities entering to higher pressure section turbine through T.r.V. and G.V. are extracted to medium or low pressure steam header according to requirement of plant. 2) Remained steam at exhaust of higher pressure section turbine flows to lower section of turbine through extraction control valves. The extracted steam may be used in any other machines or equipment of the plant. 3) Extraction non-return valve is located in extraction steam line and prevent the steam return to turbine casing from the

steam header when steam turbine is tripped at emergency stoppage. This example is of an extraction condensing turbine and double extraction condensing turbine is also applicable.

-

11 -

~{

- 12 -

MIX PRESSURE TURBINE

MAIN STEAM HEADER
/STOP VALVE MIXING FLOW CONTROL VALVE

>a. ...J < ::t:
IZ

./

T. T. V.

w

/ / G. V.~ / ~~

He

+
ENTROPY (s)

MIXING FLOW STOP VALV~ ./
(SHUT OFF)/ STOP VALVE/ MP OR ---_.._---LP

STEAM HEADER

1-2-4

A mixing condensing turbine

1) Medium or low pressure steam left over from the process plant is entered into the intermediate nozzle of a condensing

turbine and mixed with steam which is entered to higher pressure section turbine. 2) The mixing steam flows to lower pressure section turbine through mixing flow control valve to convert thermal energy of steam to dynamic energy. 3) Mixing flow shut-off valve is located in mixing steam line and shut off the steam to turbine casing from intermediate steam header when steam turbine is tripped at emergency stoppage. This example is of a mixing condensing turbine. Mixing back pressure turbine is also applicable.

13

-

14 -

MITSUBISHI STEAM TURBINE FOR DRIVING COMPRESSOR

5

E

H-

6

BD
1-1

Special Type BD OF Both end Drive Double Flow oflast stage

1-----------1-

Number of stage (total blade stage) Working Pressure and Temperature H L High pressure type (than 80 kgf/ cm2 X 480°C) (than 120 kgf/crrr' X 530°C) Conventional pressure

1-----------------

Turbine Type B BB C E MX Back pressure Turbine Extraction Back pressure Turbine Condensing Turbine Extraction Condensing Turbine Mixing Condensing Turbine

1-------------------

Casing Model Number (first control stage mean diameter)

''ltm,iWIMkibiiWU'.' w*,amM1iiilBSJSliWim

- 1fi

- 16 -

,;/

These examples of a condensing and an extraction condensing turbine. 1) The condensing turbine is of conventional pressure service and consists of steel fabricated low pressure casing and direct mounted type trip and throttle valve. 2) The extraction turbine is of high pressure type service (more than 120 kgf/crrr'g and 530°C) and consists of casting low pressure casing and indirect mounted type trip and throttle valve. 3) Turbine casing is horizontally split type and supported by bearing pedestal at steam inlet end and by flexible plates at exhaust end. 4) Governing valves and extraction valve are mounted on upper casing and mechanical governor system is applied. Electric governor system can be applicable for all type of steam turbine.

-

17 -

61

-

18 -

CURTIS (1896 USA) IMPULSE TURBINE RATEAU (1897 FRANCE) DE LAVAL (1882 SWEEDEN) STEAM TURBINE ZOELL Y (1903 SWITH)

PARSONS p = 0.5 (1884 GREAT BRITAIN) REACTION TURBINE REACTION
p

> 0.5

1-3

Theory of steam turbine Kinds of turbine stages

1-3-1

1) The thermal energy in steam changes to dynamic energy in steam turbine and suitable power is taken by rotation of steam turbine rotor.

2) The steam pressure at inlet of nozzles which are mounted in diaphragm changes to velocity energy in nozzles by expansion of its volume and flows to blades which are mounted on rotor and reduces velocity and changes the direction of velocity angle in blades.

3) The difference of velocity at inlet and outlet of blade acts as effective force on steam turbine rotor.

4) Steam turbine can be classified by the kinds of blades which are applied. The different kinds of blades are named by their developers: Curtis, Rateau, De laval, Zoelly and Parsons.

- 19 -

Ie.

_ 20 -

NOZZLE _O_O_O_O_O_O_O

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0_0_010_0_-_0

I

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BLADE

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PRESS.
Po
\
\ \

z w

ENTROPY
\ \

Cs )

\

--- ....

C2
P2

SPEED

Co --

P1

RATEAU

STAGE

1-3-2

Rateau stage
1) On a Rateau stage, a thermal exansion takes place only in nozzles and static energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy

(flow velocity of steam). This kinetic energy is changed to effective force in blades on the rotor by reducing velocity and changing velocity angle. 2) There is no pressure difference at inlet and outlet of blades on the rotor, because thermal expansion is only in nozzles, it means no thrust force acting to turbine rotor disc.

-

21 -

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- 22 -

NOZZLE

BLADE
:> ...

s
he
REACTION STAGE

1-3-3

Reaction stage 1) In a reaction stage. thermal expansion occurs both in the nozzles and blades. The impulse force comes from the kinetic energy which is converted in the nozzles, and reaction force created in the blades comes due to decreasing steam pressure. These two forces produce the rotation torque of the blades on the rotor. On this type, differential pressure between the inlet and outlet of blades generates thrust force to turbine shaft. Therefore, to reduce the thrust force acting on the shaft, shaft diameter is equal to the diameter of the blade root, and blades are mounted on shaft directly. 2) In general, blade works ratio to the total works in the stage is called as follow. "degree of reaction" and

o , this

relation is shown

p

hB : blade works hN : nozzle works

- 23 -

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- 24 -

PRESSURE'

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-:-

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P4

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SPEED

--- Co
CURTIS STAGE

1-3-4

Curtis stage 1) Curtis stage has two parallel blade strings on a disc and stationary blades located between these two blade strings. This stage is an impulse stage and the thermal expansion occurs only in the first nozzles. 2) Steam velocity is reduced in rotating blades and only the steam flow direction is adjusted in stationary blades.

-

25

-

-

26

-

CONTROL STAGE CUR BACK PRESSURE TURBINE TIS

INTER STAGE

LAST STAGE

RATEAU CURTIS

+ + + +
+ +

REACTION RATEAU RATEAU

CURTIS RATEAU CONDENSING TURBINE CURTIS R·ATEAU CURTIS

REACTION RATEAU RATEAU RATEAU RATEAU

+

REACTION RATEAU RATEAU REACTION REACTION

+
+ + +

+
+

2-1-4

Comparison The characteristics of each stage are listed in the table.

The CURTIS STAGE is good for the first control stage. The REACTION STAGE is good for the low pressure end. The RATEAU STAGE is good for any stage. For MHI turbine used as compressor drivers, almost all stages are Rateau or combination of Rateau stages and reaction stages. A Curtis stage may be used on the first control stage. Recently, MHI had developed new blades and nozzles combination for mechanical and generating steam turbine, these stages provide smooth passage for steam flow and good efficiency. These stage are called NM type stage and provided with around 10%reaction factor.

-

27

:-

28

-

FULL

1-IFT

~. 2-1

Construction

and function of major parts

Trip Throttle Valve Two standard Trip Throttle Valves (T.T.V.) are provided, a vertical type for high pressure and high capacity service and a horizontal type for conventional service.

2-1-1

Vertical type 1) Usually, high pressure steam is used in a turbine of large capacity, so the valve and piping are large and have heavy walls. The picture shows an example ofa vertical type T.T.V. This type T.T.V. is installed separately from the turbine casing, and connected with pipings to twoinlets of the governing valves. 2) Another vertical type is oil operated type T.T.V. which is operated by hydraulic power piston. This type T.T.V. is installed on steam turbine governing valve directly.

-

29

-

R:.

-

30

2-1-2

Horizontal type This picture shows the horizontal type T.T.V. This type T.T.V. is installed directly to the governing valve. T.T.V. is supported from base plate of steam turbine with spring support system to permit thermal movement of turbine casing.

-

31 -

32

-

oCX:: a:::
00:=

ILL
(1)

PILOT VALVE OPEN

(2)

T.T.V.

OPEN

(3)

T •T •V. SIIUT

nmm

2-1-3

Functions ofT.T.V. T.T.V. has a pilot valve which equalizes the pressure in the main valve with the pressure of the valve downstream of the main valve. The pilot valve is opened before the opening of main valve and the main valve open easily because the differential pressure is reduced. When the emergency shut-down signal comes to the valve, the valve fully closes within 1/10-3/10 T.T.V. Partial stroke test device is also provided on the top ofT.T.V. Stopper disc on valve spindle isjust seated on groove of seconds as the latch turns and the spring force is released. This picture shows the mechanism for a vertical type

stopper ring at normal operation, and turning the stopper ring by hand to test position, stopper ring takes the same position as stopper of valve spindle and can be tested.

-

33

-

._ 34

r:

(3)

T •T •V SIIUT DO!m

(2) T.T.V. OPEN

(1)

PILOT VALVE OPEN

2-1-3

Functions of T. T .V.

-

to be continued

-

This shows the internal mechanism of a horizontal type T. T .V. At normal operation condition, emergency trigger cams are just met to notch of spindle sleeve (1). By the turning of valve hundle, pilot valve and main valve will be opened to fully position (2). When the emergency shutdown signal comes to T.T.V., Trigger cams turn to straight and spindle and sleeve slip down to fully close position (3). Partial stroke test device is provided under spring holder and principle work is a same ofvartical type T.T.V.

-

35 -

-

36

-

,......;,

'--

~ ~

~

LL
...J

(

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3
2

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STEAf.1

1=Low (t/h)

2-1

Governing Valve There two standard types of governing valves, a high pressure type, and a conventional type. The high pressure type is used when the pressure is higher than 120 kgf/crrr'g.

2-2-1

High pressure type
1) The picture shows a high pressure governing valve. It has two separate valve chests and two valves in each chest. This set

of valves has two inlet connections. 2) Governing valve is a mult-valves assembly and is opened sequentially to minimize throttling losses at rated and partial loads operation.

.3) Position .of governing valve is controlled by hydraulic ser~o~otor

..;

system with simple lever set mechanism.

-

37

-

38

THIP TIIROTTLE VA LVI!

2-2-1

High pressure type

-

to be continued

-

A high pressure type governing valve is applied together with a vertical type T.T.V. as shown in this picture. Steam flows to upper side inlet connection ofT.T.V. and goes to lower side outlet connections through main valve. Then, steam flows to two connecting pipings and to governing valves. Two governing valve outlet are connected to lower casing nozzle boxes with external pipings and steam is supplied to four nozzle boxes in totally with sequential control of Governing valves.

-

39

-

-

40

2-2-2

Low pressure type 1) This type of control valve is used for almost all extraction control valves and for governing valves of lower pressure tha 120 kgf/crrr'g. This type of valve has only one valve chest, and all valve are installed on the inner bar. 2) Inner bar is only lifting by two spindles and multi-valves type governing valve be opened sequentially and full to partial loac performance is efficiently provided. 3) Lifting of governing valves is controlled by hydraulic serbomotor system with simple lever set mechanism.

-

42

-

aphraqrn support piece

VOPORHOOD

LOWER CASING

,"

,

..

_._-

._-

2-3

Internals A simplified cross of a back pressure turbine is shown in the illustration. 1) Casing Turbine casing consists of upper casing and lower casing together with in horizontal split. Upper cask is only supported at horizontal split by the bearing pedestal, and lower casing is hung from lower cash 2) Turbine rotor Rotor assembly with shaft, blades, thrust disk, couplings etc. is located in center of casing a..

supported by journal bearings and thrust bearing for axial direction. 3) Diaphragm Diaphragm has horizontal split and is supported by diaphragm support pieces in casing to per. thermal grow at radial direction. Diaphragm has nozzles to change steam thermal energy to kim energy and labyrinth to prevent steam leakage. Diaphragm separates each stages. 4) Gland packing Gland packing with interlocking type labyrinth seal are installed in both ends of turbine casing prevent steam leakage from clearance of turbine casing and rotor. 5) Vapor hood Both ends of gland packing, vapor-hoods are located and vacuum pressure condition is kept inside

hood to suck air from atmosphere and steam from gland packing.

44

2-4

Rotor This picture shows a rotor assembly. This rotor is for exraction condensing turbine, it has six blade stages. First two stages is for higher pressure section and last four stages is for lower pressure section. Steam inlet is right end in this picture, right to left, shaft drive end gear for governor, journal for bearing, thrust disc, part of oj slinger and grooves for gland packings are provided. First stage is control stage for higher section and steam is supplied to this stage with partially admission. 3 rd stage is cont: stage for lower section and steam is supplied through extraction control valve. At the end of rotor, turning gear, journal for bearing, part for oil slinger and grooves for gland pac kings are provided. The shaft and disc of stage and thrust disc are made integrally in order to eliminate problems caused by a loosening of disces fro the shaft under high speed operations.

A I!

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=zr

sry=

..
i

i
;

I

..

2-5

Blades The picture shows various type of blades. Our standard blades are of the impulse type. Some blades have snubber on the tip or in the middle. The shroud on the tip of the blade prevents steam leakage and also effectively increases resistance to vibration. The snubbers for help resist vibration caused by friction of one blade against the other, and on the tips of almost all blades the shrouds are provided. There are three standard configurations of blade roots. Turbine rotor provides suitable groove on tip of stage disc to meet the blade root configuration. Single - Tee type Double - Tee type Fir tree type The type of configuration used depends on the centrifugal stress at the blade root.

-

47

-

.~ ".. .~~~

48

-

...,;..: ..

/ hined nozzle pieces'

casted diaphragm

key

labyrinth packing

of precision castings -

. Shroud _-.-""-"-" ---"_ ..-~-.-.. diaphragm band type ,---_._._._- ._. ---. -- '-~"---" ~-,

radial seal fin

!

welded shroud

band

--- --

----- -----------

-----------

2-6

Nozzle and diaphragm All standard nozzles smaller than 80 mm height are of the machined assembly type and those larger than 100 mm height are of the welded type. The illustration on the far 'left above is a piece of welded type nozzle, and the other two illustrations are of the machined assembly type. Machined assembly type nozzles are inserted to machining groove in the diaphragm. For welded type nozzles, diaphragm is assembled with outer ring, nozzle pieces and inner ring by the welding works.

-

49

-

-r

-

50

-

~JRI!CT· LUBE JOURNALBEAAINGlilRECT

lUBE THRUST I·EARING

DIRECT LUBE lBEAAINGS

2-7

Direct lube type bearing: Recenty, bearings have been designed to set oil spray nozzles between pads to minimize the lossfmechanical loss) During rotation of thrust disc and journal in the bearing housing. For existing bearing, the oil is put into the bearing housing with pressure, so the oil creates heat loss by its fluid rotation. However, in the case of the direct lube bearing, such fluid rotation loss is minimized, because the supplied oil concentrates On a bearing surface and escapes to holes in the housing.

Pm

w_r_IiIWSIlfT1TillV'

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F

171 ..

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52
Thennll expansion of turbine clling

Comprnsor

Common bed

FI'J(I~t pllt'

'telnt.,

Condensing turbine

CI .. ranct O.tmm Th. comer or casing
The comer of

upper

lower

CHing

'.dutll!

2-8

Support of casing 1) The illustration shows the support and thermal expansion of a turbine casing. The casing is symmetrical on both sides of the canterline, and thermal expansion of the casing is essentially symmetrical. The expansion is permitted by the deflection of flexible plates distributed along the turbine. Basically the .center of exhaust of the turbine is fixed. 2) Thermal grow of turbine casing in axial direction is permitted to steam inlet side and bearing pedestal will be moved to axial direction with casing expansion. Thermal grow in horizontal direction of casing is permitted to both side symmetrically. 3) In vertical direction of thermal grow, upper casing can be grown to upper side only, because the corner of upper casing is supported at horizontal split of casing by bearing pedestal and lower casing is only grown to lower side.

-If 54 -

EXTlU.CTION PRESS. JIU.lN STOP'ALB

CONTROL VALVE

~.

noroa

EXTRACTION STEAK

Am COOLING
WATER .
COOLING

EJECTOR· roNDENSER

II
CONr U.TE FmtP
....

?;

2-9

Piping around a Steam turbine Steam piping The diagram piping shows the piping around an extraction condensing turbine and condenser. 1) Steam flows to higher pressure section of steam turbine through trip and throttle valve and governing valve and change. thermal energy to kinetic energy. A part of steam in higher section flows out to medium pressure header through extraction non-return 2) Remained steam flows to lower pressure section and to condenser and converted to condensate water. 3) Condensate water is pressurized by condensate pump and return to steam boiler through air ejector inter and after coole Cooling water will be supplied to condenser to remove the latent energy in exhaust steam in condenser. 4) Highest pressure leakage steam from turbine casing will be recovered to extraction steam line, and medium pressun leakage steam is used as sealing steam for exhaust side gland packing and remaind one is to condenser through flus: chamber. Lowest pressure leakage steam flows to leakage condenser with air from external of casing. valve.

2-9-1

-flfl-

...... ...... ____ _,., .
56 -

_._..... --"""--~'~'-''''----'''--''_'._._'''''''_I._ ___,_.. .,,~._ __

TURBINE

SEALING
(DURING

STEAM
START-UP)
GLAND SEAL

SYSTEM

GLAND SEAL

ATMOSPHERE

ATMOSPHERE

t:
~~~~GE~

I
I I

I
I I

I

EJECTOR SEALING STEAM ~ lmlmmzmz~iZZZ:Z:;ZZ~-~Z!iZ'Z~~~-~mZiI

................ .... .. . .. . ...

..

::l::::: ::: :::::.::: ::::.: :::l:::)O<XJI::zs><Ja::COOLING
WATER GLAND CONDENSER

FLUSH CHAMBER

U-TU~

R-!

2-9-2

Shaft sealing This diagram shows the steam flow and sealing principle during start up of a condensing turbine. At this time, some sealin steam should be supplied. The flow of sealing steam is shown with arrows. Most outer side cavities on both ends are connecte to a leakage steam line, and it is recommended that the line be connected to a leakage condenser, in which the pressure i maintained at a little lower than atmospheric pressure. As a result of this lower pressure, steam never leaks out, and air sucked in from both ends.
j

;;
f

;-

-

57

-

-

58 -

TURBINE
(UNDER
GLAND SEAL

SEALING
NORMAL

STEAM

SYSTEM

OPERATION)
GLAND SEAL

ATMOSPHERE

ATMOSPHERE

LEAKAGE~ STEAM SEALING ~ STEAM ~
~~~~Z!:ml;ZZZ~-~;ZZSSZ!:Z'!l~:mm-~;z!]/jI

EJECTOR :'

................ '.·.·.·~~O:c .. ·I·.·.. .
'"
tt ••••••••••••

:: :::: f:?{LLLts<~~:f>4:sC11COOLING WATER GLAND CONDENSER

FLUSH CHAMBER

U-TUBE

y

2-9-2

Shaft sealing

-

to be continued

-

This diagram shows steam flow during normal operation. From the most inside cavity at the high pressure end, some leakage flows out to the medium or low pressure steam header. But if there is no proper steam header, this piping may be connectec. to an intermediate stage of the turbine. From the second cavity of high pressure end, sealimg steam is supplied to the
10Yl

pressure end and if the leakage steam into this line is increased and the pressure is increased, extra steam flows into the flusl chamber on the condenser through the pressure control valve.

-

60

TURBINE

CONDENSER

SYSTEM

COMPRESSOR

HOGGING EJECTOR

AFTER COOLER

INTER COOLER

-.-- --_.... .... -. -._ .... ... --- ... -.--.-. _ .. _ 0
STEAM LCV-2 TRAP

LCV-1

,._.__ ._- .-_._-rF==H=OLTW-=EL~TANK

COOLING WATER

CONDENSATE

PUMP

FIG. T15

2-9-3

Piping around a condenser I} This diagram shows equipment, piping and instruments around a condenser. Air enter into condenser from two sources Some air leaks into the main condenser through glands on small valve stems on which water sealing is not provided, and/o some air contained in steam from the boiler reaches the condenser directly. Therefore, it is necessary to supply an ai ejector to extract the accumulated air. Usually, the condensate is used as cooling water for the inter and after coolers ( the air ejector as it return to the boiler system. 2) Condensate water in hot-wei tank is pressurized by condeasate pump and returned to steam boiler through inter/afte cooler and LCV-2. 3) Air in condenser is sucked by steam ejector and sent to inter cooler with driving steam of ejector steam in inter ecole converts to water by cooling of condensate water and returns to condenser through siphon tube. 4) Air in inter cooler is sucked again by steam ejector and sent to after cooler and only water in after cooler returns condenser through steam trap and air goes out to atomosphere.

_

a1

_

- 62 -

>o, o
IZ W
~

T2

CD
®

ISENTROPIC ISOTHERMAL

CHANGE CHANGE

@ POLYTROPIC CHANGE
ENTROPY

3. 3-1

Performance of steam turbine Thermal calculation of steam turbine A perfect turbine may theoretically characteristics convert all thermal energy to mechanical works. On a Mollier chart, the thermodynami

of steam turbine can be indicated. If there is no loss of energy in steam turbine, the theroretical energy change ca

be obtained as the above graph with no deviation of entropy. This theoretical energy change is Isentropic change (1). When thermal energy in steam is not changed during expansion, this change is Isothermal change (2) and enthalpy in steam always kept as constant. In actual thermal change is Polytropic change (3), there are some losses during change.

- 63 -

;y
64 -

OVERALL STATE LINE OF A STEAM TURBINE
.6.Pv

>0..
...J

« :I:
~

w

He Ho
TI i =

Hot

He

Ho

x

100 %
X 100 %

11 a

= Hot

He

ENTROPY

;'1

3-2

Heat drop in a steam turbine 1) However, steam turbine are not perfect machines and there is some energy loss. Generally, characteristics turbine are shown as this graph on Mollier Chart. Po To POl Pn Hot Ho He Hob Han Inlet steam pressure Inlet steam temperature Pressure at 1st stage nozzle inlet Pressure at n's stage blade outlet Total isentropic heat drop Total internal isentropic heat drop Total effective heat drop Isentropic heat drop at each stage Carry over energy to the next stage Pressure loss at the trip throttle valve and governing valve of a stean

.6.Pv

Total efficiency = He/Hot, Internal efficiency
2)

=

He/Ho

Steam turbine output power N can be calculated as follows. N G
---Xr}IXr}ffi 860

G X He

kw kgf/h He
1}

: Inlet steam quantity I : Leakage efficiency.

: Total effective heat drop kcal/kgf

n

m: Mechanical efficiency
Rh -

-

-

66

-

I oNT ERN ALL
INTERNAL LOSS
CRITICAL DROP LOSS DISPLCEMENT VENTILATION Hob LOSS LOSS

0 SS
CONTROL STAGE INTER STAGE LAST STAGE

A

p

0 0 0

Ab

R2
Aw Ae Au

MOISTURE LOSS INJECTION LOSS LEAKAGE LOSS DISK FRICTION LOSS BLADE LOSS -{ NOZZLE LOSS

0
0 0 0 0 0

0
0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Rl

EXTERNAL LOSS
THROTTLE EXHAUST STEAM LOSS (T.T.V., GOVERNING VALVE, EXTRACTION CONTROL VALVE) HOOD LOSS LOSS (BEARING.) LOSS (SHAFT GLAND, VALVE STEM)

MECHAHINAL

LEAKAGE

-8'1

3-3

Losses of energy in a steam turbine There are following losses of energy in a steam turbine.
1) Externallosses

a) Trip throttle valve loss b) Governing valve loss c) Extraction control valve loss d) Exhaust hood loss e) Mechanical loss
t)

Steam leakage loss

2) Internal losses

a) Loss of steam passing through nozzle blade b) Internal loss shown on the graph
'f)

ueff =

'f)

uo (1 -

;tp

)(1-

;t e

) (1 -

100

100

b 100
;t

) (1 _

;t

w

100

) (1 -

;tu

100

)

. work to blade Isentropic heat drop Hob 11 ueff-RI-R2 Hob
'f)

stage efficiency Total efficiency of the stage

uo

Theoretical efficiency obtained with velocity triangle.

-

67

-

d/

-

68

-

125.5 ata

Hot = 825-737.5 He = 825-752.5

=

=

87.5 kcal/kg 725.5 kcal/kg

17 a= ~~:~

=

82.9%

752.5kcal/k . 737.5kcal/k

3-4 Example of Thermal calculation of steam turbine

. Operating Data

Thermal calculation

1. 2. 3.

Inlet steam quantity Inlet pressure Inlet temp

: 316,500 kg/h : 124.5 kg/crrr'g

By plotting operating data on Morrier chart, followings are obtained.
1.. Total isentropic heat drop

: Hot=

17S.0kgcal/kg

2.

Total effective heat drop Total efficiency Turbine output N

: He = 60.0 keel/kg

4. 5.
6. 7.

Outlet pressure 3. Outlet temp 4. Leakage efficiency Mech. efficiency : 98%

:17 a=

He
Hot

= 80.0'%

N
: 99%

=

316,500x~o ..·· X 860

0.98 X 0.99 = 2.J423 kw

Remarks. As for actual plotting on Morrier Chart, Plrease refer to page 8G.

Ie.,

-

70

-

Gma~~

Max. Inlet' Flow

~

u:

o

~

Go

Turbine Output

kW

10096 110"

3-5

Steam consumption Knowing steam consumption of a steam turbine is fundamentally important if you want to know the turbine performance. The expected steam consumption is shown as expected performance curve. The graph shown is a general expected performance curve. G max Maximum inlet flow is limited by the governing valve. Designed flow Minimum flow to prevent harmful temperature of the turbine at normal speed and no load

Gd
Go

Please note that the curve is based upon a designated conditions and turbine speed. If conditions are different from the designated conditions, correction is required.

- 71-

,-

72

-

r,·e

150
~ +,.
r-I

....
fIl

:a o

.p

!100
C!)

~!..tlb__

.

.p'

r-I t: H.

50

5000

10000
Turbine Out pub

15000
kW

20000

25000

3-6

Expected Performance Curve
1) The graph shows an example of an expected performance curve for an extraction condensing turbine. From this graph, the

output of the turbine at no extraction flow is about 15,700 kw, the maximum inlet is limited by 200 t/h, and maximurr extraction flow is also limited by 150 t/h. The maximum output power is limited by 110%of rated power. 2) For lower pressure section ofturbine, minimum steam flow is required to keep running the steam turbine and maximum inle: flow is limited from nozzle area of LP section and limitation of consenser capability. 3) Usually, no line is indicated below 30%of rated out put because it lacks exactness.

-

73

-

-/4

1.04

74

-

.....•

-:,"

-

Rated Condition Inlet Steam Press. Inlet Steam Temp. Outlet Steam Press.
'\

114 Kl/cm2g 515 °0
41 Kgfcm2g

/

/

0.92

\
15

Speed

5205 rpm

0.90
110

90

9

10

% of
115

Rated Speed

120 Inlet Steam Pressure KgJcm2g 520 Inlet Steam Temprature

505

510

515

°0

38

39

40

41

42 43 Outlet Steam Pressure KgYcm2g ....

3-7

Correction Factors When operation conditions deviate from the rated condition, evaluation of steam consumption to compare the expected

performance curve should be done with steam flow which is corrected with correction factors of the steam turbine. Corrected Inlet Steam Flow to the Rated condition is calculated below: Go Where, Ga Go
CI>

=

Ga X CI> s X

CI>

Pi

X

CI>

Ti

X

CI>

Po

Actual Inlet Steam Flow Corrected Inlet Steam Flow to the Rated Condition s
Pi Ti Po

<I> <I> <I>

Correction Factor for alternated operation speed Correction Factor for alternated inlet steam' pressure Correction Factor for alternated inlet steam temperature Correction Factor for alternated outlet steam pressure

The above graph shows examples of correction factors. In the case of the extraction condensing turbine, correction work: should be done for higher and lower pressure section individually.

-

75

-

-

76

-

AFfER

EXlECTI!D CASING pBRSSIIBB OUBVS
1ST STAGE FOB lIP CASING
: J08 qflc:m.2a : 515c : lIS kgfIcm2lf : 4985..,m SO

I
~ ~ ~

'0

INLET STEAM PRESS INLET STEAM TEMP EXTRACTION PRESSURE TURBINE SPEED

50

I
~

e

40-

4(1

:l0

s

20

CASING DESIGN PRESS. : 76.1 qf/cPI?C

10

~

~~
5"0

~
.00

~

~--L'o

.so
toDih

INLET STEAM FLOW

3-8

Casing pressure after 1st stage Graph shows the example of casing pressure after 1st stage.

1)

Gradual rise in measured value of the pressure shows that the steam passage (nozzle and blades) are being narrowed by the accumulation of foreign matters brought from the boiler.

2) 3)

Sudden on excessive pressure difference will mean occurrence of some mechanical troubles inside the turbine. In any case, care must be taken so that the after 1st stage pressure may not exceed the maximum allowable pressure described on the pressure vs flow chart.

77

-

-

78

-

INLET STEAM PRESS INLET STEAM TEMP TURBINE SPEED

: 108 kgf'/cm2c : 615 c· : 4985 rpm

EXTRACTION PRESSURE: 15 kgfi'cm2c

400 • (.)

i s
i:
I'Z1
~

.

aSO

300

300

~

250

o

INLET STEAM FLOW tonlh

'00

3-9

Exhaust Temperature Curve Graph shows the example of exhaust temperature curve of HP part of extraction turbine. means the decrease of turbine efficiency for HP par

As shown in a Moiller chart of page 38, the increase of exhaust temperature of extraction turbine or back turbine.

In condensing turbine exhaust temperature is decided by saturated temp. of condensor vacuum and it is difficult to check turbine efficiency by exhaust temp.

-

79

-

-

80

-

)

)0-

_. -c :t: .... Z
0..

w

ENTROPY (5)

U
Cl

ROTATING SPEED OF BLADE (m/s) ABSOLUTE ABSOLUTE

u
Hb o

_AC02

VELOCITY FROM NOZZLE (m/ s) VELOCITY FROM BLADE (m/ s)
0) 0)

-

2g

Wl
C2
W2 o1

RELATIVE VELOCITY FROM NOZZLE (rn / s) RELATIVE VELOCITY FROM BLADE (m/ s) JET - ANGLE AT NOZZLE ( INLET - ANGLE OF BLADE ( OUTLET - ANGLE OF BLADE ( JET - ANGLE AT BLADE OUTLET (
0) 0)

CO
Co

=J
=

29 tHOb
Hob

02
~1

Co

J 2 x 9.8 x 427 = 91.5 J Hob

~2
Cl

-

-

cJ> cJ>

N Co

<I>

N : FLOW COEFFICIENT OF NOZZLE

N X 91.5

J Hob

4. Appendix 1. Velocity triangle 1) This graph shows velocity distribution around nozzles and blades in actual turbine. This velocity triangles are vector expressions of steam velocity and direction. 2) Thermal (static) energy at inlet of nozzle converts to kinetic energy (velocity) in the nozzle and gets C1 at outlet of nozzl with

a

I

jet angle.

Blades on the turbine shaft are rotated at U speed, so inlet velocity to blade is redused to WI which is a component ( velocity CI In the blade, velocity WI changes to W2 and its velocity angle. At the outlet of blade, velocity is W2 with velocity angle {3
2'

Absolute velocity from the blade is C2 which is a component of leaving velocity of blade W2•

- 81 -

..

I

M.Nt t

WIAst

-

82

-

VELOCITY TRIANGLE IS SHOWN AS FOLLOWS ( Cu )

a2

A
Ld = M
6)

u
r1
6)

~1

B

=p a(

C1 COS ex 1

+ r2

(j.)

C2 COS ex 2 )

.. ,..... Ul U2 . UJ.=-=-

=p Q (

UCl u

+ UC2U)

= pQ

UCu

1.

Velocity triangle

-

to be continued

-

If the velocity triangle at the nozzle outlet is superimposed on the one at the blade outlet, we get the graph shown above. Force and moment on the blade when steam of unit mass flows is, p Q C1 cos a

1

-p Q C2 cos a

1

- p Qr2 C2 cos

a

2

Where 2r1 is P.~.D. of nozzle, and 2r2 is P.C.D. of blade. Rotary moment Works on blade Where w (rad/s) shows angular velocity, usually r1= r2, therefore r1 W

u

The kinetic energy of steam by Isentropic heat drop
T]

Co2 P Q-,efficiency
2

'f}

uo of nozzle and blade is shown as follow.

uo

= -- = --Co2
2

Ld

2UCu

pQ--

Co2 83 -

-

84

-

INTERNAL
DISPLACEMENT

~w· I 138'" S· .':.' LOSS

MOISTUREL.8I
ST.EAM WLOCITYJIAIBUGIB 9.V MCMSTURE

11NJ&CTI'.N Lell
INJECTS
FRICTION. less

LEAKAGEL.e.
ST!AMLEAKAGE

re

BLADE

WHSN. STEAM

IlA..S ,AND 'SHAF:r SEALS

FA.M

2.

Internal loss in steam turbine. Internal loss in page 66 are explained here.

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85 -

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