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Tibb Nabawi; prophetic medicine Today Posted by November 30 2007 03:09:43

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Paper presented at workshops on medical ethics at various campuses in England 09-31 December 2006 by Dr Omar Hasan Kasule MB ChB (MUK), MPH (Harvard), DrPH (Harvard) Professor of Epidemiology and Islamic Medicine Universiti Brunei Darussalam

ABSTRACT Tibb nabawi refers to words and actions of the Prophet with a bearing on disease, treatment of disease, and care of patients. The Prophet enunciated a basic principle in medicine that for every disease there is cure. The sources of tibb nabawi are revelation, empirical experience, and folk medicine of the Arabian Peninsula. Tibb nabawi can be spiritual, curative or preventive. Most of tibb nabawi is preventive medicine. Tibb nabawi is an authentic and valid medical system. The general principles of this system are applicable at all times and all places. The specific remedies taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are valid and useful. They however can not be used today without undertaking further empirical research because of changes in the human and physical environments. BASIC CAHARACTERISTICS OF PROPHETIC MEDICINE Definition: Tibb Nabawi refers to words and actions of the Prophet with a bearing on disease, treatment of disease, and care of patients. Thus also included are words of the prophet on medical matters, medical treatment practiced by others on the prophet, medical treatments practised by the prophet on himself and others, medical treatments observed by the prophet with no objections, medical procedures that the prophet heard or knew about and did not prohibit, or medical practices that were so common that the prophet could not have failed to know about them. The prophet's medical teachings were specific for place, population, and time. They however also included general guidance on physical and mental health that are applicable to all places, all times, and all circumstances. Tibb nabawi is not one monolithic or systematic medical system as some people would want us to believe. It is varied and circumstantial. It covers preventive medicine, curative medicine, mental well-being, spiritual cures or ruqyah, medical and surgical treatments. It integrates mind and body, matter and spirit. Search for cures: The Prophet enunciated a basic principle in medicine that for every disease there is cure (ma anzala allahu daa; illa anzala lahu shifa'a- Kitaab al Tibb, al Bukhari). This is an impetus for us to look for remedies. Thus the prophetic medical tradition does not stop at only the medical teachings of the prophet but goes beyond to encourage humans to search and experiment with new treatment modalities. This implies among other things that prophetic medicine is not static. There is room for growth and even breaking new ground. Another implications of this hadith is that seeking treatment does not contradict qadar (pre-determination). Thus both the disease and its treatment are part of qadar. SOURCES OF TIBB NABAWI Pre-Islamic Arab medicine: Tibb nabawi has several sources: revelation, wahy; empirical experience of the prophet, folk medicine of that time in the Arabian peninsula and it is possible that some medical

knowledge of other communities could have been known in Makka or Madina at the time of the prophet. The Quran as a source of tibb nabawi. Many verses of the Quran relate to diseases of the body and the mind and their treatment. The Quran talks about physical ill health and mental illhealth/diseases of the heart. The Quran contains dua for good health as well as guidance on specific therapy such as honey, eating only healthy halal food, avoiding unhealthy haram food and not eating in excessive amounts. The Quran is not a textbook of medicine but a book of moral guidance. It contains basic information and guidance on medical matters leaving the room open for humans to undertake research and fill in the details. Confining medicine to only the teachings in the Quran would make it very limited because the Quran is very selective in coverage of details leaving the field open to humans to observe, search for an understand Allahs signs on earth, aayaat al llaah fi al ardh. Hadith as a source of tibb nabawi: The following were the forms of the prophets medical teachings: words of the prophet on medical matters, medical treatment practiced by others on the prophet, medical treatments observed the prophet with no objections, medical procedures that the prophet heard/knew about and did not prohibit. The total number of hadiths on medicine is about 300; many do not reach the degree of hasan. Bukhari in his Sahih narrated 129 hadiths directly related to medicine. He devoted two books to medicine: kitaab al tibb and kitaab al mardha. There are many other hadiths in Bukhari indirectly related to medicine. Other books of hadith also narrate more hadiths with relevance to medicine. Scholars have collected these hadiths together and some have related them to available medical knowledge. Hadiths on physical remedies are either wahy or based on empirical experience. In most cases we cannot distinguish between the two sources unless there is a specific indication that wahy is involved such as in the hadith of using honey in treating an abdominal ailment of a brother of a companion. Thus hadiths that are not specifically wahy are not binding, ghair mulzimat. However all hadiths on spiritual cures of disease are wahy and are binding, mulzimat Books on tibb nabawi: Many books have been written about tibb al nabawi down the centuries. Books with the title al Tibb al Nabawi were written by Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyat (d. 751H / 1350 M), al Hafidh Abu Abd al llaah Shams al Ddiin Muhammad bin Ahmad al Dhahabi (d. 748H), Abu al Qasim al Husain bin Muhammad bin Habiib al Naisapuuri (d. 206H), Abu al Sunni Abu Bakar Ahmad bin Muhammad al Dainawiri (d. 364H), Abu Nuaim Ahmad bin Abd al llaah al Asfahani (d. 430H), Abu al Abbaas Jaafar bin al Muutazz al Mustansiri (d. 433H), Dhia al Ddiin Muhammad bin Abd al Waahid al Maqdasi (d. 643H), Shams al Ddiin Abu Abd al llaah Muhammad bin Abi al Fath al Baali (d. 709H), Abu Abd al llaah Muhammad bin Yusuf al Sanuusi (d. 895H), Abu al Hasan Nur al ddiin Ali Bin Muhammad al Jazaar al Masri (d. 914H), Qaysuufi Zaadet Muhammad Badr al Ddiin (d. 1020H), Abd al Waziir al Abhari. Jamaal al Ddiin Daud, Mukhtasar al tibb al nabawi was written by Jalaluddin al Suyuti. Al Ahkaam al Nabawiyyat fi al sinaat an tibiyyat was written by the physician Ali bin Tarkhaan. Kitaab al tibb fi al hadiith by Abu Ubaid bin al Hasan al Harraani (d. 369H). Al Ahkaam al Nabawiyyah fi al sinaat al tibiyyat by Ali bin Abd al Karim al Hamawi (d. 720H). Al Rahmat fi al Tibb wa al Hikmat by Mahdi bin Ali al Sabiiri (d. 815H), al Sayr al Qawi fi al Tibb al Nabawi by Muhammad bin And al Rahman al Sakhaawi (d. 902H), Al Manhaj al Sawi a al Manhal al rawi fi al Tibb al Nabawi by Jalal al Ddiin Abd al Rahman bin Abu Bakar al Suyuti (d.911H). Al Rahmat fi al Tibb wa al Hikmat by Jalal al Ddiin Abd al Rahman bin Abu Bakar al Suyuti (d.911H). Rawdh al Insan fi Tadaabiir Sihhat al Abdaan by Khair al Ddiin Khidhr bin Mahmud al Atuufi al Murzaifuuni (d. 948H). Al Masaabih al Sunniyyat fi Tibb

Khair al Bariyyat by Shihaab al Ddiin Abu al Abbaas Ahmad bin Ahmad bin Salamah al Qalyuubi (d. 1069H). Sihhat Aabaad by Othman Zadeh Taa ib Ahmad (d. 839H). Mukhtasar al Tibb al Nabawi by Murish ZadehQudduus Ahmad Affendi (d. 1265H). Need for new books on tibb nabawi: In his book, A Tibb al Nabawi, Imaam Ibn al Qayim al Jawzi mentions many medical conditions for which the Prophet provided guidance. He interpreted the hadiths using the available medical knowledge of his day. This book needs rewriting and it will look very different if written interpreting the prophetic traditions using today's medical knowledge. With modern medical knowledge we can identify more hadiths with relevance to medicine than was possible in the past. CLASSIFICATION OF TIBB NABAWI: Preventive tibb nabawi: The classification of traditions relating to medicine depends on the state of knowledge and changes with time and place. Jalaluddin al Suyuti published a book on tibb nabawi and divided medicine into 3 types: traditional, spiritual and preventive. Most of tibb nabawi is preventive medicine which is a very advanced concept given the level of scientific knowledge at the prophet's time and certainly must have been divinely inspired. Al Suyuti (1994) listed preventive medical measures such as food and exercise. Other preventive measures taught in hadith include: quarantine for epidemics, hijr sihhi, forbidding urination in stagnant water, use of tooth stick, siwaak, precautions in the house at night regarding fire and pests, leaving a country because of its water and climate, marriage and mental health, marriage and sexual health, dietary control to avoid excesses, cleanliness and avoiding filth. Spiritual tibb nabawi: Study of tibb nabawi reveals that there are spiritual aspects of healing and recovery. Prayer, dua, recitation of the Quran, and remembrance of Allah play a central role. Psychosomatic diseases could respond to spiritual approaches. The use of ruqyat (surat al fatiha, al muawadhatain) falls between physical curative and spiritual. The curative part of ruqyat can be understood in modern terms in the way the psyche can modulate immune mechanisms that protect against disease. Curative tibb nabawi: Ibn Qayim al Jawziyat listed many diseases with their recommended treatments from tibb nabawi. Diseases in tibb nabawi treatable by natural remedies: fever, humma; bowel movements, istitlaq al batan; dropsy, istisqa; wounds, jarh; epilepsy, sara; sciatica, irq al nisa; temperaments, tabau; skin itch, hakk al jism; pleurisy, dhaat al janb; headache and hemicrania, sidau and shaqiiqat; inflammation of the throat, adhrat; enlargement of the heart, al mafuud; ophthalmia, al ramad; catalepsy, khudran al kulli; pimples, bathrat; skin eruptions, awraam; food poisoning, sum; witchcraft, sihr; and head lice. He also mentioned other diseases like: plague, leprosy, eye diseases, throat and tonsils, diarrhea, abdominal disease, fever, plague, snake bite, scorpion bite, food contamination by a fly, headache, nose bleeds, teeth, cough, dropsy, sprain, fracture, bite by rabid dog, and the evil eye. The medical treatments mentioned were honey, al 'asal; cold water for fever, al mau al barid; diet, ghadha; milk, al laban; camel milk; camel urine. The black seed, al habba al sauda, was especially emphasized. The surgical treatments mentioned were: cupping, al hijaam; cauterization, al kayy; venesection with cauterization, qatiu al uruuq wa al kayy. APPLICATION OT TIBB NABAWI TODAY General considerations: There are 3 aspects that we have to deal with regarding modern application of

tibb nabawi. (a) is tibb nabawi part of the sharia? (b) what is the scope of tibb nabawi? (b) spatiotemporal changes (c) empirical research on tibb nabawi. Tibb nabawi as part of the shariat: We can distinguish two parts of the shariat: (a) fixed and immutable regulations applicable to all places and times and (b) general principles whose details of application change with place and time. If we take the meaning of shariat in (b) above we can conclude that prophetic medicine is part of Islamic shariat that can change and grow using ijtihad and empirical research to apply general shariat principles to changing circumstances. Scope of tibb nabawi: Tibb Nabawi as reported to us did not cover every conceivable disease at the time of the Prophet neither can it cover all ailments today or in the future in various parts of the world. This is easy to understand from the context that although the Prophet practiced medicine, his main mission was not medicine and he was not a full-time physician. The hadiths of the Prophet should not be looked at as a textbook of medicine. They should be used for the diseases that they dealt with. The proper way to get additional medical knowledge is through research and looking for signs of Allah in the universe. Spatio-temporal changes: Whatever the Prophet said or did was valid and must be followed because he never uttered any untruth even when joking. The ijtihad of the prophet even in worldly matters was protected, ma'suum. The record of authentic hadith that we have is valid whether in 'aqidat or worldly matters. The attempt to distinguish between the medical teachings of the prophet-messenger and as a human living in Arabia at a particular historical epoch is of no practical significance. The question is whether all or some of the tibb nabawi should be used today. If the diagnosis of a disease and all the circumstances surrounding it are exactly like those at the time of the Prophet, then we have no hesitation in saying tibb nabawi should be used. In actual practice it is difficult to ascertain that the conditions are the same. Changes in disease pathology, changes in the genetic pool of the patients, changes in the genetic pool of the medicinal plants, weather and climatic conditions are among many variables that may make a particular remedy recommended by the Prophet not appropriate for a medical condition today. The circumstances of time and place have changed. Indiscriminate use of the historical remedies could be using the right drug for the wrong disease. There is even a more serious linguistic problem. The meaning of words has changed. What was called fever in the 1st century AH may not be the same as the meaning of the same world today. Even medicinal plants like the black seed may not be exactly the same plant. We can therefore conclude that the teachings of tibb nabawi can only be a foundation to guide and encourage scientific research for remedies that are suitable for our times. Empirical research on tibb nabawi: There is a lot of scientific interest in prophetic teachings on medicine. The black seed (nigella sativa) is an example of a prophetic remedy that has been studied extensively by both Muslims and non-Muslims. Conclusion and future challenges: From the survey above we can conclude that tibb nabawi is an authentic and valid medical system. The general principles of this system are applicable at all times and all places. The specific remedies taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are valid and useful. They however cannot be used today without undertaking further empirical research jzkk, wslm

Prophetic Medicine: Between the Nass and Empirical Experience


by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

Basic Characteristics of Prophetic Medicine Definition Tibb Nabawi refers to words and actions of the Prophet with a bearing on disease, treatment of disease, and care of patients. Thus also included are words of the prophet on medical matters, medical treatment practiced by others on the prophet, medical treatments practised by the prophet on himself and others, medical treatments observed by the prophet with no objections, medical procedures that the prophet heard or knew about and did not prohibit, or medical practices that were so common that the prophet could not have failed to know about them. The prophet's medical teachings were specific for place, population, and time. They however also included general guidance on physical and mental health that are applicable to all places, all times, and all circumstances. Tibb nabawi is not one monolithic or systematic medical system as some people would want us to believe. It is varied and circumstantial. It covers preventive medicine, curative medicine, mental well-being, spiritual cures or ruqyah, medical and surgical treatments. It integrates mind & body, matter and spirit. Search for cures The Prophet enunciated a basic principle in medicine that for every disease there is cure (ma anzala allahu daa; illa anzala lahu shifa'a- Kitaab al Tibb, al Bukhari). This is an impetus for us to look for remedies. Thus the prophetic medical tradition does not stop at only the medical teachings of the prophet but goes beyond to encourage humans to search and experiment with new treatment modalities. This implies among other things that prophetic medicine is not static. There is room for growth and even breaking new ground. Other implications of this hadith is that seeking treatment does not contradict qadar (pre-destination). Thus both the disease and its treatment are part of qadar. Sources of tibb nabawi Tibb nabawi has several sources: revelation (wahy), empirical experience of the prophet, folk medicine of that time in the Arabian peninsula, and it is possible that some medical knowledge of other communities could have been known in Makka or Madina at the time of the prophet. Our sources are from books of hadith and siira. Bukhari in his Sahih narrated 129 hadiths directly related to medicine. He devoted two books to medicine: kitaab al tibb and kitaab al mardha There are many other hadiths in Bukhari indirectly related to medicine. Other books of hadith also narrate more hadiths with relevance to medicine. Scholars have collected these hadiths together and some have related them to available medical knowledge. Among these authors are: Abu Nuaim (d. 430 AH), Ibn

Qayyim al Jawziyat (d. 751 AH), and Jalaluddin al Suyuti (d. 911 AH). There are also more recent writings as articles and books. In his book, A Tibb al Nabawi, Imaam Ibn al Qayim mentions many medical conditions for which the Prophet provided guidance. He interpreted the hadiths using the available medical knowledge of his day. This book needs rewriting and it will look very different if written interpreting the prophetic traditions using today's medical knowledge. Scope of tibb nabawi Tibb Nabawi as reported to us did not cover every conceivable disease at the time of the Prophet neither can it cover all ailments today or in the future in various parts of the world. This is easy to understand from the context that although the Prophet practiced medicine, his mission was not medicine and he was not a fulltime physician. The hadiths of the Prophet should not be looked at as a textbook of medicine. They should be used for the diseases that they dealt with. The proper way to get additional medical knowledge is through research and looking for signs of Allah in the universe (2:164, 3:190, 10:5-6, 30:20-27, 39:59, 51:2023). Classification of tibb nabawi The classification of traditions relating to medicine depends on the state of knowledge and changes with time and place. Jalaluddin al Suyuti published a book on tibb nabawi and divided medicine into 3 types: traditional, spiritual and preventive. Most of tibb nabawi is preventive medicine which is a very advanced concept given the level of scientific knowledge at the prophet's time and certainly must have been divinely inspired. Al Suyuti (1994) listed preventive medical measures such as food and exercise. Other preventive measures taught in hadith include: quarantine for epidemics (hijr sihhi), forbidding urination in stagnant water (bawl fi mai raqid), use of tooth stick (Siwak), precautions in the house at night: fire & pests, leaving a country because of its water and climate. Study of tibb nabawi reveals that there are spiritual aspects of healing and recovery. Prayer, dua, recitation of the Quran, and remembrance of Allah play a central role. Psychosomatic diseases could respond to spiritual approaches. Curative medicine involved prophetic teachings about treatment of wounds, use of honey and the black seed for several ailments. The use of ruqyat (surat al fatiha, al muawadhatain) falls between physical curative and spiritual. The curative part of ruqyat can be understood in modern terms in the way the psyche can modulate immune mechanisms that protect against disease. Examples of tibb nabawi Ibn Qayim al Jawziyat listed many diseases with their recommended treatments from tibb nabawi. Diseases in tibb nabawi treatable by natural remedies: fever (humma), bowel movements (istitlaq al batan), dropsy (istisqa), wounds (jarh), epilepsy (sara), sciatica (irq al nisa), temparaments (tabau), skin itch (hakk al jism), pleurisy (dhaat al janb), headache and hemicrania (sidau and shaqiiqat), inflammation of the throat (adhrat), enlargement of the heart (al mafuud), ophthalmia (al ramad), catalepsy (khudran al kulli), pimples (bathrat), skin eruptions (awraam), food poisoning (summ), witchcraft (sihr), and head lice. He also mentioned other diseases like: plague, leprosy, eye diseases, throat and tonsils, diarrhea, abdominal disease, fever, plague, snake bite, scorpion bite, food contamination by a fly, headache, nose bleeds, teeth, cough, dropsy, sprain, fracture, bite by rabid dog, and the evil eye. There are three therapeutic modalities used in Prophetic medicine: natural, spiritual, mixture of natural and spiritual. The treatments mentioned were honey (al 'asal), cold water for fever (al

mau al barid), diet (ghadha), milk (al laban), camel milk, camel urine, cupping (al hijaam), cauterization (al kayy), venesection with cauterization (qatiu al uruuq wa al kayy). The black seed (al habba al sauda) was especially emphasised. Application of TIibb Nabawi Today General considerations There are 3 aspects that we have to deal with regarding modern application of tibb nabawi. (a) is tibb nabawi part of the Shariah and is therefore compulsory? (b) spatio-temporal changes (c) empirical research on tibb nabawi. Tibb nabawi as part of the shariat A correct answer to this question requires clarifying the very concept of shariat. The regulations about salat, menstruation, and toilet hygiene are part of the shariat rules that are immutable and there is no dispute about them. There are other regulations about the government (ahkam sultaniyat) that are part of the Shariah but that change with circumstances. We can therefore distinguish two parts of the Shariah: (a) fixed and immutable and applicable to all places and times and (b) fixed general principles whose details of application change with place and time. If we take the meaning of Shariah in (b) above we can conclude that prophetic medicine is part of Islamic Shariah that can change and grow using ijtihad and empirical research to apply general Shariah principles to changing circumstances. Spatio-temporal changes Whatever the Prophet said or did was valid and must be followed because he never uttered any untruth even when joking. The ijtihad of the prophet even in worldly matters was protected (ma'suum). The Qur'an and hadith have records of divine intervention to comment on the prophet's ijtihad on worldly matters such his advice on some aspects of agriculture that he later withdrew. Thus the record of authentic hadith that we have is valid whether in 'aqidat or worldly matters. The attempt to distinguish between the medical teachings of the prophetmessenger and as a human living in Arabia at a particular historical epoch is not easy and is of no practical significance. The question is whether all or some of the tibb nabawi should be used today. If the diagnosis of a disease and all the circumstances surrounding it are exactly like those at the time of the Prophet, then we have no hesitation in saying tibb nabawi should be used. In actual practice it is difficult to ascertain that the conditions are the same. Changes in disease pathology, changes in the genetic pool of the patients, changes in the genetic pool of the medicinal plants, weather and climatic conditions are among many variables that may make a particular remedy recommended by the Prophet not appropriate for a medical condition today. The circumstances of time and place have changed. Indiscriminate use of the historical remedies could be using the right drug for the wrong disease. There is even a more serious linguistic problem. The meaning of words has changed. What was called fever in the 1st century AH may not be the same as the meaning of the same world today. Even medicinal plants like the black seed may not be exactly the same plant. We can therefore conclude that the teachings of tibb nabawi can only be a foundation to guide and encourage scientific research for remedies that are suitable for our times. Empirical research on tibb nabawi

There is a lot of scientific interest in prophetic teachings on medicine. In Egypt for example many institutions are involved in research on traditional remedies: universities, the National Research Center, the Desert Institute, and the Horticultural Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. Many medicinal plants including the black seed have been investigated extensively and have been commercialised (Sayed 1980). The black seed (nigella sativa) is an example of a prophetic remedy that has been studied extensively by both Muslims and nonMuslims. Animal research has shown that the black seed is a potent antihypertensive (Tahir et al. 1993) and respiratory stimulant (Tahir at al 1993). It was shown to act against bacterial infection in mice (Hanafy et al. 1991). AlAwadi et al (1991) studied the effect of a plant mixture including black seed on liver gluconeogenesis in rats with induced diabetes. Salomi et al (1991) studied the inhibitory effects of the black seed on chemical carcinogenesis in rats. Nair et al (1991) studied the modulatory effect of the black seed on toxicity in rats induced by a cis-platinum, a cancer treatment drug. Keshri et al (1995) studied the post-coital contraceptive effects of the black seed in rats. El-Dakhakhny (1965) studied the pharmacological properties of the black seed. Toppozada et al (1965) studied the antibacterial properties of the black seed with clinical applications. El-Fattary (1975) isolated and described the anti-bacterial principles from the black seed. Chakravarty (1993) studied the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by the black seed. Salomi et al (1992) studied the antitumor activity of the black seed. Human studies of the black seed have also been undertaken. Akhtar et al (1991) studied the effect of the black seed on nematode worm infection in children. Haq et al (1995) studied the effect of the black seed on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocyte phagocytic activity. Laboratory studies provided scientific support for the traditional use of the black seed and its derived products As a treatment for rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases (Houghton et al 1995). The study of the black seed as a medicine has even extended to its side effects since no medicine however useful is free from side effects. Steinmann et al (1997) recorded occurrence of contact dermatitis after topical use of the black seed. Tennekoon et al. (1991) studied the possible hepatic-toxicity of the black seed. Conclusion and Future Challenges From the survey above we can conclude that tibb nabawi is an authentic and valid medical system. The general principles of this system are applicable at all times and all places. The specific remedies taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are valid and useful. They however can not be used today withiut undertaking further empirical research because of changes in humans, medicinal plants, the environment, and meanings of linguistic terms. Thus the conditions for which these remedies were prescribed in the 1st century of hijra may not be exactly the same as the conditions we are dealing with today. The many empirical studies on prophetic remedies like the black seed promise a good future for prophetic medicine to continue exerting its influence on medical practice. References

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sahih al Bukhari Ibn Al Qayyim Al Jawziyyah: al Tibb al Nabawi Abu Naim Al Asfahani: al Tibb al Nabawi Al Hafidh Abi Abdillah Muhammad Bin Ahmad Al Dhahabi: al Tibb al Nabawi Jalaluddin al Suyuti: al Tibb al Nabawi

6. el-Tahir-KE; Ashour-MM; al-Harbi-MM: The cardiovascular actions of the 7. 8. 9. 10.


volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen-Pharmacol. 1993 Sep; 24(5): 1123-31 el-Tahir-KE; Ashour-MM; al-Harbi-MM: The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea-pigs: elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen-Pharmacol. 1993 Sep; 24(5): 1115-22 Hanafy-MS; Hatem-ME: Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). J-Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Sep; 34(2-3): 275-8 Sayed-MD: Traditional medicine in health care. J-Ethnopharmacol. 1980 Mar; 2(1): 19-22 el-Dakhakhny-M: Studies on the Egyptian Nigella sativa L. IV. Some pharmacological properties of the seeds' active principle in comparison to its dihydro compound and its polymer. Arzneimittelforschung. 1965 Oct; 15(10): 1227-9 Toppozada-HH; Mazloum-HA; el-Dakhakhny-M: The antibacterial properties of the Nigella sativa l. seeds. Active principle with some clinical applications. J-Egypt-Med-Assoc. 1965; 48: Suppl:187-202 Aqel-M; Shaheen-R: Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. El-Fatatry-HM: Isolation and structure assignment of an antimicrobial principle from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Pharmazie. 1975 Feb; 30(2): 109-11 Steinmann-A; Schatzle-M; Agathos-M; Breit-R: Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil after topical use. Contact-Dermatitis. 1997 May; 36(5): 268-9 al-Awadi-F; Fatania-H; Shamte-U:The effect of a plants mixture extract on liver gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. DiabetesRes. 1991 Dec; 18(4): 163-8 Tennekoon-KH; Jeevathayaparan-S; Kurukulasooriya-AP; KarunanayakeEH: Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. J-Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Mar; 31(3): 283-9 Hanafy-MS; Hatem-ME: Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). J-Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Sep; 34(2-3): 275-8 Akhtar-MS; Riffat-S: Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. JPMA-JPak-Med-Assoc. 1991 Aug; 41(8): 185-7 Salomi-MJ; Nair-SC; Panikkar-KR Inhibitory effects of Nigella sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Nutr-Cancer. 1991; 16(1): 67-72 Nair-SC; Salomi-MJ; Panikkar-B; Panikkar-KR: Modulatory effects of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice. J-Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Jan; 31(1): 75-83 Haq-A; Abdullatif-M; Lobo-PI; Khabar-KS; Sheth-KV; al-Sedairy-ST: Nigella sativa: effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Immunopharmacology. 1995 Aug; Keshri-G; Singh-MM; Lakshmi-V; Kamboj-VP: Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Nigella sativa in rats. Indian-J-Physiol-Pharmacol. 1995 Jan; 39(1): 59-62 Houghton-PJ; Zarka-R; de-las-Heras-B; Hoult-JR: Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta-Med. 1995 Feb; 61(1): 33-6 Chakravarty-N: Inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by nigellone. Ann-Allergy. 1993 Mar; 70(3): 237-42

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

24.

25. el-Tahir-KE; Ashour-MM; al-Harbi-MM: The cardiovascular actions of the 26. 27.
volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen-Pharmacol. 1993 Sep; 24(5): 1123-31 el-Tahir-KE; Ashour-MM; al-Harbi-MM: The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea-pigs: elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen-Pharmacol. 1993 Sep; 24(5): 1115-22 Salomi-NJ; Nair-SC; Jayawardhanan-KK; Varghese-CD; Panikkar-KR: Antitumour principles from Nigella sativa seeds. Cancer-Lett. 1992 Mar 31; 63(1): 41-6

Apakah Itu Perubatan Islam?


Disiarkan pada Feb 18, 2011 dalam kategori Fatwa

APAKAH ITU PERUBATAN ISLAM?


Prof Madya Dr Mohd Asri Zainul Abidin (sertai facebook DrMAZA.com)

Soalan: Prof Madya Dr Mohd Asri, saya ada saudara yang menganggap bahawa kita tidak patut mengambil berubat dengan ubatubat yang lain dari yang Nabi s.a.w dah ajar. Dia kata perubatan Islam seperti ubat-ubat nabi sudah sempurna. Ubat-ubat hospital atau orang putih itu tidak sesuai dengan orang Islam. Orang Islam patut pegang ubat Islam, bukan ubat kafir. Apakah pandangan Dr Asri dalam hal ini?

Maslina, Jerantut.

Jawapan Dr MAZA: Maslina, sikap saudara puan/cik yang ingin menghayati ajaran Nabi s.a.w itu amatlah baik. Namun, beliau memerlukan kefahaman terhadap Islam yang lebih jelas dalam masalah ini. Perkataan perubatan Islam itu sendiri memerlukan penjelasan berdasarkan nas-nas Islam itu sendiri. Untuk itu maka saya ingin menyentuh beberapa perkara berikut;

1. Tiada istilah perubatan Islam yang hanya merujuk kepada jampi atau bahan-bahan yang disebutkan oleh Nabi s.a.w semata. Berubat memang disuruh oleh Islam. Apa sahaja ubat yang mengikut kaedah perubatan yang betul maka ia adalah perubatan yang diizinkan oleh syarak. Ini termasuk perubatan dan ubat yang disebut oleh Nabi s.a.w, atau selainnya yang mengikut disiplin ilmu perubatan. Maka, perubatan moden, atau cina, atau india, atau melayu yang berasaskan kaedah yang benar, bukan haram, khurafat atau syirik maka ia adalah perubatan yang diizinkan oleh Islam. Bahkan jika diyakini boleh menyembuhkan seseorang yang sakit, maka ia disuruh oleh Islam tanpa mengira asal usul perubatan tersebut. 2. Nabi s.a.w dalam hadis menyebut perubatan dan ubat secara umum, tanpa menghadkannya. Maka, setiap orang hendaklah berusaha mencari ubat yang paling berkesan. Dalam hadis yang sahih Nabi s.a.w bersabda: Berubatlah wahai hamba-hamba Allah, sesungguhnya Allah tidak meletakkan penyakit, melainkan meletakkan untuknya ubat, kecuali satu penyakit, iaitu tua (Riwayat Ahmad, Abu Daud, al-Tirmizi dan Ibn Majah). Juga sabda baginda: Bagi setiap penyakit ada ubatnya. Apabila betul ubatnya, maka sembuhlah dengan izin Allah. (Riwayat Muslim). Kata Al-Imam Nawawi (meninggal 676H): Hadis ini memberi isyarat disunatkan mengubat penyakit. Inilah mazhab ashab kita (aliran mazhab al-Syafi`i), kebanyakan salaf dan keseluruhan khalaf. Kata al-Qadi Iyadh: Dalam hadis-hadis ini terkandung beberapa ilmu-ilmu agama dan dunia, antaranya;

benarnya ilmu perubatan, diharuskan berubat secara keseluruhannya.. (Al-Nawawi, Syarh Sahih Muslim, 359/14, Beirut: Dar alKhair). 3. Kemudian, satu perkara yang perlu diperingatkan bahawa bukan semua hadis-hadis tentang perubatan itu sahih, bahkan banyak yang palsu. Al-Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah (w. 751H) yang menulis kitab al-Tibb al-Nabawi (perubatan kenabian) sendiri mengingatkan dalam kitabnya al-Manar al-Munif bahawa salah satu ciri hadis palsu itu; hadis yang lebih berunsur ungkapan para pengamal perubatan yang dibuktikan oleh pancaindera atau fakta yang sahih tentang kepalsuannya. Dalam ertikata lain, di zaman sekarang jika fakta sains berjaya membuktikan kesalahan fakta hadis tersebut, maka itu salah satu ciri bahawa ia hadis yang palsu. Satu contoh yang jelas hadis: Terung itu mengikut hajat ia dimakan dan hadis Terung itu ubat untuk segala penyakit. Ini adalah riwayat palsu. Kata al-Imam Ibn al-Qayyim: Semoga Allah menghodohkan pereka kedua hadith di atas. Perkara seperti ini jika disebut oleh orang yang paling pakar dalam perubatan pun, orang ramai akan mentertawakannya. Jika dimakan terung untuk demam panas, kemurungan dan banyak penyakit lain, ia hanya menambahkan keburukan lagi. Jika orang fakir makan agar dia kaya, dia tidak akan kaya. Jika orang jahil makan untuk pandai, dia tidak akan pandai (Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah, al-Manar al-Munif fi al-Sahih wa al-Daif, m.s. 51. Syria: Maktab al-Matbu`at al-Islamiyyat). 4. Maka, banyak dakwaan yang dikatakan bersumberkan hadis, seperti makan kismis menguatkan ingatan tiada dalil yang sahih daripada Nabi s.a.w mengenainya. Ibn al-Qayyim sendiri menyebut dalam al-Tibb al-Nabawi bahawa ada dua hadis yang disebut tentang kelebihan kismis, tetapi kedua-duanya tidak sahih. Cumanya, ada riwayat daripada al-Zuhri beliau menyatakan kismis bermanfaat untuk ingatan. (lihat: Ibn al-Qayyim, Zad al-Maad, 4/318

5. Apa yang disebut oleh al-Quran seperti khasiat madu, tiada sebarang syak tentang kewahyuannya (divinity). Cumanya, bagaimanakah proses perubatan itu hendak dikendalikan atau kadar dan caranya memerlukan kajian ilmiah perubatan. 6. Adapun hadis-hadis yang sahih yang menyebut tentang ubat-ubat tertentu seperti hadis habbatus sauda (jintan hitam), berbekam, air kencing unta, susu unta, oud hindi dan seumpamanya; para ulama berbeza pendapat tentangnya. Ada yang berpendapat hadishadis ini berasaskan wahyu. Ada pula yang berpendapat bahawa hadis-hadis ini Nabi s.a.w sebut berasaskan pengalaman, persekitaran dan zaman baginda hidup, bukanlah wahyu daripada Allah S.W.T. 7. Secara umumnya, ulama Hadis cenderung kepada pendapat bahawa hadis-hadis perubatan yang sahih itu berasaskan wahyu. Dalam ertikata lain ia adalah perkhabaran daripada Allah S.W.T kepada nabiNya s.a.w. Maka, semuanya kandungannya benar tepat dan untuk diamalkkan. Ertinya, ia perubatan yang mendapat pengiktirafan daripada Allah S.W.T sendiri. Maka, dalam kitab-kitab hadis didetilkan perkara-perkara ini sehingga dalam Sahih al-Bukhari ada Kitab al-Tibb (Kitab Perubatan). Ibn al-Qayyim dalam alTibb al-Nabawi berpegang dengan pendapat ini. 8. Golongan kedua seperti al-Qadi Iyadh, Ibn Khaldun, Muhammad Abu Zahrah berpendapat bahawa hadis-hadis perubatan ini bukan berteraskan wahyu, sebaliknya Nabi s.a.w bercakap berdasarkan pengalaman dan persekitaran baginda ketika itu. Bagi ulama yang berpegang dengan pendapat ini mereka menyatakan bahawa Nabi s.a.w tidak diutuskan sebagai ahli perubatan dan itu bukan tujuan baginda diutuskan. Maka, ucapan atau tindakan baginda dalam perubatan sama seperti ahli masyarakat Arab lain ketika itu dan tidak semestinya tepat dengan realiti perubatan. Antara yang berpegang dengan fahaman ini al-Imam Ibn Khaldun (w. 808H) dalam kitabnya al-Muqaddimah. Kata Ibn Khaldun: Maka perubatan yang diriwayatkan dalam syarak (hadis) kepada kita adalah dari jenis perubatan arab, sedikit pun bukan dari wahyu. Ia hanyalah perkara yang menjadi kebiasaan arab. Apa yang disebut keadaan Nabi s.a.w dalam hal ini termasuk dalam jenis adat dan jibiliyyah (tabiat kebiasaan) bukan kerana ia disyariatkan amal sedemikian rupa. Ini kerana Nabi s.a.w diutuskan untuk mengajar syariat, bukan untuk memperkenalkan perubatan atau adat kebiasaan yang lain (Ibn Khaldun, al-Muqaddimah, 493-494. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr).

9. Antara alasan golongan yang berpendapat bahawa perubatan Nabi s.a.w berasaskan kebiasaan dan pengalaman bukannya wahyu ialah hadis sahih yang mana Nabi s.a.w pernah melihat sahabat mengahwinkan pokok tamar, lalu baginda bersabda: Apa yang sedang kamu lakukan?. Jawab mereka: Kami telah lakukannya sebelum ini. Jawab baginda: Barangkali jika kamu tidak buat ia lebih baik. Maka mereka pun tidak melakukannya, lalu pokok tidak berbuah. Mereka menyebut hal tersebut kepada Nabi s.a.w, lalu baginda bersabda: Aku ini manusia. Apabila aku menyuruh kamu dari perkara agama, maka ambillah (patuhlah). Jika aku menyuruh kamu sesuatu dari pendapatku, maka aku hanyalah seorang manusia (Riwayat Muslim). Dalam riwayat yang lain, baginda menjawab: Jika itu memanfaatkan mereka maka lakukanlah. Aku hanya menyangka satu sangkaan, maka jangan salahkan aku atas sangkaan. Namun, jika aku memberitahu sesuatu daripada Allah maka ambillah, kerana sesungguhnya aku sama sekali tidak akan berdusta atas nama Allah (Riwayat Muslim). Juga di sana ada dalil-dalil yang lain yang menunjukkan bahawa adanya tindakan dan perkataan Nabi s.a.w itu berasaskan kebiasaan, atau pengalaman atau pandangan baginda dan bukannya wahyu. Ini termasuk pemilihan tempat yang baginda buat dalam Perang Badar yang kemudian dicadangkan tempat yang lain oleh Hubbab bin Munzir dan baginda mengubah pandangannya dan bersetuju dengan cadangan tersebut. Perkara ini menjadi perbahasan panjang dalam kalangan ulama dalam membezakan sunnah Nabi yang disyariatkan untuk diamalkan dan yang tidak disyariatkan untuk diamalkan. 10. Saya melihat; secara umumnya tujuan hadis-hadis perubatan ingin memberitahu kita bahawa kita disuruh untuk berubat berasaskan kepada bahan-bahan yang digunakan dalam perubatan yang diyakini boleh memberikan kesan. Nabi s.a.w menyebut bahan-bahan yang ada dalam masyarakat baginda dan digunakan serta memberi kesan pada zaman dan iklim baginda. Bahanbahan itu boleh diambil iktibar, namun bukanlah pilihan yang terbaik bagi setiap masa dan keadaan. Bergantung kepada sejauh manakah ia berkesan untuk sesuatu tempat dan masa. Apa yang penting kita disuruh mencari yang berkesan tanpa mengira jenisnya.

Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (w. 852H) ketika mensyarahkan hadis al-Bukhari: Habbatus sauda penyembuh bagi segala penyakit, menyebut: Ia bermanfaat untuk penyakit yang sejuk, adapun penyakit yang panas tidak! (Fath al-Bari, 11/290. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr). 11. Maka, kesimpulannya setiap ubat yang bermanfaat adalah diiktiraf oleh Islam, tidak terbatas kepada apa yang disebutkan dalam hadis sahaja. Berdasarkan pendapat sebahagian ulama tadi, apa yang disebut dalam hadis juga perlu untuk diteliti dan dikaji semula kesesuaiannya kerana mungkin ada keadaan yang berbeza, atau di sana ada ubat yang lebih berkesan

Medicine of the Prophet: Par Excellence


The traditions (sunnah) of the Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) are rich in advice and instructions on such matters as hygiene, sanitation, and treatment of disease through the use of medication. Referred to as Al-Tibb Al-Nabawi (prophetic medicine) by Muslims the world over, about 50 prophetic traditions on

specific ailments and their remedies have been grouped together under the chapter referred to as Kitab-al-Tibb (the book of medicine) in the well-known collections of Hadith (prophetic sayings) by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and more. Also, more than 300 traditions on aspects of hygiene, cleanliness, habit of eating and drinking, etc. find mention in these same collections. All these traditions, which number about 400, constitute what is referred to as prophetic medicine, and can be found together in the classic books of Ibn al-Qayyim Aljouzi (8th century Hijrah), Abu Nu`aim (5th century Hijrah), Abu Abdullah al-Dhahbi (8th century Hijrah), and Abu Bakr ibn al-Sani (4th century Hijrah). Most of these original Arabic treatises have been translated into English and other languages. Islamic Foundations of Well-Being The Prophet Muhammad laid down the foundation for a social order in which every member of society was advised to maintain a healthy life, physically, psychologically, and spiritually. No aspect of life was to be disregarded. In the opinion of Douglas Guthrie (A History of Medicine, 1945), great advances in medicine made by Muslims during the Middle Ages were mainly due to the impact of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. Guthrie writes, "Had not the Prophet Muhammad himself said, ‘O Servant of God, use medicine, because God hath not created a pain without a remedy for it'"? Guthrie failed to quote the source of this important prophetic saying, but it is obvious that he was referring to the famous hadith from Tirmidhi (one of the six most important collections of prophetic traditions).
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As a matter of fact, there are several such sayings in which the Prophet laid great stress on medicine and discouraged seeking help through amulets, relics, and charms. For instance, the Prophet once said, "There is a remedy for every malady and when the remedy is applied to the disease, it is cured." This and several such hadiths have been described in Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. Once the Prophet was asked by one of his companions, "Is there any good in medicine?" To this he emphatically replied, "Yes." As a result, Islamic teachings make it the duty of every society or group of people to conduct research and discover the remedy for diseases that afflict human beings. The concept of incurable diseases is thus alien to Islam. Changing Age-Old Attitudes There were several occasions when the Prophet visited the sick, and after enquiring about the ailments advised to take the medicine prescribed from experienced physicians. On several occasions he advised the sick to approach Harith bin Kalda, a well-known Jewish physician of Thaqif (a place near Madinah, Saudi Arabia where the Prophet resided at the time). On one particular occasion the Prophet visited Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas who had suffered a heart attack. When the Prophet placed his hand on the chest of Sa`d he felt great relief, but the Prophet cautioned him and said, "You've had a heart attack and therefore should consult Harith Bin Kalda, who is the expert physician." It is these and many other similar occasions that greatly changed the attitude of the Arabs towards diseases. Arabs, during the pre-Islamic period,

depended mainly on invoking supernatural aid or different deities for the treatment of disease.
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The Prophet Muhammad, realizing the consequences of infectious epidemics, advised his companions that, "When you hear about a break of plague in any area, do not enter there and when it has broken in a land where you are, then do not run way from it (and thus spread it elsewhere)." On the basis of this hadith, Muslims considered precaution and vigilance against infectious epidemics as the command of God. The Prophet also opposed charms and incantations as a form of remedy for diseases. On some occasions, however, when physical remedy (medicine) was not available, he allowed, mainly for psychological reasons, the recitation of an incantation that has definite meaning. He also declared the victims of epidemics such as cholera and the plague as martyrs. This was a great consolation for those who suffered from it and realized the fatal consequences. The Prophet always cautioned physicians to take extreme care in treating their patients and warned those not wellversed in the skill of medicine not to attempt treating the ill lest they might be held responsible for any complications. Quackery is, therefore, forbidden in Islamic medical ethics.
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The Prophet Muhammad advised his followers to always care for their health, and whenever they were ill, whether seriously or otherwise, consoled them and told them not to feel that they were victims of the wrath of Allah. "Disease," he said, "is not the wrath of Allah, because Prophets also suffered great pains, much greater than ordinary people." Imagine what a solace these sayings would have provided to the followers of Islam. Hope as Medicine There are many Prophetic hadiths in Bukhari, Muslim and others that show that people were accustomed to go to the Prophet regularly and tell him about their ailments. He would advise them to resort to medicine first and then pray to God to get rid of the disease. On several occasions he would himself suggest certain medicines. For instance, in case of loss of appetite he frequently advised his followers to take talbina, a preparation made from barley. For constipation he used to recommend the use of senna. He was also in favor of regular use of honey for keeping fit. Similarly, for different ailments he would advise the use of olives, black cumin, chicory, endive fenugreek, ginger, marjoram, saffron, vinegar, and watercress. Hadiths on these medicines and others show the concern of the Prophet for the welfare and good health of his followers. For even apparently small matters like drinking water, eating food, and keeping clean and tidy he also gave advice. He is noted to have said, "Cleanliness is half of faith." Some of the hadiths on black cumin, senna, and watercress are very thought provoking. For instance, the Prophet is reported to have said that, "Black cumin is a remedy for every disease except death." The Prophet expressed similar views on the efficacy of senna and cress.
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The style and language of these hadiths are a clear indication of the fact that the Prophet placed great stress on medicines. These hadiths also put emphasis on confidence building of the ill towards their diseases and agonies suffered. Very rational advice was given that none should be disheartened by the intensity and duration of the disease

because remedies have been provided by nature. They were also advised not to be afraid of impending death. Once during the time of the Prophet, a person committed suicide as he could not bear the agony of his disease. The Prophet condemned the act and refused to participate in the last rites. Thus, hopelessness, despondency, dejection and frustration on account of serious disease and pain are against the spirit and tenets of Islamic medical ethics, as shown by the tradition of the Prophet. Charms and Incantations: A Thing of the Past There are several authentic hadiths, according to which people were said to come to the Prophet for spiritual remedies for their illnesses and that of their kith and kin. The Prophet, of course, prayed for them, but only after suggesting remedies in the form of medicines. Often he would advise the patients to consult the best physician in the area. On one occasion a lady came to the Prophet with her child who was bleeding because of a throat infection. He admonished her
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and advised her to treat the disease by using the extract of costus and pseudo-saffron. Similarly, once his wife complained of an abscess on her finger. The Prophet suggested an application of sweet flag on the fingers and then asked her to pray to Allah for recovery. There was also an occasion when a scorpion bit the Prophet himself. He immediately asked for hot water to which salt was added. The hot solution was poured on his bitten fingers while he recited Qur'anic verses. These occasions and Prophetic hadiths led Muslims to believe in the rationale of using medicine rather than resorting to charms and incantations. On several occasions he exhorted them not to depend on supernatural methods of healing. He is also reported to have said, "charm is nothing but a work of Satan." The Human Prophet Although the Prophet on one hand gave suitable advice to his followers on earthly affairs when such situations were brought to his attention, on the other hand he tried his best to create confidence in themselves so that they could act according to their own experience and opinions. Once, while withdrawing his advice given earlier on the cross pollination of date palm he said, "Whenever I command you to do something related to religion, do obey. And if I command you something about earthly matters, act on your own (experience) and (do remember) I am a human being."
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Putting Prophetic Medicine Into Perspective In recent years, several books on prophetic medicine have been published, particularly in India and Pakistan, which do not project the true essence of the Prophet's message. For instance, the author of a recently published book entitled Tibbe Nabwi Aur Jadid Science (Prophetic Medicine and Modern Science), claims that Prophetic treatment of heart attack by eating seven dates, as was suggested to Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, should still be preferred over modern by-pass surgery for the disease, provided people have faith in the treatment of the Prophet. The learned author failed to understand that the Prophet, while suggesting to Sa`d to take dates as temporary relief, also advised him to consult the expert physician Harith bin Kalda for treatment.

As a matter of fact, it is not desirable to consider the Prophet's traditions on medicine as similar to the prescription of a physician. In this connection, the opinion of Ibn Khaldun (14th century AD) is highly relevant and realistic. He says, "The Prophet's mission was to make known to us the prescription of the Divine Law and not to instruct us in medicine of the common practice of ordinary life" (Muqqaddima). In his opinion, even very authentic hadiths cannot be taken as a mere medicinal prescription, which is the duty of an experienced physician. He says, however, that "with sincere faith, one may derive from them [hadiths] great advantage though this forms no part of medicine as it is properly called." To emphasize his point of view, Ibn Khaldun refers to occasions when the Prophet tried to create confidence in his followers by advising them to take their own judgments in worldly affairs. Prophetic medicine is a message par excellence. It is an advice to keep a healthy body and soul and to have faith in both physical and spiritual treatment. It is a command to us to strive hard to find newer medicines and newer remedies. It is a
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warning to those who consider diseases as the will of God for which no remedy is needed. It is an admonition for us to keep away from so-called spiritual treatment based on superstitions like sorcery, amulets, and charms. * This article is an edited version of a chapter from a book by the author entitled "Medicinal Plants in the Traditions of Prophet Muhammad." It was submitted by Dr. Farooqi and published with his permission. ** Dr. Farooqi is a retired scientist/deputy director of the National Botanical Research Institute in Lucknow, India. You can contact the author at: mihfarooqi@satyam.net.in From http://www.islamonline.net/
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