Time and Serious Games

Mireia Usart Tutoring: Margarida Romero
Direction of Educational Innovation and Academic Quality (DIPQA), ESADE. Contact: mireia.usart@esade.edu

1st GALA Alignment School, Edinburgh, 21/06/2011

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Time in Games Time Perspective Time Perspective and Learning Aim References


Time in Games


1. Time in Games

Some commercial games have time outs and clocks...


1. Time in Games.

...there are also Serious Games designed to improve time management...


1. Time in Games.

...but, are they pedagogically useful? Are students improving their time competence or managing time stress while playing SG? Game Based Learning (GBL)
• Games can enhance learning, both individual and collaborative, through practicing, training skills and competences. • Serious Games (SG) are pedagogically designed or adapted to be useful tools that help students reach learning goals using game advantages (fun, motivation, flow...)

1. Time in Games.

Time as a Construct • We consider Time as an important factor that should be taken into account because of its previously studied relationship with Academic Achievement (de Volder, 1982; Zimbardo, 1999) in face to face learning environments. • Few studies have focused on Time, as a construct, and its relation with learning processes and outcomes in GBL environments.


Time Perspective


2. Time Perspective

Time Perspective (also called Time Orientation) definitions:
The degree to which one reflects upon the past, is centered in the present, or anticipates the future. (Lennings, 2000)

A complex construct of sub-factors, namely extension, structuralization, and realism that can be applied to both past and future perspectives. (Nuttin, 1985)

The manner in which individuals, and cultures, partition the flow of human experience into distinct temporal categories of past, present and future. (Zimbardo et al. 1997) 9

2. Time Perspective

Future Time Perspective, defined as “The length of the future time span over which one conceptualizes personalized future events” (Wallace, 1956). “A general concern for future events” (Kastenbaum, 1961). “A general capacity to anticipate, shed light   on, and structure the future.” (Gjesme, 1983).

A Balanced Time Perspective permits to jointly consider different temporal patterns and adapt them to each situation leading to the so called temporal competency. (Zaleski 1994)


Time perspective and Learning


3. Time Perspective and Learning

Previous studies
• FTP can lead to higher levels of academic achievement. (Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999) • There is enough empirical evidence to conclude that the instrumental aspect of FTP increases the strength or intensity of student motivation for school tasks. (Phalet 2004) • Authors relate TP with motivation, self-efficacy, academic achievement, performance in learning, and sign up time (Peetsma, 2000). • Some authors are studying how students with different Time Perspectives collaborate in CSCL environments (Romero, 2011)


Aims, questions and hypotheses

4. Aims, questions and hypotheses.

Time Perspective and Learning in GBL
• When a player is in a state of flow, his or her time perspective temporarily changes, students adapt their Time Perspective. • A student with a Balanced TP should be able to better adapt his/her time orientation in order to better play and learn. • Games including time challenges and tasks could help training time competence. • At a long term, students could be more able to acquire selfefficacy and improve learning processes and outcomes.


4. Aims, questions and hypotheses.

We aim to study the relation between students' Temporal Perspective , students' performance and its relation with learning in GBL.

1. How does Time Perspective influence collaborative GBL processes? 2. Are students with similar TP better performing and showing better learning results? 15

4. Aim

Research Prospective
Data will be collected in the context of Esade Management courses: 1. The ZTPI test for all students participating. 2. A collaborative Serious Game (eFinance Game).


4. Aim

Research Prospective
3. A time out or a clock:

In Progress


4. References

De Voider, M. L. & W. Lens (1982). Academic Achievement and Future Time Perspective as a Cognitive-Motivational Concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 3, 566-571 Gjesme, T. (1983). On the concept of future time orientation: consideration of some functions' and measurements' implications. International journal of psychology, 18, 443-461. Kastenbaum, R. (1961). The dimensions of future time perspective, an experimental analysis. The Journal of General Psychology, 65, 203-18. Lennings, C. J.(2000). Optimism, Satisfaction and Time Perspective in the Elderly. The International Journal of Aging and Human, 51, 3, 167-181 Nuttin, J. (1985). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Hillsdale, New Jersey: published jointly by Leuven University Press: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoiciates.

4. References

Peetsma, T. & van der Veer, I. (2011). Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement. Learning and Instruction, 21, 3, 481-494. Phalet, K., Andriessen, I. & Lens, W. (2004). How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 1, 59-89. Romero, M. (2011). Students' temporal perspectives, participation, temporal group awareness and grades. Are future oriented students performing better?. Presented at the FP7 IAPP Euro-CATCSCL Scientific Results’ workshop. Université de Toulouse, France. Wallace, M. (1956). Future time perspective in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 52, 2, 240-5. Zaleski, Z. (1994). Psychology of future orientation. Lublin [Poland: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL. Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time into perspective: A valid, reliable individualdifferences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288

Thanks for your time!
Mireia Usart ESADE Direction of Educational Innovation and Academic Quality (DIPQA) Av. de Pedralbes, 60-62 E-08034 Barcelona http://www.esade.edu Esade

Edinburgh, 16/06/2011


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