1.1 Describe how the above approach was used for managing the mercury problem in Minamata.

What were the problems associated with this approach? How could a different framework be developed to avoid these problems? Describe how the above approach was used for managing the mercury problem in Minamata The conventional P-S-R environmental management framework was used for managing the Minamata mercury problem. State (S) - The monitoring of contaminant levels in Minamata bay wasnt conducted either before Chisso commenced production or during production. Response (R) - Chisso initial response to the mercury problem in Minamata bay was a denial by the company that it caused the problem. - Chisso then built a treatment facility at their plant that was designed to filter chemicals. It was completly inadequate and most likely a token response to seem like the company was doing something - Fishing was restricted for areas of Minamata bay with mercury greater than 25ppm. However, this was not properly enforced by the government. Pressure (P) -Economic pressure on the government to continue Chisso's operations. This is shown by the continued production for up to 8 years after the cause of high mercury was discovered. What were the problems associated with this approach - There was a serious lack of monitoring by either the government or chisso before and after the problem was identified. The monitoring for mercury levels, on fish stock levels, or for public human health levels for Minamata residents. - The Japanese government response was minimal that included paying fisherman to catch the fish in Minamata bay and lacked enforcement of pollution law. - The Japanese government did not properly enforce the fishing ban that it placed on the Minamata bay. - The problem with lack of government response may have been attributed to a lack of environmental management framework. - Chisso significantly delayed their response of waste contamination for Minamata bay. - A major problem was the time between when the problem was identified and when both Chisso and the Japanese government responded. How could a different framework be developed to avoid these problem A different framework that could have been applied to the Minamata problem would be ecologically sustainable development (ESD) principles. - Better regulation by the Japanese government and enforcement of Chisso to monitor the environment including mercury, heavy metals, and other pollutants. - Government regulation increased to very high levels if contaminants are proved. - Apply remediation immediately after the contaminant levels are identified to ensure environmental and public safety.

1 Is there any evidence that the bio-capacity of the globe is being exceeded by the demand from human consumption. nourishment. animals. For example. such as transport. 2. both intragenerational and intergenerational equity can be applied as well as precautionary principle. The precautionary principle . as is indicated by the Ecological Footprints calculations? According to data contained in the Global Footprint Networks "Footprint and Biocapacity results 2008.2 to 43. 1. Conservation of Biodiversity . the precautionary principle can be applied to a household by only purchasing meat that is produced in Australia (Mad cow disease free) to ensure this disease is not contracted by a household occupant. The household car is used as minimal as possible to reduce its environmental impact for future generations.The present generation of humans residing on this planet guarantee that the environment is left in the same or better state than what they received it in. and shelter.the sustainable development principle of economic diversity and resilience refers to the need for economic policy to be diverse to ensure resilience to external economic factors. For example. Ensuring that the household food is sourced from local produce to reduce the impact of transportation on the environment. Illustrate each principle with an example from an activity in your household. Intragenerational Equity . Intergenerational Equity . Global issues .1 acres." the bio-capacity of the globe was being exceeded by human consumption since 1986. and conservation of biological diversity. cultivation and maintenance of the household garden.Global issues as a sustainable development principle refers to environemental problems that originate in Australia and effect the rest of the globe. However.The environmental quality within the present generation of humans is maintained at a high standard. It is also important to note 2 .2 billion global acres for the period of time between 1961-2005.1 to 33.Using the ESD principles for the Minamata mercury problem.2 Provide a one sentence description of each of the ESD principles..is used to aid decision-making where the environement is at threat of serious environemntal damage. For example. This is because the biocapacity of earth is generally a finite size. and microorganisms and their respective ecosystems to ensure ecological variety. Economic diversity and resilience . during this same period the total ecological footprint for the globe has increased from 17. household waste should be disposed of and dealt with in Australia. It can be seen from the data that the global total biocapacity has remained approximately the same value between 32.refers to the maintanence and preservation of plants.

Forests . The strategies that Vision 2050 proposes to reduce global humanities ecological footprint are spilt into two timeframes. through to how national governments shape policies and actions that global bodies such as the UN take.Materials Each category has ideas and goals that will contribute to the reduction of humanities demand on the 3 .that the total global EF has increased on the previous value for each year it was calculated.The new agenda for business" that is designed as a vision of how the world can become significantly more sustainable by 2050. This is because the globe will be shaped by the individual behaviour of humans at a local scale. So. 40 years from now. The report shows data calculated with the Global Footprint Network that if no changes are implemented. 10 years to analyse and implement strategies and then 2020 to 2050 as a transformation time to execute the strategic plans. However.98 and in 1990 the ratio was 1.Economy .Energy and Power . The report spilts up the strategies to reduce the global ecological footprint and humanities demand on environment into the following categories: . in approximately 1986 the bio-capacity of the globe was being exceeded by the demand from human consumption. These are 2010 . The solutions proposed by Vision 2050 have found that despite a population increase to 9 billion people. It provided realistic plans that could be put in place to ensure a more sustainable future. in 40 years time look like? ie undertake a futures study to propose what future you will create for yourself when you are 65-75 years old. humanity could possibly reduce the demand to approximately 1 world (approximately 16 billion gha) by 2050s or early 2060.2 what will 2050. The easiest data to see the evidence that the bio-capacity of the globe is being exceeded is when the ecological footprint to biocapacity ratio reaches above 1. then humanity will be using the equivalent of 2.Buildings .Agriculture .Mobility .Human Development . 2. What will 2050 in 40 years time look like? (Globally) It is very hard to predict what the globe will be like in 2050. The variables that will contribute to what the future will look in 2050 are highly varied and differ greatly from country to country.Peoples values . the worlds population will be 9 billion people. The data shows that in 1985 the ratio was 0.3 planets (Approximately 31 billion gha). It is predicted by many sources that by 2050. and how it will be achieved. the World Business Council for Sustainable Development released a report titled "Vision 2050 .2020.09. Use the ecological footprints measure to describe this situation.

. Give your opinion on the preferred procedure I believe that the preferred procedure for completing an EIS is it should be prepared by the proponent.EIS will contain objective analysis of the developments potential environmental impacts. I would like to see the following in 2050 at a local household level: . 3. Although an independent authority would remove bias and provide an objective assessment. I believe transport around and from my regional area will be ok. Advantages of having the EIS being prepared by an independent authority? The advantages of an independent authority completing the EIS include: . . However.Ensures that all concerns are addressed in a reasonable timeframe.The proposed development can be quickly altered as environmental concerns arise.Removed bias from the proponent for the EIS preparation. solar powered electricity. . Advantages of having the EIS being prepared by the proponent? The advantages of the proponent completing (either in-house or via consultants) the EIS include: . coastal area. What will 2050.Thorough knowledge of proposed development and its potential environmental impacts.Cultivation of household garden to grow as much fresh food as possible for the household (Currently already done by my household but would like to see this significantly increased in the community).Vastly improved housing sustainability or as the media loves "Green Homes. . . domestic and international travel will not need to be reduced because investment in new technologies should allow it to be less environmentally damaging. For example.A big factor for myself is transportation as i live in a regional.I hope that communities and local households improve significantly as soon as possible to ensure a more sustainable future. 4 . much of this will rely on heavey investment by the government into research of new materials and technology. . it is believed that the proponent would provide a better understanding of the development proposal and its potential environmental impacts. However. reuse of water.Water will be the most important commodity over the next 40 years. if it already isnt now." It should be mandatory that all homes use energy efficient building materials. either in-house or by an engaged consultant.environment. in 40 years time look like ? (My local household) In 40 years time i will be 63 and it is anticipated that i will still be a full time employee in the workforce. However. there is a role to play for an independent authority as a EIS review after its been completed. . through more government investment in public transport and more investment in technology assisiting transportation. . caputring water etc. Eg the first solar powered plane was tested in the last month and was quite successful.Greater information collection and analysis due to knowledge of proposed developments.

brief senior management 5 . and local governments. internally or by a combination. not lead to low environmental performance from implementation of ISO14001.chemical management procedures .site layouts .regulatory information (2) Visit the site and undertake the following activities in order to . companies have commited to develop targets for their environmental performance and this is not taken lightly due to the high cost of implementing a formal EMS. the extent of this impact will vary significantly between different projects. How was the BHP environmental review undertaken. i believe that community consultation committee's should be engaged upon completion of the EIS when it is put on public display. 4. in most cases.1 It has been suggested that the ability of companies to set their own policy and objectives will mean that low environmental performance will result from implementation of ISO14001 in a company. In general. industry bodies. It is then that community consultation committees should review and provide comments on the EIS. providing reasons to support the view I believe companies that set their own policy and objectives will.organisation charts . The initial project scope should describe the amount of community consultation that is needed. By implementing ISO14001. however. A company that sets low targets would also suffer damage to their reputation as a result of the local community. it is not really a companies interest to expend large dollar on ISO14001 accreditation and risk there reputation by setting low performance targets. the community should be given as much information as needed but not be allowed to inte rfere with EIS preparation. Provide an opposing view to this. 4.Describe at what stage and what influence you believe a community consultation committee should have in a project.Enviro emergency response plans .2 Environmental reviews and audits may be undertaken by consultants. what were the key advantages and outcomes of this method? The BHP environmental review of all operations both in australia and abroad documented in reading 2 moore and scaife was undertaken using the following approach: (1) Collect Information prior to site visits . Every development will have an impact on the environment and community. Although from the initial stages of the EIS preperation. ie they will take the easy way out and set easy objectives and targets. competing companies. Therefore. Also companies are less likely to set low environmental measures due to the significant fines that can be handed out by industry bodies for non compliance as well as legal ramifications from ISO14001 accreditation.

. resource minimisation through better consumer. inspect records. consumption. government and business behaviour.Land USe . plant inspections.state of environment report 1996 and the BHP report.6ha/person less than the available EF 6 . .An environmental policy was developed and the development of a detailed EMS commenced . the hurstville city council .Any emerging environmental trends from local scale through to global scale.Prepare summary report .Established networks in the environmental area . However. Australia state of the environment 1996.1ha/person Available EF = 9. 5. . 6..Nationally. WMC limited 2000. The emphasis of where monitoring and reporting is at varies depending on who produced the report. Use checklist based on scope .Provide debriefing to senior managment (3) Prepare detailed report The key advantages and outcomes of this method include: . A little discussion is made on levels to be reached in the future. and use. Provide a comment on where future environmental reports at each scale should place increased emphasis.Conservation of biodiversity .1 Which OECD countries consume less land from their domestic consumption than if available t them? Australia EF = 8. select a few that interest you to gain an impression of where the emphasis of monitoring and reporting is at. Browse through environmental reports on the CD.Corporate and division environmental positions were created .All scale should apply the ESD principles and in particular the precautionary principle. Future environmental reports at each scale should place increased emphasis on: . The reports that i browsed and read were the Australia state of the environment 2001. the government based reports seem to provide a much more comprehensive analysis of future environmental problems. .Review met the objectives set by BHP at start.Water including quality.7ha/person Using 1. The private companies place an emphasis on their environmental performance of the past and up to the date of the report.The review increased awareness across the company of environmental issues.site interviews.

as described by Yenkin. A given network of processes and goods is initiated by activities. It can be looked at as an open system consisting of processes connected with goods. That is. 7 . Therefore. These goods are carriers of materials. Such as Japan has an EF of 6. a complex system of energy. 6.2 Define the terms "athroposphere" and "geogenic" Anthroposphere -is defined by brunner as the mans sphere of life. This is because the same data also shows that the ecological surplus/deficit is -0. the consumption of all countries at the global level will lead to more sustainable levels.6 ha/person for the world.5ha/person less than the available EF Source: M Wackernagel (1997) EFof nations Are these OECD countries sustainable from the viewpoint of a global reference? Sustainability is not a single country problem but a global problem and therefore no these OECD countries are not sustainable from the viewpoint of a global reference.3ha/person and an available EF of 1.Canada EF = 7.5ha/person Using 1. in 1997 the world ecological footprint was -0.7ha/person.6 ha/person which is not sustainable from the global viewpoint. material. the global options over the next 100 years should focus on a national strategy to promote and encourage the dematerialisation of the economy. The anthroposphere s driven by mans biological and cultural needs. The data provided by wackernagel shows that the EF of many countries is significantly larger than their available EF. By adopting these principles over the next 100 years. These are y y y y y y Changing assumptions Reducing toxic or damaging flows Reducing the impact of waste flows Overall dematerialisation of the economy New information requirements / improve information base Propagation and adoption of effective working models and techniques and using models and techniques for managing and reducing material flows. and information fluxes. what global options are possible over the next 100 years? No the current consumption of all countries at the global level is not sustainable. Is the current consumption of all countries at the global level sustainable? If not.0ha/person Available EF = 8.

9*110) + 240 = 339t 8 . transportation etc. housing.277.15t/year for sewage. while the export of 0. What will be the stock of Pb in the following processes in the year 2000 and 2100? region Input = 0.Anthropogenic metabolism covers not only the physiological human metabolism but includes also the thousands of goods and substances necessary to sustain modern life. This metabolism is driven by human activities and societies needs.6*110) +150 = 216 t Agricultural Soil Stock = 240t Rate of change = 0. 1. transporting. Influx of 7t/year Outflow of 7. That is.6+7+330 = 337. Metabolism of the anthroposphere . The total metabolism includes the input. the metabolism is driven by man-made material flows due to activities such as cleaning.6 = 277. residing and communicating 7. and stock of materials and energy to satisfy all human needs for provisions. Forest Soil Stock = 150t Rate of change = 0.35 = 0.6*10) + 150 = 156t Year 2100 = (0. output.is a natural regional economy that has a network of energy and material fluxes run by solar energy and the interactions of regional and global ecsystems.9*10) + 240 = 249t Year 2100 = (0. there is an accumulation in the region every year of Pb (lead).35t/year.6t/year difference = 337.6 . and 5. Dscribe what is meant by "Metabolism of the anthroposphere" and explain what drives this metabolism.6t/year region output = 2+270+5.35t/year 7-7.6 = 60t/year Therefore.6t/year for municipal solid waste.6t/year for car-exhaust.These acivities are the result of a cultural evolution and the environmental conditions. Geogenic .6 Year 2000 = (0.35 t/year net annual loss. what is happening to the stock of Pb in the process household in the given year of 1990? The household has an import of 7t/year of lead.9 Year 2000 = (0. This export totals 7.

01 * 110) +? = ? .6t of lead that is discharged to the atmosphere each year and accumulate in the previously mentioned processes.14)-2 = -1. This could be eliminated by using unleaded petrol.2*110) + 30 = 52t Landfill Stock = ? Rate of change = 60 Year 2000 = (60*10) + ? = ? + 600 increase Year 2100 = (60*110) +? = ? + 6600 increase River Stock = ? Rate of change = (0.1t decrease Is this sustainable? No this is not sustainable. urban soil has significant implications for environmental management.01 Year 2000 = (-1. y How could the MFA for Pb in the region be used in the EIA for a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant proposal? A material flux analysis (MFA) is a materials balancing method applied at a regional scale for 9 .6+0. As can be seen in 2100 the increase will have been 6600 t and this will cause significant leaching problems once the lead begins to break down.1t decrease Year 2100 = (-1.2 Year 2000 = (0.01 * 10)+? = ? .2*10) + 30 = 32t Year 2100 = (0. The region also shows 1.111.05+0. It should be noted that the calculations do not account for any annual growth in Pb levels that would lead to larger unsustainable levels. The stock build up will eventually contribute to leaching to the river process and other associated waterways in catchments.10. as shown in the calculations.Urban Soil Stock = 30 Rate of change = 0. What are the implications for environmental management in the region ? y The stock and rate of increase for forest soil. The landfill also has a significant accumulation of lead increase each year. agrcultural soil.2+0. The region has an accumulation of 60t/year of lead and this is not a sustainable level.

The MFA allows an analysis of the lead fluxes for different processes within the region.individual elements to analyse . This leasing in the long term will lead to cleaner production services from manufacturers. This allows the determination of a fail or pass level of air pollution. It could be used to identify the points in the region where lead could be recycled for a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant. or more commonly a rating is given. For emission regulations that you are familar with (eg incinerator gaseous emissions). The data from the MFA would then be used in the EIA to show the quantity of Pb that would be recycled. This would also show a more sustainable fluxes of Pb within the region.the accumulation of stocks of the material in processes . It will be achieved by: y y y Waste minimisation due to longer life cycles of the photocopier Production of more durable parts for the photocopier to meet leasing companies demands Design of photocopier parts that can be easily recycled at the end of the life cycle. carbon monoxide. What advantages and disadvantages result when compared to use of alternative approaches? The emission regulations that i am familar with are air quality monitoring regulations. The most common approach to derive the numerical limits is using available air quality monitoring equipment and then the NEPM (National environment protection measure) set standards and numerical limits. nitorgen dioxide. These standards include ozone.1 Explain how leasing rather than purchasing a photo copying machine l ads e manufacturers to the provision of a cleaner production service.the current outputs of materials from anthropogenic to natural environments. A disadvantage when compared to alternative approaches is that the source of the increased air pollution is not known. 8. The advantage of this approach is a clear level can be recorded for an exact period of time and a comparison can be made with the acceptable limit. 10 . Leasing a photocopy machine encourages the leasing company to source a machine from manufacturers that is more efficient and has a longer design life. This is the result of the leasing company wanting to reduce the overheads associated with maintenance and upkeep of the photocopy machine. determine which approach was used to derive the numerical limits. sulfur dioxide and PM10.the input of the material to processes in the region . 9. A numerical reading value is recorded but the source and concentration of the source is unknown.

The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to evaluate the environmental effects of a product. MIPS can be used to calculate the total amount of fossil fuel material used from he transport system of a city.2 Explain why the SPI is conservative approach in relation to the use of fossil organic material (for fuel or plastics). . Then this can be reduced for the transport system by replacing the fossil fuel material with material that is sourced from a renewable energy source.Significantly reduce taxes and registration costs for energy efficient cars as a last resort transport option . until the ink in the pen runs out. process.Create significantly more cycle paths that will promote cycling as a transport option. This functional unit would allow a comparison of a set of different pens in a life cycle assessment. 5 days per week.y The photocopier designed that consume less materials. A functional unit as it relates to life cycle assessment is defined as the object of the LCA and is introduced in order to allow objective comparison of products. and improvement assessment. 9. or activity and consists of 4 components. 10.2 Consider the general service provided by a pen. An MIPS reduction ten fold for a city transport system would involve the following: . 10. life-cycle inventory (LCI). These are goal definition and scoping. impact assessment. in order to move to a sustainable global economy. and define a functional unit for this service so that a range of information transfer sets of goods can be compared in a LCA.Reducing car use by providing more efficient public transport. How could this reduction be achieved? (Generally and provide some examples for this transport system example) A reduction would be achieved though a transport system that is powered by renewable energy for both public and private transport. in particular train and tram transport due to there mass transport benefits. MIPS was developed to provide information on significant environmental impact associated with the system of goods that provide a particular service in an economy.1 Explain how MIPS could be applied to the problem of designing a transport system of a city.Create electricity from renewable sources that will allow electrified rail track to be powered by renewable energy and environmentally friendly. and the area required to dissipate toxic or stable synthetic 11 .Create buses and cars that are powered by renewable energy sources . The Wuppertal institute a proposed a MIPS reduction of ten fold for developed economies. . A functional unit for a pen for an office employee would be 2 hrs of writing.

Figure 2 shows the primary contributions to TMR in 1991. Comment/Explain the relative contributions amoung countries. The most significant difference between MIPS and SPI is that the MIPS does not include wastes in its calculations. . . 11.In Germany. It includes a greater variety of waste emissions and is mo re applicable to process design and optimisation. heavy use of lignite coal and hidden flows from large overburden mining coal dominates fossil fuel contribution. reflecting strong automobile and steel sectors. The decline in US TMR per capita can also be attributed to the completion of much of the federal interstate highway system. Therefore. 12 . Why is Japan much lower than the other 3 OECD countries? In all the countries except japan. The sustainable process index (SPI) is a unit of measure of the index of resource consumption and waste emissions in ha or m2. metals. Why did germany increase significantly in 1990-1991? The sharp rise in german TMR in 1990-1991 reflects the reunification with the former east germany. This program paid farmers not to farm highly erodible lands. SPI includes both resource consumption and waste emmisions. altering what would otherwise have been a relatively constant trend. Why has the US generally been declining and the netherlands and germany increasing over the past 20 years? The decline in US TMR per capita in the early years of the period was due primarily to major reductions in soil erosion after the enactment of the conservation reserve program. Compare this to MIPS approach. and construction also contribute heavily to TMR. The basic feature of the SPI is that technologies must be embedded in the biosphere and that this embedding must be in a non-invasive way. Where as. this leads to more favourable result when compared with SPI for the MIPS. primarily from fossil fuels. Japan is much lower than the other 3 OECD countries primarily because japan has a relatively small per capita use of energy compared with the other countries.substances. high levels of energy consumption. is a major reason for the high overall levels of TMR. The SPI is a conservative approach in relation to the use of fossil organic material (for fuel and plastics) because they are treated as a renewable resource and thus leads to a more conservative SPI. While for toxic or stable synthetic substances the SPI is conservative because the break down rate of these is slow and they also not recycled as raw materials.Fossil fuel is the largest contributor to TMR in the US and germany and is the second largest contributor in japan and netherlands.

agricultural operations. The contribution from domestic erosion is relatively low. They are between 55 to 75 % of total.Figure 4 illustrates that the smaller an industrial country. mostly showing good improvements. the metals and industrial materials industry is largest contribution. Domestic erosion is negligible.In Japan. road building. Fossil fuels..Netherlands. Domestic and Foreign . This would allow more efficient natural resource use per person and allow industrial countries to reduce their material intensity 13 . the larger in proportion its transboundary materials flows and the greater the separation of the environmental effects of its natural resource use from their consumption benefits. WHile figure 6 includes only direct material input (natural resource commodities) and the pattern implies that direct inputs of natural resources are now growing in parallel with econnomic growth. and domestic and foreign components. For sustainabilty achievement over the next 20-30 years more comprehensive material accounts are needed of natural resources. Currently 45 to 85t of natural resources per person per year are required and this translates into an enormous amount of extractive activity. -US and germany are largest followed by netherlands and then japan. -US. infrastructure development. Figure 3 and 4 show the proportions of direct inputs and hidden flows. reflecting the dominance of paddy rice cultivation.Varies considerably amongst countries. Why is this same trend not shown in TMR and DMI graphs? What does this mean for sustainabilty achievment over the next 20-30 years? The analysis in Figure 5 shows a declining pattern of materials intensity in all countries supporting the conclusion that a modest decoupling is taking place. . high contribution from fossil fuels. Do these make sense from your general knowledge of these economies? Direct inputs and hidden flows . renewable materials are largest contributions.hidden flows dominate as a proportion of TMR in 1991 for all 4 countries. primarily natural gas and metals are also major contributors. The same trend is not shown in TMR and DMI graphs because it includes extractive activities and other hidden flows and the TMR/GDP ratio provides the best measure of a countries materials intensity. Figure 5 and 6 show material intensity trends. .

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