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Yirga Gelaw Woldeyes

Table of Content

Introduction 1. Defining Pan-Africanism 2. Cultural Pan-Africanism; the Legacy of Ethiopia

2.1 Origins of Ethiopianism 2.2 The Impacts of Ethiopianism

3. Intellectual Pan-Africanism 3.1 The Impacts of Intellectual Pan-Africanism 3.1.1 The Development of Discourses and Other Movements 3.1.2 Class and rhetoric 3.1.3 Unity 3.1.4 Solidarity Conclusion


Especially. it became an ideological vantage point from where the European supremacist theories and practices were challenged.1 The movement witnessed fundamental changes across space and time. Congo. This effort became triumphant in the 1960’s when half of Africa became independent. Therefore. it shifted the Pan-African ideology from its pre-occupation with anti-colonial struggle to anti-imperialist struggle by embracing Marxist ideology to resist neo-colonial capitalism (Masilela 1994:310). after the Second World War. during colonialism. In Africa.“No matter how hot the water from your well. 1 The Diaspora in this paper represents the black people of African descent who live outside the of Africa. The Congo Crisis witnessed the beginning of neo-colonialism in Africa. and ideological variations.” African proverb cited by Amical cabral Introduction Pan-Africanism has been a complex movement of black people in the world against Eurocentric domination in Africa and the Diaspora. geographical. it will not cook your rice. 3 . and along political. PanAfricanism was precipitated by the 1885 Berlin conference that witnessed the scramble for the continent among European colonial powers (Masilela 1994:255). Pan-Africanism experienced a major ideological shift during the 1960s when Patrice Lumumba was assassinated through the intervention of ex-colonial powers in the political life of the newly freed African nation. Pan-Africanism offered significant inspiration and political guidance for African nationalist movements in their struggles for independence from colonialism.

the cardinal principle of pan-Africanism remained to be the view that the people of one part of Africa are responsible for the freedom and liberation of their brothers and sisters in other parts of Africa. 4 . the responses to those challenges were complex and many.Africanism can be viewed as the collective response of black people to the hegemony of Eurocentrism. challenged. black people everywhere were to accept the same responsibility(Campbell 1994:285) Hence. culture and civilisation. unity and prosperity. and indeed. it was “ an exercise in selfdefinition sharpened by resistance to Eurocentrism (Campbell 1994:285). Despite the variations and contradictions it witnessed with in itself. Pan-Africanism became a search for Afrocentric values.In the Trans-Atlantic Diaspora. philosophical and political beliefs that seek to end the universal oppression of black people in the name of race. As the challenges faced by Africans were many. Pan-Africanism was by large a response to slavery and racial oppression. It encompasses various forms of ideological. religion. culture and history on the basis of which the unity of black people was to be animated and the “white man’s” hegemony. It has been shaped by complex and long period of suppression that ranges from slavery to neo-colonialism. It emerged as a universal aspiration of black people for emancipation. According to Horace Campbell. Definition of Pan Africanism 1. This paper treats classical Pan-Africanism as a cultural and intellectual movement of black people outside Africa and assesses its link to the nationalist movements in Africa and civil rights movement in America. Pan.

oppressed people respond to colonial domination in two ways: by emulating the coloniser and practicing the latter’s culture while submerging any of their own opposing traditions to it. and as an intellectual movement it was animated by European modern thoughts. on the other. It started by freed ex-slaves who withdrew from white dominated Baptist and Methodist churches. 2. It was manifested as a movement to resist westernization as well as an attempt to westernise Africa. in the late 18th and early 19th century (Fredrickson 1996: 59). Cultural Pan-Africanism : the legacy of Ethiopia The earliest and widest form of Pan-Africanism was known as Ethiopianism (Campbell 1994:288). According to Albert Memmi. and as a practical endeavour to emulate the west. and by rejecting the colonizer’s culture and endeavouring to revive their own way of life from the cultural elements of their past (Memmi 1965:20). In Jamaica. and what the world is all about .This contradictory personality inhabited by the oppressed is the direct legacy of their past. when the first Ethiopian Baptist Church was established in 1784. intellectual and political movements that are often conflated with each other . Ethiopianism represented the endeavour of black people to free themselves from mental and physical bondages by instilling racial pride among the people of colour. As a mass movement it was driven by cultural appeals to the glory of ancient Africa (Ethiopia). From this perspective Pan-Africanism was expressed through cultural. Although the movement was later rejected by the Pan-African Intellectuals’ movement for having 5 .The long period of oppression endured by oppressed people created a sense of opposing duality in their views of who they are.as a movement of opposition against the west on the one hand.

Therefore. which was symbolized by Ethiopia. (Campbell 1994:292). it was a” back to Africa” movement that wanted to redeem black people from Babylon. The movement aimed not only at the emancipation of black people from slavery by ending racial injustices but also at their repatriation to their original places in Africa. which in Greece 6 . intemperate propaganda and a tendency to throwing a natural fear in to the colonial powers”. The story of Ethiopia. and to deliver them to the promised land of Israel.1 Origins of Ethiopianism Most historical accounts about Ethiopia and Ethiopians were constructed from western written and legendary sources as well as from the bible. Ethiopianism was an attempt to revive African identity. It emanated from a widespread belief in the glory of ancient Africa. a birds eye view to the historic portrays of Ethiopia could help to understand what the aspiration of the pan-Africanists was during this period. The consistently positive references given to the name Ethiopia from the bible and the existence of historical records about the ancient empires of Ethiopia became the basis for the belief in the existence of an original African civilisation and spirituality that precedes much of Europe. Ethiopianism was nevertheless one of the most popular mass movements of black people that took place outside Africa (Padmore 1947). Therefore.‘demagogic leadership. which was Ethiopia. 2. This symbolic use of Ethiopia as the representative of the great African image indicates the endeavour of black people to find identity and meaning for themselves outside the ideation of the European view of history and reason. which was the West.

[in Ethiopia]. they were not distressed by strife. The same historical accounts by Herodotus mentioned the eighteen Ethiopian kings and one queen that ruled Egypt for long time.. Homer wrote about the “blameless Ethiopians”. Snowden 1983:46). They were “the tallest and handsomest men in the whole world” and “longer lived than anywhere else”. the personal account of the European geographer and historian Agatharchides about the social and economic life of Ethiopians presented a more direct negation to the virtue of individual accumulation that was highly regarded by the west: They [Ethiopians] were free from want.). Unlike Greek. greed. strive for a divine way of life with no desire for power.).E. who were loved by the gods. came from ancient historians including Homer.. who is often viewed as the father of history. gold is obtained in great plenty. Herodotus. huge elephants abound.C. After the 5th Century BC.E. Herodotus and the Ptolemy era writers. They ate boiled flesh. and the “high souled Ethiopians” who were the children of the almighty son of Koronos (Frank M. According to him. with wild trees of all sorts. made a more detailed account of Ethiopia of the 5th century BC (Herodotus 440 B.means people with faces burned by the sun. they suffered 7 . and ebony (Herodotus 440 B. and envy. and had for their drink nothing but milk“… There. nor did they imperil their lives by sailing the sea for the sake of gain. These historical records from European sources about the achievements of black people in Ethiopia contradicted with the common historiography of European thinkers about the continent and the people. and had long bows made of the stem of the palm-leaf .C.. They “clothed in the skins of leopards and lions. Needing little. Ethiopians were people who lived by the streams of the Nile worshipping the gods. they rejected useless things..

gaining possession of what was sufficient they sought no more.. V. These historical records inspired black leaders to agitate the people to redefine their identity according to their African roots and reclaim their proper places in the world(Hensbroek 1999:47). Garvey gave a prophecy to his followers saying: “Look to Africa when a Black king shall be crowned for the day of deliverance is near”(Chen 1998:241-242).Hence Ethiopians have always served. Praeger Publishers. King of Kings. and since the white people have seen their God through white spectacles. Snowden 1983:49-50). We Negroes believe in the God of Ethiopia. This prophesy became one of the basis for the raise of Rastafarianism in Jamaica as his followers believed that the prophesy was fulfilled when Ras Tafari was crowned in 1930 as ‘From The Lion of Judea. the everlasting God-God the Son. 8 . God the Holy Ghost. And they were not governed by laws (Frank M. London. That is the God whom we believe. (1999). especially from Psalms 68. but we shall through the spectacle of Ethiopia (Nelson 1997:69) . Blyden referred Africans as Ethiopians and concluded that “ each race is endowed with peculiar talents. Political Discourses in African Thought. 2 This refers to the discourse of neo-traditionalism that was advocated by early PanAfricanist leaders such as Blyden who advocated the separately unique destinies of all races. B. Haileselassie I. In 1920.little.. Whilst our God have no color.. Emperor of Ethiopia’. we see our God through our own spectacles. the one God of all ages. will continue to serve the world” Hensbroek.31 which says: “ Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God’. yet it is human to see everything through one’s own spectacle. Marcus Garvey declared the significance of this process to black Christianity: We Negroes have found a new ideal.Such references had powerful effects in the bid to encourage black people to change the European image of God by an African image. P. 2 Further references about Ethiopia came from the Bible.

However. and appeared to have envisioned Africa’s future through the spectacle of the European scientific revolution: Now in the twenty century we are about to see the rebuilding of Africa.2. However. Simon Kimbangu (kimbanguism) in Congo and Rastafarianism in Jamaica were of the most important ones(Campbell 1994:292). However.2 The Impacts of Ethiopianism Ethiopia became a source of racial pride for black people due to its ancient civilisation and glamorous history. Garvey himself established the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914. not only by Europeans but also by Christianised Africans and hence. there were other cultural movements that mounted strong resistance to European hegemony. the John Chilembwe movement in Malawi. Harry Tuku in Kenya. It propagated a distinct African identity as opposed to a European or American identity. a new civilization. these and many other cultural resistances were prosecuted as witchcraft and superstitious. were harshly suppressed. as well as victory against and independence from colonialism. yes. the Ethiopian Orthodox Church movement in South Africa. Ethiopianism on the other hand remained as an emblem of classical Pan-Africanism due to the reputed position the name Ethiopia occupied in the bible and history. To wit : the African Independence Church Movement of Mourides in West Africa. its ideological and philosophical roots emanated from the West than from Africa. Ethiopianism and the Garvey movement offered strong agitation for “negro brotherhood’ to resist the physical and psychological domination of Europeans over black people(Campbell 1994:290). a new culture 9 .

wherein will live Black men of the highest learning and the highest accomplishment (Nelson 1997:70) Ethiopianism itself had little connection and similarity with the factual cultural elements and practices of the people in Africa. Moreover. it is possible to argue that the movement had the counter effect of legitimizing colonial subjugation in Africa. Therefore. of art and literature. African American missionaries from the Garvey movement were extensively engaged in preaching the bible to Christianize indigenous African beliefs in South Africa. although Ethiopianism and the Garvey movement were motivated by ideological and philosophical beliefs that seek to replace Eurocentrism by Afrocentrism. the earliest African National Congress (ANC) leaders received their formal training from Black universities and colleges in the US. in practice they offered little alternative when it comes to the question of what the content of Afrocentric values should look like. they mitigated spiritual and cultural resistances against the development of local conditions in the process of Westernizing Africa. in the US was also highly influenced by the Christian belief of “love your enemy” and “turn the other cheek” (Fredrickson 1996:59). On the contrary. African indigenous knowledge was discarded as irrelevant to the need of the continent and the local 10 . and it is believed that the Christian influence had a critical role in adopting a non-violent strategy for national liberation in South Africa (Tongun 1994:255).shall spring up from among our people and the Nile shall once more flow through the lands of science. The civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King Jr. This in effect was contrary to the cause of emancipation as the bible was one of the twin instruments of coercion and consent that was used to rationalize the European colonial rule over Africa (Tongun 1994:255). In conclusion.

to deliberate 3 This approach however ignores the various facets of the African social movements that were lodged at various levels in Africa and across the world. Silvester Williams. organised a conference for “men and women of African blood. the longing for modernity without achieving modernization left Africa expectant of Europe’s assistance for development. Finally. Through reggae music. Yet. one legacy of the overall cultural movement of classical Pan-Africanism appeared to have remained defiant of Eurocentric values and consumerism. H.3 The formal beginning of this movement dates back to 1900 AD. This was the rise of Rastafarianism and Bob Marley as a popular singer for freedom: Emancipate yourself from mental slavery None but ourselves can free our minds Have no fear for Atomic energy For none of them can stop the time. Intellectual Pan-Africanism Classical Pan-Africanism. “The power of art that Bob Marley’s music represented [did] more to popularize the real issues of African liberation than the several leaders of backbreaking work by Pan Africanists and international revolutionaries”(Campbell 1994:302). in its narrower sense. 3. backward and useless.cultural practices were resented as demonic. 11 . PanAfricanism maintained some aspects of its cultural elements with its classic aspiration for the freedom and unity of black people anywhere in the world. when a black West Indies barrister. is formally recognized as the movement of black intellectuals in the first half of the 20th century in America and Europe.

economic and political administration of “native peoples” in their colonies. They requested the Versailles peace treaty participants to adopt an international legal code for the social. fairly. It was organised with 57 delegates from 15 countries out of which 12 participants were from 9 African countries. which later became the unifying body for the entire movement of the Pan-African intelligentsia. they were portrayed by the media as black traditionalists or Ethiopian Utopists and black modernists or Negroes in business suits. The main concern of the organisers was to appeal to colonial powers to treat the native people in their colonies. The Chicago Tribune. While presenting their proposal for the establishment of an African political entity under the supervision of a mandates commission. Many call this conference the first Pan African Conference due to the diversity of its participants and the intensity of the issues raised during the conference.solemnly upon the present situation and the outlook for the darker races of mankind”(Langley 1979:738). January 19th 1919 equated the move of the participants to the vision of the movement of Ethiopianism: “An 12 . His initiative sparkled a new role for black intelligentsia in the history of black struggle against racial injustice and colonial domination. William’s motto: “Only a Negro can represent a Negro”. and led to the formation of the Pan African Congress (PAC). They pleaded for the establishment of an international body with in the League of Nations to administer the Ex-German colonies in Africa (Padmore 1947). Another pan-African conference was organised in 1919 at a time when the victors of WWI were to slash a peace deal in France. attracted participants from England and America.

Moreover. Negroes who hold public offices.. Paris and Brussels. and it has less than a Chinaman’s chances of getting anywhere in the peace conference. 1919 presented the conference in a different light: “Sweated at long green tables in the council room today were Negroes in trim uniforms of American Army Officers. It is a quite Utopian.Ethiopian utopia.. In arguing their case. the Pan-African Commission organised a series of conferences in London. they used universally recognised moral standards in the West. In response to these challenges. colonial powers ignored the appeals of the Pan-Africanists and increased exploiting their colonies to recoup their war losses. polished French. to be fashioned out of the German colonies. 13 . but it is nevertheless interesting” (Padmore 1947). Despite the optimism that was created as the result of the end of the First World War and the formation of the League of Nations. February 22. racial injustice in the Americas and Europe became increasingly intolerable. is the latest dream of the Negro race who are here.. in 1921.. other American coloured men in flock coats or business suits. On the other hand the New York Evening Globe. The conferences focused on bringing the Pan-African movement to the global political agenda. Participants in their resolution asserted that “the habit of democracy must encircle the earth” and the Negro problem should be studied by an international body(Padmore 1947). Senegalese who sit in the French Chamber of Deputies”(Padmore 1947). to show to the world that racial inequality was against the dignity of human beings and is contradictory to the principles of democracy and natural rights.

that of the colour of the skin and texture of hair is surely the most adventitious and idiotic (Du Boise 1997:41). This view has strong similarity with Martin Luther King’s view that injustice anywhere was a threat to Justice everywhere. Especially with 14 . W. The chairman of the movement. The universality and indivisibility of justice held by the Pan-African Congress was practically manifested in the resolution of the third Pan-African Congress that took place in Lisbon. and the advancement of all civilisations (Langley 1979:749). The conference concluded with resolutions to be met for the development of the Negro race.The struggle of the Pan-Africanists for racial justice had similar ideology with the civil rights movent that came later on except the fact that the Pan-Africanists were interested in mounting international resistance against black oppression anywhere in the world. B. rather. Rhodesia and South Africa. And of all the various criteria of which masses of men have in the past been prejudged and classified. They called for the “recognition of all civilised men as civilised” despite their difference in race or colour(Padmore 1947). it fulfils it. This emphatic expression has its similar meaning in content with Martin Luther King’s dream to see his people judged not by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. The participants condemned mob law and lynching in America and the oppression of majority black Africans by minority whites in Kenya. the absolute equality of all races. Portugal. The Pan Africanists believed that the freedom of black people in America and Europe was inextricably bound with the freedom of black people in Africa. E. Du Boise’s powerful essays resonate the conviction of the movement to universal racial justice in the world: The doctrine of racial equality does not interfere with individual liberty. in 1923.

The object of imperialist Powers is to exploit. This led to the Fifth Pan-African Congress that was convened in Manchester. through its famous “Declaration to the Colonial Peoples” addressed the colonised people directly: We say to the people of the colonies that they must fight. Therefore.by all means at their disposal... the Pan15 . and the necessary prerequisite to. Then. By granting the right to colonial peoples to govern themselves that object is defeated. Unlike the resolutions of the previous congresses that concluded with appeals to the colonial powers to introduce concessions for their colonial subjects in Africa. The declaration resonated a new ideological shift from the past regarding the realisation of political rights in Africa.. economic and political emancipation(Langley 1979:760). the congress vehemently condemned the practice of the government: What more paradoxical figure today fronts the world than the official head of the great South African state striving blindly to build Peace and Good Will in Europe by standing on the necks and hearts of millions of black Africans? (Padmore 1947) The Fourth Congress took place in New York in 1927 and passed similar resolutions as the previous ones. complete social. the movement became relatively dormant until it was awakened by the increasingly assertive voices of colonised people during the Second World War.regard to South Africa. the Fifth Pan-African Congress. England in 1945. Participants of the congress reflected upon the past achievements of the Pan-African movement and introduced more radical approaches to end colonialism from Africa. Initially.. the struggle for political power by colonial and subject peoples is the first step towards.

The Fifth Pan-African Congress became a watershed event that played a significant role in stimulating the anti-colonial struggles and the wars of liberation of the 1950s and early 1960s in Africa (Watkins. Secondly. 1994). They appealed to colonial regimes in Africa to grant progressive concessions to their subjects. Consequently. They believed that the grant of local self determination to Africans would gradually lead to the attainment of full self determination by the people. at the Fifth Pan-African congress. in 1994.1 Impacts of Intellectual Pan-Africanism 3. 3. Therefore. Due to these. they concluded that this belief was illusive. This in effect shifted the centre of the struggle from the Diaspora to the mainland Africa. Alkalimat et al.1. However. the pan-African movement should primarily be conducted in African by Africans themselves.1 The development of discourses and other movements Pan Africanism resisted the European claim of the superiority of the white race over the black race using western and non-western 16 . including participation in local government and the right to benefit from African resources. Two major ideological and practical shifts emerged as a result the Fifth Pan-African Congress: Firstly. the 6th and 7th Pan-African congress took place in Tanzania in 1974 and in Uganda. respectively.African movement had been advocating the progressive realisation of civil and political rights for Africans. Africans should fight first for their own independence. the participants declared that the realisation of freedom cannot come merely from the will of the coloniser but through the struggle of the colonised people themselves.

Some criticise his idea as anti-racist racism. was African Civilisation. not the other way round (Hensbroek 1999:52). Blyden suggested that the African must advance by the methods of his own. the presentation of such views heightened the spirit of the struggle against racial domination. A unique racial discourses developed from one of the earliest leaders of pan-Africanism. Du Bois asserted that the White man’s burden was the black mans burden. Blyden had no problem with the European political hegemony over Africa because in his view. Recently. who believed in the idea of the separate destinies of races (Hensbroek 1999:43-53). 4 Cheikh Ante Diop presented his Doctoral dissertation on The African origins of Civilisation in 1955 at Sorbonne arguing that Egyptian civilisation which was the origin of Greece. He must posses a power distinct from the European. “the one serves mankind by dominating. He considered each race as having its own specificity that serves mankind. 17 . the other by serving”(Fredrickson 1996:68-69). Dub Bois and Cheikh Ante Diop articulated that Egyptian civilisation was the creation of black Africans. Ranke and others who view Africa out of human history and devoid of any contribution to human civilisation.methods. Therefore. Blyden. Black intellectuals using western methods presented texts that refuted the myth of white civilisation. Hume. Blyden himself accepted scientific racism but reversed its importance and suggested that Africa was the exemplar of Europe. the spirit of service the African had was more worthy than the European spirit towards ruling. “ The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the colour-line – the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa. Against the views of Hegel. For Blyden. the British historian Martin Bernal in his book Black Athena claims to have confirmed the claim that Egyptian civilisation was African [black] civilisation. and his work was rejected. E. Kant.4 Although less accepted by many. in America and the islands of the Sea”(Du Bois 1997:54).

from domestic slavery. One of the prominent supporters of this view were members of freed slaves who returned from the Americas to resettle in Africa. the most influential scholar from this group was Africanus Horton who became the founder of the modernist model of thought in Africa (Hensbroek 1999: 155). whiter and hence. they were often portrayed in Europe as “ savages posturing as Europeans” (Hensbroek 1999:30-31). 18 .2 Class and Speeches Arguably. P. Intellectual Pan-Africanism became the basis for the emergence of a new ruling class in Africa. These were Africans who were captured and sold to slavery. as regards productive industry. and formed the ‘Creole’ community based on European values and ideals and demanded participation and greater role in the colonial administration. He accepted an Africa far behind Europe and declared what the mission of development in Africa should look like as :“ to raise the nations of Africa from the debased and degraded state to which they have fallen. They often settled in Sierraleon while the resettlers were dominant in Liberia. originality. P. to free them from the bloody and demoralizing influence of beastly superstition. both morally and physically.5 3. Horton is often criticised as “the Black Englishman”. Praeger Publishers. 35. The heads of the movement 5 Horton believed in a universal and hierarchical path towards civilisation in the world. of customs and institutions which…prevent the creation of that capital by which alone the works necessarily attendant on civilization can be executed” Hensbroek. antiquity and glory in relation to or independent from Europe. (1999). often by other Africans. other discourses that viewed Europe as a model for Africa developed in the Western part of Africa. While the Creoles called themselves “ black Europeans”. Political Discourses in African Thought. and were rescued from slave ships by the British.Unlike the discourses that tried to signify Africa’s identity. They soon became keen to learn English and follow the Christian religion from the Angelical and Methodist missionaries. B. from polygamy. from the paralysing effects. London. V. more civilized than the local African population (Hensbroek 1999:29).1. The resettlers brought with them the American racial prejudice with the American political ideals and felt more Christian. Members of other groups that viewed Europe as a model and an ally to Africa’s future were called the “recaptives”.

and struggled to shift the “measure of man” from the colour line to the intellectual line. during the Civil Rights Movement and by President Barack Obama during his presidential campaign.. These intellectuals viewed themselves as “civilised men” despite black. “Out of the depths we have cried unto the deaf and dump masters of the world.a bitter feeling of resentment.3 Unity 19 .1.assumed leadership positions on the basis of their education in Western universities and colleges. They resented against the unequal treatment they received as “Negroes” despite their intellectual excellence. Out of the depths we cry to our own sleeping souls. 3. In the resolution of the Second Pan African Congress that was presented to the League of Nations. music and other forms of literature heralded the cry of the oppressed souls.. they vehemently rejected the practice of this injustice on the class they represented: “. The answer is written in the stars” (Padmore 1047). personal insult. The legacy of such rhetorical use of language was effectively utilised by Martin Luther King Jr. and despair is widespread in the world among those very persons whose rise is the hope of the Negro race” (Padmore 1947) The use of rhetoric language was also an important legacy of the struggle. The Souls of Black Folk and other essays written by Du Bois and numerous artistic expressions in the form of poetry.

In 1964. as the unity of the black people.The most important contribution of the pan-African movement was the development of the concept of unity among black people. The African Liberation Support committee observed May 25 as Africa’s liberation day and was active in supporting independence movements in Zimbabwe. He also participated in the OAU meeting where he requested the African leaders to sue USA in the UN for its racial injustice. Malcolm X continued to emphasise the importance of the link between Africa and the African Diaspora. were formed to galvanise support for freedom fighters in the continent. the proposal to establish the United States of Africa by Kwame Nkrumah and the current African Union embody the generational aspiration of the Pan-African movements for unity. The African Liberation Support Committee. The pan-African movement contributed for the idea of racial unity and self reliance advocated by Malcolm X. 3. Initially. South Africa and 20 . unity was envisioned in racial lines. The establishment of the Organisation of the African Unity in 1963. League of Colored Peoples and the International African Service Bureau. but eventually it changed its focus to the unity of causes than that of race/s. During his period. Malcolm X travelled to Africa and gave speech in Ghana and Nigeria.4 Solidarity During the 1960s and 1970s Pan-Africanism in the Diaspora played a supportive role in the anti-colonial struggle. Almost every black movement and organisation had for its name the word unity or union. Pan-Africanism started to be considered as an international expression of Black Power (Harlow 1994:169).1. Although no African leader had implemented his request.

Among these were: The Ethiopian Research Council. it did not restrict the participation of white activists in the struggle.Namibia. The Provisional Committee for the Defence of Ethiopia. the idea of African unity on the basis of race has been changed to unity on the basis of economic and geo-political interests. The cause is not in the skin Its war over wheat-fields and coal pits Over clothing and houses milk and bread. and a chance for peaceful and accelerated development of black folk’ (Padmore 1947). This contributed to greater unity during the civil-rights movement. The Friends of Ethiopia. only to be forced back by the British (Campbell 1994:292-294). but broader cooperation with the white rulers of the world. 21 . when the first Pan-African congress was established by the membership of only 50 blacks. For example. The Medical Committee for the Defence of Ethiopia. In south Africa. The United Aid for Ethiopia and others (Johnson 2007:132). Although pan-Africanism was initially motivated by racial oppression. In Africa too. Du Bois outlining the vision of the Pan-African movement mentioned that:‘ out of these there might come not race war and opposition. farmers who heard the invasion of Ethiopia began to march up the continent to fight for Ethiopia’s liberation. Following the invasion of Ethiopia by Mussolini in 1935. several organisations and campaigns were organised in the spirit of Pan-Africanism. to help the country regain its sovereignty. the Ku Klux Clan party killed black and white riders together. there were 150 white honorary members supporting the congress. Moreover. during the Freedom Riders Movement. Early poetic voices of black anti-racial movements also underscored the unity of cause over race.

Currently. as a search for distinct identity from the West. Cultural movements and their leaders have been repressed and replaced by Westernised elites who lead Africa along the contradictory paths of opposing the West and imitating the West. philosophies and ideologies. However.Africanism as a collective response of black people to Eurocentric hegemony can be viewed as one of the longest and widest forms of social movements in history. and as a movement towards a rightful space within the established order of the West. (Kelley 1997:44). Although its political impact is significantly low. The long history of Pan-Africanism can be viewed in light of two paradoxical movements: as a take-off-Africa movement.African Parliament with the view to facilitate continental integration by enhancing the involvement of the African people and grass-root organisations on issues affecting the continent. It still is a continuing mantra sing along by various formal and informal groups under a variety of beliefs. with the development of new global and local forces of homogenization. Conclusion Pan.We against them Slaves against masters Fuse and fire You from the black breast I from the white It’s war for the earth. 22 . and as a back-to-Africa movement. the Pan-African project conformed to the Hortonian paradigm of take-off to European modernity.. the African Union has created a Pan . the Diaspora is considered as a regional unit in the current African unity project..

23 . H. S. (1994). G. Lemelle and R. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. it may not be too late to pay heed to the counsel of Frantz Fanon. Imagining Home: Class. (1998). Kelley. and the future of Pan-Africanism is uncertain.to create the new than to imitate the old (Fanon 1965). Reggae Routs: The Story of Jamica Music. New york and London. W.Africanism and African Liberation. Pan . Verso: 285-307. D. Campbell. yet. Chen.The world is still experiencing unprecedented turmoil. Temple University Press. Philadelphia.

Idiologies of Liberation in Black Africa. N. Du Boise. Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the United States and South Africa. Minnessota. (1965).). C. A. 24 . B. Memmi. London.C. Bedford Books. A. Writers and Assaainations. London. (1994). Kelley. Boston and New York. Brill. Hensbroek. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. F. The Worrior Tradition in Modern Africa. Lemelle and R. (1996). (1999). Verso. D. A. To the World: Manifesto of the Second Pan-African Congress Modern Black Nationalism: From Marcus Garvey to Louis Farrakhan. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. W. D. London and New York. boston. Verso. London. Deburg. (1983). NY. S. Lemelle and R. Verso: 308-330. (1997). D. G. G. Imagining Home: Class. London. (1997).. Mazuri.E. Praeger Publishers. Imagining Home: Class. (1994). E. Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks. B. (1997). B. Fredrickson. D. A. Kelley. Beacons. W. Leiden E. Frantz. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. Macgibbon and Kee Frank M.Africanism or Classical African Marxism. G. 'Afric Sons with Banner Red': African-American Communists and the Politics of Culture. P. V. Political Discourses in African Thought. Revolutionaries to Race Leaders : Black power and the making of African American politics. (1965). (1979). 1919-1934. Lemelle and R. W. S. Snowden. The Souls of Black Folk. Masilela. R. Imagining Home: Class. Langley. Harvard University Press. L. Address to the World by the Pan-African Congress. The Wretched of the Earth. The History of Herodotus by Herodutous. B.Du Bois. G. A. G. The Internet Classics Archive. New York. Herodotus (440 B. University of Minnesota Press. (2007). 1900. M. London and New York. J. Pan . S. Newyork Univeristy Press. E. J. London. Johnson. (1977). New York London. The Coloniser and the Colonised. Ed. Oxford University Press Harlow. Kelley. Kelley. V.

(1994). Kelley. Pan-Africanism and Apartheid: African-American Influence on US Foreign Policy. The Seventh Pan-African Congress: Notes from North American Delegates. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. Lemelle and R. S. 25 . L. Rastafarians and Ethiopianism. a programme of action: History of the Pan-African Congress held in Chorlton Town Hall. S. Ed. et al. Lemelle and R. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. Manchester. Verso.. (1997). Verso: 351360. Verso. W. Kelley. Kelley. D. G. London and New York. London and New York. (1947).October 15th-19th 1945! . S. G. A. Imagining Home: Class. G. (1994). Tongun.. G. Lemelle and R. London and New York. G. Alkalimat. Imagining Home: Class. Imagining Home: Class.Nelson. Padmore. Watkins. Colonial and coloured unity. Hammersmith Bookshop. H. Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. D. D. A.

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