Summer Training Report




With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to everyone for helping me complete the training here. I do extend my heartful thanks to Ms. Rachna Singh Bahal for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS / NTPC for their cooperation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training incharge of IIT Kharagpur and all the faculty members of Electical (Instrumentation) Engineering Department for their effort of constant co- operation, which have been a significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.




This is to certify that SHANU KUMAR, a 2nd year B.Tech student of Instrumentation Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, has successfully completed his Industrial Training at National Thermal Power Corporation, New Delhi for 6 week from 9th May 2011 to 18st June 2011. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him.

Training Incharge NTPC Badarpur, Badarpur, New Delhi


senior student reports and trainers manuals and power journals provided by training department. I was assigned the following division of the plant:  Control and Instrumentation ( C & I ) These 6 weeks training was a very educational adventure for me. This report has been made by my experience at BTPS. It was really amazing to see the plant by yourself and learn how electricity. SHANU KUMAR 4 . The material in this report has been gathered from my textbook. which is one of our daily requirements of life.TRAINING AT BTPS I was appointed to do 6 week training at this esteemed organization from 9th may to 18th June. is produced. 2011. The specification and principles are as learned by me from the employees of each division of BTPS.

CONTENTS       5 .

The total installed capacity of the company is 34194 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations. with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. 9000 MW through Hydro generation. By 2017.ABOUT NTPC NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India.5% is held by FIIs. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10. Within a span of 35 years. In addition under JVs. Public and others. the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW. Public Sector Company. 6 . 10000 MW through gas. Government of India holds 89. 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. construction and operation of power generating plants and providing consultancy to power utilities in India and abroad. about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000 MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Domestic Banks. At present. subsidiaries and takeover of stations. NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged growth strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects. expansion of existing stations. NTPC's core business is engineering. joint ventures. located across the country.

Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. NTPC‟s share at 31 Mar 2001 of the total installed capacity of the country was 24. 2006 was INR 58.51% and it generated 29. Net Profit after Tax for the quarter ended June 30. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c.NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels.202 million. Although the company has 18.65% more than for the same quarter in the previous financial year. it set up Ash Utilization Division.88BU of electricity was produced by its stations in the financial year 2005-2006. 2005). NTPC is committed to the environment. 2006 was INR 15528 million.79% of the total national capacity it contributes 28. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land.60% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.68% of the power of the country in 2008-09. A graphical overview 7 . In 1991. which is 18. generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. Every fourth home in India is lit by NTPC. The Net Profit after Tax on March 31. 170.

Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector. The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies. Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Garmin Vidyutikaran. Corporate Social Responsibility     As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives. The Environment Management Group. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. Environment Management        All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified. NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0. Consultant role “Partnership in Excellence” Programme for improvement of PLF of 15 Power Stations of SEBs. Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection. Group on Clean Development Mechanism 8 . Afforestation Group. Ash Utilization Division.Technological Initiatives      Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW. Various groups to care of environmental issues.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare. The company sets aside up to 0. Partnering government in various initiatives     Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country. Mechanism‟ to help get / earn „Certified Emission Reduction. Launch of Energy Technology Centre -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D.5% of the profits for R&D.

000 MW company by 2017. NTPC became a listed company with majority Government 2004 ownership of 89. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power 2009 2012 2017 generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 317th in the world. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world. NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its 2005 2008 changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility. In the last 30 years.000 MW generation capacity. NTPC has also set up a plan to achieve a target of 50. 1997 In 1997. Government of India granted NTPC status of “Navratna‟ being one of the nine jewels of India. NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75. enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors.5%.JOURNEY OF NTPC 1975 NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. 9 .

2006 through GOI‟s Gazette Notification .July 1973 Unit II.Given below are the details of unit with the year they are installed.95 MW .06. Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.95 MW March 1975 Unit IV .2006 through GOI‟s Gazette Notification 10 .06. Address: Telephone: Fax: Installed Capacity Derated Capacity Location Coal Source Water Source Beneficiary States Unit Sizes Badarpur.210 MW .210 MW December 1978 Unit V . There were 2 more units (95 MW each) installed in next 2 consecutive years.26949523 26949532 720 MW 705 MW New Delhi Jharia Coal Fields Agra Canal Delhi 3X95 MW 2X210 MW Units Commissioned Unit I. Now it has total five units with total capacity of 720 MW.December 1981 Transfer of BTPS to NTPC Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.ABOUT BTPS Badarpur thermal power station started working in 1973 with a single 95 mw unit. New Delhi – 110 044 (STD-011) .95 MW August 1974 Unit III.

where it is ground to powder form. This Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs 11 . Coal is transported to Bowl mills by Coal Feeders. which are spaced 120 apart. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. This table is rotated with the help of a motor.BASIC STEPS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION The basic steps in the generation of electricity from coal involves following steps:    Coal to steam Steam to mechanical power Mechanical power to electrical power COAL TO ELECTRICITY: BASICS The basic steps in the generation of coal to electricity are shown below: Coal to Steam Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. There are three large steel rollers. When there is no coal. The coal is pulverized in the Bowl Mill.

Fan takes atmospheric air. This steam and water mixture is again taken to thee boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Fan. a part of which is sent to Air-Preheaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P.up between roller and the table and ths forces the rollers to rotate. Coal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and the rotating table.D. P. 12 .A. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to the bottom ring header.A. Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. the water rises up in the water wall tubes. Due to heat and density difference. Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. Atmospheric air from F.

The superheaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540C) and finally it goes to the turbine. which maintains balance draft in the furnace (-5 to –10 mm of wcl) with forced draft fan. These flue gases emit their heat 13 . Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan.Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for superheating.

Finally. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a „stage‟ of turbine and in practice many stages are necessary. Steam to Mechanical Power From the boiler. where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. which are electrically charged. The second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of steam. Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. (This depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required from the generator). 14 . Stop valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor.energy to various super heaters in the pent house and finally pass through air-preheaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high-pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates. its temperature and pressure fall and it expands. so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine. The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades. Electrostatic Precipitator consists of metal plates. operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used. a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to shut-off the steam in case of emergency) and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. driven from the main turbine shaft. the steam is taken to the low-pressure cylinders. so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them. each of which enters at the centre flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine blades through an arrangement called the „double flow‟. Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine.to the extremities of the cylinder.

15 . which causes induced electricity to be produced. regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam. which is coupled to tha of the turbine. It is a close cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again.Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine. BASIC POWER PLANT CYCLE A simplified diagram of a thermal power plant The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour+ liquid) phase cycle. also rotates. The cycle used is Rankine Cycle modified to include superheating of steam. the shaft of the generator. Mechanical Power to Electrical Power As the blades of turbine rotate. It results in rotation of the coil of the generator.

Regenerative feed water heating. the effect being to increase the average temperature at which heat is added to the cycle. the exhaust wetness is considerably less than it would otherwise be conversely. IP turbine. to a reheat.On large turbines. if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed. which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. By returning partially expanded steam. Bleed Steam Extraction: For regenerative system. Condenser pressure. thus improving the cycle efficiency. the average temperature at which the heat is added. of non-regulated extractions is taken from HP. FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL CYCLE EFFICIENCY Thermal cycle efficiency is affected by following:      Initial Steam Pressure. the initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased. Initial Steam Temperature. it becomes economical to increase the cycle efficiency by using reheat. by expanding this reheated steam to the remaining stages of the turbine. nos. 16 . is increased and. Whether reheat is used or not. Regenerative heating of the boiler feed water is widely used in modern power plants. and if used reheat pressure and temperature.

pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator.) Steam Generator or Boiler 2.UNITS OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT There are basically three main units of a thermal power plant: 1. Here the steam is superheated to 1. the steam drum. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace.) Electric Generator Steam Generator/Boiler The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter.000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps.1MPa). As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3.) Steam Turbine 3. and the furnace 17 . The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. forming a large fireball at the center. the chemical dosing equipment. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. The generator includes the economizer.200 psi (22. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.

boiler furnace. redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan. induced draft (ID) fan. air preheater (APH). Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator 18 . For units over about 210 MW capacity. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan.with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. two boilers per unit may instead be provided. On some units of about 60 MW. fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. APH. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure.

As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). External View of an Industrial Boiler at BTPS. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum.Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum Once water inside the boiler or steam generator. the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. New Delhi 19 . The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer.

Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. soot blowers.The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. 20 . the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. This process is known as natural circulation. The pulverisers may be ball mills. Fuel Preparation System In coal-fired power stations. rotating drum grinders. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start-up. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns. The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. or other types of grinders. either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils.

New Delhi Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal. Fuel Firing System and Igniter System From the pulverized coal bin. coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces. the furnace 21 . In such cases. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted.Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station.

The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. 22 . the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. Generally. and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan.temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose). This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and. Air Path External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion. Auxiliary Systems Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution.

the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a 23 . Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. For this. a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. Thus. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water.Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler. losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum.

The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. anion and mixed bed exchangers. The DM water. Sometimes. DM water make-up 24 . Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station.Water Demineralising Treatment Plant (DM). such as PVC. a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. For this purpose. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. New Delhi A DM plant generally consists of cation. However. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. being very pure.

turbine rotor are rigidly compounded and the I. and L. heaters thus forming a closed cycle. stage the steam expands in axially opposed direction to counteract the thrust and enters the condenser placed directly below the L. turbine then steam is returned in the boiler for reheating.P stage via 2 numbers of cross over pipes. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated.P turbine has 11 stages and the L. the vacuum side).P.P cylinders.is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.P. The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H. All the 3 rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing number is combined with thrust bearing.P.P has four stages of double flow. 25 . turbine. turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L. In the L.P rotor by lens type semi flexible coupling. The H. The reheated steam from boiler enters I.e. The cooling water flowing through the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate the collected in the hot well of the condenser. with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.P.P and I.P and L. and I.P.P. Steam Turbine MAIN TURBINE: The 210MW turbine is a cylinder tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P.P.P heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to the boiler through H. Turbine. turbine comprises of 12 stages the I.P.P. The condensate collected the pumped by means of 3x50% duty condensate pumps through L. The H.

STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work. From a mechanical point of view, the turbine is ideal, because the propelling force is applied directly to the rotating element of the machine and has not as in the reciprocating engine to be transmitted through a system of connecting links, which are necessary to transform a reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Hence since the steam turbine possesses for its moving parts rotating elements only if the manufacture is good and the machine is correctly designed, it ought to be free from out of balance forces. If the load on a turbine is kept constant the torque developed at the coupling is also constant. A generator at a steady load offers a constant torque. Therefore, a turbine is suitable for driving a generator, particularly as they are both highspeed machines. A further advantage of the turbine is the absence of internal lubrication. This means that the exhaust steam is not contaminated with oil vapour and can be condensed and fed back to the boilers without passing through the filters. It also means that turbine is considerable saving in lubricating oil when compared with a reciprocating steam engine of equal power. A final advantage of the steam turbine and a very important one is the fact that a turbine can develop many time the power compared to a reciprocating engine whether steam or oil.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES A steam turbines two main parts are the cylinder and the rotor. The cylinder (stator) is a steel or cast iron housing usually divided at the horizontal centerline. Its halves are bolted together for easy access. The cylinder contains fixed blades, vanes and nozzles that direct steam into the moving blades carried

by the rotor. Each fixed blade set is mounted in diaphragms located in front of each disc on the rotor, or directly in the casing. A disc and diaphragm pair a turbine stage. Steam turbines can have many stages. A rotor is a rotating shaft that carries the moving blades on the outer edges of either discs or drums. The blades rotate as the rotor revolves. The rotor of a large steam turbine consists of large, intermediate and low-pressure sections. In a multiple-stage turbine, steam at a high pressure and high temperature enters the first row of fixed blades or nozzles through an inlet valve/valves. As the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles, it expands and its velocity increases. The high velocity jet of stream strikes the first set of moving blades. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy, causing the shaft to rotate. The steam that enters the next set of fixed blades strikes the next row of moving blades.

As the steam flows through the turbine, its pressure and temperature decreases while its volume increases. The decrease in pressure and temperature occurs as the steam transmits energy to the shaft and performs work. After passing through the last turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser or process steam system. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy through the impact (impulse) or reaction of the steam against the blades. An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft. Steam expands as it passes through thee nozzles, where its pressure drops and its velocity increases. As the steam flows through the moving blades, its pressure remains the same, but its velocity decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades.


STEAM CYCLE The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapor+liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is „Rankine cycle‟ modified to include superheating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam.

MAIN TURBINE The 210 MW turbine is a tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. and I.P. cylinders. The H.P. turbines comprise of 12 stages, I.P. turbine has 11 stages and the L.P. turbine has 4 stages of double flow. The H.P. and I.P. turbine rotors are rigidly compounded and the L.P. motor by the lens type semi flexible coupling. All the three rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing no. 2 is combined with the thrust bearing The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. turbine. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. turbine the steam is returned in boiler for reheating.


The reheated steam for the boiler enters the I. turbine. turbine stage via 2 nos of cross-over pipes.P.P.P> turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L. The cooling water flowing throughout the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate collected in the hot well of the condenser.P.P. heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to boiler through H.P. From the stop valves steam is supplied to control valves situated in 29 . The condensate collected is pumped by means of 3*50% duty condensate pumps through L. stage the steam expands in axially opposite direction to counteract the trust and enters the condensers placed below the L. In the L. heaters thus forming a close cycle. The Main Turbine TURBINE CYCLE Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through the emergency stop valve.

turbine. In L. Abs is supplied for the gland sealing. Steam for this purpose is obtained from deaerator through a collection where pressure of steam is regulated.P.P. cylinder. The Turbine Cycle The selection of extraction points and cold reheat pressure has been done with a view to achieve a high efficiency.P. turbine through cross-over pipes. turbine. turbine.P. Steam at 1.H. 30 . steam flows back to the boiler for reheating steam and reheated steam from the boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine through two interceptor valves and four control valves mounted on I.P. turbine the exhaust steam condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of L. These are two extractors from H. four from I.P.P.03 g/sq.10 and 1. After flowing through I. turbine and one from L. turbine.P. cylinders on the front bearing end. cm.P. turbine steam enters the middle part of the L. After expansion through 12 stages at the H.P.

 Condenser cooling water temperature: 27000 cu..  Condenser cooling water pressure: 1. 31 . and 4*2 in L. 1881.09 kg /sq.  Ejector steam parameter: 4. turbine exhaust pressure: 27 kg /sq.05 kg /sq.1 kg /sq. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE TURBINE  Type: Tandem compound 3 cylinder reheated type.  Rated steam pressure: 130 kg /sq. cylinder. cm (Abs)  Critical speed: 1585. 2017. Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H. cm.P.  H.P.P.  Number of stages: 12 in H. cm before entering the stop valve.From the condenser. 11 in I.  Rated steam temperature: 535C after reheating at inlet. cm. cm.  Number of bearing.03 to 1. seven.P. M /hr.  Gland steam pressure: 1.0 to 1. 327C  Condenser back pressure: 0.  Steam flow: 670T / hr. heaters by means of 3*50% capacity feed pumps connected before the H. 5 excluding generator and exciter.. cm. heaters. condensate is pumped with the help of 3*50% capacity condensate pumps to deaerator through the low-pressure regenerative equipments.  Lubrication Oil: turbine oil 14 of IOC.  Rated power: 210 MW.  Type of governing: nozzle governing.P.  Number of extraction lines for regenerative heating of feed water.5 kg /sq.P.

 Blades. TURBINE CASINGS HP Turbine Casings:  Outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange.  Both are axially split and a double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades.  Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom.  Sealing system.TURBINE COMPONENTS  Casing.  Stop & control valves.inlet side).  Rotor.  The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all the directions and axially from a fixed point (HP.  Barring gear. 32 .  The inner casing. axially split.  Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. IP Turbine Casing:  The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell construction.  Barrel-type casing suitable for quick startup and loading.  Couplings and bearings.cylindrically.

 The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. IP Rotor:  The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit. balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference across them.  Except the last two wheels. the middle shell. all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades. 33 . riveted to the blades are periphery.  The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell. ROTORS HP Rotor:  The HP rotor is machined from a single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs. is supported at four points on longitudinal beams.  First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shroudings. To adjust the frequency of thee moving blades. lashing wires have been provided in some stages.  The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction.  Independent of the outer shell. which results in reduction of axial thrust.LP Turbine Casing:  The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow unit and has a triple shell welded casing.  In all the moving wheels.  Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides.

 Shroud are used to prevent steam leakage and guide steam to next set of moving blades.  The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings. In the last two rows. VACUUM SYSTEM This comprises of:  Condenser: 2 for 200 MW unit at the exhaust of LP turbine. satellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet-steam erosion.  C.  In all the stages lashing wires are provided to adjust the frequency of blades. o Root. 34 .LP Rotor:  The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs in a shaft. o Shrouds.  Blades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork root fastening.  Blades have three main parts: o Aerofoil: working part. BLADES  Most costly element of the turbine. Pumps: Normally two per unit of 50% capacity.W.  Blades fixed in stationary part are called guide blades/ nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades.  Ejectors: One starting and two main ejectors connected to the condenser locared near the turbine.

Steam exhausted from the LP turbine washes the outside of the condenser tubes.W. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C. This condensate collects in the hot well. passes horizontally through brass tubes to the water tubes to the water box at the other end. Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box.CONDENSER There are two condensers entered to the two exhausters of the L. A typical water cooled condensor 35 . takes a turn. welded to the bottom of the condensers.P. pump through the inlet pipe. turbine. From these. losing its latent heat to the cooling water and is connected with water in the steam side of the condenser. These are surface-type condensers with two pass arrangement. passes through the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the front water box. cooling water leaves the condenser through the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct.

one per unit located around 181 M‟ level in CD bay.5 to 5 kg /cm2 to the three nozzles in the three compartments. special arrangements have 36 . Steam is supplied generally at a pressure of 4. The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other non-condensating gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers. CONDENSATE SYSTEM This contains the following i.1 located at the upper part of the condenser and nos.3 & 4 around 4m level. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles through which condensate is flowing and gets condensed thus after aiding the formation of vacuum. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the second nozzle. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser. the air and pressure zone. iii. Condensate Pumps The function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the desecrator through ejectors. Steam expands in the nozzle thus giving a high-velocity eject which creates a low-pressure zone in the throat of the eject. Deaerator. LP Heater: Normally 4 in number with no.EJECTORS There are two 100% capacity ejectors of the steam eject type. Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit of 50% capacity each located near condenser hot well. The ejector has three compartments. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam-air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere through the outlet. 2. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure. ii. gland steam cooler and LP heaters.

Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to a lower value as far as possible. Condensate passes through these four L. depending upon the individual circumstances. whose function is to remove the dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals. Heater-1 has two parts LPH-1A and LPH-1B located in the upper parts of the condenser A and condenser B. Residual 37 .P.P. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit. Heaters Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions. These are of horizontal type with shell and tube construction. These heaters are equipped with necessary safety valves in the steam space level indicator for visual level indication of heating steam condensate pressure vacuum gauges for measurement of steam pressure.2 kg/ cm2 . L. which are utilized for heating the condensate. There are 410 W pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used.been made for providing sealing.3 and 4 are of similar construction and they are mounted in a row of 5m level. The condensate flows in the „U‟ tubes in four passes and extraction steam washes the outside of the tubes. heaters in succession. carbon dioxide and ammonia. principally oxygen. The pump is generally rated for 160 m3/ hr at a pressure of 13. 2. particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore. L.H. etc: Deaerator The presence of certain gases. is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. respectively.P. L.P. They are of vertical construction with brass tubes the ends of which are expanded into tube plate. from turbine bleed steam.

The tray stack is designed to ensure maximum contact time as well as optimum scrubbing of condensate to achieve efficient deaeration. The deaeration column is mounted on the feed storage tank. The feed storage tank is fabricated from boiler quality steel plates.oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified are 0.005/ litre or less. 38 .  Henry‟s Law  Solubility The Deaerator comprises of two chambers:  Deaerating column  Feed storage tank Deaerating column is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of horizontal construction with dished ends welded to it. which in turn is supported on rollers at the two ends and a fixed support at the centre. A Deaerator PRINCIPAL OF DEAERATION It is based on following two laws.

The trays are designed to expose to the maximum water surfaces for efficient scrubbing to affect the liberation of the associated gases steam enters from the underneath of the trays and flows in counter direction of condensate. AC standby oil pumps and emergency DC Oil Pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP). FEED WATER SYSTEM The main equipments coming under this system are:  Boiler feed Pump: Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the „0‟ meter level in the T bay. scrubbing and heating is done. While flowing upwards through the trays. Liberated gases escapes to atmosphere from the orifice opening meant for it. Steam gets condensed above the trays and in turn heats the condensate. The condensate is admitted at the top of the deaerating column flows downwards through the spray valves and trays.  Drip Pumps: generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters.  Turbine Lubricating Oil System: This consists of the Main Oil Pump (MOP).  High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay. (one each per unit) Boiler Feed Pump This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric Motor through a hydraulic coupling.Manholes are provided on deaerating column as well as on feed storage tank for inspection and maintenance. This opening is provided with a number of dlflectors to minimize the loss of steam. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced 39 . Thus the liberated gases move upwards alongwith the steam. Starting Oil Pump (SOP).

Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning. This will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes through the last impeller and the end diffuser. The high pressure boiler feed pump is a very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. It passes through the suction branch into the intake spiral and from there. By the use of booster pump in the main pump suction line. Booster Pump Each boiler feed pump is provided with a booster pump in its suction line which is driven by the main motor of the boiler feed pump. it is directed to the first impeller. 40 . One of the major damages which may occur to a boiler feed pump is from cavitation or vapor bounding at the pump suction due to suction failure. always there will be positive suction pressure which will remove the possibility of cavitation. Cavitation will occur when the suction pressure of the pump at the pump section is equal or very near to the vapor pressure of the liquid to be pumped at a particular feed water temperature.lubricated by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value. Function The water with the given operating temperature should flow continuously to the pump under a certain minimum pressure. After leaving the impeller it passes through the distributing passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a certain pressure rise and at the same time it flows over to the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller. Thus the feed water reaching into the discharge space develops the necessary operating pressure. which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump.

In the event of tube rupture in any of the HPH and the level of condensate rising to dangerous level. Lubricating Pressure All the bearings of boiler feed pump. the group protection devices divert automatically the feed water directly to boiler. The thrust bearing is located at the free end of the pump. High Pressure Heaters These are regenerative feed waters heaters operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. An HP heater 41 . These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside. HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by such arrangement. These are generally vertical type and turbine based steam pipes are connected to them. The feed pump consists of two radial sleeve bearings and one thrust bearing. pump motor and hydraulic coupling are force lubricated. heaters. the feed water. The steam is supplied to these heaters to form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves.P. thus bypassing all the 3 H.Therefore all the feed pumps are provided with a main shaft driven booster pump in its suction line for obtaining a definite positive suction pressure. after feed pump enters the HP heaters.

large diameter shaft. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy. emergency oil pump and each per unit. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. A95 MW Generator at BTPS. starting oil pump. the shaft has a number of bearings. in which the shaft rotates. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation.Turbine Oil Lubricating System This consists of main oil pump. New Delhi 42 . are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. The bearing shells. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated. Electric Generator The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely.

This deflection is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing. the turbine steam inlet valve is closed). When it stops completely. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. then the barring gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and bearings are sufficiently low. The shaft therefore warps or bends by millionths of inches.e. Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. only detectable by monitoring eccentricity meters. A Typical Water Cooled Condenser For best efficiency. thus making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. If the unit is shut down for major maintenance. the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism known as "turning gear" or "barring gear" that automatically takes over to rotate the unit at a preset low speed. But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. Therefore.. the turbine starts slowing or "coasting down". Once the unit is "tripped" (i. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 C where the vapour pressure of water is much less than atmospheric 43 . there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram.Barring Gear (or Turning Gear) Barring gear is the term used for the mechanism provided for rotation of the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed (about one revolution per minute) after unit stoppages for any reason. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum.

Thus leaks of noncondensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. A typical water cooled condensor 44 . or once-through water from a river. lake or ocean. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer.pressure. the condenser generally works under vacuum. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere. unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning.

Feedwater Heater A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater.[9] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle. Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibility‟s involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feedwater heater. In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. A Rankine cycle with a 2-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater 45 . The heat content (btu) in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid.

A deaerator typically includes a vertical. Boiler Feed Water Deaerator 46 . Deaerator A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases. The areas known as superheater and reheater. it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler.Superheater As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum. power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. particularly corrosive ones. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine. domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feedwater storage tank. Generally. in order to avoid corrosion of the metal. The steam vapour picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature.

is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet.There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. Hydrogen gas cooling. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups. This system requires special handling during start-up. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid 47 . with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. Auxiliary Systems Oil System An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional trayed deaerator. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. in an oil-sealed casing. the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Generator Heat Dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. the bearing and seal oil systems. a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system. If operated properly.005 cm3/L). larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. the governing control valves.

Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere.5 kV in smaller units to 15. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators.5 kV bus system.5kV. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. Thus. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 10. Generator High Voltage System The generator voltage ranges from 10. an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings.75 kV in larger units.rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Other Systems Monitoring and Alarm system 48 . Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 15.75kV and water is conductive. The generator also uses water cooling. generating at 10. Demineralised water of low conductivity is used. In smaller units.

Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power.Most of the power plant‟s operational controls are automatic. This is essential for safe. the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range. Thus. when needed. at times. communication systems. damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. manual intervention may be required. and emergency lighting. 49 . turbine lube oil pumps. to essential items such as the power plant's control systems. However.


Pump Hydrogen Tank Gate Agra canal 51 .RAW WATER CYCLE Agra Canal Gate Intake Channel WTP DM Tank Control Structure Circulating Water pump Make up pump Condenser Cooling Tower Generator Out Gate Channel C.T.





Transmitter is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids.CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC. Protection and interlocks lab 3. all fall under this. Control and instrumentation has following labs: 1. Manometry lab 2. Manometry lab  Transmitters. Electronics lab 5. Instrumentation can be well defined as a technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of a material. Water treatment plant 6. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. Automation lab 4. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry. 56 . its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. Furnaces Safety Supervisory System Lab 1.

Protection and Interlock Lab  Interlocking. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. current. It is of two types : (a) Spiral type : for low pressure measurement and (b) Helical type : for high pressure measurement 2. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. RELAY It is a protective device.  Manometer. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. Its one end is fixed. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. When The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers.It‟s a tube which is bent. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time.They are used with combination of the control circuits to. When a fault 57 . FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. Bourden Pressure Gauge.  Miniature Circuit Breaker. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. 2. which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. in U shape. phase angle and velocity.It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage. It is filled with a liquid.It‟s an oval section tube. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. one movable and other fixed. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. In consists of current carrying contacts. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small.

There are three types of MANUAL TRIP .C supply.  Pyrometry Lab Liquid in glass thermometer .occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails.C supply. Earlier.415 KV A.SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP. the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. This is an important part in the plant. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks.  Thermocouples . The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System.This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0.THERMAL TRIP .  Protection and Interlock System. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start.1. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. 58 .  Ultra violet censor. 4. 2. However. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature.This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. Automation Lab This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. 3.Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places.

59 . The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. 6. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and preheater air along each of the feeder-mills. In this lab. cards auto analyzers etc.It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. integrated circuits. 5. Furnace Safety and Supervisory System Lab This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. It extracts the magnetic portion. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. Transmitter converts mV to mA. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Electronics Lab This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. RTD(Resistance temperature detector) . to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace. 2. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans.Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. It is made up of mild steel. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes. which threatens to blast it. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices).

the modulating portion of the automation system keeps the actual generated power value within the limits of the desired load demand. power generation in stable or put During plant start-up and shut-down. such as a power station. During stable generation of power. sequence controllers as well as long range modulating controllers in or out of operation every piece of the plant. This load transfer is executed according to pre. at the correct time and in coordinated modes. This subsection presents the application of a control system for the automation of a process / plant. In this last application. During major load changes. such as office automation. the automation actively controls the plant during the three main phases of operation: plant start-up. 60 . taking into account safety as well as overstressing limits.AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATION: THE DEFINITION The word automation is widely used today in relation to various types of applications. to automatically bring the individual processes in an optimally coordinated way to the new desired load demand. plant or process automation.programmed adaptively controlled load gradients and in a safe way. the automation system automatically redefines new set points and switches ON or OFF process pieces.

even in case of disturbances in the control system. Even a well. via:    Faster plant start-up through elimination of control errors creating delays. Faster sequence of control actions compared to manual ones. Prevent sub-process and process tripping chain reaction following a process component trip. via:   Protection of individual process components against overstress (in a stable or unstable plant operation). via:   Coordinated ON / OFF and modulating control switchover capability from a sub process to a redundant one. Figures 1 shows the sequence of a rapid restart using automation for a typical coal-fired station. shut-down and operation. Co-ordination of house load to the generated power output.trained operator crew would probably not be able to bring the plant to full load in the same time without considerable risks. The increase of these two factors is achieved through a series of features summarized as follows:  Optimisation of house load consumption during plant start.  Reduce plant / process shutdown time for repair and maintenance as well as repair costs.AUTOMATION: THE BENEFITS The main benefits of plant automation are to increase overall plant availability and efficiency. where process components are protected against overstress 61 .up.  Ensure and maintain plant operation. Bringing processes in a safe stage of operation.

PROCESS STRUCTURE Analysis of processes in Power Stations and Industry advocates the advisability of dividing the complex overall process into individual sub-processes having distinctly defined functions. While the hierarchical structure is governed in the horizontal direction by the number of drives (motorised valves. these being the: -  Drive Level  Function Group Level  Unit Level. 62 .. dampers.g. there is a distinction made between three fundamental levels. belong the individual process equipment and associated electrical drives. Thus at the time of planning it is necessary to identify each function group in a clear manner by assigning it to a particular process activity. etc. etc. Blooming Mill Control. fans. To the Drive Level.) in other words the size of the process. The Function Group is that part of the process that fulfils a particular defined task e. the lowest level. The drive levels are subordinate to this level. results in a hierarchical process structure. Induced Draft Control. in the vertical direction. pumps. Each function group contains a combination of its associated individual equipment drives. The function groups are combined to obtain the overall process control function at the Unit Level. Feed Water Control. termed as FUNCTIONAL GROUPS. This division of the process in clearly defined groups. The above three levels are defined with regard to the process and not from the control point of view.

a microprocessor based intelligent remote multiplexing system. SYSTEM OVERVIEW The control and automation system used here is a micro based intelligent multiplexing system This system. designed on a modular basis. allows to tighten the scope of control hardware to the particular control strategy and operating requirements of the process Regardless of the type and extent of process to control provides system uniformity and integrity for:  Signal conditioning and transmission  Modulating controls 63 . BHEL‟s PROCONTROL P®. the control system structure should map on to the hierarchy process structure. In other words. meets this requirement completely.CONTROL SYSTEM STRUCTURE The primary requirement to be fulfilled by any control system architecture is that it be capable of being organized and implemented on true process-oriented lines.

CONTROL AND MONITORING MECHANISMS There are basically two types of Problems faced in a Power Plant   Metallurgical Mechanical Mechanical Problemcan be related to Turbines that is the max speed permissible for a turbine is 3000 rpm . Monitoring of all the parameters is necessary for the safety of both:   Employees Machines So the Parameters to be monitored are :          Speed Temperature Current Voltage Pressure Eccentricity Flow of Gases Vaccum Pressure Valves 64 . so speed should be monitored and maintained at that level Metallurgical Problem can be view as the max Inlet Temperature for Turbile is 1060 oC so temperature should be below the limit.

It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure measurements are needed. A typical Bourdon tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input on one end and is coupled mechanically to an indicating needle on the other end. Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages For Switches pressure swithes are used and they can be used for digital means of monitoring as swith being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low.  Level Vibration PRESSURE MONITORING Pressure can be monitored by three types of basic mechanisms    Switches Gauges Transmitter type For gauges we use Bourden tubes : The Bourdon Tube is a non liquid pressure measurement device. as shown schematically below. 65 .

0.All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter. ACCURACY : + . Programmable Logic Circuits ( PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heardt of Instrumentation . Start Pressure in line HL switch Pressure Electricity AND Level low Level High pump Stop LL switch High level Electricity OR Pressure Electricity BASIC PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISM 66 . The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under   Voltage : 0 – 10 Volts range Current : 4 – 20 milliAmperes We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks.1 % The whole system used is SCADA baseD. Accuracy of such systems is very high .

available in a wide variety of probes. Sensitivity is approximately 41 µV/°C. It is inexpensive and. So that if R changes then the Voltage also changes RTDs used in Industries are Pt 100 and Pt1000 67 . Thermocoupkle selection depends upon two factors:   Temperature Range Accuracy Required Normally used Thermocouple is K Type Thermocouple: Chromel (Nickel-Chromium Alloy) / Alumel (Nickel-Aluminium Alloy) This is the most commonly used general purpose thermocouple. They are available in the −200 °C to +1200 °C range.TEMPERATURE MONITORING We can use Thernocouples or RTDs for temperature monitoring Normally RTDs are used for low temperatures. owing to its popularity. We pass a constant curre t through the RTD. RTDs are also used but not in protection systems due to vibrational errors.

typically made of glass. For Analog medium thermocouples are used And for Digital medium Switches are used which are basically mercury switches. with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most common. which measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary.1000Ω Pt1000 is used for higher accuracy The gauges used for Temperature measurements are mercury filled Temperature gauges.5 0C ) Pt1000 : 0 0C .Pt100 : 0 0C – 100 Ω ( 1 Ω = 2. A rotameter consists of a tapered tube. causing some measurable effect. so the float rises. with a float inside that is pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. The float 68 . At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow. Floats are made in many different shapes. FLOW MEASUREMENT Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and for monitoring the processes ROTAMETERS: A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. It is occasionally misspelled as 'rotometer'. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters.

They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and that pulse is counted to get the flow rate. For Analog measurements we can use the following methods :       Flowmeters Venurimeters / Orifice meters Turbines Massflow meters ( oil level ) Ultrasonic Flow meters Magnetic Flowmeter ( water level ) Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose .is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. For Digital measurements Flap system is used. accuracy and liquid to be measured so different types of meters used. Turbine type are the simplest of all. 69 . This allows you to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not.

70 .P) Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop.v12). using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet). And we know that rate of flow is given by: Flow = k √ (D. the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction would be given by (ρ/2)(v22 .VENTURIMETERS : Referring to the diagram.

They are :    Pneumatic Valves – they are air or gas controlled which is compressed to turn or move them Hydraulic valves – they utilize oil in place of Air as oil has better compression Motorised valves – these valves are controlled by electric motors 71 .CONTROL VALVES A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases. where they play a major role in engine cycle control. like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft. military. closing. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in everyday life. Others are used in a controlled way. slurries. Valves are technically pipe fittings. Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial. and plug valves are often quarter-turn valves. So there are basically three types of valves that are used in power industries besides the handle valves. If the handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90°) between operating positions. Some valves are driven by pressure only. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid. Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. fluidized solids. residential. they are mainly used for safety purposes in steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators attached to the stem. or liquids) by opening. but many more are used. or partially obstructing various passageways. or hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water. Butterfly valves. ball valves. transportation. commercial. but usually are discussed separately. the valve is called a quarter-turn valve.

There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting. This method is known as PURGING. which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal combustion. Fire takes place in front and in rear side. PRESSURE SWITCH Pressure switches are the devices that make or break a circuit. Examples of pressure valves: 1. When pressure is applied . That‟s why its called front and rear type boiler. It is a microprocessor based programmable logic controller of proven design incorporating all protection facilities required for such system. Motorized valves (actuator) – works on motor action 3. Main objective of FSSS is to ensure safety of the boiler. Hydraulic valve 72 . The 210 MW boilers are direct type boilers (which means that HSD is in direct contact with coal) firing takes place from the corner. The 95 MW boilers are indirect type boilers. this is to evacuate or burn the HSD. Time delay can also be included in sensing the pressure with the help of pressure valves. Manual valves (tap) 2. IGNITER SYSTEM Igniter system is an automatic system.FURNACE SAFEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM FSSS is also called as Burner Management System (BMS). Pneumatic valve (actuator) _ works due to pressure of compressed air 4. the switch under the switch gets pressed which is attached to a relay that makes or break the circuit. Thus it is also known as corner type boiler. it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is brought in front of the oil guns.

73 .

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