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WAY TO WISDOM An Introduction to Philosophy .



Copyright ig$i by Karl Jaspers in England Copyright ip$4 by Yale University Press in the United States Seventh printing. Connecticut All rights reserved. New Haven. This book in may not be reproduced. whole or in part. in any form (except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publishers. December 1964 Printed in the United States of America by The Carl Purington Rollins Printing-Office of the Yale University Press. .

The World VIII. The History of Man X. The Philosophical Life XII. Sources of Philosophy III. The Idea of God V. What Is Philosophy? Page 7 17 II. Bibliography Index .CONTENTS Ihapter I. Philosophy and Science 147 II. The History of Philosophy no 120 132 APPENDICES I. The Unconditional Imperative VI. The Independent Philosopher XI. Faith and Enlightenment 74 85 96 IX. The Comprehensive 28 39 52 IV. On Reading Philosophy 168 195 201 III. Man 63 VII.


re IS PHILOSOPHY? is /Vhat philosophy and how much it is worth matters of controversy. like the sciences. or one may think of it as hopelessly lifficult. what goes by the name of philosophy provides examples to warrant all these :onflicting judgments. its relevance is limited to a special sphere of the knowable. the worst aspect of philosophy is that it produces no universally valid ^esults. Beyond any .ompellingly certain and universally recognized indespite thousands of years of >ights. For the scientific-mnnded. has done nothing of the sort. Whereas the sciences in their fields have gained . One may look ipon it with awe as the meaningful endeavour of excepional men or despise it as the superfluous broodings of Jreamers. And indeed. One may expect it to yield xtraordinary revelations or one may view it with ndifference as a thinking in the void. One may take the attitude that it is the . it provides nothing that we can know and thus possess.I WHAT . Any insight which for cogent t-easons is recognized by all has ipso facto become scientific knowledge and ceased to be philosophy. definitive knowledge.oncern of all men. I Nor is characterized philosophical thought. and hence must be basically simple tnd intelligible. endeavour. philosophy. This is undeniable: in philosophy there is no generally accepted. by progressive development.

But essentially philosophy springs from a different source. method are indispensable to understanding. beyond th. it is an inner certainty in which a man's whole being participates. as dis tinguished from the sciences.WAY TO WISDOM doubt. with a truth which. Whereas it is recognized that in the sciences study. philosophy deals with the wholei| of being. It emerges before any science. in philosophy men generally assume that they are competent to form an opinion without preliminary study. training. But we are scarcely entitled ti say that we have progressed beyond Plato. wherever it is manifested. moves us more deeply than any scientific knowledge. It always reckons with the most advanced scientific findings of its time. certainty to scientific sort. which concerns man as man. that in any of its forms i must dispense with the unanimous recognition of alii we have which it aspires is not of the objective. Systematic philosophy is indeed bound up with the sciences. In philosopbj scarcely regained his level. wherever men achieve awareness. Our own . We hav only advanced beyond his materials. It lies in the very nature of philosophy. the knowledge of which is by no means indis-^ pensable to all men. The The existence of such a philosophy without science is revealed in several striking ways First: In philosophical matters almost everyone believes himself capable of judgment. we are far more advanced than Hippocratej< the Greek physician.| scientific findings itself of which he made use. which is the same for every mind. Whereas science always pertains to particular^ objects.

he stands before this ultimate ! A reality. our own destiny. clearings at night . Another boy hears the story of the Creation In the and beginning God made heaven and earth immediately asks. that no conclusive answer is possible. that there is no stopping place for the mind. this mystery that can be apprehended through nothing slse.. A little girl out walking in the woods with her father listens to his stories about the elves that dance in the : ." Her father shifts over to realities. but I'm always myself. "What was before the beginning?" This child has sensed that there is no end to questioning. . Second: Philosophical thought must always spring prom free creation. Questioningly.. limself. . . Every man must accomplish it for s justified. awareness of being through awareness of self. He is perplexed at the mystery of his I. It is not uncommon to hear from the mouths )f children words which penetrate to the very depths )f philosophy. "But there are no elves .hink that I am somebody else. marvellous indication of man's innate disposition o philosophy is to be found in the questions asked by :hildren. A few examples: A child cries out in wonderment. describes the motion . .WHAT (IS IS PHILOSOPHY? strike pmanity. "I keep trying to ." This boy has touched on one of the universal sources of :ertainty. our own experience as a sufficient basis for philosophical opinions. This notion that philosophy must be accessible to all The circuitous paths travelled by specialists n philosophy have meaning only if they lead man to m awareness of being and of his place in it.

foot. as though it had never been! "But there must be something that always stays thef I'm climbing these stairs on my way to see* same my aunt that's something I'll never forget." This child was seized with the wonder o\\ existence: things do not exist through themselves." says her father. — 10 . She begins to reflect on how everything^ changes. but such an] objection obviously does not apply to the child's really! serious questions. It is sometimes said that the children must have heard all this from their parents or someone else. Another little girl is climbing the stairs on her way toS visit her aunt.WAY TO WISDOM of the sun. I only believe see. . you can't see Him either. . passes." The littk: puzzled for a moment. . flows. and explains the reasoni for supposing that the earth is round and rotates on itij axis . To argue that these children do not! continue to philosophize and that consequently such! utterances must be accidental is to overlook the fact that children often possess gifts which they lose as they grow up. Anyone who chose to collect these stories might compile a rich store of children's philosophy." says the little girl and stamps her what girl is I earth stands still. With the years we seem to enter into a prison' |j . we wouldn't bel here at all." "Then. "you don'ii "The believe in God. discusses the question of whether it is th< sun or the earth that revolves. And| she understood that there is a difference between! questions bearing on particular objects in the world! and those bearing on our existence as a whole. . but then says with greal| assurance. "Oh. that isn't so." Wonder4 ment and terror at the universal transience of things] here seek a forlorn evasion. "If there weren't any God.

He brgets what for a moment was revealed to him and is urprised when grownups later tell him what he said [uestioned acceptance. Sometimes [he veils of universal occlusion seem to part and [)enetrating truths are manifested. experienced itrangely revealing insights which vanish with full ^vakefulness. But the creative originality to which we pwe great philosophical ideas is not to be sought here put among those great minds and in all history there liave been only a few of them who preserve their icandour and independence. it is Ind : — : — — j always present: in the proverbs handed down by padition. Fourth: Since man cannot avoid philosophy. in popular philosophical phrases. There is brofound meaning in the saying that children and fools [tell the truth. The child still reacts spontaneously to the pontaneity oflife. the child feels and sees and inquires nto things which soon disappear from his vision.ertain mental disorders is often distinguished by hattering metaphysical revelations. And many . leaving behind them only the impression that they can never be recaptured.ane people have. in awaking from sleep. what questions he asked. in dominant II . The beginning of . though they are isually formulated in terms that cannot achieve ignificance exceptions are such cases as Holderlin and ^an Gogh. concealments and unand there we lose the candour of hildhood.WHAT |f IS PHILOSOPHY? conventions and opinions. Third Spontaneous philosophy is found not only in rarely ihildren but also in the insane. But anyone witnessing these revelations :annot help feeling that the mists in which we ordinarily live our lives have been torn asunder.

WAY TO WISDOM idiom of th but most of al since the very beginnings of history. with a body oft! didactic principles purporting to be definitive andj! belie complete. this philosophy. regardless of how many philosophers mayil : it with their dogmatism. The question is onl whether a philosophy is conscious or not. in exalted moments. muddled or clear. To apprehend this reality in man's actual situation is the aim of philosophical endeavour. in myths. in questions are — dogmas and articles of faith. This perfection never resides in formulable knowledge. This meaning of the word still endures the essence ofj philosophy is not the possession of truth but the searchL for truth. but in a historical consummation of man's essence in which being itself is revealed. To be searchingly on the way. There i no escape from philosophy. and indeed. Its more essential than its answers. i philosophy. which manifests itsell and in such strange forms? The Greek word for philosopher {philosophos) connotes a distinction from sophos. that is. Anyone who reject philosophy is himself unconsciously practising in the convictions such as are embodied "emancipated. whether it i good or bad. Philosophy means to be on the way. But this on-the-wayness man's destiny in time contains within it the possibihty of deep satisfaction." in political opinions. or to find peace and 12 . It signifies the lover oli wisdom (knowledge) as distinguished from him whoi is What then so universally considers himself wise in the possession of knowledge. of perfection. and every answer becomes a new question.

Today perhaps we may speak of philosophy following terms to . Only )y thus experiencing philosophy for ourselves can of the bf philosophy. to attempt the communication of every aspect of truth from man to man. in my 13 . the rt of all arts. No formula can exhaust its meaning and none an be exclusive.xperiencing it. the knowledge of being as being. as an endeavour to resemble the divine. Every philosophy defines itself by its realization. We can jletermine the nature of philosophy only by actually . action and discourse on action in one. patiently and unremittingly to sustain the vigilance apprehend myself. It cannot be derived from something else. in the its aim is to find reality in the primal source reality in my thinking attitude toward inner acts to open man to the Comprehensive in all its scope.WHAT ihe fulfilment IS PHILOSOPHY? moment these are no definitions There is nothing above or beside philoophy. as the triving for happiness by the exercise of thought. in loving contest. as the science confined to no particular — eld. and finally (in the roadest sense) as the knowledge of all knowledge. But we can define the nature of philosophy in other ays. In antiquity philosophy was defined by its object) as the knowledge of things divine and uman. or it was efined (by its aim) as learning how to die. Philosophy then becomes the realizition of the living idea and the reflection upon this dea. ve understand — previously formulated philosophical hought.

of reason in the presence of failure and in the presenc of that which seems alien to it. Philosophy is the principle of concentration througl! which man becomes himself, by partaking of reality, h

Although philosophy, in the form of simple, stirring: ideas, can move every man and even children, its conscious elaboration is never complete, must forever b«fl undertaken anew and must at all times be approached! as a living whole ^it is manifested in the works of thei great philosophers and echoed in the lesser philosophers. It is a task which man will face in one form orr another as long as he remains man. Today, and not for the first time, philosophy iss radically attacked and totally rejected as superfluousi^ or harmful. What is the good of it? It does not help usi


in affliction,

Authoritarian church thought has condemned! independent philosophy on the ground that it is a worldly temptation which leads man away from God, destroys his soul with vain preoccupations. Political totalitarianism has attacked it on the ground that philosophers have merely interpreted the world in various ways, when the important thing was to change it. Both these schools of thought regarded philosophy as dangerous, for it undermined order, promoted a spirit of independence, hence of revolt, deluded man
distracted him from his practical tasks. Those who uphold another world illumined by a revealed God and




stand for the exclusive power of a godless here and now would equally wish to extinguish philosophy.





for the simple

And everyday common sense
ardstick of utility,

measured by which philosophy gain fails. Thales, who is regarded as the first of Greek hilosophers, was ridiculed by a slave girl who saw him ill into a well while observing the sky. Why does he ^arch the remote heavens when he is so awkward in is deahngs with the things of this world? Must philosophy then justify itself? That is im>ossible. It cannot justify itself on the basis of a somehing else for which it is useful. It can only appeal to the orces in every man which drive him toward philoophical thought. It is a disinterested pursuit, to which mestions of utility or injuriousness have no relevance, m endeavour proper to man as man, and it will coninue to fulfil this striving as long as there are men alive, iiven those groups which are hostile to it cannot help larbouring their own peculiar ideas and bringing forth pragmatic systems which are a substitute for philosuch as jophy, though subservient to a desired end Marxism or fascism. The existence of even these Isystems shows how indispensable philosophy is to man.

Philosophy is always with us. Philosophy cannot fight, it cannot prove its truth, but it can communicate itself. It offers no resistance where it is rejected, it does not triumph where it gains a hearing. It is a living expression of the basic universality

of man, of the bond between all men. Great systematic philosophies have existed for two and one-half millennia in the West, in China, and in India. A great tradition beckons to us. Despite the

wide variety of philosophical thought, despite all the contradictions and mutually exclusive claims to truth,

One, which no mai about which all serious efforts have at al times gravitated: the one eternal philosophy, th philosophia perennis. We must seek this historical foundaii tion of our thinking if we would think clearly am

in all philosophy a

possesses but



The history of

philosophy as methodical thinkas

began twenty-five hundred years ago, but

thought much earlier. beginning however is something quite different The from the source. The beginning is historical and provides those who follow with a mounting accumula[tion of insights. But it is always from the source that ^he impulsion to philosophize springs. The source alone lends meaning to present philosophy and through it

alone is past philosophy understood. This source is of many kinds. Wonderment gives rise to question and insight; man's doubt in the knowledge he has attained gives rise to critical examination and clear certainty; his awe and sense of forsakenness lead him to inquire into himself And now let us

examine these three


First Plato said that the source of philosophy was wonder. Our eyes gave us "the sight of the stars, the sun and the firmament." This "impelled us to examine

the universe, whence grew philosophy, the greatest good conferred upon mortals by the gods." And Aristotle: "For it is owing to their wonder that men both now begin and at first began to philosophize:

they wondered originally at the obvious then advanced little by little and stated



though he doubted everything else. either taking pleasure in the sceptical negation which recognizes nothing but by itself cannot take a single step forward. jj about the phenomenal of the moon. and I i about the greater matters. the world.. and of the stars." In philosophical thought man awakens from his bondage to practical needs. asks. In my philosophical progress I seize upon doubt and attempt to' apply it radically to everything. They become entangled in hopeless contradictions. j Second Once I have satisfied my wonderment and admiration by knowledge of what is. I have heaped up insights.g. For even a total fallacy in my i8 I i i ." was for him a solid certainty. but upon critical examination : i j | nothing is certain. but for its own sake and not "to satisfy any common need. or inquiring Where then is there a certainty that rises above all \ I : \ I doubt and withstands all critique? Descartes' famous proposition. in any event they do not coincide with what exists in itself outside me. Everywhere | i j I [ proposition stands against proposition.WAY TO WISDOM e. doubt arises. and about the genesis of the universe. the heavens." Wonder impels man to seek knowledge. Without ulterior purpose he contemplates things. Sensory perceptions are conditioned by our sense organs and hence deceptive. what is all this? Where does it come from? From the answers to his questions he expects no profit but an- intrinsic satisfaction. In my wonderment I become aware of my lack of knowledge. and those of the sun. I seek knowledge. "I think. independently of my perception. therefore I am. Our categories are those of our human understanding.

And now let We are situations which remain essentially the same even their shattering if their momentary aspect changes and 19 . Methodical doubt gives rise to a critical examinaion of all knowledge. to clarity and freedom by thought. I am imnersed in things. But the Tucial question is How and where has a foundation or certainty been gained through doubt itself? : While I concentrate my energies upon while I am . I do not think of myself. If they are missed they never But there myself can work to change the situation. Situations change. us take a look at our human state. opportunireturn. mgaged in doubt as a road to certainty. my salvation. irder to SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHY a fallacy which may be beyond my undercannot blind me to the realization that in be deluded in my thinking I must be.he knowledge of things in the world. and without radical doubt here can be no true philosophical thought. but by raising what does depend on me. when I become aware of myself in arises my The Stoic Epictetus said. "Philosophy we become aware of our own weakness and when helplessness''* How shall I help myself in my weakness? His answer was: By looking upon everything that is not within my power as necessary and indifferent to me. of my aims. This changes situation. In forgetfulness of my And third: elf I am content with the attainment of this know- ledge. are always in situations.Linking. namely the mode and content of my ideas. tanding. I ties arise. ny happiness.

and forget that we are at the mercy of chance. we know nothing but our actuality. am subject to chance. I involve myself inexorably in guilt. I obscured: I I must must suffer. we react to them by planning and acting in the world. i i But to ultimate si-tuations we react either by obfuscation or. I must situais 1 struggle. awareness of these ultimate situations is the most profound source of philosophy. here translated as "ultimate situation" is Grenzsituation. j Or we may define our human situation existence. We call these fundamental lions of our existence ultimate situations. by despair and rebirth we become ourselves by a change : j in our consciousness of being. But if we come out of this situation alive we let ourselves slip back into forgetfulness of self and a life of happiness. forget our guilt. under the impulsion of our practical interests.WAY force is TO WISDOM die. the ultimate situations arc the inescapable realities in relation to which alone human life can be made genuinely meaningful. * \ j I i i | i The term j ! ! 20 . Ultimate situations cannot be changed or surmounted . if we really apprehend them.* say. We forget that we must die. This u a concept of central importance for the understanding of Jaspers' thought. by closing our eyes and living as if theyfj did not exist. we are thoughtlessly confident. In happy situations we rejoice at our strength. they can only be acknowledged. Along with wonder and doubt. they are situations That to which we cannot evade or change. by saying j \ that no reliance can be placed in worldly Ingenuously we mistake the world for being as such. as for the understanding of Existentialism. As the context above shows. In our day-to-day lives we often evade them. In pain and weakness we despair. We face only concrete situations and master them to our profit.

together in a community in order to ultimately abolish the endless struggle of all limit and against all.erve . Man . who have stood by a state has never been seen. no has been society offers absolute security. Only if there were other in a states in which every citizen stood to every could justice and freerelation of absolute solidarity dom be secure. Those one another in extremity and weakness have never been more than limited groups. For only then. old age. But in man's domination of nature there remains a an element of the incalculable which represents failure: hard constant threat. But there is a counterweight to the general individuals. they seek to achieve security through Men band mutual aid.o power over nature in order to make it him. and the end is always be done labour. He expects io lis community with other men gains to guarantee his ixistence. Such security the a pleasing delusion of quiet times. in which ultimate situations were veiled. in the whole we can reliance. But here again there is a limit. would all others oppose it as one man. and sometimes no more than a few no church. through science and technology he seeks it make reUable.SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHY Such experience however has sharpened man's Hves drives him ^its. The menace beneath which he his mastery of nature and seek security. No state. if a citizen suffered Such injustice. 21 . sickness and death cannot kway with. Our dominated nature is rehable only place no in isolated cases.

brothers and sisters and friends. in native language. in faith. God is nowhere in the world. Tradition always implies a question. to withdraw to our own freedom in the independence of the mind. Keeping sight of the tradition. What do I do in the face of this — if — fail to absolute failure. husbands and wives. There is a foundation of historical tradition. For we encounter it always as the work of man. chance. because his doctrine affords us no is is empty. and the uncertainty of the world confront me with the reality of failure. and he failed to consider the possibility of madness. The Stoic leaves us without consolation. it is However. the reliable. and artists. man must always derive what for him is certainty. this f j^ not absolutely reliable. He leaves us without hope. . recognize? which I am honest I cannot 1 | advice of the Stoic. no The ultimate situations death. tradition also gives security. dependent on what ! i j i ' opportunity of inner transformation. things that : the work of thinkers. poets. it forbids us to content ourselves with the world it points to something else. He failed to see that the mind in itself The j • I j put into it. from his own primal source.WAY TO WISDOM unreliability of the world : there are in the world things f^^ . is a foundation which sustains us parents and ancestors. guilt. being. is not adequate. lacking all content. the independent mind is barren. 22 no fulfilment i i . The Stoic's perception of man's weakness was not radical enough. But the precariousness of all worldly existence is a warning to us. in faith. worthy of arouse confidence there home and country.

before the unfathomable. because its source is in drive basic the expresses situations. This philosophy cannot provide. Crucial for v^hether it man is his attitude toward failure: remains hidden from him and overwhelms him only objectively at the end or whether limit of his le perceives it unobscured as the constant whether he snatches at fantastic solutions . The way in which man approaches his failure determines what he will become. of philosophy is to be sought doubt. differently formulated. by the very tact that it is md consolations or faces it honestly. Their thought. man seeks redemption. Redemption is offered by the great. universal religions of redemption. In in wonder. in silence possible in the world. in To sum up: The source 23 . Itimate find a revelation of true being in human ailure. analogous to redemption. And yet all philosophy is a transcending of the world. They are characterized by an objective guarantee of the truth and reality of redemption. Or. And yet the Stoics' striving is toward true phil- sophy. Even despair. In ultimate situations man either perceives nothingLess or senses true being in spite of and above all Ephemeral worldly existence. Their road leads to an act of individual conversion. in a sense of forsakenness.xistence. points beyond the jworld. no hopeful expectation f the possible.SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHY irough self-conquest in love.

Compelling certainty limited to the scientific knowledge orient ourselves in the world. moved by wonder to seels Amid infinite uncertainty Descartes sought com the. whicli its determines goal. but beguiles us into withdrawing from the world and succumbing to a pure. Amid the sufferings of repose of the mind. in this age of unprecedented ruin and of potentialities that can only be darkly surmised. magical metaphysic. life the Stoics sought Each of these experiences has its own truth. The discovery that being can be revealed to wonder is a source of inspiration. i^ I. doubt leading to certainty.WAY TO WISDOM any case it begins with an inner upheaval. clothed! always in historical conceptions and language. The inner drive is toward firm foundations. Stoic imperturbability serves us only as a makeshift in is by which we distress. eternity. but in itself remains without content and life. forsakenness leading to the self—cannot by themselves account for our — present philosophical thought. Plato and Aristotle were the nature of being. In this crucial turning point in history. Im making these philosophies our own we penetrate the historical husk to the primal sources that are alive within us. peUing certainty. But for us perhaps none of these is the most fundamental. depth of being. the three motives we have 24 . as a refuge from total ruin. absolute source. These three motives wonder leading to knowledge.

if but they are not is dequate. that there is always someA^here a limit beyond which there appears to be noth:ng but battle without hope of unity. and cannot. clashes other men's faith. :he most visible sign of today's disintegration is that nore and more men do not understand one another. from mind to mind. has always ixisted in fact assumes crucial importance: That I . become one with the Other in truth. lon They can operate only among men. ending inevitably subjugation or annihilation. alone I am nothing. in absolute soUtude. I should not suffer so deeply from lack of communication or find such unique pleasure in authentic communication if I for myself. all there communica- In past history there was a self-evident bond letween man and man. It might be. in astitutions. in stable communities. But I am only in conjunction with the Other. and in universal ideas. hat they meet and that there is no longer any reliable .SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHY lus far considered remain in force. Today a universal situation that hat A^ith my faith. and also from existence 25 .nother. precisely when I am certain. that they are indifferent o one another. that softness and Complaisance cause men without faith either to band blindly together or stubbornly to attack one in ^.ommunity or loyalty. if there were a truth that might satisfy me in my isolation. Even the isolated ndividual was in a sense sustained in his isolation. could be certain of the truth. Communication from understanding to underAll this is standing. not incidental or unimportant.

the ex- j ' perience of ultimate situations. which must all be considered in the light of their meaning. Defence and attack then becom( means not by which men gain power but by v/hicl they approach one another. And this philosophical endeavour is at the same time rooted in the three philosophical experiences we have mentioned. doubt. The certainty of authentic being resides! only in unreserved communication between men whoi live together and vie with one another in a free community. in the drive to authentic communication. for 1 ! And so communication from man to man.! life. is only a medium for impersonal mean ings and values. Only in communication is all other truth fulfilled. but the ultimate source is the will to authentic communication. and only] through man's love of man. The contest is a loving contest in which each man surrenders his weapon}' to the other. subordinated to the Whole. The basic philosophical attitude of which j I am speaking is rooted in distress at the absence of communication. compelling certainty is>' particular and relative. God manifests Himself only indirectly. for i i • 26 i .WAY TO WISDOM to existence. we may say that wonder. and in the possibility of the loving contest which' profoundly unites self and self. only in communication am I myself not merely living but fulfilling. whether favourable or hostile. The Stoical attitude is in fact empty and rigid. are indeed sources of| philosophy. which embraces all the rest.. i. who take nothingi for granted and question everything. This becomes apparent at the very outset. who regard their association with onet! another as but a preliminary stage.

illumination through xpress itself. demand And j love. is not its very a hearing? in turn inseparable jssence communicability. which is |rom truth? Communication then is the aim of philosophy. 27 .SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHY oes not all philosophy strive for communication. and ultimately jn communication all its other aims are iooted: awareness of being. attainment of peace.

spiritualism (everything is spirit). or atoms. hylozoism (the cosmos is a living spiritual : j i 28 . from which inanimate things have merely degenerated. Later thinkers said that everything is fundamentally fire or air or the indeterminate or matter. ideas. . its ideas. which it produces as though in a dream. the being from which everything that is issues? To this there are curiously many answers. the forms of the animate and inanimate. there are many kinds of being. or that the mind is true being and that things are mere appearances. Butt what is true being. the things? in the world. Philosophy began with the question: What is?^ At first sight. which have been known as materialism (everything is matter and mechanical process). that is. It must be intelligible in simple form. all the infinitely many things that come and go. i should it like to speak is most difficult philosophical because philosophical thinking. It of one of thejl an indispensable forms the foundation of all truly. The first venerable answer of the first philosopher is Everything is water and comes from water. I shall attempt to give an intimation of this idea. though its elaboration is a complex affair.f m THE COMPREHENSIVE Here idea. or that life is primal being. the being which holds everything together. Thus we find a great number of metaphysical attitudes. lies at the base of everything.

This basic phenomenon of our consciousness is to us so self-evident that we barely suspect the riddle it presents. which thinks about itself but cannot aptly be thought as an object because it determines the objectness of all objects. such as numbers or geometrical 29 . and yet at the same time we remain a thinking I. [n each view some truth is manifested. Twist and turn as we will we are always in this dichotomy. We call this basic condition of our thinking the subjectobject dichotomy. it is this so? All these Why the object toward which we as subject are oriented. always oriented toward an object. whether the object be the reality of our sense perception. we ourselves become as it were the Other. The thing that we think. of which we speak. is to explain views have one thing in they apprehend being as something which common: confronts me as an object. whether it be the concept of ideal objects. Ivhich all other things sprang.THE COMPREHENSIVE lubstance). If we make ourselves into the object of our thinking. In every case being was Refined as something existing in the world. As long as we are awake and conscious we are always involved in it. But which then is the correct view? Through thousands of years the warring schools have been iinable to demonstrate the truth of any one of them. from and so on. because we do not inquire into it. But each one becomes when it lays claim to exclusiveness and strives all existence. is always something other than ourselves. namely an attitude and a method of inquiry which teach men to see false something in the world. which stands apart from me as I think it.

Determinacy implies differentiation of the one from the other. For the I. As Schopenhauer said. i What is object dichotomy? It can only the meaning of this ever-present subject-^ mean that being as ai whole is neither subject nor object but must be the* Comprehensive. I have in mind nothingness as its antithesis. The Comprehensive does not itself become an object but is manifested in the dichotomy of I and object. We are always confronted outwardly or jo inwardly by objects. it boundlessly illumines the phenomenon. But there is in all thinking a second dichotomy. every thought content stands in first i a twofold dichotomy. in reference to me. the j i 30 . Clearly being as such cannot be an object. j j j | I | Thus every object. The Comprehensive remains obscure to my consciousness. but it is always the Compreobjects j j I hensive. It remains itself a background.WAY TO WISDOM f jtl figures. It becomes clear only through objects. or whether it be a fantasy or even an impossible imagining. And even when I think of being as such. which is manifested in this dichotomy. which are the content of our!t consciousness. there is noj^ object without a subject and no subject without anl object. and. Every determinate object is thought in reference to other objects. while I break away from it as subject. the object is a determinate being. Everything that becomes an object for me breaks away from the Comprehensive in confronting me. takes on greater clarity as the become more conscious and more clear.

that objects. As thought content it can never being itself. But by its form it opens up to us manifest itself to us. Compre^Whatever is thought must break out of the hensive. To philosophize. Ihing. but aspires with transform our consciousness of being.concerning the Comprehensive 31 . is measured by our customary worldly infinite empty. resists seems unnatural. juxtaposed both to the I ^nd to other objects. standing. Let us attempt a further step toward the elucidation of the Comprehensive. by awakening is in us a faculty of sensing what authentically in the phenomenon. possibiUties in which being may and at the same time lends transparency to everything meaning of the world of is. The basic operation by which we raise ourselves not above everything that is thought is perhaps but it seems strange because it does not we then bring knowledge of a new object which the help of the idea to apprehend. and secondly in reference never be eyerypbjects. Our underit. What are the implications of this idea? in it Measured by our customary understanding relation to things. It is a particular. It is not everything else is manifested in it. attuned to the practical. idea.THE COMPREHENSIVE to other hinking subject. never the whole of being. but :he Comprehensive. Because it shows us no new object. It transforms the difficult. the knowledge. Thus in our thinking we gain only an intimation of manifested to us.

we ascertain through the \ I ] ! i source that ferent. what we perceive with our senses. that is to the Comprehensive An example is the thought operation we have just performed. For dichotomy is a relation between things in the world which confront me as objects. of determinate objects. and to a certain measure we succeed in obtaining compelling and universally valid knowledge. As existence we are oriented toward God transcendence and this through the language of things. The moment we state the subject-object dichotomy in which we always find ourselves and which we cannot see from outside. Through object thinking we must gain indices to the nonobject. As understanding we confront tangible things. Neither our understanding nor our vital sensualism \ 32 . Still thinking in images. or as existence toward God. For even as we speak we arei engaged in object thinking. being-there. It is fundamentally difdepending on whether I as understanding am oriented toward objects. but always subject-object ' j I j . This carj only be done indirectly. as we experience in it what achieves reality for us as the presence which men living in our environment. j ' : cannot be reduced to universal knowledge. is present within us a polyvalence in this j 1 dichotomy. — — : I which existence uses as hieroglyphics or symbols. | As being-there. we make it into an object. But this is basically incongruous. This relation becomes] an image by which to express what is not visible and can itself never become object.WAY TO WISDOM would mean to penetrate into being itself. as Dasein. toward my environment.

! God as is object is a reality only for us as existence.THE COMPREHENSIVE apprehends the reality of this symboHsm. Then authentic being opens up to us. India. leaving behind it as we awaken from our trance a Now 33 . though diverse in its expression: man can transcend the subject-object dichotomy and achieve a total union of subject and object. individual. I we are authentically this brief cannot elaborate on Suffice it this statement in the space. we are in a position to understand the meaning of mysticism. For thousands of years philosophers in China. (3) existence. with our basic philosophical operation. we have seen it break down into (i) the understanding. as which we are all identical !(2) being-there. as which we are each of us a particular . and existence. Thus the Comprehensive. jpr consciousness as such. consciousness. is (God) and the world. and the West have given utterance to a thought which is everywhere and at all times the same. while as that which selves are it is Comprehensive. sensible objects susceptible to compelling yknowledge. that. He I situated in an entirely different dimension from the empirical. when we seek to apI prehend it. mind. as which ourselves in our historicity. in which all objectness vanishes and the I is extinguished. to say that conceived as being itself. called transcendence we our- called being-there. breaks down into several modes according to the three modes of the subject-object dichotomy. have loosened the fetters binding us to objects we mistaken for being itself.

and a clear consciousness seeking to penetrate the infinite can never attain the fullness of that source. the theories of fire. The communicable partakes of the subject-object dichotomy. The mystic is immersed in the Comprehensive.WAY TO WISDOM and inexhaustible meaning. On the basis of our philosophical inquiry into the Comprehensive. we shall be better able to understand the great metaphysical theories of history. writes: "Often when I awaken to myself from the slumber of the body. devised by the philosophers out of the 34 . the greatest mystical philosopher of the West. and considered as which they are completely false. this becoming one is the true awakening. I call forth the most glorious life within me. and the awakening to consciousness in the subject-object dichotomy is more in the consciousness of profound nature of sleep. I behold a wondrous beauty: I then believe firmly that I belong to a better and higher world. I have become one with the godhead. For him who has experienced it." We cannot doubt the existence of mystical experience. the mind. Plotinus. nor can we doubt that mystics have always been unable to communicate what is most essential in their experience. they were hieroglyphics of being. But its presence in the background of those philosophical ideas which we call speculative constitutes their content and meaning. the world process. matter. We can speak only of that which takes on object form. etc. All else is incommunicable. For in reality they were not solely the object knowledge as which they are often interpreted.

Once we have ascertained the Comprehensive through our basic philosophical operation.THE COMPREHENSIVE presence of the Comprehensive. Only in articulate object knowledge can our consciousness remain clear. ideas. but only in the Comprehensive which transcends all objects and horizons. all those supposed insights into being. for the elucidation of the self and of being and then at once mistaken for positive objectivizations of authentic being. as being itself. are in error as soon as they interpret anything that is in the world. to perceive being itself. Even when we see through the phenomenon it holds us fast. except in incommunicable mysticism. experiencing its limits through what it surmises at the limit. can our consciousness achieve content. world horizons. this We understand metaphysics as a symbol. For we do not attain this goal by leaving the world. however important and significant. nor in the horizon of our always limited world taken as the sum of phenomena. we realize that all the metaphysics we have listed. When we move amid the phenomena of the world. Even in the thinking which transcends object knowledge we remain in it. But they are the only language in which we can speak when we transcend all objects. we come to realize that we possess being itself neither in the object. phenomena. Through metaphysics we obtain an intimation of the Comprehensive in transcendence. which subject-object transcends the — dichotomy. which becomes continuously more restricted. Only in object knowledge. 35 .

Hence we must always make a reservation: we must retract the object content of what has been said. the guidance from that osophical terms. He actualizes in consciousness the foundation of our life in being. But this is a basic trait of all true philosophical thought. For superstition is chained to the object. And we perceive it only out of the reality of our existence and not out of mere understanding. specifically the essence of superstition. if we would arrive at that experience of the Comprehensive which is not a communicable content resulting from inquiry but an attitude of our consciousness.WAY TOWISDOM But we lose its J meaning if we succumb ideas. But above all we must not look on the symbol of reality as a physical reality like the things which we grasp. live with. which in this sphere declines to see any meaning at all. and toi mistake the materiality of symbols for reality is. To regard the object as being is the essence of all dogmatism. to irresponits content is manifested to us only if we perceive the reality in the symbol. faith is rooted in the sible aesthetic enjoyment of its For I Comprehensive. And now the last methodological consequence of our experience of the Comprehensive the consciousness of the discontinuity of our philosophical thinking. It is not my knowledge but my consciousness of being that changes. : think of the Comprehensive in philwe are making an object of what is essentially not an object. and only in that medium. When we 36 . Man soars to the Comprehensive in the medium of determinate object thinking. and consume.

Hence our drive toward clarity. It is an idea that frees us from every existent. because as object it is inadequate. Being itself. In the general philosophical idea he leaves room for its realization in the present. Being can only be for us on condition that it become present to the rnind in the dichotomy of subject and object. It is as it were an idea that turns us about. which is in truth a liberation for authentic By our rebirth in philosophy the meaning and 37 . the absolute. disintegrates. presses upon our consciousness in object form which. not by reHnquishing it but by carrying it to the extreme. the basic mood and meaning from the fetters he frees us Awareness of the subject-object dichotomy as the fundamental fact of our thinking existence and of the Comprehensive that becomes present in it gives us the freedom needed for philosophy. It compels us to turn back from the impasse of absolutization. leaving behind the pure clarity of the presence of the Comprehensive. the loss of them is nihilism. For those who found support in the absoluteness of things and in a theory of knowledge confined to objects. philosophical thinking passes through this nihilism. the foundation of all things. out of the essence of the I fulfilling itself. Our being.THE COMPREHENSIVE iactivity. sphere. of our Hfe and of determinate thinking. Exclusive reality and truth cannot be imputed to that which discourse and object thinking have made determinate and hence finite. That which is present only obscurely must be apprehended in object form.

value of 38 . apparent Nothingness is transformed into that from which authentic being speaks to us. though always limited. what seemed an abyss becomes space for freedom. The fall from absolutes which were after all illusory becomes an ability to soar.WAY TO WISDOM all finite things. but at the same time we achieve the only possible basis for freedom in our dealings with these things. are enhanced. we are made fully aware that our roads must lead through them.

IV THE IDEA OF GOD God springs from two and Greek philosophy. even with faith in God's guidance. If a life in this world. When Jeremiah saw the ruin of everything for which he had worked all his life. If man fully renounces himself and that 39 . when his country and his people were lost. When everything is lost. but one thing remains: God is. Do not ask whether there is immortality. that it should endure in any form. this overpowering reality still remains: God is. even this whole land. for everything has been created out of nothing by God and is in His hand. It is also impossible that the world should have a purpose susceptible of fulfilment. has failed. and I find no rest. that which I have built will I break down." In such a situation these words mean: It is enough God is. the question of whether God forgives is no longer important. his defiance as well as his concern for his own beatitude and eternity is extinguished. and when his disciple Baruch despaired. seekest thou great things for thyself? seek them not." Jeremiah answered. Man no longer matters. when in Egypt the last remnants of his people turned aside from their faith in Yahweh and offered sacrifices to Isis. "Behold. "I fainted in my sighing. and that which of historical Our western roots: idea the Bible I And have planted I will pluck up.

though such a will has preceded them throughout a lifetime and ultimately. it does not manifest itself abstractly. that God is not seen with our eyes. that he resembles no one and can be recognized in no image.WAY TO WISDOM his aims. made them possible. resembling mortals neither in his aspect nor in his thoughts. But it does not manifest itself in advance. j \ j j . or as demiurge. Not only is the knowable known in the light of the godhead. it also derives its being from the godhead which excels being both in rank and power. j At about 500 is B. this reahty can be manifested to him as the only reality.C. God is conceived as cosmic reason or cosmic law. and only here manifests itself at the limit. free from imaginative flight. But this God of the Greek thinkers is a God originating in thought. whereas in nature there was only one God. precisely because they are without finite content or any fixation in the world. They are no longer bound up with any will to historical efficacy in the world. through total failure. From this twofold root 40 — — ji | i j . Plato conceived of the god- head he called it the Good as the source of all knowledge. and they contain unfathomable truth. The Greek philosophers understood that the many gods were decreed merely by custom. not the living God of Jeremiah. They are simple words. Xenophanes proclaimed: There j i only one God. but descends into the existence of the world. ! ] : j 1 j I . or as fate and providence. The Greek philosophers expressed a similar thought in different terms. Jeremiah's words are hard words. In essence the two coincide.

reflected that God is and pondered on I what He is. God is accessible not through thought but through faith and obedience. But long before and far outside the world of was certainty as to the reality within the world of the Christian And West many men have derived certainty of God without the guarantee of revelation. philosophers of our day seem to evade the question of whether God exists. 41 . Or. in infinite modulations. that is to scientific cognition. There is an old philosophical proposition opposed to this theological doctrine: We know of God because His existence can be proved.THE IDEA OF GOD Western theology and philosophy have. biblical revelation there of the godhead. he ceases to philosophize. They do not say that He exists nor do they deny His existence. If a philosopher doubts. The question of God is discussed on the basis of conflicting propositions which we shall examine. limiting himself to determinate object knowledge. he must say why. else he cannot progress beyond the sceptical The philosophy which asserts nothing at all. saying: It is best not to talk of what we do not know. Without revelation God can have no reality for man. which affirms nothing and denies nothing. But anyone engaging in philosophical thought must answer for his opinions. The proofs for the existence of God form an impressive document. The theological proposition is: We can know of God only because He revealed Himself to certain men from the prophets to Jesus.

as against all show us only that a! but merely a thing in | the world. from the world process. proofs. i supposed proofs and refutations of the existence of God. In this light Kant radically confuted themj Then came the reverse proposition: Since all proofs of the existence of God can be refuted. i . Let us consider a few examples: | The oldest of proofs is the cosmological proof. but methods of achieving certainty through thought. from motion the source of all motion.WAY TO WISDOM But if the proofs for the existence of God an construed as scientifically compelling proofs such asi we find in mathematics or the empirical sciences. They are attempts to express the experience of ' man's ascent to God in terms of thought. there is no God. they] are false. There are roads of thought by which we come to limits at which the consciousness of God suddenly becomes a natural presence. \ j | . The proofs and their confutations proved God would be no God truth. seems to be this The socalled proofs of the existence of God are fundamentally no proofs at all. in which everything is effect. All the proofs of the existence of God and their variants that have been devised through the centuries differ essentially from scientific : The i . This inference is false. from the accident of the particular the necessity of the whole. : ' { : 42 . For the nonexistence of God can be proved no more than his existence. . we infer a last cause. From the existence of the cosmos (the Greek name for universe) we infer that God exists.

The design 43 . because we are always in it and we never confront the world as a whole. as we {do for example in inferring from the existence of the side of the moon which faces us the existence of the other side which we never see. The world as a whole is not an object. True. through matter. men have looked on the world as eternal and said that it existed out of itself and hence was identical with God. and embodies a certain perfection the vast abundance of things that fill us with emotion all this in our immediate contemplation of nature — cannot be apprehended through any fully knowable worldly thing.THE IDEA OF GOD If by this syllogism we mean to infer the existence from the existence of another thing. appropriate. ordered. from the existence of the world as a whole. it expresses awareness of the mystery inherent in the existence of the world and of ourselves in it. If we venture the thought that there might be nothing. Hence we cannot. for example. it is inapplicable. In this manner we can only infer the existence of things in the world from the existence of other things. which by this very essence is and cannot not be. infer the existence of something other than the world. and through which everything else is. But this is not possible: Everything in the world which is beautiful. in the form of an inference. But this notion takes on a new meaning when it is no f one thing longer regarded as a proof. and ask with Schelling: Why is there something and not nothing? we find that our certainty of existence is such that though we cannot determine the reason for it we are led by it to the Comprehensive. Then metaphorically.

and it seems as plausible to infer the existence of the devil as of God. The mystery of transcendence is not thereby solved but merely grows deeper. the beauty of nature in all its forms. Thus they But they move us deeply when. leading through the concrete phenomena of the cosmos. the world cannot be apprehended through . For then they seem to admonish us not to content ourselves with the world as the sole meaning of our life in the world. He cannot be seen but only believed in. these called proofs mislead us into placing real world. or second cosmos. Far from proving the existence of God. obscure the idea of God. so- God is within the as it which were ascertained at the limits of the cosmos. 44 . frightening. And this gives rise to fundamental attitudes for which the world is alien. terrible. disordered. He is invisible. itself. the 1 order of the universe in general become increasingly p mysterious as our knowledge advances. But what clinches the matter is the imperfectibility of the world. base in the world. the benevolent creator. But whence comes this faith? Its source is not in the limits of worldly experience but in the freedom of man. of compelling evidence. we must call to mind all that is ugly. they confront Nothingness and imperfectibility. But if from all this we infer that God. but in continuous change our knowledge of the world cannot be completed. The world is not finished. exists. Again and again it is brought home to us that God is not an object of knowledge.WAY TO WISDOM I of organic life. He cannot be experienced by the senses.

demons. We also call man's freedom his existence. on the other hand. j attains true awareness of his freedom are in- gains certainty of God. I am content with the empirical existence of nature. If certainty of freedom encompasses certainty of God's existence.THE IDEA OF GOD The man who separable. There is. in which man's will is taken to be absolute and independent. for I can fail myself and I cannot force my freedom. I in God exists for me in the degree to which 45 freedom . but am given to myself. Where I am authentically myself. I need no relation to God. a connection between the belief that there can be freedom without God and the deification of man. in which Kierkegaard's "desperate will to be oneself" and "desperate will not to be oneself" be- come one. Freedom and God Why? This I know: in my freedom I am not through myself. But this delusion that I am through myself alone turns freedom into perplexity and emptiness. The highest freedom is experienced in freedom from the world. If I do not experience the miracle of . there must be a connection between the negation of freedom and the negation of God. This is an illusory. arbitrary freedom. many gods. I can have certainty of Him not as a content of science but as presence for existence. I rely in the force of my will and in a defiant acceptance of death. My certainty of God has the force of my existence. A savage drive for self-assertion turns to a despair.selfhood. and this freedom is a profound bond with transcendence. I am certain that I am not through myself.

For if God's wisdom in its majesty were always before our eyes. sciousness of God. 46 . It The thought points to that which resolves into exhaustible. authorities. istence is possible. that strives for compelling certainty cannot realize its aim in any proof of God's existence. to the area in which certainty of his exauthentically . He does not exist as a content but only as openness to existence. speaking unequivocally in the world. forever-questioning." The essential in this proposition is the able. He must owe his decision and the road he chooses to himself. which is unattainwe gain through philosophy a Comprehensive consciousness of God. one might say. But God in his wisdom wanted us to be free. Kant has said that God's unfathomable wisdom is as admirable in what it gives us as in what it denies us. "God is. if it were an absolute authority. But the failure of thought does not result in nothingness.WAY TO WISDOM scientific become myself. powers of the world. that he bears responsibility for himself. an inComprehensive con- never becomes a tangible object in the world means that man must not abandon his freedom to the tangibilities. God and this Instead of the knowledge of God. we should be puppets of its will. and must not evade this responsibility by renouncing freedom ostensibly for the sake of freedom. But the illumination of our existence as freedom does not prove the existence of God it merely points.

Hence God. including a personification after 47 . resists any mediation. and yet in its source it is absolutely true. God. as we pass beyond the world of objects and through it discover authentic reality. This faith is not laid down in any definite articles of faith applicable to all men or in any historical reality which mediates between man and God and is the same for all men. This historicity. . God is reality. The individual. From time immemorial God has been conceived in empirical forms. Hence the climax and goal of our life is the point at which we ascertain authentic reality. stands rather in an immediate. not our knowledge of God but our attitude towards God. This reality faith in is accessible to existence through the orientation toward God that lies at its source. that is. man as an individual must be able to apprehend Him directly. For it merely to think it means nothing to the under- standing and to sensory experience. always in his own historicity. leaves us empty. springing as it does from the source. which can be communicated and described. The reality of God and the immediacy of our historical relation to God exclude any universally compelling knowledge of God therefore what matters is absolute. independent relation to God that requires no intermediary. We apprehend its meaning only as we transcend. and cannot be encompassed by any of the historical manifestations through which He speaks to men. If He is. We do not encompass this reality in thinking the proposition. is in this form not absolute truth for all.THE IDEA OF GOD reality to which it points.

but they become superstitions when mistaken for the reality of God Himself \\ j. that because God is invisible man must not worship Him in statues.WAY TO WISDOM the !l th€ image of man. And though in i i I — I j ! philosophical thinking sensation and object almost vanished. the Chinese Taoists attempted to apprehend without images the suprapersonal. God is not whati? 1 we may see with our eyes. perhaps ultimately some wisp of God's j \ presence remains. His justice and His mercy. It is a commandment that cannot be fulfilled. Human thought and human vision cannot dispense with the image. unthinkable. \ we come | I ! — j I Parmenides and Plato. And yet every such conception is atl? same time in the nature of a veil. Gaining in depth. This meant. pure. this tangible prohibition developed into the idea that God is not only invisible but also inconceivable. effigies. Our true attitude toward God has found its pro-u jj foundest expression in a few biblical injunctions: Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or likeness. No symbol or metaphor can describe Him and none may take His place. ^ 48 . All metaphorical representations of God without exception are myths. the Indian Brahman philosophers. intangible reality of God but in this they did not succeed. : Since every image conceals as much as it discloses. to begin with. with power to engender life. idols. But even in the Bible this Old Testament commandment was not fulfilled: the image of God's personality remained His wrath and His love. meaningful as such when understood to be mere hints and parallels. with their speculative doctrines of being. | j j j i . closest to God in the negation of images.

even after philosophy has rationally elucidated deification of nature. It is the silence in the face of being. Here is a haven and yet no fixed home. At first this commandment implied a rejection of alien gods. The quest for the One as the foundation of his life is an 49 . Before it lies contentment with one's lot and the extinction of all desire. The life of the man who believes in the one and only God rests on a foundation entirely diflferent from that of a life with many gods. Here thought must dissolve into radiance. there is also no answer. the specifically numinous. it became a simple and unfathomable idea: there is only one God. It cannot itself be transcended. Concentration on the One gives to the decision of existence its real foundation. Infinite wealth implies diffusion. at the stillness of being. Another biblical injunction runs: Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Where there is no further question. This ultimate can be attained only in the transcending of all thought. Here is a repose that can sustain us amid the inevitable unrest of our wanderings in the world. the purely demonic. the deepest mystery is still not expelled. Perhaps we can give some paraphrase of this presence of God at the end of philosophical the endeavour. Speech ceases in the presence of that which is lost to us when it becomes object. God's glory is not absolute unless it is grounded in the One. In the philosophical transcending of question and answer we arrive at the limit. Gaining in depth.THE IDEA OF GOD Then. the aesthetic and superstitious.

confident tha situated above and not below the understandable "Thy thoughts are not our thoughts.! fully aware that in whatever finite form he expresses! this God it is spoken in human terms and hence false. the indemonstrable God." commandments "No image and no other god. Thi fundamental attitude toward God means: Bow dowi it is 1 before that which defies understanding. But to believe is God remains in the distance and remains. as actual as it waj thousands of years ago. question. To believe in God means to live by something which not to is i i . "No God clarifies our faith. Hence I must recognize not only that I do not know j j 50 . The God of faith is the distant God." and by the attitude of acceptance expressed in the words " Thy will be done." Trust in this basic attitude makes possible an all encompassing sense of thankfulness. a wordlesSjl impersonal love. | not in the world. except in the polyvalent language ofphenomena." Reflection on see. which we call the hieroglyphs or symbols of transcendence. I Man stands before the godhead as the hidden Godij and can accept what is most terrible as His decision. A third biblical saying: Thy will be done.WAY TO WISDOM I enduring problem for man. thy ways are noi our ways. To live by God does not mean to base oneself on calculable knowledge but to live as though we staked our existence on the assumption that God is. To sum up: Our attitude toward the godhead is! j defined by the likeness. the hidden God.

THE IDEA OF GOD •"aith is jod but even that I do not know whether I beHeve. it but gives certainty in the practice of Hfe. 51 . on the depth and breadth of that which is illumined by reason. Thus the beHever Hves That is why all philosophical discourse is so in- complete. it can only awaken it can remind. He istens patiently and yet he is unswerving in his resolve. Philosophy does not give. [n the cloak of weakness he is strong. In it each of us understands what he actually knew for completion out of the being of — before. he is open. though m his real life he is resolute. on the reading of the symbols of transcendence. the whole emphasis is on love in the world. It calls him who hears it. in enduring wiUingness to hear. It confers no secure knowledge. and help to secure and preserve. in the enduring ambiguity of he objective. Reflection on God is typical of all significant philosophical thought: it does not bring secure knowledge. but to authentic self-hood it gives a free area for decision. no possession.

our empirical existence becomes in a sense the raw material of the idea. spared them the need to inquire for themselves. of a loyalty. in battle. Solidarity was then the ultimate condition.V THE UNCONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE In love. and it is not allowed drift at random in the stream of life. However. he subordinates to something else. namely the success of the authority. risked their lives in a struggle for a common life in the world. can the call of the unconditional lead to loss of life. for example. men often! is act without regard for consequences. while in bondage to the conditional we wish first. of love. This faith freed men from uncertainty. If the authority 52 . When we obey the unconditional imperative. to acceptance ofl inevitable death. and at any price to preserve our physical existence. so that faith in this authority became a source of the absolute. last. The believer desired to live through his obedience. have. Men common Originally such communities were built upon trust but later they came to be based on the inspiring command of an authority in which men believed. unconditionally. in pursuing lofty tasks. When a man acts unconditionally his life it not the ultimate. Only ati the limit. in extreme situations. the unconditional in this form was subject to a tacit condition. it is as it were consumed. It is encompassed in anj eternal aim.

selfrighteousness he made no concession. staking everything on his faith. And the only escape from this emptiness is for man himself as an individual to win authentic being ^s the foundation of his decisions. he went his way unswervingly. and died happy. by a death urge which not infrequently darkens the soul with symptoms of faith in . The purest example is perhaps Socrates. refused to avail himself of the opportunity for flight. Where martyrs have actually been inspired by a longing to die. for years awaiting his death 53 . where a life saved through disloyalty would have been poisoned. Living in the lucidity of his reason. undeterred by the passions of anger. hatred. and men lost their it. The martyrdom of some others is subject to question. To die for something in order to bear witness to it is to give an aim to one's death. out of the Comprehensive of nonknowledge. standing alone before God.THE UNCONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE eased to be successful as a power. the impurity is still greater. hence to make it impure. Certain martyrs. a ruinous emptiness arose. hysteria. without firm allegiance to a community of faith. perhaps in imitation of Christ. Rare are the philosophers who. like Thomas More. This has happened in history when individuals staked their lives through obedience to an absolute imperative: they remained loyal where disloyalty would have destroyed everything. Seneca. have realized the maxim: To philosophize is to learn how to die. where a betrayal of absolute being would have made a saved life wretched. have displayed the purest moral energy in their faith.

Empirical existence. in the high resolve to stand fast for no purpose. for us light of We know how have recalled historical examples of men who to die. In every case an aim determines the means appropriate to it. but cannot stand up under realistic scrutiny. even if it meant death at the stake. Boethius. They had to conquer themselves. turned toward authentic being. Seneca. But my basis for recognizing these aims lies either in some unquestioned practical interest or in utility. in the end he did not betray himself by unworthy actions. And this is why they cam point the way for us. and he preserved his composure when Nero demanded his death. while the imaginary provides only empty edification. overcame the desire to escape dictated by his understanding.WAY TO WISDOM sentence. sentenced by a barbarian: he died philosophizing in full lucidity. however. I must live with men in a community: here I am helped by certain rules of conduct. The unconditional acts of which men as men were capable give us true encouragement. Bruno were men with their weaknesses. or in the unreal myth. Bruno overcame his doubts and withdrew what concessions he had made. men such as ourselves. 54 . is no ultimate end. I must obtain food and for this work is needed. When ask myself: What shall I do? I arrive at an answer by adducing finite aims and means by which to attain them. Boethius died innocently. For saints after all are figures who) can live only in the twilight. Let us now attempt to elucidate the I unconditional imperative. their failures.

and in a changed situation certainty must forever be gained anew. This awareness is obscure at the beginning and lucid at the end of my unconditional action. Unconditional imperatives come from within me. because it is what I ought to be. When we become aware of the imperative our questioning ceases in the certainty of being though in temporal life there is at once a new beginning of questioning. The unconditional is a foundation of action and hence not an object of knowledge but an element of faith. Unconditional imperatives on the iother hand have their source in myself.THE UNCONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE because the questions remain: What kind of existence? and What for? imperative is grounded in an authority must obey because someone else has willed it br because "It is written. I become aware of myself as of that which I myself am. The unconditional imperative comes to me as the command of my authentic self to my mere empirical existence. This imperative precedes every aim. by which I only myself. sustaining me inwardly by that which in myself is not imperatives confront ciples. it is that which determines all aims. I am subject to conditions." But such authority remains unquestioned and hence unexamined. I am in the finite. Accordingly it is not an object of our will but its source. All such imperatives are conditional. Conditional else the I Or which ~ me as fixed but transient princan outwardly sustain myself. Foy they make "me dependent on something outside me. In so far as I know the reasons and aims of my — action. 55 . on practical aims or authority.

56 . This means that it does not arise from any natural state but out of freedom. the meaning of th( First: as opposed to passive acceptance of things a! they are. Nor does it reside in what we call in mythological terms a man's demon. Overpowering as it may be. he grows forgetful and unreliable. I live explained by object knowledge do by something that can no longer b I live by the un A few propositions may suggest unconditional imperative. out of an unfathomable depth. implies absolute reliability and which derive not from nature but from our decision. suddenly slackens.WAY TO WISDOM Only when conditional. of self-assertion. a decision with which I myself am identical. Expressed in psychological in the state of terms. the unconditional attitude implies a decision. is unconditional in the moment. The is decision is arrived at only through lucidity which lie the product of reflection. j j j j Thus the unconditional demands an decision existential that has passed through reflection. the unconditional attitude does not momentary it any man. for this demon is without loyalty. Even though he may reveal overpowering energy in his momentary activity. in being loyalty. lucidly taken. which cannot help being what it is. What does this mean? It means to it partake in the eternal. all are relative and hence perishable. for the character can be transformed in rebirth. no mode of passion. of vital will. Accordingly. Nor does the unconditional decision reside in the innate character.

a frenzy or a madness. which determines whether it is meaningless.THE UNCONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE ot because of any natural t)undation in transcendence. it is never positively idemonstrable. A demonstrated unconditional is merely a powerful force. It Dasis is law but because of its the unconditional which decides the ultimate of a man's life. though it always sustains life through sxistence and can be infinitely elucidated. Just as trees sink their roots deeply and grow high in the air. Second: The unconditional imperative has reaHty !in the man who follows it in faith and awareness. For example: conditional love. the sceptical answer carries universal force of i ! — conviction. But this metaphor is inappropriate. 57 . cannot be shown to exist empirically in the world historical proofs are mere intimations. If it is asked whether there is any authentic unconditional in the world. tion it is which doubtful whether there is unis rooted in the eternal foundaconsist in and does not merely human inclination. The unconditional within us has no existence if we apply the yardstick of demonstrable knowledge. since man arrives at his unconditional foundation not by degrees but by a leap into another dimension. only in extreme situations does it by silent decision determine a man's road. What we know is always conditional. The unconditional is fiignificant or lidden. It cannot be proved. a fanaticism. which are interchangeable land in the mass indestructible. all others are like shrubs which can be pulled up and transplanted. so is the fulfilled man rooted in the unconditional.

Steadfastness of purpose. rebirth from the source. That which is demonstrable is by that samf token not unconditional. Only when man conquers himself and goes where his decision unerringly leads him does the unconditional come into its own. all can still be betrayed in a moment. mere perseverance in man are noti convincing signs that he lives by the unconditional imperative. But the unconditional poral. suggest the meaning of' the unconditional imperative but do not elucidate its 58 . is it also cuts across time. abstract singlemindedness. weighing him down tion. moment through recurrent Hence: Where a development under endless contingencies to the point of annihilahe can nevertheless at any moment begin as it were from the beginning through sudden awareness of the unconditional. These propositions. Conversely. WAY TO WISDOM and fidelity to a promise. It grows within man in time. it is true. passion. eternal. is In our temporal existence the unconditional attitude! manifested in the experience of extreme situations! in situations and when we are in danger of becoming I untrue to ourselves.. in time seems to have given us possession of it. Regardless of when it existing in every new conquered. The unconditional imperative is not given like empirical existence. itself is never entirely temit is Whenever it may be. Third: The unconditional is timeless in time. where a man's past seems to be mere factuahty. habit. The possibility of authentic communication in loving contest can b(i denied.

This Good in contradistinction is the is < the absolute. evil is the life of the In heeding the command . 59 . and in no unconditional good. only through the pirical of the unconditional we of the ffect a choice. nan who remains in the sphere of the contingent. well or nerely lives of change— a life in which there is padly.: . life of the man who of this world but subdoes not reject the happiness as the Drdinates it to the morally admissible. moral imperative and my vital interest. estrained surrender to passions and sensual happiness of this world. I may. He has chosen what he understands n the decision between good and evil. distinguished from mere weakness. Good and evil are differentiated on three levels. seen morally admissible universal law of just action. We impulses.0 the pleasure and existence as such. to em. regard as evil the immediate and unI. in what [which surrenders to the natural bent. This pseudo-virtue might be do I wish to be which I called a luxury of fortunate circumstances in In the case of conflict between can afford to be good. in the unrest from day day like 110 decision. 2. consists Kant called perversion: I do good only if it does me no harm or does not cost me too much or stated abstractly in the I will the unconditional embodied True evil. which becomes clear of good and evil. ntithesis . only on this condition. to who an animal. I follow the law of the good only compatible with undisturbed sensual pleasure far as it is sense. although in so moral imperative. in short. A decision becomes the substance as the good nan. THE UNCONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE content. as .

the urge to inflict torture cruelty. good. wherein the uncondi tional is subordinated to the requirements of vita happiness. in contradistinction. the relation is ethical: the is the authenticity of our motives. evil is only the will to evil 3.WAY TO WISDOM I according to the magnitude of this interest. the third level. Good. On the first level. Love impels to being. the wil to destruction as such. This is a conversion from continuou self betrayal and impurity of motives to the seriousnes of the unconditional. I may obey orders to commit murder. be secret!'' capable of any villainy. practical conditions. It this level. to lift oneself out c this condition of contingency. and return to an authentic life in th( unconditional. On 60 . Or I ma allow my favoured position which saves me from coe flict to blind is me to my evil. annihilation. is the unconditional. the nihilistic will to ruin every-l is and has value. which is love and hence the will to reality. In order to avert my ow death. the relation between good and evil is moral the question is whether our natural inclinations are governed by a will subservient to moral laws. which the unconditional is made contingent oni the relation becomes metaphysical: here the essential lies in the motives themselves. In Kant's words. : On — thing that I '\ On essential the second level. duty is opposed to inclination. The purity m of the unconditional is opposed to an impurity which consists in the reversal of the relation of contingency. Let us compare these three levels. Love is opposed to hate. in contradistinction.

we vacillate and stumble through hfe. hate as a loud catasrophe. he lives in perversion or in purity of motive. 6i . He chooses the right.s called for. he achieves awareness of being given to himself in his ability to love. We are so little when he capable of fulfilling ourselves in goodness that the very force of the passions that drive us headlong through life is indispensable to the lucidity of duty. On each level an alternative is revealed. he rehabilitates himself from perversion through a rebirth of his good will. Man awakens only distinguishes between good and evil. We must all continuously recapture ourselves from indecision. Love works as quiet building in the world. dwindles nto the abstract punctuaHty of the ego. Love grows in bond with transcendence hate. But he can fail to decide. submerging being in empirical existence and . Morally. man seeks to base his decision on thought. He follows inclination or duty. He becomes himself when he decides which way he is going and acts accordingly. The decision has its special character on each of the three levels. combine the one with the other and even accept such a state of things as a necessary contradiction. if he is authentic. Instead of deciding. I destroying empirical existence itself.THE UNCONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE late to nonbeing. severed from transcendence. Metaphysically. A bther. a decision man can only want one thing or the . iThis indecision is in itself evil. when we really love we cannot help hating whatever threatens our love and it is precisely when we feel certain that our motives are pure that we succumb to the perversion of impurity. his . Ethically. he lives out of hate or out of love.

And for the same reason we finite beings need the discipline by which we conquer our passions. and because of the impurity of our motives we require distrust of ourselves. St. 62 . of the highest level. But the foundation of love. dissolves the destructive will of hatred. purifies our ethical motives. I want what I love to be. Onh the three levels become one is the unconditiona realized. is identical with the will to authentic reality. in which the unconditional is grounded.WAY TO WISDOM when motives become authentic. he Hves out of love. out of love seems to include all the rest. To live acts. And I cannot perceive what authentically is without loving into errors it. that is precisely when we are going astray. Trud iti love gives certainty regarding the ethical truth of Augustine says: Love and do what thou wilt impossible for us men to live solely by love. Hence we musli not rely blindly in our love at every moment but must elucidate it. for we fall constantl)lp! But it is this force and misunderstandings. Only the unconditional character of the good fills mere duties with content. When we feel sure of ourselves.

by an understanding of the purpose pursued by man in his [houghts and actions. we can experience it only in the primal source of our thought and action. and as existence endowed . which evades all object knowledge but is always present in him as The question : in that potentiality? The truth is that man is accessible to himself in two ways: with a freedom that is inaccessible to inquiry. rises Can man be fully apprehended which is knowable concerning him? Or is there something above this. namely. and by the elucidation of events Dn the basis of motives. sociology as a social being. Man is fundamentally more than he can know about himself. in the other as the nonobject which man is and of which he becomes aware when he achieves authentic awareness of himself. freedom.VI MAN iVnAT IS MAN? Physiology studies him as body. and as history. which we investigate as we tnow of We do man . Our study of man has brought us many kinds of knowledge but not the knowledge of man as a whole. as nature. psychology as soul. We cannot exhaust man's being in knowledge of him. natural realities. A^hich we know by the critical sifting of tradition. In the one case man is conceived as object. situations. 63 as object of inquiry.he nature of other living creatures.

our freedom we decide through ourselves and are not automatically subordinated to a natural law we are not through ourselves but by virtue of being given to ourselves in our freedom.WAY TO WISDOM We are conscious of our freedom when we re' cognize imperatives addressed to us. Each man can think that he might possibly not have been. and that we are responsible. upon m take a second step toward the apprehension of Man is a being who exists in relation to Lrod. by which w<' decide concerning ourselves. ' he was born that way and could not help doing as he ''°''^'^ accordingly not be held responsibleA and the good-humoured judge repHed that it might be just as reasonable to say that the judge who sentenced him could do no differently since that was how he was and he could not help acting in accordance with No one who attempts to deny this can logicalh! confront other men with an imperative. We cannoi seriously deny that we make a decision. If we do not love. When we decide freely and conceive of our lives as meamngful. we cannot force our freedom. But at the same time where ourselves: may Once we have achieved awareness of our freedom we 64 . This we have in common with the animals. What does this mean? We did not create ourselves. At the summit of freedom. Once ar accused man in court said he was not to blame because T the laws. we know that we do not owe ourselves to ourselves. It is up to J whether we carry them out or evade them. we do not know what we should do.

some process which actually takes place.MAN i^hich our activity seems necessary to us. We press )eyond. Yet all such departments of knowledge apprehend something about man. God is for me in the degree to which I Man's relation to it lature. not through be outward constraint of an inexorable process of natural law but as the inner consent that does not will (therwise. and we ourselves grow with the depth of our consciousness of God. where he can be ndependent of the world. Idtal o the area where. psychoanalysis apprehends him in his unconscious and its workings. The more authentically a man is. For example: in the world ethnology apprehends him in diverse racial types. because he lives in bond ivith God. t awakens in the individual only when from his mere assertion of life he takes the leap to his self. )urselves jiiree we are aware of ourselves as freely given to by transcendence. authentically free from the world. When authentically free. but 65 . Because '<^i authentically exist. le becomes fully open to the world. who by production dominates nature Once again I repeat: is and achieves social progress and who can ostensibly achieve perfection in both these respects. I :_ [ am am certain that I am not through myself. Marxism as a living creature producing by his labour. Man as an empirical existent a knowable object. that is. through which at the same time ve apprehend our insignificance. We men are never adequate to ourselves. the greater his certainty of God. ree God is not a quality given by only is in conjunction with freedom.

rewarding. we know methodically what and how and within what limits we know a thing and how little we know. This is the great question of humanity: Whence does man obtain guidance? For it is certain that his life does not flow along like that of the animals from generation to generation. Man's life is not merely a natural process. constantly repeating itself in accordance with natural law. If' this is done. he does not live only by his biological heritage but also by tradition. Hence man alone has a history. along with the uncertainty of his being. if it is Ij itself offers oriented toward God. that is. the humanity which is freedom and relation to God. inaccessible to this knowledge authentic humanity/ remains. this and they have all — methods of inquiry whole man — i { j Once we know which freedom entrust ourselves all the the limits of knowledge. and if pursued in a spirit of scientific criticism. The study of man is of supreme interest. And his freedom calls for guidance. an opportunity to become that which he can authentically be. in terms of what is possible. It is given to man to work in freedom upon his empirical existence as upon a material. When these lay claim to absolute knowledge of the done they lose sight of the real man and go far toward extinguishing their proponents' consciousness of man and even their own humanity. and how radically.! WAY TO WISDOM never man as a whole. up 66 . man's freedom opens to him. And we avert the danger of obscuring man by pseudo-knowledge of him. we shall more clearly to the guidance to our freedom.

it provided no clear command. how occur? telling us how. and in such a way that he knew himself to be always in God's hand through that which he did and that which happened to him in the world he heard God and yet in everything he heard he found many meanings. Guidance through transcendence is different from any guidance in the world. This certainty is the freedom to act after perplexity and vacillation. The thesis of philosophical faith is: Man can live by God's guidance. it was guidance through freedom itself. What we have in mind is the ultimate guidance of man. What does this mean? We believe that we have in the unconditional imperative an intimation of God's guidance. But the freer man knows himself to be in tliis lucid certainty. But how is is this possible when God is not corporeal. which knows decision because : it knows itself rooted in the transcendent foundation. for God's guidance is of only one kind. It is given through freedom itself. the more aware he becomes of the trans- We have autobiographical records men cendence through which he is. Kierkegaard reflected each day upon God's guidance. 67 . wills? Is there how an encounter between does it man know what God man and God? And in if so. when there no unmistakable form in which he does exists as God? If God lends guidance.MAN We shall not discuss here the cases in which the power of man over man becomes a substitute for this guidance. faced by critical problems. long doubt has suddenly given way to certainty. The guidance he received was not tangible.

corrects or confirms. in self-accusation. The medium in which man is guided is his judg ment regarding his own actions. motives. The voice of God as judgment regarding man's actions has no other expression in time than in this judgment of man comes to ( himself with regard to his emotions. actions. human judgment is in error from the outset when man expects to find in it God's final word. but even here he is not indifferent. he cannot be entirely selfcontained in his judgment of himself. never entirely independent in his He always attaches importance 68 . be decisive. of inert individualized institutions. He is particularly sensitive to the judgment of those he respects. He requires the judgment of his fellow men concerning his actions. This judgment! restrains or impels. which is never definitive and always equivocal. Actually no man can ever be fully and definitively satisfied with himself.WAY TO WISDOM voice of God in the individual. Yet the judgment that is ultimately decisive for him is not even that of the men he respects. upon which he can absolutely rely. although this is the only judgment accessible in the world only the judgment ojf God can . The lies in the self-awareness that dawns • when he is open to everything that! him from his tradition and environment. In the free and forthright self-awareness of judgment. We must mercilessly unmask the self-will that lies in our moral self-satisfaction and self-righteousness. in self-affirmation finds man indirectly! i God's judgment. The individual is judgment of himself. He is less moved by that of the average man and the crowd. Consequently.

to his death in unswerving fortitude. This authentic independence is sustained perhaps by he inner harmony of a well-favoured nature.. vould be the judgment of God rather than of men.. which is based on the community and has no eye to fame. However. by a drastic limitation of their meaning CO what man can do out of himself. has in is [nind the judgment of other men: undying fame the consolation of the dying heroes of the Eddas. stated explicitly. But there is also a truly solitary heroism. his takes two forms: the universal imperative and the lisiorical injunction. yet its . Even the primitive hero. and this. But wholelearted obedience to the ethical commandment that is clearly heard in freedom is usually bound Lip with the perception of transcendence precisely in ponviction. But if this heroism does not sink nto nothingness.onsc. action in concrete situations cannot adequately be derived from universal commandments 69 . it may be presumed to have deep oots in authentic being.iousness finds nothing in the present world to vhich it can hold. this freedom. The I universal ethical imperatives carry intuitive Ever since the ten commandments they been a form of God's presence. [lave .MAN o the jjjoing judgment of another. it iraws perhaps unconsciously from the historical radition of a remembered community. ^ot Though guided is the truth of the judgment by which man is manifested only through self-conviction. These imperatives ban indeed be recognized and followed without faith in God..

Even the purest clarity as to the road we have seen under God's guidance must not therefore and give rise to a certainty that this for all. it is is the only true roadj always possible that everything will look. | Psychologically speaking. It is out of suchi moments and toward such moments that we live. guidance lies in an immediate necessity-of-doing-so. This excludes reliance on our certainty. In all lucidity For possession. Only in retrospect are we filled with the wonder of an unfathomable guidance. we can choose a false road. in so far as it is manifested in the world. hence humility. forbids us to generalize our own acts as an imperative for all. transcendence real for him? What is his relation to| „ it? 70 . In the certainty of the moment the humility of the enduring question is indispensable. must retain a certain element of suspension. and bars the way to fanaticism. But what the individual in this case perceives as his duty remains questionable. God's guidance cannot be made into a{ entirely different later. however certain he may be of it in his own mind. For the most devastating threat to truth in the world is the overweening claim to the absolutely true. is If man experiences guidance through transcendence. In every historically actual situation!.WAY TO WISDOM prohibitions. which cannot be derived. But even here it carries no certainty. The very nature of this hearkening to God's guidance implies the risk of error. Even the certainty of decision. the voice of God can be] heard only in sublime moments.

our relation to transcendence. becomes sensibly present in our encounter with the personal God. is Man's supreme achievement in this communication from personality to person- Accordingly. to die in peace. inexplicable. hood that knows itself to be 71 in the authentic self- radically dependent. conceived as existents. meaningless situation. if in paradox. world ality. those powers which have flung us to the ground strive to dominate us fear of the future. As against this. But as men in our world we seek support for our certainty in the concrete. "A god did it" expresses the polytheist's consciousness of events and his own actions. . In the world. our relation to transcendence can take on a crucial seriousness. helpers and adversaries become gods and demons. God's help. even in the most extreme. freedom gives us a sense of receiving help from transcendence. In life. while at the same time we raise ourselves to the level of beings capable of speaking with this God. For polytheism. Trust in the foundation of being can manifest itself as disinterested gratitude.MAN Even in the bareness of abstraction. which are thereby hallowed and endowed with significance but at the same time dispersed into innumerable vital and spiritual powers. as peace in the belief we may speak : in God's being. Opposing them man can perhaps in the face of death gain a confidence which will enable him. anxious attachment to present possessions. care in the face of dire possibilities. The godhead is drawn to us in its aspect of personaHty.

Often God's help is narrowed to a finite content an thus lost. which. however. life To the man who sees through the opaqueness of God sends all possibilities. not with any objective guarantee that he knows God's will but rather as a continuous venture. including the situations of hopeless annihilation. infinitely open by virtue of its reason. sees what is and reads the symbols of transcendence in the realities of the world. there are no! demons. cannot be adequately defined as pursuit of earthly happiness but can only be understood clearly through transcendence. As for example when prayer as encounter 1 with the invisible God degenerates from quiet'! contemplation tending towards silence. In reply to them this may be said: the individual Priests.WAY TO WISDOM is the help of the One. If God is. The task. Then every situation becomes a task for stands. man's freedom. and in this task he and falls. if he has drawn a decision from the primal source. it himself to engaged in philosophical thought. and becomes an invocation of this God for practical — — ends. accuse the individual who orients God through philosophy of arrogance and self-will. God works through the free decisions of the individual. succumbs to the passion of seeking the hand of the personal God. grows. and the unconditional commandment of love that is manifested in it. is true. They demand obedience to the revealed God. 72 . believes that he is obeying God. this sole reality.

Finally. man's humanity depends on how deeply he gains A guidance through this listening. To be a man is to become a man. In contradistinction. But such coincid. But those who conversely invoke objective authority against the will of God as experienced by the individual are beguiled into evasion of the venture to obey God even against the objective authorities.MAN priests mistake for obedience to God. a true coincidence between obedience to )bjective authorities in the world and to the originally xperienced will of God is possible. there is a soaring energy in the individual responsibility of listening to the whole of reality. 73 . books. which they look upon as direct revelation.o The |by the individual in opposition to objective authorities are misled into an arbitrary refusal to test their experience by the universal and social. and aws. Those who invoke the will of God as experienced . by listening to His will as it speaks from reality itself There is an element of helplessness in grasping at the support of reliable laws and authoritative commands. obedience such worldly authorities as the Church.nce must be conquered.

The world system purports to disclose reality as a whole in one world. through contact with organized bodies of men. and with men is resistance or becomes matter. But by A Knowledge becomes scientific through method. a listening devoted for the world's answers. its very nature the knowledge of reality transcends the immediate interests of practical life. contemplation. the scientist looks beyond the multiple and disparate to unifying principles. and as knowledge of reality made available for n-ew practice. mastery of resistance. that with living that which is present to which in our deaHngs with things. interest. a systematic unity is ascertained in what is known . 74 . Man wants to know what is real. That which is encountered in practice is clarified by scientific knowledge. regardless of any practical profounder source of the sciences is pure. is only one of its sources. which is always at the same time struggle. a cosmos. lucid passion. This knowledge of reality seems to find completion in the world system. creatures. THE WORLD ' We gall reality us in practice. We learn to know reality through our daily association with people. Practice. through the handling of through technical knowledge.

the world of the soul.THE WORLD every part of which is related to every other part. nevertheless the world system has been regarded as a product of knowledge. Even as the unities become more universal more marked become —particularly in physics—the the cleavages between the physical world. this so self-evident striving for a total world view. whole. the world of life. They are arranged in an order of develop- ment. the reality of the later stage presupposes that of the earlier. World systems are as old as human knowledge. and in principle Though form in which being as total reality becomes The world system is expected to encompass the whole of coherent knowledge. while the reality of the earlier seems able 75 . These worlds are indeed connected. in which the universe becomes a self-contained whole. I Now it is significant that the search for an allembracing world system. For scientific critique teaches us not only that every world system up to now has collapsed under the weight of its own contradictions but that the systematic unities of knowledge which are indeed the goal of science have been diverse and sprung from essentially different roots. is based on a fundamental fallacy which has only been understood in recent times. it has always been recognized that such a must be imperfect and will require constant system correction. and thinkers at all times have striven for v/orld systems as a means of attaining a unified awareness of the as the accessible to us. the world of the mind. This becomes increasingly evident with the advance of science.

not the universe as a whole. with its billions of suns. Far as our horizons of methodical inquiry extend. The world itself cannot become a system. but in it one thing can be explained by another ad infinitum. particularly in our astronomical conceptions of the nebulae. The world is no object. there can be no life without matter but there can be matter without life. erroneously absolutized and universalized. No one knows to 76 . is only one among millions. is itself no unity such as might be subsumed in an all-embracing theory. The one totality in the world.WAY TO WISDOM to Stand without that of the later. or which as idea might serve as a beacon for scientific inquiry. Different scientific spectives. but always the gap becomes more evident. we are always in the world. World systems are always a particular sphere of knowledge. of which our Galaxy. we confront objects in it but never have the world itself as an object. and in the mathematical conception of universal matter. to which all the unities susceptible of exploration by knowledge belong. for example. All "scientific cosmologies" have been mythical cosmologies. Vain attempts have been made to derive* the later stage from the earlier. built on scientific methods and scant remnants of myth. There is no world system but only a systematization of the sciences. The universe is not self-contained. i 1 j i ideas give rise to special per- Every world system is a segment taken out of the world. It cannot be explained out of itself. all that we see here is aspects of phenomena and not the foundation of things.

For our consciousness of being finds an indispensable source in nonknowledge. yet attain. which can be achieved only through scientific cognition. the philosophical quest of being demands a familiarity . For only fulfilled knowledge can lead to authentic nonknowledge. world from a difknowledge can be included in the general proposition: All knowledge is interpretareality of the We approach the The method we apply to the study of texts may taken as a parallel to our study of being. But even in the prephilosophic stage the language of men's practical dealings with things 77 . but only in fulfilled. and only that which is apprehended in speech falls under the head of the knowable. To speak of it is to interpret it. But it seems to be the hidden aim of science to attain through inquiry to a hmit at which the area of nonknowledge is opened to the most lucid knowledge. which is also a prerequisite to any philosophical apperception of being.THE WORLD what limits future research may it. conquered nonknowledge. And the be analogy is not accidental.with every branch of scientific inquiry. For w^e possess being only in its interpretations. It is the supreme striving of knowledge to reach the point where cognition fails. Then authentic being is revealed not in any world system built on knowledge but in fulfilled nonknowledge. ferent angle. Scientific tion. not without it and not before it. what i^abysses will still open before A critical approach to science calls for the abandonment of world systems. True.

Interpretation differentiates between something that is and something which it means. sound. etc. But our attempted differentiation is not successful. Being compels these interpretations. thus for into identity. Being is for us only in an interpretive context. Whatever we know is only a beam of light cast by our interpretation into being. example breaking down the "objective" categories and effect. All is for us an interpretation. The power must lie to make possible all these interpretations in the very nature of being as a whole. which need only be interpreted and is not itself interpretation. the capture of an opportunity for interpretation. being is always defined in reference to sometliing else. Consequently. for example. Being and the know- ledge of being. being between the sign and what taken as that which is it stands for.WAY TO WISDOM contains an interpretation of being. the doctrine of the categories as structures of being sees the modes of being as modes of interpretation. we might say. cause expression. True. For nothing enduring remains. modes of necessary interpretation. nothing purely knowable. If being it is to be interpreted. are accordingly a texture of diverse interpretations. relation. freedom or 78 . all us modes of being are but they are also modes of interpretation. the existent and what we say of it. seem that we must differentiate in would the same way: itself. or. If it is it has an objective character. interpretation concerns something other than what confronts us in interpretation is being itself. for But the interpretation is not arbitrary.

no being that we know is being in itself and as a whole. The phenomenality of the empirical world was made fully clear by Kant. nevertheless it imposes itself on every intellect that is capable of transcendence. because it cannot be perceived objectively but only by a transcending. itself the reality reality are also modes of interpretaInterpretation implies that the text is not in of being but a mode in which being is manifested. The modes of tion. And then it does not add a new particular knowledge to the knowledges we had before. It is always a perversion of our is knowledge when the content of an interpretation looked upon as reality itself.THE WORLD To US all being in its interpretations is like a reflec- tion spreading out in all directions. Though it is not subject to compelling knowledge. Hence the sudden but enduring light which is kindled in the philosophical approach to the reahty of the world. but effects a shift in our whole consciousness of being. the propositions of philosophy — — 79 . Fundamentally we can express the reality of the world as the phenomenality of empirical existence. If the light is not kindled. that knowledge has the character of interpretation. that being is manifested in the dichotomy of subject and object our whole characterization of the knowledge to which man can attain implies that objects are mere appearances. Absolute reality cannot be apprehended by any interpretation. that world systems represent merely relative perspectives. Everything we have said thus far: that there is an element of suspension in all modes of reality.

whether accidentally and fitfully or resolutely and steadfastly. Everyday life seems to teach us the contrary that we men take the world or something in the world as an absolute. being from the viewpoint of the world. Man has a kind of home in the absolute. Man cannot help taking something as an absolute. The world is not self-contained and for oun knowledge it breaks down into diverse perspectives. Indian ascetics. It is not only the absolute world systems that are: gone. And of the man who has made so many things the ultimate content of his existence we may In the light of what ence. : say with Luther: that which you hold to. certain monks in China and the West. He cannot evade it. remain knowledge. the centuries reveals awetranscended the world. upon which you stake your existence. Chinese mystics freed themselves from the toils of — — 80 . we have said of God and existwe may sum up our experience of the world in the proposition: The reality of the world subsists ephemerally between God and existence. that is truly your God. The reality of the world as a whole is no object of. nothingness was everything. because it cannot be reduced to a single principle. left the world in order to partake of the absolute in worldless meditation.WAY TO WISDOM unfulfilled and hence fundamentally not understood. It was as though the world had History down through inspiring figures of men who have vanished. whether willingly and knowingly. In that home he must live.

tend to assess the world: We others. despite their firm attachnent to the world. To the harmony of being we defiantly juxtapose nihilism in the proposition : All is absurdity. destiny. But when we experience evil and horror and beguiles us into seeing the despair in the face of this reality. infinite )mnipresence of its law. the magic of worldly fulfilment world as a harmony of being. For them. and while remaining :lose to things. and some few men of action who have passed :hrough the world as though. are chained to the world. in lasting willingness to listen to event. they found themlelves and things in the world. who In happy situations. philosophers. they retained permanent roots outlide it. ion in which the .phemeral manifestation of the Eternal. transparent. and his own acts 8i . we rebel. and the world spoke to them in the eternal vorldly desire Dresent. who have found that foundation in being with the clear not :ertainty of practical life and knowledge. Both embody a total judgment and that total judgment concerning the world and things rests upon inadequate knowledge. It is incumbent upon man to reject the fixation of conflicting total judgments.THE WORLD rose to heights of pure contemplaworld became speech. time was dissolved n eternity. Honesty must recognize the untruth both in the ideas of harmony of being and nihilistic chaos. they transcended the temporal mani3oets. Coming from a distant home. iestation in favour of their memory of the eternal. and There have been Western scientists.

Yet we do not experience eternal being outside ofl that which is empirically manifested to us in time. Second. the experience of God's speech in the world: the world is not in itself. always with many meanings. and this speech can only become clear historically in the existential moment and cannot be generalized. man is finite can live in God's guidance enable us to sense the truth only in so far as they embody their fulfilment in the world as speech of God. God should directly approach existence. Since that which is for us must be manifested in the temporality of the world.: . If. He is in calculably near through the absolutely historical! form of His speech in a situation which is always unique. The truth of all universal principles speaks in the form of a tradition man — there is an unconand imperfectible 82 . In the world eternal being and temporal! manifestation meet. There can only be faith. This willingnesi imphes two fundamental experiences First the experience of God's absolute transcendence over the world: the hidden God recedes farther and farther into the distance if I attempt to seize and apprehend Him universally and forever. the event would be incommunicable. WAY TO WISDOM in the temporal course of his hfe. Freedom for being does not see the ultimate in the world as such. as though passing the world by. The principles of faith —God is .. ditional imperative. but in it God speaks. there can be no direct knowledge of God and existence.

But with such abstractions alone no man : (retain only a where concrete fulfilment is lacking they minimal value as guides to memory and [hope. under the condition of God's will in jwhich we believe. family. Only in devotion to existence. and if this reality fails. world. In devotion to reality in the world the indispensable medium of devotion to God grows selfhood." "immortality. Unlimited devotion to That to which God I — — 83 . profession. then we can conquer the despair of nothingness only through the self-assertion which transcends the reahty of the world. people. is the authentic mode of devote myself in the world. state. which at the same time asserts itself in that to which it is devoted. For in blind devotion man heedlessly serves the power which is over him only factually and which he does not elucidate." "love. great tradition to present realization.THE WORLD nd of a particularity acquired in life. and he may even serve the "devil" through his failure to see. which stands alone before God and exists out of God. helping us to adapt the "zan live. But if all empirical existence has been reduced to reality. fco the point of staking my life." As principles of faith become more universal they lose their historicity. They have at the same time a cleansing power: they free us from the fetters of pure materiality and from superstitious narrowness. question. They rise to the level of pure ibstraction. think. must be constantly tested in relation to God. these are the brms in which the individual consciousness has iwakened to the truth our parents told us so. There is I vast historical depth in such formulas as "for Thy floly name's sake.

And in this manifestation of the eternal there lies a paradox: for in it that which is eternal as such is once again decided.WAY TO WISDOM God and not to the world is this selfhood granted anr received as the freedom to assert it in the world. The eternal is manifested in the time of the world. The ephemeral subsistence of the world between Goc existence is the burden of a myth which ii and biblical categories —conceives the world : — as the mani from the creatioi through the fall of man and the redemption to the enc of the world and the resurrection of all things. In thi. myth the world does not exist out of itself but is i passing stage in a transcendent process. 84 . but the reality in this transience is God anc existence. It is thus that man as an individual has knowfestation of a transcendent history ledge of himself. The world ii transient.

None of these five principles is demonstrable in the sense of a limited insight into objects in the world. But each has ts own source in a fundamental experience of existence. But by the definiteness of their statement :hey give rise to pseudo-knowledge. They should be communicated. "recalled to mind. man can live in God's there is guidance. They are too readily treated like a body of knowledge. and this vitiates their purpose. in order that they may be confirmed by communication. for despite the force of the faith that is placed in them they remain in the suspension of nonknowledge. I follow them not because I accept a dogma in obedience to an authority but because by my very nature I cannot elude their truth. the principles of philosophical God man is finite an unconditional imperative. and imperfectible." "elucidated" iby a chain of reasoning. the reality of the world subsists ephemerally between God and existence. in order that they may awaken men when conditions are favourable.VIII FAITH AND ENLIGHTENMENT We have faith: stated is. in order that men may understand one another through them." They do not constitute a creed. Their truth can only be "pointed out. These five propositions renforce and lend impetus to one another. They are too readily made into a dogma which is substituted for reality. 85 . Glib statements of principles fill us with misgiving.

But in philosophical thought this battle of discussion is not a struggle for power. There is no inherent. all positive exposition must bei permeated by negative judgments. Third Man is perfectible. obedience. Thus every positive statement demands safeguards against error. for the imperatives which I obey originated in time and are in process of change. a struggle for clarity and. Man is no : 86 . In philosophizing I have recourse is to direct state- ment where a Is there direct question asked. tradition.: WAY TO WISDOM Statement demands discussion. for man can be just as perfect in his way as the animal. fundamental imperfection or frailty in man. no unconditional imperative. They are determined by the laws governing process. Is there a God? an unconditional imperative in our life? Isj man imperfectible? Is there guidance by God? Is the reality of the world suspended and ephemeral? I am compelled to answer. the world Second: There custom. limitation. For when we think. it wilt4De possible to breed a perfect man. and side by side with the ordered building up of thought we find per version. its is for there is only the world) and is God. Consequently. there are always two possibilities we may arrive at the : truth or we may miss it. everything is contingent upon something else ad infinitum. truth. and critique. it is a struggle forj lucidity through questioning. which are more or less as follows First: There is no God. when I am confronted by the principles characterizing lack of faith. in which we allow our adversary all those' weapons of the intellect with which we defend our owni faith. habit.

True. against actions magical e. Fourth: There is no guidance by God. Enlightenment demands insight and a critical aware- * It is clear in Jaspers' discussion of the enlightenment that he is not primarily 'oncerned with the historical movement known as the Enlightenment. j. in less unlimited striving for of the quality and limit of every insight. is not transition and suspension. In dealing with such statements of lack of faith ihilosophy has a twofold task: to apprehend their rigin and to elucidate the truth of faith. but he grounded in himself. Man has the I trength to follow himself trength. but the /orld itself is absolute. and anything else that obstructs the deepest apprehenLon of and response to reality.ctions xpected to accomplish. This guidance is an illusion and a self-deception. since belief in their efficacy b based on assumptions which can be proved false. ke everything else in the world he is transient. enlightenment is opposed to iaperstition.gainst traditional prejudices.FAITH AND ENLIGHTENMENT itermediate being but complete and whole. Fifth and can rely on his own everything. independent. its reality is the sole Since there is no transcendence. Lack of faith le — — Lgainst restrictions on questioning and inquiry. But what is enlightenment?* The teachings of enlightenment are directed against he blindness which accepts ideas as true without [uestioning them.. ^erything in the world is indeed transient. : The world is nd authentic reality.g. adequate to imself in his world. As a ierennially significant philosophical attitude. . prejudice. i I is generally regarded as a product of Enlightenment. which cannot accomplish what they aie . it is eternal and not ephemeral.

he himself must participate in it inwardly. which he must ultimately take as the foundation of his life. And' accordingly the fight against enlightenment is itself 88 I . Even in obedience he wants to know why he obeys. He wants his knowledge to be based on experience which is fundamentally accessible to everyone. of the veneration he feels. whether only at this particular time and in thisi strives Man to and does. of the authority he follows. grasp with his understanding. And he would like also to have a reasoned basis for the indemonstrable premise. He desires.' WAY TO WISDOM understand what he believes. of the respect in which he holds the thoughts and actions of great men. And such participation must be based on self-conviction. He particular situation or in general. He wishes to understand to what degree a proof is valid and at what limits the understanding is frustrated. is unfathomed and unfathomable. He seeks paths to the! source of insight instead of permitting it to be setl before him as a finished product which he need only accept. In short: enlightenment is in the words of Kant "man's departure from the condition of immaturity for which he himself is responsible. of the trust which he places in something which. He subjects everything he holds to be true and everything that he does in the belief that it is right to this condition. ^ wants to think for himself. There can be true and there can be false enlightenment." In truth it is the path by which man comes to himself. and where' wishes to possible to have proof of what is true. — — But the demands of enlightenment are so easily' misunderstood that the very term is ambivalent.

. by which all human life must orient itself. which are always particular (instead of nerely applying them to the sphere that is appropriate to them) it misleads the individual into asserting that he can know by himself alone and that he can act bn the basis of his knowledge alone. it strives to stand man upon himself. True enlightenment on the other hand. thus .FAITH AND ENLIGHTENMENT fimbivalent. by intention and coercion. that it made men vretched by destroying their roots. Enemies of the Enlightenment have said that it lestroyed the tradition upon which all life rested that . or can— —be directed against —unjustifiably—be directed against true enIt rightly ightenment. It dissolved faith and led to nihilism. that it gave to lach man the freedom of his arbitrary will. impose a 89 . . authority. in the belief that he can attain to everything that is true and essential through intellectual insight. while it does not from outside.)roducing disorder and anarchy. as though the ndividual were everything (instead of basing himself jpon the living context of the knowledge obtained phrough questioning and searching in common with it lacks the feeling for exception and ()ther men) . In short. alse. These accusations apply to a false enlightenment vhich itself has ceased to understand the nature of true enlightenment. False enlightenment strives to base all mowledge and will and action upon mere understandng (instead of merely using the understanding as an ndispensable means of elucidating that which must be riven to it) it absolutizes the insights of the underitanding. Often the two are mingled in one. It strives only to know and not to believe.

and wisdom are inextricably intermingled. It has been called the supererogation of man. injunctions. limit upon questioning. The rejection of enlightenment is a kind folly of \ treason against man. created by God and oriented toward God. whose searching and questioning are not Hmited by! aims and truths set forth in advance (apart from suchi 90 . For it Let us now discuss some of the attacks that have been enlightenment. is a restriction upon the very thing through which God manifests himself The enemies of enhghtenment rebel against God himself in favour of supposedly divine but actually manmade within. It does not confound the methods oij the understanding with the contents of humanity. not from without but from made on Those who make that God Any restriction on man's freedom. as in all things human. institutions and rules of conduct.WAY TO WISDOM is aware of the factual limit. a science free from preconceived notions. wherein. To cease questioning these things is to renounce the human mission. One of the main elements of enhghtenment isl science. contents of faith. this accusation fail to recognize does not speak through the commands and revelations of other men but in man's selfhood and through his freedom.: not only elucidates prejudices and commonj beliefs which were hitherto unquestioned but also' elucidates itself. prohibitions.! In its view these contents can be elucidated byi rational understanding but they cannot be based upon the understanding. who wishes to owe only to himseli what has been bestowed upon him by grace.

They deny the dignity of man which is today ID longer*'possible without a scientific attitude. It is a purely historical phenomenon resulting rom a catastrophic world crisis. and advocate versal human (philosophical suicide. and fail to recognize the uni- readiness for communication. which they associate only with the flatness of the understanding and lot with the breadth of reason. or we are certain that today human dignity of fanatical decisions arrived at in self-willed blindness. not the profound force of Hberahty. They turn against tiberaUsm. We have heard the outcry: Science destroys faith.FAITH AND ENLIGHTENMENT fthical. In short reject our foundation in human dignity. but modern science is utterly ruinous. They ittack philosophical enlightenment. in freedom. They attack tolerance as fieartless indifference. seeing only the congealed hberahsm of laissez faire and superficial faith in progress. j i integrity. man is led into new prisons. Barriers are erected. We may expect its end md should do our utmost to hasten it. These critics doubt the eternal truth which shines forth in modern jcience. in the ithey ipower to attain knowledge. humanitarian restrictions as those forbidding he use of men as objects of experiment). Why these attacks on enlightenment? Not infrequently they grow out of an urge 91 to . Where science is lost man falls into the twilight of vaguely edifying sentiments. reason. jreek science could be built into faith and was useful or its elucidation. where tradition and situation make this attitude possible. In opposition to these beHefs there can be no jwithout a true scientific attitude.

^ it is persuade themselves that they have a faith. And theyi grow out of the unfaith of those who. It is true that the enthusiasm with which which are indeed open awakening man attains 92 . For God is not heard unequivocally out of freedom but only in the course of lifelong effort through moments when man is granted what he could never attain by thought. a drive to set men up as mouthpieces of God and obey them.WAY TO WISDOM absurdity. Often the enemies of enlightenment have invoked Christ and the New Testament— rightly so if they had faith. which helps perhaps to preserve them for humanity in the new technological world. But soon enlightenment may become an unwarranted aspiration. Men cannot always bear the burden of critical nonknowledge in mere readiness to listen at the proper to attack. but unjustifiably if they were thinking of the source and truth of the biblical rehgion as such. They arise out of passion for the night. because of the perversions of enhghtenment. in their desire for mind certain churches and theologies down through the centuries. If the attacks on enhghtenment often seem meaningin ful.' which no longer follows the laws of the day but amidi the experience of the bottomless builds a supposedly! saving pseudo-order without foundation. for these are alive in true enlightenment. every newly freedom and through it a greater sense of openness to the godhead goes hand in hand with enlightenment. they are elucidated by philosophy. And out of a will to power which fosters the behef that men are more compliant when they are blindly subservient to an authority which is an instrument of this power. What makes the perversions possible is the difficulty of the task.

In its assertion that man an know and think everything on the basis of his own such enUghtenment is indeed arbitrary. pf thought with purest enUghtenment recognizes that it cannot dispense with faith. he abandons himself life.FAITH AND ENLIGHTENMENT loment. with its critical awareness of Hmits and its valid accompHshments >vhich sustain the test of knowledge. his expectaLons can be fulfilled only by deceptions the finite and eterminate. The : A ontinuity of persevering self-examination gives way o overweening trust in a definitive pseudo-certainty. Only a development of thought achieved through the self-education bf the whole man can prevent any body of thought whatsoever from becoming a poison. He desires definite knowledge of the ulti- Once he has linty rejected faith. It lupports this impossible claim by undisciphned halfnsight. and so on absolutized into the whole. ti endless variations. and from it falsely expects cer- in the decisive questions of But since lought cannot provide such certainty. sometimes this. We cannot combat all these perversions of enlightenment by aboHshing thought but only by a realization its full potentiahties. . The five propositions of philoso- The phical faith cannot be demonstrated Uke scientific 93 . and in their pseudo-lucidity uccumb to a new blindness. late.hinking. can prevent enlightenment from becoming an agent of death. sometimes that. to le intellect as such. vien claim absolute truth for opinions based on accilent and situation. is )articular category is taken for cognition as such.

If the force of the Comprehensive fails us. As scientific cognition. its action purpose. develop thought. For the outward premises are subject to constant testing. it is dependent on contents theses. not only by the understanding as a judge who of himself knows what is true but by the understanding as an instrument: the understanding tests experience by other experience. and in by the original awakening of contents out of the primal source of our own selfhood. the premises of faith have their source in historical tradition. we inchne to the five negative propositions of unfaith.WAY TO WISDOM is not possible to impose faith by rationa means. In this outward form the premises are merely guides by which we find our way to the authentic premises. its philosophy authentic content must be given to it. by any science or philosophy. purify. It is a fallacy of false enlightenment to suppose thai the understanding by itself alone can know truth anc being. it also tests traditional faith so doing tests all tradition its by traditional faith. The source of these premises upon which thought must depend is ultimately unknowable. The sciences provide those necessary insights into experience which no one following the prescribed 94 . It of faith. The understanding can indeed clarify. but that which lends its opinions objective significance. The understanding is dependent on something else. They are rooted in the Comprehensive out of which we live. it is dependent on sensory experience. its thought fulfilment. The premises of sensory experience come from the world. As philosophy.

expressed in such propositions. makes possible our . The principles of philosophical faith become false I when they are taken as communication of a content. strikes me as meaningand I hope I ful. I will venture to believe in this way. while philosophy. on meaning meaning must still be as its inter- the philosopher utters these principles of The philofaith.FAITH AND ENLIGHTENMENT can elude. 95 . such faith. through its reasoned approach to tradition. sopher should not exploit his nonknowledge in order to When evade all answers. He must philosophizing and repeat: I be circumspect in his do not know. In will always be a tension between the sophy there seeming indecision of the suspended utterance and the reahty of resolute conduct. I do not even know whether I beheve. philoshall have the strength to live by my faith. they are to be taken as the symbol of an infinity becoming concrete. For none of these principles implies an absolute object. however. they assume an analogy to a creed. cannot combat unfaith directly but we can combat the demonstrably false claims of rationalistic pseudo-knowledge and the claims of faith that assume We i a falsely rational form. But this preted. the endless reahty of the world takes manifestation. Where this infinity is present in faith.lethods faith.

frees us from unconscious! bondage to our own age. particular history which is close to us that truly concerns us. an eddying flood. Yet in our philosophical approach to history certain abstractions. Our life becomes richer when past and present illumine one another. with brief intervals of happiness. from one turmoil. shows us standards by which to measure the present. teaches us to see man in his. It passes on.IX THE HISTORY OF MAN* iiiore essential to our self-awareness shows us the broadest horizon of mankind. In this 96 . We gain a better understanding of our present experience if we see it in the mirror of history. And history becomes alive for us when we regard it in the light of our own age. we inevitably deal in History sometimes appears to be a chaos of accidental happenings. * little islands which it chapter certain passages from my book Vom Ursprung und ^iel der Geschichte have been reproduced verbatim. It is only the concrete. from one catastrophe to the next. We can make no better use of leisure than to familiarize ourselves and keep ourselves familiar with the glories of the past and the catastrophes in which everything has been shattered. No REALiTYis than history. brings us the contents of tradition upon which our life is built. It highest potentialities and his imperishable creations.

f military technique on military organization and of ilitary organization on political structure. True. such as the effects of technological Inventions on working methods. as in the succession of cultural styles over !a series of generations. no unity and no structure. Let us draw up a brief outline of history. And beyond causality we also find certain [total aspects. Seen in this way history has no meaning. our insight has revealed certain connections. and so on d infinitum. THE HISTORY OF MAN spares for a time. Spengler and his followers saw such cultures growing out of the mass of vegetating mankind like plants springing from the soil. Toynbee twenty-one. this strata 97 . Spengler counted eight of them up to our time. [in the one before it. It can deal only with mankind as a whole. unity. until they too are engulfed. and structure in history. and having little or no bearing upon one another. of working methods on social structures. All in all as Max Weber put it —a road paved by the devil with demolished values. Men have been living for hundreds of thousands of is proved by bones found in geological which can be dated. as epochs of culture each rooting 'causal relations. but reveals only innumerable chains of causality and morphological organisms such as occur in the natural process (except that in history they can be defined with far less precision) But the philosophy of history implies the search for meaning. as great self-contained culturebodies in their development. flowering and dying. For tens of thousands of years there have been men exactly like us anatomically. years. of conquests on ethnic grouping..

we do not know. When this was. spiritually and materially incisive event. coherent history. and on the Indus. But this age must be situated in the very remote past and it must have been many times longer than the comparatively insignificant span of time covered by our documented historical : era.c. And these are the foundations upon which humanity still subsists — today. Fourth Since then there has been only one entirely new. from 800 to 200 the spiritual foundations of humanity were laid. This is the Promethean age. somewhat later on the Hwang River in China. Palestine. Mesopotamia. Third: In the years centring around 500 B. History breaks down into four basic segments First We can only infer the first great steps toward the use of language. through which man became man in distinction to a purely biologically defined human species. over what vast periods of time the process extended. Second: The ancient high civilizations grew up between 5000 and 3000 b. and Greece. But it is only for the last five to six thousand years that we have had a documented. India. These are little islands of light amid the broad mass of mankind which already populated the whole planet. the invention of tools. It was foreshadowed in Europe at the : : 98 .: — WAY TO WISDOM as is shown by paintings and remains of tools. in Egypt. equal to the others in historical significance the age of science and technology. Persia.C. of which we ckn scarcely conceive. simultaneously and independently in China. the foundation of all history. the kindling and use of fire.

we must find it em- pirically in profane history. as a set of circumstances significant for all men. Asiatics. The appearance of the Son of God is the axis of history. Chuang Tse and countless others." Extraordinary events are crowded into this period. at the groundwork end of the eighteenth century it entered on a period of broad growth. "All history moves toward Christ and from Christ. and all men.THE HISTORY OF MAN :nd of the Middle Ages. and thus provide all men with a common historical frame of reference. that of the around 500 B." Our calendar reminds us every day of this Christian structure of history. all the trends in Chinese philosophy arose. The flaw in this view of history is that it can have meaning only for believing Christians. including Christians. its theoretical was laid in the seventeenth century. In India it was the 99 . But even Western Christians have not built their empirical view of history on their faith but have drawn an essential distinction between sacred and profane years history. It must carry conviction for Westerners. If there is an axis in history. Hegel has said. seems to constitute such an axis. and in the last few decades it has advanced at headlong pace. In China lived Confucius and Lao Tse.C. The spiritual process which took place between 800 and 200 B. it was the era of Mo Tse. without the support of any particular content of faith.C. It was then that the man with whom we live today came into being. Let us cast a glance at the third segment. Let us designate this period as the "axial age.

He experienced the horror of the world and his own helplessness. Conflicting possibilities were explored. sophistry and nihilism. Jeremiah. partisanship. and Archimedes. This era produced the basic categories in which we still think and created the world religions out of which he set j men still live. He experienced the absolute in the depth of selfhood and in the clarity of transcendence. including skepticism and materialism. became aware of being as a whole. All the vast development of which these names are a mere intimation took place in these few centuries. and the West. Heraclitus. Greece produced Homer. The new element in this age is that man everywhere. the philosophers Parmenides. customs. all philosophical trends. India.. were developed. Deutero-Isaiah. Isaiah. The opinions. In Iran Zarathustra put forward his challenging conception of the cosmic process as a struggle between good and evil. . Thucydides. in Palestine prophets arose: Elijah. He raised radical questions. Plato. ap- proached the abyss in redemption. WAY TO WISDOM age of the Upanishads and of Buddha. limits his drive for liberation and' And in consciously apprehending his himself the highest aims. as in China. Discussion. of himself and his limits. the tragic poets. independently! and almost simultaneously in China. The world was thrown 100 into turmoil. intellectual schisms (though within a common frame of reference) gave rise to movement and unrest bordering on spiritual chaos. conditions which had to be: hitherto enjoyed unconscious acceptance came questioned.

of the battle against (cperience le demons for the transcendence of the one God. to restore desirable conditions or produce them for Thinkers speculated as to how men might best live together. Men strove to plan and control the course of events. lermits and wandering thinkers in China. philosophers in Greece. He discovered in limself the primal source. ieas. and inner attitude. Man opposed his own Qwardness to the whole world. onsciousness of lateness. ascetics in ndia. by virtue of which he might ise above himself and the world. For the first time there were philosophers.THE HISTORY OF MAN its peace of mind and selfwas ended. This was the beginning of struggle based on rationality and empirical le against the myth. as to how they might best be administered and governed. It was an age of extraordinary beginnings. Men ared to stand upon their own feet as individuals. felt and knew that an infinite past had gone Even in this first awakening of the truly luman spirit man was sustained by memory. lOI . And in that same era man gained awareness of listory. Man was no longer self-contained. even of decadence. reform. prophets in Israel may le grouped together. he had )ut men before. It was an age of the first time. greatly as they diflfer in faith. hence open to new and boundless pos- The mythical age with truths (f^ident — — t i bilities. He was uncertain f himself. hical indignation waged war on false gods. Myths ere transformed and infused with deep meaning in le very moment when the myth as such was destroyed.

and the West have nessed conscious attem. The supreme potentialities' realized in individuals did not become a commorj heritage. i\ But these centuries in which so much happened were not characterized by a simple ascending develop! ment. The spiritual life of men is still oriented toward the| all wit-J axial age. China. Thus the main line of history runs from the birth of humanity through the civilizations of high antiquity to the axial age and its offshoots.pts to restore it. there have been great new spiritual creations but they have been inspired by ideas acquired in the axial age. What started out as freedom of movemenll became anarchy in the end. India. renaissances. As the disorder grew intolerable. which 102 . Shi. ideas congealed into dogmas and a levelling occurred in all three spheres. Once the era lost its' creative impetus. Vast despotic empires arose almost simultaneously in China (Tsin. Huangti). and yet at first an astonishing prosperity. in the West (the Hellenistic empires and the Imperium Romanum). Everywhere systematic order and technical organization emerged from the collapse.WAY TO WISDOM And the sociological conditions of all three region reveal analogies: innumerable petty states and cities. men sought new bonds and new' stability. ancj there was no fulfilment. The end was first characterized by political developments. struggle of all against all. in India (the Maurya dynasty). There was destruction and creation at once. True.

invisible. Perhaps nankind will pass through these giant organizations [vhich. and the other ancient high civilizafrom which the ancient Jews emigrated and on when they laid a new foundation. we jhall jo pass through vast planned organizations analogous those of Egypt fions. up to the dawn of our own Since then a new hne would seem to have begun. :onceivable. comparable to the first invention of tools I f. If we may venture a presumption by analogy. It seems as though everything hat had been transmitted to us were being melted iown. What is new is that in our day history is for the irst time becoming world-wide in scope. measured by the preceding era of nan's existence and by future possibilities. and yet there is no convincing sign that a new edifice is in the making. they looked 3ack with hatred as a place of forced labour. What we formerly called history is ended an ntermediary moment of five thousand years between he prehistoric centuries in which the globe was popuated and the world history which is now beginning. In this interval men may be said to 103 — . But today we are living in an era of the most errible catastrophes. and inan axial age of authentic human upsurge. all previous history is a mere aggregate of :o a new axial age. Measured by he unity which modern communications have given o the globe.nd j fire-making. still remote. pur age of science and technology is a kind of second beginning. are a ninute interval. fhese millennia. ocal histories.THE HISTORY OF MAN Dlayed a creative role fera.

WAY TO WISDOM mustered thei have acquirec the intellectual and technical equipment they needec for the journey which is just beginning. The plans devised by individuals in their strive to | j restricted circles fail or else contribute to unleashing! quite diflferent. we entrust ourselves to it. to justified in believing in the future potentialities o: have gathered have humanity. based upon a supposed! total knowledge of history. The historical process can be seen either as an irresistible mechanism or as an infinitely interpretable meaning which manifests itself by unexpected new events. which remains always equivocal. But this becomes evident only in the light of history as a whole. even when to us. unplanned complexes of events. as to the meaning of history. have always ended ini catastrophe. the more confidently we may look to the future. The more fully we realize ourselves in the present. We anj together. to forces for the action of world history. In the short view all is gloom. seeking the truth and ascertaining the criteria oi humanity. And now. But we become aware of our helplessness when we' seek to plan and organize history as a whole. a meaning which. Thej overweening plans of rulers. Those whoi believe that the historical process has an aim often! reaHze it by planning. in the long view it is not. is never known 104 . We must look to horizons such as these when wt incline to take a dark view of the realities of our da) and to regard all human history as lost.

What does God want of men? Perhaps a general . Being is revealed in man through his dealings with other men. For God does not disclose himself in history in any single. what he can be. I can hope for nothing if I look only outward. can expect nothing.n Every aim |)eing facts litory ! transcended. provisional. I 105 . with its modest successes and total catastrophes. Man's ascent :annot be measured only in terms of security. The neaning of history cannot be formulated in terms of aim. he can become. is p. On the contrary.mswer may be ventured: History is the stage upon man can reveal what he is. of what he is capable. exclusive way. is of a single decision. Potentially each man stands in immediate relation to God. It that we and capable of only by ignoring essential can interpret the whole of history as the particular. Amid all the diversity of A^hich A^hat : bistory its we must give the unique. But history means far more it is the stage on which :he being of the godhead is revealed. follows that if I attempt to foresee due. the whole chaotic course of mman history.THE HISTORY OF MAN I If we seek the meaning of history in a movement oward some ultimate state of happiness on earth. From of a all this it on earth. we ind no corroboration in any conceivable view of past listory. the irreplaceable. but I can expect everything if I am oriented toward the profound humanity which opens up with faith in God. for tangible happiness in the form of perfection human paradise. argues against such meaning. Even the greatest threat is a challenge to man.

such as might be arrivec at through discussion at religious congresses. which does not imply a common and universal faith. An< that is the unity of mankind. Nor cai it be realized through a conventional language basec on reason and common sense. primal source. A practical unity of men striving for such an area oJ> nonviolence seems conceivable. I We cannot define the ultimate aim of history but w can posit an aim which is itself a premise for th realization of the highest human potentialities. does not seem entirely Utopian*.WAY TO WISDOM everything if. since it provides the best possible. not as a common knowable content but in boundless communicatior of the historically diflferent in never-ending dialogue rising to heights of noble emulation. which only in the. Unity cannot be achieved through any rational scientific universal. Unity can be gained onl-j from the depth of historicity. This form. requires an area of freedom from violence. and many have already taken it as their goal. Nor does unit reside in a universal religion. which will be worthy oii man. partaking of the entrust myself to transcendence. This goal of unifying mankind at least on the basic levels of life. dialogue of this sort. basis of freedom for all. A — io6 . Its realization will require a stubborn poKtical struggle against the powers that be and our very situation may well drive us into suchjj a struggle. This would produce a unity of th understanding but not of mankind. Prerequisite for such a unity is a political form uponi which all can agree.

We see the pleasure men take in power and violence. is moving toward justice. For we have every reason to take the opposite est has kiew. stricken with blind lust for gain and adventure. we see how the masses are swept into war. 107 . with which used as an instrument of obfuscaItion. which sees the future as all right. to win public opinion hrough widespread and enHghtened education and he unreserved dissemination of news. willing to sacrifice everything. each of us in is ourself. is the constitutional state built on elections nd on laws which are subject to modification solely »y legal means. to save. But if humanity desires communication and aspires end violence through a constitutional order vhich. even their lives. though unjust. On the other hand we see the unwillingness of the masses to deprive themselves. We see. we hall not be helped by an optimism born of enthuiasm for such ideas. and we see the passions which force their way almost unobstructed into the background of the ven philosophy mind.THE HISTORY OF MAN been developed in theory and in part ealized. In such a state men battle to gain ecognition for the just cause. acting through its constitutional rgans. we see rejection of the unfamiliar in the place of tommunication. There would be no wars in a constitutional world rder where no state would possess absolute sovereignty )ut mankind itself. the esistance to self-elucidation. would be sovereign. the self-will. the sophistry. to work patiently and quietly toward the building of stable conditions.

but now as at all times from the Comprehensive. as a it. there is no proof of it. the irremediable injustice of all institutions. to arrive at the point where we can live out of our primal source. by elucidating the age. our isolation we see our lives seeping away mere succession of moments. We need not accept the When in leaving only chaos behind raise ourselves ' 1 08 . Hence there seems almost to be an inevitable limit at which violence in some form must again breal is it Once again we are faced with the question God or the devil who governs the world? Anc though we may believe that ultimately the devil is ir through. But even though we are subject to the conditions of our epoch. We must not adjust our potentialities to the low level of our age. not subordinate ourselves to our epoch.WAY TO WISDOM we we s© se And quite apart from the character of men. situations which cannot be solved by justice. Nor must we deify history. th situations arising for example from the increase an« redistribution of the population or from the exclusivi possession by one group of something which al desire and which cannot be divided. then we are impelled to above history. but attempt. the service of God. tossed meaninglessily about by accidents and overwhelming events. Yet we must remain aware of our epoch and our situation. it is not from these conditions that we draw our philosophy. when we contemplate a history that seems to be at an end. A modern philosophy cannot develop without elucidating its roots in time and in a particular place.

THE HISTORY OF MAN that history is the last judgment. we cast an anchor through history into eternity. Failure is no argument against the truth that is rooted in transcendence. It is QO ultimate instance. 109 . By making godless tiistory maxim our own.

melting down all humanity into material for its edifice of power. in peaceful retirement. free from the world of possessions and the rule of passions. first because he is without needs. the unquestioned commonplace. What is inner Since late antiquity the philosopher has been represented as an independent man. Today independence seems to be silently disappearing beneath the inundation of all life by the typical. a citizen of the world. The portrait has certain salient features: This philosopher is independent.X THE INDEPENDENT PHILOSOPHER The independence totalitarianism. of man is rejected religion by the totalitarian claims exclusive truth as well as by the totahtarian state which. because he takes no part in government and politics and lives without ties. In any case this he is no . an ascetic. under all independence? is to fight for our inner inde- conditions. the habitual. for he has seen through the illusory terrors of the religions. third. second. because he is without fear. But to philosophize pendence. leaves no room for individuality by all which and even controls leisure activities in accordance with an ideological line.

True. The road of the philosophers of late antiquity offers us no promise. in which he cannot be moved or shaken. Although some were magnificent personalities. But some of these figures also reveal egoism and ambition.THE INDEPENDENT PHILOSOPHER philosopher believes that he has attained to a position of absolute independence. side by side with biblical religion these philosophers do offer a historical source of possible independence. Acquaintance with them encourages our own striving for independence. inwardly on unclarified passions. in their fight for freedom. a vantage point outside of things. much We see that independence turns into III its opposite . And dogmatism is common to all of them. they have manifested a happiness which did not spring from anything eternal but from awareness that life is a journey and from indifference to the blows of fate. This ostensible absolute freedom turns automatically into a new dependence. outwardly on the world. they created. Theirs is an impure independence which seems very akin to an ununderstood and sometimes ridiculous dependence. numerous philosophers of this type have disclosed rare independence through poverty. aloofness from business and politics. rigid figures and masks without background. perhaps precisely by showing us that man cannot sustain himself in isolation and detachment. whose recognition is courted. celibacy. Nevertheless. This philosopher has become an object of admiration but also of distrust. pride and vanity. a coldness in human dealings and an ugly hostility to other philosophers.

but the question is: Is this Archimedean point an outsideness which makes man a kind of God in his total independence or is it the outside point where he truly meets God and experiences his only complete independence. sense And what we can strive for it is not easy to say in independence. I j The concept of independence is almost hopelessly ambivalent. which can never fit the absolute. which alone — can make him independent in the world? 112 . because he is oriented toward God and thus remains superior to the discourse in which he must inevitably clothe absolute being. But mastery over one's ideas remains ambivalent does it mean an arbitrary freedom from ties or does it imply ties in transcendence? Another example: In order to gain our independence we seek an Archimedean point outside of the world. This is an authentic quest. For example: The philosopher. sets up thought structures like games to which he remains superior because of his unlimited power over them. But this gives rise to the question: Is man master of his thoughts because he is godless and can carry on his creative game without reference to a foundation. or conversely.WAY TO WISDOM if it is held to be absolute. and the metaphysician in particular. and hence needs to be readjusted ad infinitum? Here the independence of the philosopher consists in his not succumbing to his ideas as dogmas but in making himself master over them. according to rules which he himself has devised. enchanted by its form. arbitrarily.

yet such a perception is " dead with waking eyes. striving to be affected as little as possible by those pressures.: THE INDEPENDENT PHILOSOPHER Because of this ambivalence. avid for perceptions. Then lelfhood is lost. The pleasure of vision becomes is assimilated to passion for being. This pseudo-independence. to live a Hfe which responds outwardly to every pressure but retains an inner insensitivity. like all delusions. the most 113 mythical thinking. But being does not reveal itself to the mere passion of vision. The most serious solitary vision. mistaking speech for being." since it does not carry the )f decision in which Ithings jselves grounded those who perceive in this way may be prepared to commit themto the point of risking their Hves but not to life is . For example It can take the form of an aesthetic attitude toward all things. Being seems to reveal itself in this a kind of speculative poetry. finding the summit of existence in the formulation of things seen. they live amid the pressures of the age. independence. or the perpetual availabiUty for something else. or stones. animals. The resulting vision may have the force of a mythical perception. and all that remains is different roles played in different situations. can easily be confused with irresponsibiHty. Those who cultivate this independence of irresponsibility shun self-awareness. instead becoming a road to authentic selfhood in historic ulfilment. regardless of whether these things be men. ilanchor themselves in the unconditional. to carry on in the independence of their own will and experience. takes on countless forms. Insensitive ito I contradictions and absurdities. which .




eloquent turns of phrase and striking images, in disregard of communication all this dictatorial language of wisdom and prophecy is not enough. Thus those who are deluded into supposing that they possess being as such often endeavour to make man forget himself. Man is dissolved in fictions of being and yet these fictions themselves always conceal a possible road back to man hidden dissatisfaction may lead to the recovery of the authentic seriousness which becomes real only in existential presence and casts off the ruinous attitude of those who take life as it is and do what they please. This irresponsible type of independence is also manifested in intellectual opportunism. An irresponsible playing with contradictions permits such a man to take any position he finds convenient. He is versed in all methods but adheres strictly to none. He espouses an unscientific attitude but makes scientific gestures. He is a Proteus, wriggling and changing, you cannot grasp hold of him, he actually says nothing but seems to be promising something extraordinary. He exerts an attraction by vague hints and whisperings which give men a sense of the mysterious. No authentic discussion with him is possible but only a talking back and forth about a wide variety of " interesting things. Conversation with him can be no more than an aimless pouring forth of false emotion. Irresponsible independence can take the form of indifference to a world that has grown intolerable. What does death matter? It will come. What is there to be perturbed about? We live in the joy of our vitality and the pain of its




natural Yes permits us at all times to ;bbing away. are and to think according to circumstance.



mpolemical. What is the good of taking sides? Love ind tenderness are possible but they are at the mercy Df time, of the ephemeral, of the transient as such.


without desire to do or to be anyWe do what is asked of us or what seems appropriate. Genuine emotion is absurd. We are helpful in our everyday dealings with men. No horizon, no distance, neither past nor future Sustain this life which expects nothing and lives only here and now. The many forms of illusory independence to which we can succumb cast suspicion upon independence itself. This much is certain: in order to gain true independence we must not only elucidate these various forms of independence but achieve awareness of the limits of all independence.
drift along,


thing in particular.

Absolute independence is impossible. In thinking we on experience which must be given us, in living we are dependent on others with whom we stand in a relation of mutual aid. As selfhood we ate dependent on other selfhood, and it is only in comare dependent

come truly to ourselves. There is no isolated freedom. Where there is freedom it struggles with unfreedom, and if unfreedom
munication that

we and

the others



overcome through the elimination of all freedom itself would cease. Accordingly, we are independent only when we are at the same time enmeshed in the world. I cannot




achieve independence by abandoning the world, Indeed, independence in the world implies a particulai attitude toward the world to be in it and yet not in it. to be both inside it and outside it. This thought is shared by great thinkers of the most varying trends: With regard to all experiences, pleasures, states oi happiness and unhappiness, Aristippus says: I have,

I am not had St. Paul tells his followers how to take part in earthly Hfe have as though you had not the Bhagavad-Gita admonishes us to perform the task but not to strive after its fruits; Lao Tse counsels man to





act through inaction.

These immortal sayings might be interpreted ad Here we need only say that they all express inner independence. Our independence of the world is inseparable from a mode of dependence on the


A second Umit to independence



by itself alone



Independence has been negatively formulated as freedom from fear, as indifference to fortune, good or
bad, as the imperturbability of the thinker as mere immunity to emotions and impulses. But the self who achieves such independence is reduced to the abstract punctuality of the ego. Independence does not derive its content from itself. It is not any innate gift, it is not vitality, race, the will to power, it is not self-creation. Philosophical thought grows out of an independence in the world, an independence signifying an absolute attachment to the world through transcending of the world. A supposed independence without attachment
spectator, as


becomes at once empty, that is, formal thinking, which not present in its content, which does not participate in its idea, which is not grounded in existence. This independence becomes arbitrariness, particularly in




nothing to question everything

when there is no power to guide and bind the question. The contrary is stated in Nietzsche's radical thesis: Only when there is no God does man become free. For
a God man does not grow, because he flows as it were continuously into God like an undammed brook, which gathers no force. But using the same figure we might say the reverse Only with his eyes to God does man grow instead of seeping away undammed into the meaninglessness of life's mere happenings. third limit to our independence is the basic nature of man. As man v/e suffer from fundamental weaknesses from which we cannot free ourselves. With the first awakening of our consciousness we fall into error. In the Bible this thought is expressed in mythical terms as the fall of man. In Hegel's philosophy man's alienation is magnificently elucidated. Kierkegaard speaks poignantly of the demonic in us, which drives us to despair and isolation. Sociology refers with less subtlety to the ideologies, psychology to the comif






which dominate


Can we master our
it is is





and concealings, our perversions, so as to attain to our authentic independence? St. Paul showed

we cannot be truly good. For without knowledge impossible to do good, and if I know that my action good I sin by pride and certainty. Kant showed that

let us not cease to grow through our own historicity into the historicity of man as a whole and thus make ^ ourselves into citizens of the world. transcendence. let each of us as an individual immerse himself in his own historicity. let us hsten to our contemporaries and remain open to all possibilities. let us acquire the power to learn from all the past by making it our own. let us batde for truth and humanity in unconditional communication. of what he has become. and of what has been given to him. Theii only independence possible for us is dependence on!: 1 we cannot overcome. in his origin. but apprehend philosophical thought as movement and seek to deepen it. in what he has done. let us not heap up philosophical possessions.: ^ WAY TO WISDOM we do good only under the tacit condition that our good action will not be too harmful to our happiness. ii8 . and that this makes our good deed impure. This is a radical evil that We can only do our best and hope that something within us— invisible to the world—will in some unfathomable way! come to our aid and lift us out of our limitations. let us be master of our thoughts. Our independence itself requires help. ' should hke to give some intimation of how a measure of independence can be achieved in philosoI phical thought today Let us not pledge ourselves to any philosophical school or take formulable truth as such for the one and exclusive truth. let him possess himself of what he was.

lend little credence to a philosopher who is mperturbable, we do not believe in the calm of the btoic, we do not even desire to be unmoved, for it is our iiumanity itself which drives us into passion and fear ind causes us in tears and rejoicing to experience what tS. Consequently only by rising from the chains that bind us to our emotions, not by destroying them, do we :ome to ourselves. Hence we must venture to be men I 'and then do what we can to move forward to our true independence. Then we shall suffer without complain-


without succumbing; we shall be shaken not overturned, for the inner independence that but
ing, despair

grows up in us will sustain us. Philosophy is the school of this independence, not the possession of independence.

it is




Ifourlives are not to be diffuse and meaningless, they must find their place in an order. In our daily affairs we must be sustained by a comprehensive principle, we must find meaning in an edifice of work, fulfilment, and sublime moments, and by repetition we must gain in depth. Then our lives, even in the performance of monotonous tasks, will be permeated by a mood arising from our conscious participation ini a meaning. Then we shall be sustained by an awareness of the world and of ourselves, by the history of which we are a part, and, in our own lives, by memory and

An order of this sort may come to the individual from the world in which he was born, from the church which shapes and animates the great steps from birth to
death and the little steps of everyday life. He will then spontaneously fit his daily experience into that order. Not so in a crumbling world, which puts less and less faith in tradition, in a world which subsists only as outward order, without symbolism and transcendence, which leaves the soul empty and is not adequate to man, which, when it leaves him free, thrusts him back




resources, in lust

and boredom,





Here the individual can rely only in himliving philosophically he seeks to build up by






world no longer gives



desire to lead a philosophical




finds himself, ;he darkness in which the individual of forlornness when he stares without rrom his sense

love into the void,

from his self-forgetfulness when he the busy-ness of the :eels that he is being consumed by wakes up in terror and asks world, when he suddenly do, what himself: What am I, what am I faihng to



been aggravated by the whether tnachine age. With its time clocks, its jobs, less and less absorbing or purely mechanical, which lead man to feel that fulfil man as man, it may even shunted in he is part of the machine, interchangeably that he is here and there, and when left free, to feel And just nothing and can do nothing with himself. colossus of this as he begins to recover himself, the again into the all-consuming world draws him back machinery of empty labour and empty leisure. He But man as such incUnes to self-forgetfulness. he is not to lose himself must snatch himself out of it if


self-forgetfulness has

banahties, to the to the world, to habits, to thoughtless

beaten track. Philosophy




the decision to

source, to find our

way back


awaken our primal ourselves, and to help

by inner

perform our practical day. But if we tasks, to meet the demands of the shall not content desire to lead a philosophical Hfe we look upon the ourselves with practical tasks; we shall
True, our

duty in hfe





mere work


whose aims we immerse ourselves

as in

a road to self-forgetfulness, omission, and guilt. And to lead a philosophical life means also to take seriously our experience of men, of happiness and hurt, of success and failure, of the obscure and the confused. It means not to forget but to possess ourselves inwardly of our experience, not to let ourselves be distracted but to think problems through, not to take things for granted but to elucidate them. There are two paths of philosophical life the path of solitary meditation in all its ramifications and the path of communication with men, of mutual understanding through acting, speaking, and keeping


silence together.

cannot do without our daily moments of In them we recapture our selfawareness, lest the presence of the primal source be lost entirely amid the inevitable distractions of daily

We men




What the religions accomplish in prayer and worship has its philosophical analogy in explicit immersion, in inner communion with being itself. This
can take place only in times and moments (regardless whether at the beginning or end of the day or in between) when we are not occupied in the world with worldly aims and yet are not left empty but are in contact with what is most essential. Unlike religious contemplation, philosophical contemplation has no holy object, no sacred place, no fixed form. The order which we give to it does not become a rule, it remains potentiality in free motion.

in despair. in boredom. I judge myself with regard to my particular conduct. reminders (such as: observe moderation. magic words as it were. de- nands What the possible content of such meditation? mind what I have done.elf. have been insincere. self-reflection. think of the other. I reflect on the degree of :onscious control over my actions that I have exerted n the course of the day. I gain awareness of authentic being. is infinitely susceptible to error. and in other states in which the self is lost. perhaps I fix in my mind words that I plan to address to myself in anger. I ask myself wherein I lave erred. of the godhead. I call to wherein I have evaded my responsibilities. be patient. with its . is unlike religious worship. seek to touch upon the source of my 123 . hought. I also try to discern A^hat good qualities I have displayed and seek ways in ivhich fo enhance them. I seek to ascertain that which is independent of time or that which is eternal in time. I read the symbols of being with the help of hterature and art. God is) I learn from the tradition that runs from the Pythagoreans through the Stoics and Christians to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Guided by philos- ophical methods. for that is inaccessible to me I find Drinciples in accordance with which I resolve to judge myself. felt during the day. solitude. not with regard to the whole tnan that I am. wherein I have been dishonest with myFirst. Second.THE PHILOSOPHICAL LIFE ^rhis contemplation. I gain understanding of them by philosophical scrutiny. injunction reflection to self-reflection. I realize that such it can never be conclusive and that transcending reflection. A^herein I — — .

I must not fasten on to any ostensible light within myself. I clarify my gain for myself alone in reflection would if be as nothing gained. of inauthentic self-assertion. If I meditate in these three forms self-reflection. Hence I must constantly draw myself into doubt. live in the hope that in your very renunciation you will in some incalculable way be given back to yourself. The truth begins with two.— WAY TO WISDOM freedom and through it upon being itself. renounce the I What were all — — defiant self-assertion which forces itself upon you in ever new disguises. I reflect on what should be done in the present. the hidden and : — 124 . when in the inevitable intensity of practical thinking I lose my awareness of the Comprehensive meaning. Remembrance of my own ground against which life with men is the back- present task down to the details of this particular day. an imponderable presence which can never be forced may come to me the clarity of my love. contemplation of my task and open myself to unlimited communication. in the belief that it will illumine me reliably and judge me is attitude toward the self Such an the most seductive form truly. I must not grow secure. what is not ultimately grounded in it is without adequate foundation. risk it without reserve. transcending meditation. I seek as it were to partake of creation. it What is not realised in communication is not yet. Consequently philosophy demands: seek constant communication. Third.

a firm loyalty amid the momentary lures of his world. by which to look objectively and immediately out of the evelation of being — j ! 125 . unswerving resolve amid the vacillations of lassion. without tangibly possessing the authentic. To philosophize is then at once to learn how to live and to know how to die. without knowing the whole. the perhaps bringing with it peace of liiind amid Hfe's constant turmoil. confusion. Because of the uncertainty of temporal existence life is always an experiment. And then let us go our way. For these moments give to the present 30th memory and future. emotional upheaval does not let me sink nto the abyss. If in my meditation I achieve awareness of the ^Comprehensive out of which I live and can live better. our questioning and our answering. a trust in the Ipundation of things despite the most terrible catastrophes. and that we let unlimited integrity govern our vision. For in these moments when I return home is it were to myself I acquire an underlying harmony vhich persists behind the moods and movements of he day. as it were. even vhile I am being swept along by the technical nachine. neditation will provide the dominant tone that carries he through the day in its countless activities. which sustains me and in all my derailment. without letting false arguments or illusory experience provide us with a peephole. In this experiment the essential is that we dare to immerse ourselves in it. they give my life cohesion and continuity. neither shunning nor closing our eyes to the extreme.THE PHILOSOPHICAL LIFE Iways uncertain imperative of the godhead.

He who takes scientific insight for as a knowledge of being itself and whole has succumbed to scientific superstition. If to philosophize is to learn how to die. As my method grows purer. the logic of my syllogisms becomes more compelling. rational Philosophy presses to the limits of fire. Only transcendence can make this questionable! life good. to know the highest good. in Thought i the natural sciences. but reading the) symbols of the polyvalent language of things and yet living with the certainty of transcendence. to know God inadequacy of the rational gives rise to a kind of thinking which. But philosophical thought begins at the limits of this rational knowledge. is more than this and human freedom. I gain greater insight into chains of causality. Rationality cannot help us in the essentials: it cannot help us to posit aims and ultimate ends.WAY TO WISDOM | I world into transcendence. while working with the tools of the understanding. In accurate knowledge of objects I experience the power of the rational. is the beginning of human existence. the world beautiful. my experience becomes more reliable. knowledge and there takes He who believes that he understands everything is no longer engaged in philosophical thought. To learn tO' live and to learn how to die are one and the same thing. Meditation teaches us the power of thought. in technical planning. and existence itself a fulfilment. 126 . without hearing any direct! and unequivocal word of God. then we musti learn how to die in order to lead a good life. as in the operations of mathematics. understanding.

and arouses the authentic impulses which are thought and action. what it cannot apprehend to stand forth in full force and clarity. it is no applied knowledge that can be possessed. Measured by outward. This maxim expresses poorly the thought that Hes behind it. inward and outward act in one. Here cognition ceases. this thought of inner action is as nothing. For the philosopher has no doctrine if by doctrine is meant a set of rules under which the cases of empirical existence might be subsumed. Philosophical ideas cannot be appHed. it is an authentic illumination and growth into being. The understanding {ratio) broadens our horizons. Dut nonknowledge makes possible an inner action by ^hich I transform myself.THE PHILOSOPHICAL LIFE to be astonished has ceased to acknowledges no mystery is no question. and also permits philosopher is expected to live according to his doctrine. reveals the tensions of the existent. they are a reahty in The particular 127 . This is another and deeper kind of thought. By techlically applying my knowledge I can act outwardly. Because he humbly acknowledges the imits of possible knowledge the philosopher remains de who has ceased He who )pen to the unknowable that is revealed at those limits. it is not detached from being and Driented toward an object but is a process of my innermost self. but not thought. in which thought and being become identical. technical power. onger a seeker. The clarity of the understanding makes possible clarity at its limits. it cannot be fashioned according to plan and purpose. it fixates objects. as things are subsumed under empirical species or men's acts under juridical norms.

so that these thoughts the . knowing how to die is mistaken for flight from the best is world. reason for total perverted to the worst. indifference. and tha explore philosophical ideas in them selves but must at the same time gain awareness of th) philosophical humanity which conceived them. he desires to listen. or life is per meated with thought. The formulae which date existence are distorted by the vital will Peace of mind is confused with passivity. he and wishes to be called to question. secretly and ourselves while idea. The The will to communication is perverted into selfcontradictory attitudes: we wish to be undisturbed. That is why the philosophe and the man are inseparable (while man can be con themselves. are cautious and taci- We We on our guard even while professing unreserved readiness for communication. we are supposedly speaking of the The philosopher who strives to understand and overcome these perversions in himself knows his unalways on the lookout for criticism. wish to be excused because of our nerves and yet ask to be recognized as free. not in order to submit but in order certainty . he is seeks opposition 128 .: WAY TO WISDOM we may say: in the fulfilment c man himself lives. sidered apart from his scientific knowledge) is why we cannot Philosophical perversions life is in constant peril of straying intc in justification of which philosophical eluci- propositions are invoked. yet demand absolute self-certainty in self-illumination. We think of turn. confidence with an illusory faith in the harmony of all things.

In the face of perversions. For there are terrible limits which philosophical 'which Alas.THE PHILOSOPHICAL LIFE spurred onward in self-illumination. And indeed there are diseases and neuroses which strongly effect them. talk so much when what really matters can be stated so simply. Where open and unreserved communication this philosopher finds truth and unsought-for confirmation in harmony with the other. But certain modern developments in the field of psychotherapy ire no longer grounded in medical science but in philosophy. to treat them is perfectly realstic. We can believe in it but not know it. but in a concrete symbol. understand them. Philosophy must even leave the possibility of full ko be ithere is faith communication in uncertainty. and conmodern man calls the doctor. which 129 life is attainable cannot be formuand once . though it lives by in communication and stakes everything on communication. There is no reason to shun the human agency of the physician. involvements. The attempt to diagnose gained real knowledge and ability. so that like any other philosophical flfort they demand to be examined from the point of view of ethics and metaphysics. To believe that we possess it is to have lost it. jthought has never recognized as definitive: limits at we forget or at which we accept and recognize Qotions we which we have not thoroughly elucidated. The goal of a philosophical ated as a state of being. not in a universal proposition to be sure. when through critical experience he has to Dur mental condition. fusions.

That is possible only in polarities Only when we exist entirely in this time of ouri historicity can we experience something of the eternal tions of existential striving or failure. darting out( 130 ! . | as determinate men. through logic and methodology the — philosopher. And now like a butterfly he flutters over the ocean shore. and this unity of history as part of eternity. not by electing any so-called Weltanschauung laid down in propositions. In our ascending journey the primal source grows clearer for us behind our empirical states. TO WISDOM Our states of being are only manifesta- our very nature to be on-the-way. We elective acts of achieve this ascent in the historically concrete. in conclusion. Only when we experience our own age as our Comprehensive reality can we apprehend this age as part of the unity of history. explores the world of ideas over tranquil paths. at the limits of this land. but there is constant danger that it will return to obscurity. each in his specificity. He must accomplish it as an individual Only | we | in communication and cannot shift responsibility to others. We strive to cut across* time. let us venture a metaphor that may characterize the situation of philosophy in the temporal world: Having oriented himself on secure dry land through realistic observation. through the special sciences. It lies in i { present. our Hfe. The ascent of philosophical life is the ascent of the individual man.: — j WAY attained. can experience humanity as such. perfect. And now.

But are not content to we we That is why our and perhaps so absurd to those who sit secure and content on dry land. For them the world is a point of departure for that flight upon which everything [lepends. which each man must venture on his own though in common with other men. and we are lost if relinquish our orientation to the dry land. flutterings are so uncertain 131 . He peers after the ship the method of philosophical thought and philosophical life the ship which he sees and yet can never fully reach. sometimes strangely staggering — — and reeling. to seek out the one thing which as transcendence is present in his existence. We are creatures of this sort. and which can lever become the object of any doctrine.THE PHILOSOPHICAL LIFE over the water. he spies a ship in which he would like to go on a voyage of discovery. remain there. and ire intelligible only to those who have been seized by the same unrest. and he struggles to reach it.

The churches are for all. As long as philosophy remains in contact with eternal truth it inspires without violence. like every other power in the world. As long as the churches have ties with the Eternal. champions and in the integrity of its spirit it has usually.. their outward power exploits the innermost energies. wielding power over masses of men in the world. Its authentic reality is open to every man at all times. it brings order to i 132 . It has enjoyed the accidental protection of powers in the world. grows sinister and evil. though not always. it is represented! by no institution which excludes or welcomes. whose rights it recognizes in its specific sphere. The churches are visible organizations. philosophy for individuals. But without sociological form of its own it has been helpless in its confrontation with the church. including the church. been on a level with the world of the church. this power. In the stature and purity of its. Philosophy is an expression of a realm of minds linked with one another through all peoples and ages. and it is in some formi omnipresent wherever there are men. It requires j favourable sociological situations in order to reveal! itself in objective works. I xn THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is as old as religion and olden than the churches. As they draw the Eternal into the service of their power in the world.

in the inward action of each day. it leads to anarchy of the soul. methods and systems. The Upanishads were conceived in the Indian villages and forests.THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY its the soul. in the learning of the contents. Independent philosophy comes to no man of itself. The reality that speaks to him from the history of philosophy is for the philosopher what authority is for the churchman. when perceives If the history of philosophy is to further our own philosophical efforts. by hermits or small groups of teachers and students. apart from the world. It can be apprehended only by him who it out of his own source. No one is born into it. It must always be acquired anew. fleeting The enthusiasm for philosophy is followed by the study of philosophy. from its innermost source. of the categories. Confucius a teacher who wished to restore education and true political reality to his people. specialized study. The study of philosophy takes three forms: practical study. the study of the sciences. by which we make the philosophical tradition our own. Kautilya was a minister who founded an empire. Plato was an 133 . The variety of philosophical manifestations is extraordinary. And j it aspires to be no more than a science it becomes an empty game. But when it places truth in the service of temporal powers it beguiles men to delude themselves for the benefit of their practical concerns. historical study. The first ever-soperception of it can fire a man with enthusiasm. it must be understood in the broadest possible sense. which is neither science nor philosophy.

Descartes. We must seek the philosophical idea and the thinker in their physical reality. without any institution behind them. in schemas which. Machiavelli an unsuccessful statesman. If these manifestations are remote and ahen to us. though questionable. After that we seek perspectives which will accord us a view of the history of philosophy as a whole. professors who developed their philosophies! in connection with their teaching. of the slave as of the ruler. Spinoza were solitary thinkers. seeking the truth for its own sake. Kant. It would seem to be the affair of man. Anselm was the founder of an ecclesiastical aristocracy. Hegel. We understand the historical manifestation of the truth only if we examine it in conjunction with the world in which it arose and the destinies of the men who conceived it. Nicholas of Cusa a cardinal whose ecclesiastical and philosophical Hfe were one. by thorough study of a work and of the world in which it was produced. The history of philosophy comes alive for us when. The truth does not hover all alone in the air of abstraction. under all conditions and activity befitting j circumstances. The whole two and of the history of philosophy throughout a half millennia is like a single vast moment 134 . this in itself is illuminating. serve as guides by which to orient ourselves in so vast a region.I : : WAY TO WISDOM aristocrat political who felt that he could not engage in the his rank because of itsj moral degeneration: Bruno. We must rid ourselves of the idea that philosophical activity as such is the affair of professors. Thomas a servant of the church. we participate as it were in that work. Schelhng.

Only through the history of philosophy as a whole can we learn how philosophy developed in relation to the [most diverse social and pohtical conditions and independently in [personal situations.nay be looked upon as a never-ending discussion. This moment . carried to What was the specific Western character of this synchronistic . logical speculations of subUme metaphysical the utmost extreme. In our study of the history of philosophy we seek a framework in which to situate philosophical ideas. these three worlds were so sharply to the time of Christ's birth that each the main be studied in its own terms. subHme works and regressions. profound truth and a turmoil of error. there were all-embracing systems (Scholasticism) and import. After this there was a period of dissolution in the course of which the great religions of redemption were consoHdated. I I development? First it consisted in a and greater dynamism.c). In the three worlds the development follows a similar curve. there were recurrent periods of renewal. K)ne must in IMter this date the strongest influence was that of llndian Buddhism on China. the fundamental ideas rose it is 'everywhere in the axial age (800-200 b. After a preliminary history which difficult to clarify. and the West.THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY n the growing self-awareness of man. kndia. bringing with it constant crises 135 . j Philosophy developed China. Despite occasional intercomknunication. comparable to that of Separate down Christianity on the Western world. disclosing clashes of forces. questions that seem injoluble.

Fourth: The philosophy of German idealism.: WAY TO WISDOM developments. in the unique development of Western science. St. in the greater diversity of languages and peoples manifesting the ideas. in preserve our clarity. It was more than a conservative pedagogic Scholasticism. and third. of the world and man. For us it remains to preserve the true meaning of science as they apprehended it although it was also perverted from the very outset and of spiritual freedom. second. making it our own we Second: Christian-medieval philosophy travelled the path from biblical religion to its conceptual understanding. from revelation to theology. Martin Luther. From Lessing and Kant to Hegel and Schelling we have a series of thinkers who perhaps excel all previous — — 136 . Third: Modern European philosophy arose hand in hand with modern natural science and man's new personal rejection of all authority. Kepler and Galileo on the one hand. Bruno and Spinoza on the other represent the new roads. chief among them St. Western philosophy falls historically into four periods First : Greek philosophy travelled the path from myth to logos. For us it remains the archetype of simplicity. the categories and fundamental conceptions of being as a whole. Augustine. disclosed a world which in its source was religious and philosophical in one. For us it remains to preserve alive in our minds the secret of Christianity as manifested in this wide realm of thought. created the basic Western concepts. Paul. Creative thinkers.

of scientific superstition. though they had no real world. there developed a learned approach to the history of philosophy. Today scholarly editions and reference works have made the tradition more easily accessible than ever before. the professorial philosophy of Germany. but it was limited to a few men.THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY Western thought in contemplative depth. this St. upon their own reason alone. In the twentieth century there has been an accelerated tendency to forget the millennial foundations in favour of diffuse technical knowledge and skills. and intellectual passivity. Augustine. While traditional thought vanished as an effective force. Without and social reality. the middle of the nineteenth century men began an end had come and to ask themselves whether philosophy was still possible. Since then thinkers have believed that they could build without history. they erected great works which contained a world. could not hide the fact that a form of philosophical thought which had 137 . filled with the whole of history and the cosmos. For us it remains to gain from them as much as possible of the depth and scope which otherwise would be lost. Up to the seventeenth century and even longer all Western thought was guided by the ancients. working in privacy and seclusion. The continuity By to feel that of modern philosophy in the Western countries. illusory worldly aims. rich in the speculative art of thought and in visions of human contents. cultivating a historic sense of the great tradition. Since the eighteenth century has gradually ceased to be so. the the background of a great political Bible.

and actuality. German philosophy and ultimately all philosophy culminated in his own system. for example. how. But constructions of this sort do violence to the facts. An extreme We ficial. which everything in order to penetrate to the questioned profoundest source. We seek it but attain only to particular unities. body and 138 . intellectually a world apart from them.WAY TO WISDOM j endured for a thousand years was drawing to a close. but the historical factors coincide only partially with a logical construction of the ideas. they fail to take into account those elements in earlier philosophical thought which are fatal to Hegelian thinking and are hence ignored by Hegel. excelled all modern philosophers in mass influence. thinkers of a type which The had formerly not existed. Progressions of systems can be shown. draw up schemas of this sort in envisaging the history of philosophy as a whole. and Marx who. ] representative philosophers of the epoch are| Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. as Hegel saw it. it can be shown. thinking became possible. the unconditional. which shook off all encumbrances in order to free the vision for an insight into existence. clearly related to the crisis of this age. They are super- In our search for deeper meanings we may touch on such questions as these: First: Is there a unity in the history of philosophy? This unity is not fact but idea. Certain problems (such as the relation between soul) come into focus at various times. in a world that had been radically transformed by the technological age.

eries of positions coincides with historical fact.: THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY ^he philosophers who erect them tend to neglect the /ery essence of other men's thinking.g. in early Christianity. No construction )f the history of philosophy as a logically coherent . The idea of a unity in the history of philosophy may pply to that perennial philosophy which is internally ne. It is true that those beginnings which are still attainable exert a powerful spell. some thinkers fall into the error of seeking it in temporal beginnings e. transmitted texts. Instead of jseeking this source by following the guidance of meaningful. in early Buddhism. Any unified construction we can give to the history Df philosophy is vitiated by the genius of the individual Dhilosopher. in the first pre-Socratic philosophers. The source is the fundamental truth that is always present. greatness remains an incomparable miracle. :juite apart from the development that is accessible o our understanding. but is not identical with them.. 139 . ts garments and tools. The journey to the source which is always necessary assumes the false form of a search for the beginnings. which creates its historical organs and structures. The beginning is the first appearance of an idea. From misunderstandings and perversions of thought e must at all times return to the source. Second: The beginning and its significance. But an absolute beginning cannot be found. Despite all demonstrable ties and iniuences. What passes in our tradition for a beginning is a relative beginning and was itself the product of earlier development. at some moment in time.

The total view of the history of philosophy is as a progressive development misleading. The successor often relinquishes the essence of the earlier thought. for example: from Socrates to Plato and Aristotle. by reconstructing earlier phases. to which the individual thinker contributes his word. Greek philosophy. Only through a historical attitude can we deepen our insight into what has been preserved. Third: Can we speak of development and progress in philosophy? We can observe certain lines of development. There are other epochs in which philosophy endures as pedagogy. These are epochs of living communion in original thought. The history its of philosophy resembles the history of art in that supreme works are irreplaceable and unique.— WAYTOWISDOM I Hence it is a fundamental principle of historical study that in examining transmitted texts we restrict ourselves to their real content. sometimes he no longer even understands it. the new is not encompassed in what went before. from Locke to Hume. Even where generations are thus visibly linked. Scholastic philosophy. There are worlds of intellectual exchange which endure for a time. the "German philosophical movement" from 1760 to 1840. But even such sequences are false if we take them to mean that the later thinker preserved and transcended the truth of his predecessor. There is nothing to be gained by reconstituting what has been lost. others in which it almost seems to have vanished. as for example. by filling in gaps. from Kant to Hegel. resembles the history of science in that 140 its It tools .

It resembles the history of rehgion in that it constitutes a succession of original acts of faith. and yet as a whole they contribute a new fundamental pattern of thought. though here expressed in terms of ideas. unique summits. Philosophy endures in every catastrophe. without reference to any broader historical truth. Scotus Erigena in the ninth century are isolated figures. Hence the very nature of philosophy forbids us to say that it is at an end. The history of philosophy also has its creative epochs. and in the isolated works which somehow appear in ages that are otherwise spiritually barren. But philosophy is at all times an essential preoccupation of man. possibly all their ideas derive from it. Their terminology fits into the tradition. But philosophy by its very nature must achieve wholeness in each individual man. in the thoughts of a few men. Plotinus in the third century.THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY bategories and methods —have mukipHed and are used with greater understanding. living by its own right. Philosophy like religion exists at all times. Hence it is incongruous to speak of this or that philosopher as a mere milestone or Fourth : precursor. Another reason why development is a meaningless concept for the history of philosophy is that every great philosophy is complete and whole in itself. Science progresses step by step. Can philosophers be classified by order of rank? 141 . It differs from other branches of spiritual endeavour in that a philosopher of the first order can suddenly appear in a supposed period of decadence.

tranquil. it is something unfathomable in the few great v/orks. It is a far remove from the opinions held generally in a given epoch to the content of the philosophical works created in that epoch. hence requiring no interpretation. no definitive truth which simply exists. It no level works and thinkers stand on an equal footing. philosophy has no canonical books such as those possessed by the religions. it is The the reahty of the great thinkers. And there are great men. That which the understanding of all men looks upon as self-evident. We tradition is the profound truth of past thought. have spoken of an analogy between the history of philosophy and the authority of religious tradition. and all these are philosophy. no authority which need simply be followed. suns amid the hosts of stars. toward which we look with never-ending expectancy. But this does not mean that we can set up a definitive hierarchy which would which all carry conviction for everyone. can be expressed in the form of philosophy just as well as the great philosophic ideas that are susceptible of endless interpretation. limited vision and contentment with the A world thus seen. There are heights of vision to which only a few have attained. 142 . this deposit of inexhaustible truth. But the historical tradition of philosophy as a whole. received with reverence. shows us the roads to our present philosophical endeavour. True.WAY TO WISDOM Certain thinkers and epochs history of philosophy has field in its make it plain that the is gradations. the yearning questioning at the limits — for the unknown.

Only in the seriousness of present philosophical jithinking jin its historical j can we gain contact with eternal philosophy manifestation. like pious Bible readers. Without this centre. Once it has awakened me.THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY an authority that cannot be obeyed is incumbent upon us to come to ourselves through it by our own experience. It is through the historical manifestation that we gain the profound ties that can unite us in a common present. history becomes the mirror of what is my own in its image I see what I myself think. He must gain intelligent mastery of the "facts. The history of philosophy a space in which I think and breathe reveals in inimitable perfection prototypes for my own searching. philosophy raises the question. It our j own source in its source. It encourages me through the example of those men who have unswervingly followed its arduous path. in which we 143 ." But the end and summit of historical study in the moments of communion in the source. It is then that the light dawns which gives meaning and unity to all factual research. its successes and failures. By its attempts. to find tradition is The with certainty. Thus historical research is conducted on various jlevels. this philosophical source. In his approach to the texts the conscientious [Student of philosophy knows on which plane he is moving. : jlies — — We have no text. the history of philosophy would be a mere record of fallacies and curiosities. At best we can produce a deceptive copy. To take a past philosophy as our own is no more possible than to produce an old work of art for a second time.

Each day is precious a moment can be everything. then too we lose being. we immerse ourselves in their truth. but there reas mains in them something remote and unattainable. What we miss by our evasions will never return.. our hearts go out to them. though it is something with which we: always live. unfathomable. We are remiss in our task if we lose ourselves in the past or future. 144 . WAY TO WISDOM may hope to find absolute truth. but if we squander ourselves. We love the old texts we love old works of art. For philosophy is essentially concerned with the present. Only through present reality can we gain access to the timeless. only in apprehending time can we attain to that sphere where all time is : \ extinguished. something which starts us on the way to our present philosophizing. and that is here and now. We have only one reality.



largely jutside philosophy. How its scientific character came to be questioned . Now that all possible fields Df research have been marked oflT. often in opposition to be understood only in the light of the development specifically modern sciences. the days of philosophy are over. To achieve the highest and most certain knowledge is he goal that has always animated its devotees. It deals in empty ideas because it sets up * Reprinted by permission of the Partisan Review.11 the sciences had become independent of it. . it was now expected to be a cience in the same sense as those modern sciences that ponvince by virtue of their accomplishments.APPENDIX I PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE* vcry beginnings looked ipon itself as science. it was in a different sense than before. )f the . If it were Lmable to do so. it was argued. it has become evident that philosophy cannot stand up against judgment by these :riteria. the briginal universal science. Now that we know how science obtains ts universal validity. indeed as science par excellence. it had become pointless ind might just as well die out. Some decades ago the opinion was widespread that philosophy had had its place up to the moment when 3.HiLOsoPHYHASFROMits ^nd finally in an atmosphere of indifference to it. These sciences made heir greatest strides in the nineteenth century. If philosophy was still expected to be a science.

were reserved for philosophy because they concern all the sciences. seduces by illusions. a handmaiden to the sciences. the process of liberation by which philosophy has made itself superfluous. namely. it it disregards experience. j Although these philosophical texts. they claimed. philosophy became a servile imitator. phenomenology. first as a factor in the history of the sciences j j I | themselves. they are nevertheless worth reading for the sake of their style and the intellectual attitude they reflect. universally valid insight. epistemology. Under such circumstances could any philosophy legitimately claim to be scientific? situation philosophy reacted in To this" I two ways i)The attack was regarded as justified. it takes possession of energies needed in for genuine investigation and squanders them empty talk about the whole. If philosophy is at an end because the sciences have taken over all its subject matter. This was the picture of philosophy as seen against science conceived as methodical. In an effort to refurbish its reputation. Others paid tribute to the modern scientific trend by rejecting all previous philosophy and striving to give philosophy an exact scientific foundation. Philosophers withdrew to limited tasks. texts do not make any serious contri- bution to scientific trutli. the anticipated in| sights.: WAY TO WISDOM undemonstrable hypotheses. the history of the errors. Finally. cogent. They seized upon questions which. It 148 . then as a phenomenon in the history of thought. there remains nevertheless the knowledge of its history. if only for their aesthetic interest. the history of philosophy must preserve the knowledge of the . logic.

It is conceptual 2) — — not knowledge..he view that philosophy is a science among other Iciences.aid It does not behoove philosophy to concern itself nagic.e. which was not questioned anyhow. And Hke . In opposition to this infatuation with science there las been a second reaction. But :n the field of logic it developed a specialized science j/vhich because of the universaHty of its purpose. to lefine the form of all true thinking. to provide a nathesis universalis.he others. witness the ruinous consequences for the soul and or Ufe in general of the rational attitude. it is carried on by specialists. seemed capable of replacing all previous philosophy. It is based on feeling and ntuition. it has its larrow circle of experts. and )f science tself is — iniversally vaUd knowledge 149 —seem to spell the end . its congresses. This first reaction seems today to have given rise to |.iew is not a science at all. and its learned I Dcriodicals. The modern sciences are altogether in Tror. Today many thinkers regard Symbolic logic as the whole of philosophy. It is elan vital or resolute Acceptance of death. : ivith Is science since it is aware that all scientific truth questionable. some went further and . Philosophy attempted to ave itself from destruction by dropping its claim to according to this cientific knowledge. Philosophy .PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE broceeded to establish in theory the vahdity of scientiic knowledge. Philosophy not a science. Indeed. i. a discipline among other disciphnes. methodical. and for that very reason its blement is authentic truth. Both reactions submission to science and rejection conceived as cogent. on imagination and genius.

to be sure. If such a thing is found. I shall indicate certain of their fundamental characteristics 150 . both in a theoretical and in ai concrete sense. These are a) the spirit of modern science. The seeming triumph of the sciences over philosophy! has for some decades created a situation in which! philosophers go back to various sources in search of true philosophy. developed only in the few centuries. It is a practical question of the utmost! urgency. We if shall appreciate the full we consider its historical origin.: WAY TO WISDOM j of philosophy. It weight of this problem developed from three complexly intertwined factors. scope. it has in either easel it is i ceased to be philosophy. last a) The modern sciences. they have also given new form and new foundation to the purpose. But the modern sciences not only have brought out these basic attributes of science with greater purity (a task which has not yet been completed). as iti was first and for all time elucidated in Plato. have brought into the world a new scientific attitude which existed neither in Asia nor in antiquity nor in the Middle Ages. conceived of science as Ad methodical. and universally valid knowledge. b) the ancient and evert recurrent attempt to achieve universal philosophical! knowledge . Even the Greeks. and unity of their fields of inquiry. the ques-j tion of the relation between philosophy and science*! will be answered. cogently certain. Whether whether it denies all the slave of science on science. c) the philosophical concept of truth.

They did not aim at constituting an all-embracing body of specific knowledge. In its eyes even the smallest and ugliest. Science has become truly universal. which deduces everyan . A world-system has other sources and can only :laim universal validity if scientific critique is relaxed and particulars are mistaken for absolutes. Hence the incompleteness of the modern world as compared to the Greek cosmos. Though a true world-system is no longer possible for them. whereas ancient science in every one of its forms presented itself as finished. nothing must remain a mystery. Such unprecedented systematizations as those achieved by modern physics cover only one aspect of reality. 3) The ancient sciences remained scattered^ unrelated to one another. because it progresses toward the infinite. its actual development was in every case short lived. Through them reality as a whole has become more split up and deprived of foundations than it ever before seemed to the human mind. is imposible. is a legitimate object of inquiry for the very reason that it exists. the most distant and most alien. Nothing must be hidden or passed over in silence. There is nothing that can evade it. and it never set its own development as its . Modern scientists have understood that all-embracing world-system. a cosmos of the sciences is still conceivable.conscious goal.) PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE science nothing is indifferent. whereas the modern sciences strive to be integrated into a universal frame of reference. 1 To modern svery fact. 2) Modern science is by definition unfinished.hing that exists from one or a few principles. Our sense of the inadequacy of each 151 .

i 4) The modern sciences attach Uttle value to the« possibilities of thought they recognize the idea only in! definite and concrete knowledge. while the modern theory. in so far as the general pattern is concerned. Philosophy had from the . all stubborn prejudice and blind faith. an attitude of inquiry toward all phenomena. all plausible opinions. and he has amassed anj unprecedented abundance of knowledge (how very little the Greek physician or the Greek technician knewj by comparison!). after it has proved itsi worth as an instrument of discovery and been subjected to infinite modifications in the process of investigation. . When we enter into its sphere. 5) 1 Today a scientific attitude has become possible. But the ancient theory was merely an intrinsically finished interpretation of possibilities. there is a certain similarity between ancient and modern atomic theory.WAY TO WISDOM special branch of knowledge demands that each science be connected with knowledge as a whole. The moral imperative of modern science is to search for reliable knowledge on the basis of unprejudiced inquiry and critique. undergoes perpetual change b^j confirmation and disproof and is itself an implement ol investigation. True. of leaving behind us all vague talk. he can distinguish between what he knowsl and what he does not know. without any preconceived ideas. Ad b) Modern science shares 152 the age-old striving for total philosophical knowledge. in constant association with experience. today] the scientist can know certain things clearly andj definitely. we have the sensation of breathing clean air. based on plausible explanations of available experience.

— PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE I St set itself up as the science that knows the whole bt as infinitely progressing. the nowledge of which Plato interprets in his parable of Ad by a constant misunderstanding. )oked on those great philosophies of the seventeenth mtury and on some later philosophies as pillars of ver. howvery reason Descartes did not underhand modern science. The modern sciences hich. c) Neither the modern concept of 153 . Modern philosophy has done its work only "in spite of" all this. How far removed is the truth. even to a certain extent Kant. 'ere still caught in this totalist conception of science. the investigations of Galileo for sample. by a self-deception common to all of them. reatest ly. although as a creative liathematician he helped to advance this science. It can be shown. The hsuing philosophers. factual knowledge but as !ilf-contained doctrine. This identification of modern science and modern hilosophy with their old aspiration to total knowledge as catastrophic for both of them. or one might science nor nence in the sense of a total philosophical system Dincides with the strictly philosophical conception of :ience which Plato formulated in a way that has never een surpassed. legel once again believed that he was achieving the instruction of an authentic total science and that he pssessed all the sciences in his cosmos of the mind. that for this I leir own edifice were tainted by their aspirations to bsolute knowledge. and that his own work had in spirit little to b with modern science. Now modern philosophy since )escartes has identified itself with modern science but 1 such a way that it still retained the philosophical oncept of a total knowledge.

universally cogent and indistinct and available to all thinking telligible. this truth that and to that which is above all being how fundamentally different it is from the truth of the sciences. and the third related to faith in a truth which is directly apprehended by the intellect all contribute to the (Plato's truth being an example) first —the so different conceptions of scientific know- — present confusion. But this it shares with many other trends. Marxism also represents a philosophical regarding the dialectical course of history as a thesis total process which it purports to understand. different i holds itself to I creatures Three ledge patterned on the method of modern science. claim to universal scientific validity. Thus it constitutes a philosophical doctrine but one with ai. An example: Its inquiries and investigations in the economic field have made Marxism an important force in scientific development. though it can only be attained by thought. which move only amid the manifestations oi being without ever attaining to being itself.! — WAY TO WISDOM the cave applies to being and touches on in his dialectic. What a distance between the truth which can nowhere be set down in writing but which. and how from the truth of the dogmatic system which be in possession of the whole of being. is kindled in a favourable moment of communication among men of understanding. according to Plato's seventh epistle. and its scientific contribution does not account for its influence. the second derived from the idea of a total philosophical system. and the truth which is written. It has the same: 154 .

systematic knowledge. that however is depart from Hegel's method of constructing reality have stood Hegel on his only in content. all phenomena from what they regard Marx head. JHegel is the source of the fallacy committed by form by the type of modern philosophy that began with Descartes and was repeated by Marx. unlike the animals. Marxism conceives of itself as the true consciousness of the classless man. for he did not by the dialectic of the concept. his doctrine is presented as a result of modern science. but at the same time. hence inductively. ||Which this identification of economic knowledge." while for Marx it lies in the mode of production of man who. The differonly that for Hegel the core of the historical process lies in what he calls the "idea. whose 'dialectical method remains its implement. exclusive claim therefore and in a different originates in a conception of philosophy as total. which passes for essentially definitive iknowledge. In addition to the conceptions patterned on modern science and total philosophy. there operates in Marxisui also a third conception. 155 .PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE ^pistemological basis as Hegel's philosophy. analogous to the Platonic idea of truth. from which it does not at all follow. gained by scientific method. Both Hegel itherefore rightly claims to and Marx derive as the core. and which by its very nature is subject to constant modifications. reflecting the lofty idea of an absolute truth that fulfils man's will and aspirations. Marx's absolute. with the dialectical knowledge of the is Now total process. although entirely different in character. obtains his sustenance through ence is systematic labour.

WAY TO WISDOM This quasi-religious postulate is the source of a newp kind of fanaticism which invokes not faith but modern S* science. Genuine science can. It produces a certainty whose relativity. satisfaction with mere plausibility. { Similar intellectual tendencies. on presuppositions and methods of is its crucial characteristic. appear to be occult.. on a large scale. as has always been the case. results that are so familiar on a small scale in everyday fife an attitude of never being at a loss for an answer. or inability to overcome class prejudice andj contrasts these with its own universal human truth thatj is free from class bondage and hence absolute. It teaches us to know. limitations.e. analyse. The infuriating part of it is that science is invoked to defend something that runs directly counter to the scientific spirit. it is in the nature of a public secret. which uncriticallylits hypostatize a field of investigation that is meaningful W within its limits into a total science and infuse it with aire have been manifested in the domains of racial theory and psychoanalysis and in many other religious attitude. di Ini I|b confusion of heterogeneous elements produces here. to false The jsc — I listen. It is public because it is accessible to 156 . dependence investigation. i. stubbornly uncritical statements andjci affirmations. and meaning of our knowledge. fields. jiif malice. test. and reflect on principles. in full consciousness of the methods by which each stage of knowledge is achieved. which charges its opponents with stupidity. Thus we are today confronted with an ambivalent concept of science. inability to explore in a genuine sense. For science leads us to the understanding of the principles.

All the more brightly shines he genuine. The sciences themselves critically explode this false total knowledge. the need for basic clarity concerning science and its limits is readily admitted even by those who sin against such clarity in practice. the idea that total philosophical knowledge is scientific knowledge must be exposed as false. a body of knowledge forms that is nore than the men who are its vehicle. the sciences must be made pure. :orresponding to the three tendencies discussed above. But the philosopher who wishes I 157 . the est is eliminated through critique. It is here that the opposition to philosophy has its root. a body of mowledge that no individual can encompass in all its icope. oom for prevails regarding the of science. never-faiHng scientific attiude. This can be iaccomplished through constant struggle and awareness in the course of our scientific activity itself. every other source of truth in man.PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE veryone it is a secret because it is far from being truly mderstood by everyone. But the essential is to achieve this purity within the specific sciences. and in this respect contempt of it is At a time when confusion neaning justifiable. So long as free iiscussion prevails. This must be done largely through the critical work of the scientists themselves. Second. First. unswerving. By and large. three tasks are imperative. In addition there is a wonderful virtue in science belf In the course of scientific development only vhat is truly known is permanently preserved. whose very critical awareness of its limits leaves .

Science is a whore. Philosophy inherent in the actual 158 . for Lenin. Or: The choice of an object of science that is made from amongjo] an infinite number of existing objects on the basis of i' a choice that cannot be justified that guide us are tested in the systematic process of investigation. The rejection oi philosophy usually leads to the unwitting development of a bad philosophy. Third. that gives meaning. For philosophy is always alive in ihi¥ sciences and so inseparable from them that the purity o: both can be achieved only jointly. this object itself is scientifically. and ultimately the knowledge of God. Be that as this is is may.WAY TO WISDOM to test the truth-meaning of scientific knowledge. certainty. for it can prostitute itself to anything. For Nicholas of Cusa it is Reason. said Nicholas of Cusa. For example: It is impossible to prove scientifically that there should be such a thing as science. The concrete work of the scientisi is guided by his conscious or unconscious philosophy. and this philosophy cannot be the object of scientific ' method. Or The ideas : Science less. it is the intellect classless society that it The promotes pure science. t( auscuhate it. awareness of all the business of philoso- phical reflection. said Lenin. but they themselves do not become an object of direct investigation. for it sells itself to any class interest. so to speak. and truth to intellectual knowledge. a pure philosophy must be worked out in tbjkr' new conditions that have been created by the moderr sciences. left to itself as is mere science becomes home- lii a whore. This is indispensable for the sake of the sciencei themselves. must participate in the actua work of these scientists.

aimless busy-ness. If this jaidance fails. A pure science requires a pure philosophy. Unless an idea is submitted to the coldly ispassionate test of scientific inquiry. : :ientific Moreover. philosophy is inseparable from it riven to be science? But how can philosophy be pure? Has Our answer is: It is ience. Philosophy can be called science in so far as it resupposes the sciences. He who consolidates this guidance urough reflection and becomes conscious of it has . .:ached the stage of explicit philosophizing. or else withers into a dry and narrow and spine- servitude. jrovides the scientist it is their inner meaning that with sustenance and guides his jiethodical work. leaningless correctness. it is rapidly onsumed in the fire of emotions and passions.PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE idences themselves. There is no tenable philo)phy outside the sciences. not always "science" t science of such a sort that in the sense of modern ientific inquiry it is both less and more than science. it is as though the most magnificent 159 . It refuses to transgress against universally inding insight. for it is the only way to genuine onknowledge. science falls into gratuitous convention. Any philosopher who is not trained in a scientific iscipline and who fails to keep his scientific interests onstantly alive will inevitably bungle and stumble nd mistake uncritical rough drafts for definitive nowledge. Anyone who philosophizes must be imiliar with scientific method. Although conscious of its istinct character. anyone who philosophizes strives for knowledge.

science. which becomes present only through the most resolute knowledge in the consummation of nonknowledge. not seemingly and temporarily but genuinely and de finitively. it alone can achieve the authentic failure which opens' up a vista. his own pursuits eventuate in nothing. In its eyes science is a marvellous thing which can be relied upon more than anything else. philosophy grants its unconditional recognition to modern science." responsible for the evils sham prophets who who mistake the errors of and who would even hold and the inhumanity of our era. modern science enters upon thel path that leads to the intuition of the true depth. Only definitive knowledge can make definitive nonknowledge possible. Consequently philosophy turns against those who j ' despise the sciences. against the deprecate scientific inquiry. the philosopher knows. Rejecting superstitious belief in science as well as contempt of science. " modern science. science for science itself. the authentic mystery. an achievement that is the source of great dangers but of even greater opportunities and that from now on must be regarded as a prerequisite of all human dignity. the most significant achievement of man in his history. 1 60 . not with a sense of loss and despair but with!' a sense of genuine internal evidence.' WAY TO WISDOM insights could for the limit at II be achieved only through man's quesi which cognition runs aground. Without science.^ but upon being itself In accomplishing the great task of dispelling all magical conceptions. not merely upon the discoverable existent.

jhe Any specific object is the object of a particular Were I to say that the object of philosophy is whole. philosophical critique A^ould answer that such terms do not denote genuine objects. The mass of sham philosophical knowledge taught in is of the metaphysician. Such hypostatized entities are nothing but the capita moriua. To philosophize is to transcend. But since our thinking is inseparable from objects. These objects. che history of philosophy is an account of how the progress of human thought has succeeded in transcending the objects of philosophy. the ^reat creations of philosophy. Thus there . In philosophizing we must not fall under the spell of the object that We we use as a means of transcendence. jcience. no substitute for the profound discourse which speaks to us from the centuries to assimilate it from its source in the history of philosophy is not only to know something that once was but to make it come to hfe. But these methods differ those of science in that they have no object of inquiry. the ossuaries of the great metaphysical systems. To imagine that they confer knowledge is a philosophical perversion.PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE These pursuits can continue to be called scientific )ecause philosophy proceeds methodically and because t is rom conscious of its methods. the schools originates in the hypostatization of entities that have served for a time as the signpost of philosophy but are always being transcended by it. must remain masters of our thoughts and not be subjugated by them. function as road signs. The methods of philosophy are methods of Tanscending the object. indicating the direction of philosophical transcending. i6i . being. the world.

but they are not identically transmissible. The meaning of such definitions is: Philosophical thought is inward action. each has its justification. philosophy is less than science. Scientific truth is one and the same for all philosophical truth wears multiple historical cloaks . There is no overlooking the simple fact that while scientific cognition is identical throughout the world. philosophy. philosophical truth is absolute for him who conquers it in historical actuality. The one philosophy is the philosophia perennis around which all philosophies revolve. and which nevertheless can never achieve the form of an intellec- — tual edifice valid for all and exclusively true. It is this philosophy that is meant in such definitions as: To philosophize is to learn how to die or to rise to godhead or to know being qua being. despite its claim to universaUty. it appeals to freedom. it remains relative to method and assumptions. Or the same thing can be formulated is Thus philosophy — 162 . namely. each of these is the manifestation of a unique reality. is not actually universal in any shape or form. Although scientific truth is universally valid. This fact is the outward characteristic of the peculiar nature of philosophical truth. which no one possesses. as the source of a truth that is inaccessible to scientifically binding knowledge. it is a summons to transcendence. in which every genuine philosopher shares. but its statements are not universally valid. which is proper to philosophy and which is analogous to scientific forms.WAY TO WISDOM Yet in this intellectual transcendence. not only less but also more than science. For it does not gain any tangible results or any intellectually binding insight.

Only if the two are strictly distinguished can the inseparable connection between them remain pure and truthful. relates itself directly to godhead. Truth has a greater scope. There is no genus above philosophy. philosophical works have been written under the title "On the Truth". of : man — the university strives to achieve the great practical unity of the sciences and philosophy. Philosophy [defines itself. today the same task still remains urgent.PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE differently: Philosophy cious of genuine being —or is the act of becoming conis the thinking of a faith in that must be infinitely elucidated or is the way man's self-assertion through thinking. under [which it can be subsumed as a species. There is no definition of philosophy. to gain insight into the essence of truth in its full scope under the present conditions of scientific knowledge and historical experience. To sum up The sciences do not encompass all of the truth but only the exact knowledge that is binding to the intellect and universally valid. But none of these propositions is properly speaking a definition. The foregoing considerations also apply to the relation between science and philosophy. Throughout the centuries since the early Middle Ages.e. and part of it can reveal itself only to philosophical reason. It grows out bf the primal source in which man is given to himself. 163 . and does not justify itself by any kind of utility.. At the university a philosophical view of the world has always been made manifest through scientific Through research and study method. because philosophy cannot be determined by something outIside it. i.

Today neither theology nor philosophy creates a whole. yet they still bear witness to the task of unifying the whole. 1 such philosophy. and this both in sublime intellectual constructions and in simple propositions capable of finding resonance in every man. Ir so far as these remain an aggregate. marked by the neatness! of universally valid particular knowledge. Does the university still have a common spirit? As regards its organization. it still seems to constitute 164 . the philosophical ideas that were assumed by the scientists in the various disciplines were brought to the highest light of consciousness by the philosophers. It has come to be be-i Heved that scientific cognition. but in so far ajj they strive toward unity of knowledge. that would express the contents common to all of us. Old university seals dating from the fifteenth century reveal figures wrought in gold which represent Christ distributing their tasks to the faculties. it resembles c\ never-finished temple. the university resembles an intellectual warehouse. Today we have no that tradition. A century and a half ago this was still self-evident. Is the present dispersion of the sciences the ultimate and necessary stage? One might wish for a philosophy | ! would encompass and assimilate the whole that would be equal to the intellectual situation of our time. could break away from philosophy. Even where such seals are still in use they no longer express the modern reality. But the situation has changed.WAY TO WISDOM | The university is the meeting place of all sciences. The sciences have become fragmented by specialization.

constantly in process of enlargement. m empirically unascertainable. i. the university content itself 'with this spirit for- ever? For philosophy this situation seems to offer extraordinary possibilities. So long as the philosopher retains his integrity. For the philosophy in the sciences. the striving for greater expanse and freedom of thought. Hence arises the ntellectual life. The best philosophers today are not perhaps to be found among those charged explicitly with the teaching of philosophy. But it would be absurd to draw up a programme for a task that can be carried put only by an intellectual world operating with a true Sense of community.PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE ever-changing plan without symmetry or logic. Thus a common spirit is no longer found in a faith binding to all but only in critical inquiry as such. This ill iW: spirit is the product of the last few centuries. in unlimited questioning. in open-mindedness. is the 165 . everyone learns to come into Contact with highly unfamiliar things. which preserves us from dissipating our energies that are not worth on things knowing and which animates concrete philosophy that is scientific inquiry. in the recognition of the logically or liever definitive. everyone is levertheless compelled to see in this meeting something previously unknown.^ot related by a knowledge of the whole. This must not be confused with another kind of modesty needed today. that of the teacher of philosophy. he is modestly aware of the hmits of his knowledge. plan in which everything that achieves scientific I jitatus has its place. not by an individual. The most disparate elements meet. in integrity. in the resolute refusal to perpetrate the sacrificium intellectus.

and no one is an authority who must be obeyed by right. He wants to doubt. in so far as his striving is honest. may become good through the direct help of the transcendent. which is the prerequisite of all truth and without which there is no truth. This philosophy thus becomes in a sense the spokesman for knowledge in general. he strives to become capable of playing his part in the dialogue of ever-deepening communication. which began even in the academy of Plato. for even the greatest are men and err. I — 1 66 . The teacher of philosophy in the service of suchi efforts is not a leader who lays down the law but an attentive and patient listener. His hope is that in the same measure as he becomes a rational being he may acquire the profound contents which can sustain man. The teacher of philosophy reveres the individual! great philosophers. he thirsts for objections and attacks. but he rejects the idolization of men. eager to find meaning in the broadest interrelations. provided that constant care is taken to see this particular domain in relation to all the knowable and thereby to anchor it in depth. who are not specimens of a type but creators (such do not exist today). without any human mediation. And the teacher of philosophy has respect for each science whose insights are binding but he condemns the scientific pride which imagines that everything can be known in its ultimate foundation or even goes so far as to suppose that it is known. that his will. His ideal is that of a rational being coexisting with other rational beings.WAY TO WISDOM embodied in the totality of a specific science.

however. bf the students forget the great minds to preserve the various philosophical let his an object of instruction. he s feels that it his duty not to past.PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE As a teacher of philosophy. 167 . to jblucidate the present age and at the same time to join jnethods as {[hat tiis students in conquering a view of the eternal. and to see to it the sciences influence philosophical thinking.

on these matters for themselves. covering but a small segment of the possibilities of philosophical thought. But the developments of this thought cannot be understood at a glance.: APPENDIX II ON READING PHILOSOPHY If I t I s true that philosophy concerns man as man. The present lectures are little more than sketches. ON THE STUDY OF PHILOSOPHY Philosophical thought is concerned with the ultimate. From its two i68 . My I. Such study may be divided into three parts First: Participation in scientific inquiry. even where it seemed intrinsically difficult. though not of course the complex operations of systematic philosophy. It must be possible to communicate briefly certain fundamental ideas. listeners to reflect For those who may seek guidance in their philosophical reflections I append what follows. Every man as man philosophizes. it must He within our power to make it generally intelligible. Many great ideas are not even aim has been to encourage my touched upon. But in so doing I have endeavoured not to disregard the essential. Systematic philosophy calls for study. the authentic which becomes present in real life. It has been my intention to give an intimation of those elements in philosophy which are the concern of every man.

But he can succeed in his journey only through actual participation. achieve a clear and true philosophy we must devote ourselves to all three aspects. must decide exactly To how he means questions arise approach them. a sense of responsi- bility for our acts and experience. Everyone. A conscientious approach to the conduct of daily seriousness in crucial decisions. The young in particular must preserve themselves in a state of potentiality and experiment. it must not be definitive or external. Experience in the sciences. through his own philosophical thinking which is Second : The study ofgreat philosophers . their tific approach makes to attitude indispensable endeavour. I We cannot find knowledge of its history. : in study. their methods. These to In which branch of science knowledge? shall I seek specialized Which of the great philosophers shall read but study intensively? I not only How shall I live? Each man must answer these questions for himself The answer must not be a fixed formula. he can apprehend only the minutest fraction of their potentialities. and particularly every young man. In his journey upward the student draws nourishment from the great works. our way to philosophy without a awakened Third life.: ON READING PHILOSOPHY main roots in the natural scientific sciences discipline branches critical and in philology out into innumerable for the scienhonest philosophical specialized fields. 169 .

It is through the understanding of texts that we set out to acquire our knowledge of the subject. can meaningful criticism begin. One without the other makes the reading fruitless. ON PHILOSOPHICAL READING When I I wish first of all to understand what meant to say. In the first process I acquire philosophy. Since when I study a text I have the subject in mind. My understanding will depend on my knowledge of the subject. Reading should be undertaken in an attitude compounded of confidence in the author and love for the subject he has taken up. in the second historical insight. test and correct. Hence we must think of the subject itself and at the same time of what the author meant. 2.WAY TO WISDOM I venture these maxims: proceed resolutely but do not run aground. my understanding of the text undergoes an involuntary transformation. Only after I have allowed myself to be completely carried away. not haphazardly or arbitrarily but in a constructive spirit. At first I must read as though everything stated in the text were true. 170 . after I have been in the subject matter and then reemerged as it were from its centre. But in order to understand what he meant I must understand not only read the author his language but his subject matter as well. For a sound understanding both are necessary: immersion in the subject matter and return to a clear understanding of the author's meaning. retaining every experience as an effective force in your thinking.

Through the understanding of their texts we ourselves become philosophers. And this obedience is the respect which does not allow of easy criticism but only of a criticism which through our own conscientious eflfort comes closer and closer to the core of the matter until it is able to cope with it. though guided. And in this history helps us. But this confident learning is not obedience. Our own philosophical thinking twines upward as it were round the historical figures. we make past philosophy our own may be elucidated on the basis of the three Kantian imperatives think for yourself. Independent thinking does not spring from the void.ON READING PHILOSOPHY How. Any further study presupposes tliis confidence. we begin by accepting something as true . in Studying the history of philosophy. What we think must have roots in reality. Any anticipated solution making it appear that we have already fulfilled them is a delusion. In this following is we test our own essence. by contact with them in the beginnings and in the historical fulfilments of philosophical thought. we are always on our way to a solution. The authority of tradition awakens in us the sources anticipated in faith. we do not break in immediately and constantly with critical reflections which paralyse what is our own true. movement. in your thinking put yourself in the place of every : other man. The limit of obedience is that we recognize as true only what through our independent thinking has 171 . This "obedience" a trusting to guidance. think in unanimity with yourself These imperatives are endless tasks. Without it we should not take upon ourselves the trouble of studying Plato or Kant.

it should either make us attentive or call us to question. he turns also to the history of philosophy. The imperative is to think in unanimity with ourselves direct against the temptation to indulge too long in curiosity and the pleasure of contemplating diversity. No philosopher. The remote and alien. the extreme and the exception. Accordingly. Amicus Plato. arrive at the truth in independent thinking only if in our thinking we strive constantly to put ourselves in the place of every other man. must learn to know what is possible for man. By seriously attempting to think what another has thought we broaden the potentialities of our own truth. even where we bar ourselves to the other's thinking. We All elements come together by being received into 172 . not even the greatest. magis arnica Veritas. learn to know it only if we venture to put ourselves entirely into it. What we learn from history should become a stimulus. The elements of history should not lie indifferently side by side in our minds. is in possession of the truth. in order to learn what was and what men have thought. must create a relation the most disparate elements. even the anomalous all enjoin us to neglect no original thought.WAY TO WISDOM become our own conviction. the student of philosophy turns not only to the philosopher of his choice whom he studies without stint as his own. The study of history involves the danger of disper- We We We sion and noncommitment. We even ourselves must create friction itself between these has not brought elements which historical fact into exchange among and contact. to miss no truth by blindness or indifference.

For this reason his history of philosophy remains a magnificent achievement. WORKS ON THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY These works serve very diverse aims. though an open one. culminating in the histories of world philosophy. there are general works. the diffuse. Universal history.ON READING PHILOSOPHY the thinker's one selves self. the contradictory. 3. investigations of influences and stages of development. sociological accounts. All the philosophers of the past live for a moment as in a wonderfully illuminating spotlight. The truest historical conception will inevitably amount to original philosophy. but then it suddenly 173 . biographies of the philosophers. They may consist in collected texts. methods. and he must also be a philosopher capable of participating in the philosophical thought of the past. is the driving principle in our learning. The idea of the unity of the history of philosophy. intelligently assimilated. But because of its Hegelian principles it penetrates but also kills. The writer on the history of philosophy must be equipped with philological insight. Hegel was the first philosopher who took a consciously philosophical view of the whole history of philosophy. systems. There are works characterizing the mind or principles of particular philosophers and whole epochs. in simple des- criptions of texts. Finally. to a unity. tions They may consist in descrip- and discussions of the contents of works. means to preserve To be unanimous with ourour own thinking by relating the separate. becomes a unity. continuously shattered by reaHty. in analyses of their motivations.

it is not enduring questioning but conquest and subjection. thoroughly studied. Any list upon which 174 . If we read only one account its classifications force themIt is history side selves upon us involuntarily. it is not a heart out of living-with but domination. It is a good idea to begin by specializing in one philosopher. always advisable to read several accounts of by side in order to safeguard ourselves against accepting any one view as self-evident. read no account without at sampling the related original texts. but it is possible to find the way to philosophy through a philosopher of second or third rank. TEXTS For individual study it is worthwhile to acquire a limited library containing the really important texts. His rational penetration is not candid exploration but destructive surgery. and various It is also advisable to least philosophical lexicons are also useful. Finally. Hegel was finished with the past because he believed he had encompassed the whole of it. It is of course desirable that this should be one of the great philosophers. 4. though even here the accent will vary there is no universal accent that will be accepted by all.WAY TO WISDOM becomes apparent that Hegelian thinking cuts the them and buries their remains in the vast graveyard of history. But there is a core which is almost universal. . histories of philosophy may be used as reference works for literary orientation. such a library might be based will be subject to personal modification. Any philosopher.

d. Christian Philosophy Church Fathers: St. For more recent centuries the texts are so abundant that. a. Montaigne. WESTERN PHILOSOPHY I Ancient Philosophy Fragments of the Pre-Socratics (600-400). B. 203-270). a. a. Thomas ( 1 225-74) Master Eckhart (i 260-1 327). 1308). 150). Leibnitz. 1 6th century: 1 8th century: 175 . Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64). Bacon.d. ( 1 033-1 1 09) Abelard . Boethius (a. 50-138). (d. 17th century: Descartes. Plato (428-348). LIST OF NAMES.d. Spinoza. particularly of complete works. the difficulty lies in selecting one. 45-125). Calvin (1509-64).d. quite on the contrary.. For antiquity any bibHography is limited by the small number of extant texts.d. 161-180). Augustine (354-430). ( 1 . Anselm John Duns Scotus 079-1 1 42) St.d. Aristotle (384-322). Stoics (300-200). Jacob Bohme. The Sceptics. Plutarch {ca. Hobbes. 480-525). Modern Philosophy Machiavelli.C. (106-43 Sextus Empiricus [ca. 65). Pascal. Seneca (d. Paracelsus. Marcus Aurelius (ruled a. 1300-50). Cicero Plotinus (a. William of Ockham {ca. Fragments of Epicurus (342-271). Lucretius (96-55). Middle Ages: John Scotus Erigena (9th century). ON READING PHILOSOPHY leads step by step to philosophy and the history of philosophy as a whole. that have been preserved. Bruno.d.). Thomas More. a. Fragments of the Old Epictetus {ca. Luther (1483-1546).

: WAY TO WISDOM English rationalists: Locke.g. The Younger Fichte. The work of each of these great thinkers 176 . Philosophy of history Ranke. Modern sciences as an area of philosophy Nietzsche. ON ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY The Pre-Socratics have the unique magic that lies in the "beginnings. Darwin. Freud. Marx. : ] I In roughly characterizing these men I shall venture a number of inadequate remarks. In no case do I expect to classify or dispose of any philosopher. German philosophy: Kant. 19th century: German academic philosophy. La Bruyere.. Hegel. Lotze. Burckhardt. I j PoirricAL and economic philosophy: Tocqueville. Hume. Natural philosophy: K. E. In reading them we participate in man's first intellectual illuminations. e. although my statements will inevitably sound as if I did. Vauvenargues. von Baer. Schelling. 1 8th century: Shaftesbury." They are uncommonly difficult to understand correctly. French and English moralists 17th century: La Rochefoucauld. I \ J The original philosophers: Kierkegaard. We must attempt to disregard all the "philosophical education" which veils their immediacy in current habits of thought and speech. Lorenz j von Stein. Max Weber. Fichte. In the Pre-Socratics thought is working its way out of the original intuitive experience of being. I should like my remarks to be taken as questions. Chamfort. Psychological philosophy: Fechner. They are intended merely to call attention to certain things and perhaps to help some readers to find out where their own inclinations lead.

the reader specificity of style that have never )een equalled since. jext. The essential is the operation of transcending. is As only fragments have come down tempted to read things into the of riddles. The movement of his thought embraces the whole wealth of the Greek philosophy that lad gone before. we obtain no fixed knowledge but learn to philosophize for ourselves. laid have dominated Western thinking. Aristotle. but he communicated them in such a way . )hilosophers whose works have been preserved in any neasure of completeness. Amid the breakdown of his own age le stood at the frontier of every time. He down the language (terminology) of philosophy. fundamental experiences )f philosophy. as of Kant. All subsequent thinkers reveal themselves in their manner of understanding Plato. for he has no doctrine that can be learned and his teachings must always be acquired anew. Down to the present day the strongest philosophical impulses have emanated from him. The whole is still full since his time. He achieved the clearest communication of lis thoughts. it would seem. He perceived the vorld of the thinkable with the most independent )penness. 177 . From Aristotle we learn the categories which.ON READING PHILOSOPHY hows a unity and o us. These three occupy first )lace for the study of ancient philosophy. man cannot pass In his thinking. In the study of Plato.hat the mystery of philosophical endeavour becomes Ipeech while remaining always present as mystery. Plotinus are the only ancient I Plato. Plato achieved the |ummit beyond which. He has always been misunderstood. Plato teaches the eternal. In iiim all materiality is smelted down.

' WAY TO WISDOM j whether Aristotelian or anti. Participation in all its aspects. by virtue of its mood. Despite all the conflicting positions and constant polemics among them. Aristotelians (the and Sceptics. the personal dignity. original in mood. but it also characterizes the specifically limited fundamental attitude of these ancient centuries. style. is among the basic works of philosophy. the continuity of a world in which the essentials were merely repeated. Since then. the Platonists later Academics and Peripa-j j I classes of late antiquity for created the universal philosophy of the educated whom Cicero and Plutarch also wrote. and attitude have been realized by the clergy of the Middle Ages.] amounted to eclecticism. 1 The and tetics) Stoics. beauty. Its last captivating figure is Boethius. Mystical serenity is i which remains unequalled and which re-echoes wherever men have thought metaphysically. in the music of a speculation communicated . yet in which men understood one another. which has come down through the ages as the i true metaphysic. Plotinus used the whole tradition of ancient philo- sophy as a means of expressing a wonderful metaphysic. philosophical communities of education. the Humanists since the Renaissance.Aristotelian or conceived' j as transcending this entire plane of thinking. and in a weaker sense by the speculative. a world which was strangely finished and barren. and authenticity. they represent a world in common. whose Consolatio philosophiae. idealistic German philosophers between 1770 and 178 . Epicureans. concepts. This is the home of the cosmopolitan philosophy that still has currency today.


The Study

of these societies
It is


of great historical

md sociological interest.

important to understand

he distance between the great philosophical creations
ind this universalizing form of thought.



important because its pecuUar source is lot a great philosophy but an attitude toward tradiion and learning, an attitude of openness and human reedom, without which our Western life would be mpossible. Humanism (which merely became explicit n the Renaissance, in Pico, Erasmus, Marsilio Ficino, vho can still be read profitably today) goes through ivery age, since the conscious paideia of the Greeks and

Rome in the has grown weak. Its iisappearance would be a catastrophe of incalculable Intellectual and human consequence.
ince the cultivation of Greek influence in
ige of the Scipios. In our



Far the greatest of the Church Fathers is St. Augusine. The study of his works gives us the whole of Christian philosophy. Here we find innumerable,
inforgettable formulations expressing that passionate,








fphilosophy. His
repetitions, it

immeasurably rich work is full of sometimes rhetorically diffuse, as a
without beauty, yet in detail

whole perhaps
^ives terse

it is

and forceful expression to profound truths. iWe become familiar with his adversaries through the buotations and references in his polemics. Augustine's works remain to this day a spring from which all thinkers draw who seek to know the soul in its depths.



Scotus Erigena conceived an edifice of being, com God, nature and man, in Neoplatonic cate gories with dialectic freedom of development. Hi contributed a new mood of self-awareness and opennesil to the world. A man of learning, he knew Greek anc translated Dionysius Areopagita. Working with traditional concepts, he erected a magnificent system! original in its attitude. He sought to define God a* nature, and founded a new speculative mysticism! which has enjoyed influence down to the present. His work is a product of ancient tradition, blended with deep Christian and philosophical faith. The methodical thinking of the Middle Ages first becomes original with Anselm. Immediate metaphysical revelations are expressed in the dry language of logic and jurisprudence. While his logical argumentations and particularly his dogmatic propositions are alien to us, his ideas are still alive, in so far as we disregard their historical cloak of Christian dogmatism and take them in their universal human import as we do those of Parmenides. Abelard teaches the energy of reflection, the roads of the logically possible, the method of dialectic contradiction as a means of exploring problems. By this extreme questioning through the confrontation of opposites he became the founder of the Scholastic method which achieved its summit in Thomas Aquinas; at the same time he sowed the seeds of disintegration in the naive Christianity which had sustained men before


Thomas Aquinas erected the grandiose system which has been overwhelmingly accepted in the CathoHc


world down to our day, a system in which the kingof nature and the kingdom of grace, that which is accessible to reason and that which is accessible only


to faith, the secular

heretical positions


and the ecclesiastical, the confuted and the element of truth in them, encompassed in a unity which has been compared

not without reason to the great cathedrals of the Middle Ages. He created a unity out of the products of

medieval thought. In the light of his work the medieval were all precursors, down to Albert the !Great with his organization of the material and his method of adapting Aristotle. Perhaps Thomas excels him only in his clarity and in the moderation and succinctness of his thinking. The mood and vision of this complete philosophical reality of the Middle Ages can be found in Dante's Divine Comedy. Duns Scotus and William of Ockham broke through the structure of medieval thought at almost the very moment when it seemed to be complete. Still in a form that passed as orthodox. Duns Scotus spurs to thought by the profound difficulties which he found in the question of will and in the unique individuality of the Here and Now. Ockham exploded the Scholastic epistemology and laid the foundations of the modern theory of knowledge, with its endless horizons and its sense of human limitations. In the political sphere, as publicist for Louis the Bavarian, he shattered the :laims of the church. Like all the medieval thinkers whose works have come down to us, he too was a
believer in Christ (the unbelievers, sceptics, nihilists






mostly through refutations and day there is no modern edition of

Ockham's works. They have not been translated intc German. This is perhaps the only great gap still to be

in the history of philosophy.

Nicholas of Cusa is the first philosopher of the Middleijl Ages whom we encounter in an atmosphere which seemsf to us our own. True, he remains entirely medieval ii
his faith, for in


the unity of ecclesiastical faith


unbroken, the trust that the unity of the Catholic Church will one day embrace all nations. But in his( philosophy he no longer projects one system; like Thomas, he does not make use of the Scholastic method,! which logically apprehends all tradition in its contradictions, but turns directly to the matter in hand,! whether it be metaphysical (transcendant) or empirical (immanent). Thus he employs special methods based on his own intuitions, and finds a wonderful divinef!

which in these speculations is revealed in a new way. In this being of the godhead he sees the realities of the world, and in such a way that speculation opens the path to empirical and mathematical insights which become the instruments of the intuition of God. His is an all-embracing thought, lovingly close to reality and yet transcending it. The world is

not circumvented but itself shines in the light of transcendence. This is a metaphysic which is still indispensable. The time spent in exploring it may be counted among the happy hours of the philosopher. With Luther it is different. To study him is indispensable. He is a theological thinker who despises philosophy, speaks of the whore reason, yet he himself thought out the basic existential ideas without which present philosophy would scarcely be possible. The

It is extraordinarily rich. He is [ntolerance against intolerance. unswerving and dauntless adherence to Drinciples. methodic form. But his loveless intolerance makes him. free abstractions. The sixteenth century is rich in heterogeneous. in in Iv^eiled or fragmentary form. of depth and hatred. 183 . full We shall attempt a characterization of modern philosophy in chronological order.heoretical as in his practical activities.ON READING PHILOSOPHY combination of passionate seriousness of faith and of )pportunistic shrewdness. and English. the supreme incarnation of that Christian which there is no weapon but ON MODERN PHILOSOPHY In contrast to ancient and medieval philosophy. none of which is actually dominant. They remain rich sources. in his . it is manifested in the antithesis of philosophy. full of the concrete and of bold. French. Calvin's greatness lies in disciplined. modern philosophy forms no comprehensive whole but an agglomeration of the most disparate. This man gives forth a profoundly antiphilosophical atmosphere. unrelated of fine systematic structures. extraordinary personal creations. Its works are differentiated along national lines. ron logic. in constant relation to new science. in addition to those carry-overs from the Middle Ages that were still composed in Latin. ilmost a torment to study him. which move us by their immediacy. written in Italian. It Vorld. is efforts. of oriUiant penetration and coarse bluster makes it a duty. German. the repellent is good to have looked him the face in order to recognize this spirit wherever.

Bacon is known as the founder of modern empiricism and of the modern sciences. equall)! rich in profundity and superstition. with clarity and ir uncritical confusion. anthroposophy. Bruno in contrast is the infinitely struggling philosopher. sceptical openness and sense of the practical are expressed in modern form. without desire for realization in the world. His morality and opinions. cosmosophy. us that world. philosophically it is a perfect expression for this form of life. lies cabbalistic quaintness and. then at its beginnings. and this science would never have come into being by his methods. Despite their outmoded trapping! still modern approach graphic and interesting. For he did not understand true modern science. theosophy. the mathematical science of nature. His dialogue on the eroici furori is a basic work of the philosophy of enthusiasm. But in an enthusiasm for the new. particularly with hidden in the Bohme. Montaigne is the type of man grown independent. but at the same time it is in a sense paralysing. consuming himself in inadequacy. Both erroneously.WAY TO WISDOM In the causes their political sphere Machiavelli and MorJ initiated the and to history as a chain o effects. We musi works are Paracelsus and Bohme show discern the rational structure that in dialectical subtleties. character184 . His earthbound selfsufficiency is a delusion. integrity and shrewdness. He has knowledge of the limits and believes in the supreme. Rich in intuitions and images. which today is known a. The reading of Montaigne is immediately captivating. they lead into a maze.

is in his metaphysics 185 . The air seems to have cleared. that illusions must be replaced y a rational approach to reality. revealig with impressive logic elements of reality that with enter the is im human consciousness for all time. that vast technical lossibilities lay ahead. we should udy him today in order to know the road that is to e avoided. of great systems erected by neat )gical development. . ways creative. and beside him Hobbes. Though Hobbes developed a system of ifluence disastrous. Because of this. f the philosophers of his century he alone has >llowers today.ON READING PHILOSOPHY of the Renaissance. his greatness lies in his political theory. Leibnitz. His thinking dominates both. is eing. Descartes is the founder of this new philosophical '^orld. Descartes' perverted bnception of science and philosophy made his le basic fallacy that and because of obvious in his work. Modern images and intuitions have silently science is at hand. as universal as Aristotle. always intelligent. Spinoza the metaphysician who Pascal represents a reaction to the absolutization of ience and the system.tic ut the rich anished. it as the same precision but greater integrity and depth. Bacon ardently espoused the lieas that knowledge is power. richer than all the ^losophers of this century in ideas and inventions. with traditional pd Cartesian concepts expresses a philosophical dth. he is original in the metaphysical mood which e alone possessed among the philosophers of his time. The seventeenth century brings the philosophy of ational construction. assuming the haracter of a pattern for all thought.

SchelHng. an ethos growing out of our inadequacy. Hegel. the great German philosophers have an intellectual vigour and wealth of ideas that make them an indispensable foundation for all serious philosophical thought: Kant. It is the century of the Enlightenment. unflinching integrity of a man who dares to stand at the limits and face the unfathomable. His scepticism is the bold. a philosophical attitude into psychology. without speaking of it." They strove to bring. Hume is the' brilliant analyst. Both in France and in England there was a literature of aphorisms and essays by observers of men and society.WAY TO WISDOM without the greatness that comes of a basic attitude which is profoundly human. Kant: for us the decisive step toward awareness of being. Shaftesbury was the philosopher of an aesthetic discipline of life. The eighteenth century shows for the first time a broader stream of philosophical literature addressed tojj a general public. He provided the English! society growing out of the revolution of 1688 with its intellectual and political groundwork. Along with a systematic energy and an openness to what is deepest and what is most remote. In the seventeenth century the work of La Rochefoucauld and La Bruyere. in the eighteenth century that of' Vauvenargues and Chamfort. The English Enlightenment has its first represent-! ative figure in Locke. grew out of the world of the court. an intelHgent writer. 186 I -I . he does not strike us as commonplace. precision in the intellectual operation of transcending. even when tedious. Fichte. SI t whom we call " moralists.

and its limitations. [mmation of Western mate. frantic speculation carried to the point of fanaticattempts at the impossible. dislution and consciousness of dissolution. such as the younger Fichte and lOtze.I '^istness ON READING PHILOSOPHY of conception and humanitarian feeling. He initiated a destructive trend of extremiism and intolerance. roducing pale. The philosophical rtpetus dwindled in philosophers turned professor. however. effected the most comprehensive Hegel : alectic categories . scientific scope. like a personification of radiant reason. [he authentic philosophical drive survived in excepons. will be studied for their edification. full of zeal. its wellleaning seriousness. A noble : iessing. unconvincing systems and udies on the history of philosophy which for the St time made the whole historical material accessible. it no longer paws from the essence of man but derives from the [ourgeois world with its cultural ideals. arbitrary. philosophy is instructive. expansion of le material world. brilHant onstruction. failed as creator nineteenth century represents transition. Schelling: indefatigable ponderings on . moral eloquence. 187 . |i mastery and many-sided elaboration of the explored the full range of intelptual attitudes. scarcely recognized by their contemporaries. Even its more Inportant figures. the ulti- broached disquieting mysteries 'a system. and 1 The science. opened up new paths. not for onscientiousness German academic and leir substance. Fichte jin. history.

He considered the question of Europe's destiny. In them th( age is documented by the most merciless self-criticisH). not in their general concerns but in numerous though separate personalities. is made fluid again. his sense of human dignity and of authority. except for new paradoxes. He was utilized these insights. Violently Christian. and show no way out. both exception and victims. His preoccupation with freedom. profounck intellectual commitment. ji auscultation and! questioning of all things. democracy. Both without system. uttq astounding truths. They are aware of the catastrophe. Here are a few names only as examples. [j Kierkegaard: forms of spiritual action. developed them in economic 188 .j WAY TO WISDOM The original philosophers of this era are Kierkegaarj and Nietzsche. Political and social philosophy: Tocqueville apprehended the course of the modern world toward ancien regime. and of the United States of America. The modern sciences become vehicles of a philosophical attitude. led him to inquire realistically into the inevitable and a man and scientist of the first order. On the basis of the political actions and ideas of the French since 1789. In him everything. digs deeply but discovers nci) foundations. par-jj ticularly congealed Hegelian thought. Violently anti-Christian. Lorenz von Stein interpreted the events of the first half of the nineteenth century in terms of the polarity between state and society. in human history. Marx the possible. Nietzsche: endless reflection. through sociological knowledge of the of the French Revolution.

reduced this vision a system of causalities. Natural philosophy: K. revealed the 'eatness and the blessings of historical memory. {Philosophy of history: In an atmosphere of Goethe Instructions. and blitical status quo to create a world of justice and eedom. his diametrical opposite. arwin. he opened up new paths by imbly testing our knowledge of reality and rejecting 1 approximations and rash generalizations. and vague. oked on salvation and 2ssimistic sense I ' 189 . created a magnificent vision of le organic world in its fundamental characters. Jacob Burckhardt looked upon himself as kind of priest of historical education. dsting forms. clarified contexts in Lch a way that most earlier historiography seems inadequate. In the underprivileged and hopeless t-oletarians of all nations a light of hope shall be born liich will unite them and make them into a power ipable of overturning the economic. [id Hegel. inquired by every means to the reality of history. Theoretically and lie. Ranke developed a critical approach to [story in the service of a universalistic view which is self a philosophy even though it appears to reject riilosophy. sociological. by way of :ploratory research. doom with a fundamental of standing at the end of a world hose glory exists only in such memory. 'actically he demonstrated the conflict between dues and knowledge.ON READING PHILOSOPHY infused them with hatred against and endowed them with chiHastic aims jr the future. which implies the destruction any sense of authentic life. Max Weber laxed all prejudices. von Baer. E.

B. Kautilya's Arthashastra.C. experimental study of the relation between! the psychological and physical factors in sense perception (psychophysics) .C. LIST OF NAMES.). Mc Tse (second half of the 5th century (4th century b.c. A barren. hateful Weltanschauung m. Pali Canon of Buddhism.) . CHINA AND INDIA Chinese Philosophy II Lao Tse (6th century b.). Chinese far inferior to and Indian philosophy seem Western philosophy in scope. Shankara (9th century A. In his debunking psychology Freud naturalized and trivialized thej sublime insights of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche.WAY TO WISDOM Psychological philosophy: Fechner established al methodical. and in inspiring formulations.) . Chuang Tse Indian Philosophy Upanishads (roughly 1000-400 B.. etc.c).D. Bhagavad-Gita.C. in development. Confucius (6th century b.). this he conceived as part! of a logical but actually fantastic theory of the anima-i tion of all life and all things.) . As thus far accessible to us in translations and interpretations. but Freud failed to see that this world was not the whole world. texts from the Mahabharata (ist century B. It is indeed an exaggeration to say that all we understand of Asiatic philosophy is what we would understand 190 .c.asked by humanitarian forms was indeed appropriate to an age whose hypocrisy it pitilessly dissected. For us Western philosophy remains the main object of study.

jace ise. 191 . Rembrandt. Dostoyevsky. it though the parallel between the three ^velopments — China. the sustained thought. Aeschylus. Homer. historically Hence. the West— is it seems to equal emphasis on all three. the scientific orienta- 3n. Dante. LIST OF NAMES. Euripides. India. the thorough discussions. the formulations of problems. W^e lould not keep turning to new and varied works but nmerse ourselves in those which are truly great. rt: Leonardo. |und. terature: tiilosophy In order to possess ourselves of the contents of down through its history we must read and :read the philosophers in the restricted sense. Michelangelo. But it is true most interpretations lean so heavily on theWestern itegories that even for those who do not understand ^thout lat le I oriental languages the error is perceptible. ust obtain a clear . the texts collected in source books of religious history. and art. Shakespeare. Sophocles. Philosophy eligion: in Religion. For us this is not the Despite those indispensable insights which we gives us a distorted picture in that e to Asiatic thinking. hich to us are indispensable. Only in Western recise lilosophy do we find the clear distinctions. Goethe. Ill Literature. we view of the development of the iences and we must allow ourselves to be moved by le great works of religion. and Art The Bible.ON READING PHILOSOPHY it through our own philosophy. literature. the main ideas which animate are those of Western philosophy.

It is a question of philosophical destiny whether or not in my youth I entrust myself to the study of a great philosopher and to which of the great philosophers I entrust myself. shows a tendency toward dogmatic scholasticism and aestheticism. the most subHnie clarity. Such are the works oJ Plato. thought than the author himself knew. artistic expression of philosophical truth. Hegel is less scrupulous. — supreme lucidity. But in the greaj'" philosophies it is the totahty itself which conceals thi!'' infinite. scupulous weighing of every word. The more patiently we study these works th(!«f more wonderful they seem to us. without Ii c occasionally carried away by his own facility. everiP profound idea implies consequences of which thP thinker is not immediately aware. They contain mor^. but these defects are counterbalanced by wealth of ideas. of Kant. while in achievinjjjf unfathomabhj" depths.WAY Some few works TO WISDOM The Great Works as infinite as great of philosophy are in their own wa: works of art. creative genius. True. Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind buiip' each for reasons of its own. 192 . which reveals deep meanings though it i| does not integrate them in his own philosophy. clarity The complexity of thought. In Kant we have the greatest integrity. An astonishing harmony pervades the verli' contradictions. which is full of violence and deception. the keenest knowledge oi method.'!' form. so that even they become an expressioi'i^' of truth. In Plato we find balanced'!' reveals the foreground. ' sacrifice of clarity and force. Philosophies vary exceedingly in rank and in kind.

his A work which does not lead along ulti- road is an unfortunate choice. when really studied. It means study with all the means means a growing into the whole from the standpoint of one of its istory of philosophy reat manifestations.ON READING PHILOSOPHY We may say that everything can be found in le great one of works. An old counsel is to study Plato and Kant ince they cover all the essentials. gain impressions brough samplings of original tests. Perhaps it will follow from groping attempts. Choice your be given. gain an intimation f its other works. But everyone must make his choice for himself All we can do is to bring certain hings to his notice. learn t least to find our way about it. Nevertheless some advice . Everything else is drawn into the :udy of this work. Through a great work we make our upward through the whole realm of philosophy. In this I concur. thorough study of one sublime lifework I find a y entre. choose a great philosopher for the study of his ^orks does not mean to limit yourself to him. A young man might welcome advice as to which philosopher he should select. rust be in some way rewarding. It is not a choice to let yourself be carried away by ascinating reading. although ately every philosophical work. as for example by Schopenhauer t may )r jit Nietzsche. On the To 193 . The thorough study of one philoopher prevents us from overestimating our knowledge if the doctrines we have studied less thoroughly. 7ay take years to form. This choice is a fundamental lecision. In connection with it we gain an rientation in the whole history of philosophy. from which and toward which everything else lay be illumined.

the result will be bias Philosophy is incompatible with any deification of mar in which one man is regarded as an exclusive master And the very essence of philosophical thought openness to the truth as a whole. reahzations. yoi should also consider another who is very differen from him. not to barren. abstrac truth but to truth in the diversity of its supremi contrary. even the mos unprejudiced philosopher. If you restrict yourself to one.WAY TO WISDOM when you study one great philosopher. 1 194 .

Piper. R. W. Philosophie. Berlin.Verlag. Von der Wahrheit. My two principal philosophical works are 1. 19502. Philosophie und Wissenschaft. Piper. 1948. Munich.HOSE READERS ito WHO wish to look morc closely my philosophical writings may consult the follow- ig brief bibliography. Storm.. Short works treating the subject matter of these adio talks in greater detail: 1. Der philosophische Glaube. trans. Artemis. 2 ed. Zurich.. New Paul.. On I. Heidelberg-Berlin. Zurich.: 195 . Bremen. 2. English ed. R. English ed. Springer. 1948. Philosophical 1949.: The Perennial Scope of Philosophy. London. 2 ed.Verlag. 1947. York. 1948. 1948. ArtemisVerlag. 1949. Library. by Ralph Manheim. 1948. 7 ed. de Gruyter.APPENDIX III BIBLIOGRAPHY . Vernunft Routledge and Kegan 3. und Existenz. Mmiich. contemporary philosophy: Die geistige Situation der ^eit.Verlag.

1947. : London. philosophy Allgemeine Strindberg manifested in the concrete sciences Psychopathologie. 1949- 1947.C. American Scholar. Rout] ledge and Kegan Paul..i Seifert. No. The Origin and : Goal of History. Routledge and Kegan Paul (in preparation). und van Gogh. London. 3. Press. de Gruyter. 1949. HeidelSpringer. 1946. Max Weber. W. 3 ed." trans.: : BIBLIOGRAPHY Man 2. On 1. 3 ed. Storm. Bremen. by M. de Gruyter. 180-188. Works devoted 1. London. 2. das Christentum. 1 Vom Europaischen Geist. " Berlin. Piper. S. 2. The European 1948. Descartes und die Philosophie. in the Modern Age.. Munich.M.) Spirity\ 1947. Articles in English " Rededication of German Scholarship. Zuckerlandl. R. Bremen. 5 ed. berg-Berlin.Verlag. English ed. und Metzsche Biicherstube 3. Hameln. Metzsche. R. 1949. Berlin. 1947. as 2 ed. 1934. Storm- Verlag. Ziirich. English ed. W.. 1946).. Artemis.Verlag. 2. Munich. Piper. Vom Ursprung und ^iel der Geschichte. 1949. 15 (April. 196 .Verlag.. to individual philosophers: 2 ed.

1948). by Ralph Manheim." trans. 4 (December. Manheim. 1947). and 430-435- Goethe Our Future. 'Axial Age of Human History. Zu Nietzsches Bedeutung in der Geschichte der Philosophie. 518526. to be published in Partisan Review under the tentative title "Nietzsche's Significance for the History of Philosophy. by R." 197 . 6 (November. June-July. 1949." trans." World Review (London). Commentary. Basch. Commentary. by E.BIBLIOGRAPHY 'Is Europe's Culture Finished?" trans.


199 .This book originated in twelve radio lectures commissioned by the Basel radio station.


ggetseq. 175.. 116 Aristotle (384-322 B. Bacon. through doubt. the. 99. no 201 . recognized by philosophy. 52. (a. 175.there {=Dasein). 480-525). 17-18. of God. development of independent philosophy in. loo Buddhism. 76 Augustine.). 32 Bhagarad-Gita. Calvin the supreme incarnation of. 113 \ims and conduct. Jacob. definition of. texts on. 181 Being. and China. 175. 54-5 Ubert the Great. Nicolas (1741-94). 180 \bsolute. 100 Causal relations in history. 47 \rchimedes (287-212 b. : . revelation lAuthentic reality. oriented toward environment. 41 Chamfort. 137. Indian. 139-40 Being: awareness of. subservience to. 184 Brahman philosophy.d. 99-100. 20 Character. texts. 176. "Love and do what of. 137 Boethius (a. revealed in man.C. St. 181. 1907I Christian intolerance. in philosophy. 175. 24 Asceticism of the philosopher. 136 Christian philosophy. true the question of." 62 Authentic being. 54. of Cologne 80). 135 (800-200 B. 99 Chuang Tse. 178 in. 1 32 Churches. 78. the.). 175. 140.uthority: and unconditional imperative. 37-8. 13 59-62 \pprehension. 179-83 Christian structure of history. triumph of the. 100 Aristippus (435-356 B. \ntithesis of evil. 190 Burkhardt. 134> 136. 135. 176. 175. 186 Chance. 183 Catastrophes of present age. 80 \bstractions. 59. 105 Being. 8.). 134. the.. 92 I lAwareness and reality of the un- Axial conditional.C. 354-430). Civilizations. power of. 183 Christian-medieval philosophy. 98 Classification of philosophers. 189 Calvin. 39 et seq. apprehend God. authoritarian: and independent philosophy. 56 Children. 54. 136.INDEX \belard.). 9. innate. direct. 19. iVmbivalence 1 12-15 \nselm (i 033-1 109). 191 \esthetic attitude. 175. 14. attempt to ( 1 206- Bruno. the. man and. 92 Cicero (106-43 B. 180 \ntiquity.C. 116. Karl Ernst von (i 792-1 876). 184-5 Baer. spiritual foundations laid in. i75> 184 of independence. on source of philosophy. thou wilt. Sir Francis (i 561 -1626). 28 et seq. 97 Certainty: nature of.). spontaneous philosophy of. 57 the age. no Astronomical conceptions. and its significance.c). 190 Bible. 83 Veschylus (525-456 B.d. 103 Categories.C. John (1509-64). 98. 175. 178 Bohme. 48 Giordano (i 548-1600). 141-a Commonplace. 28 efforts to define. 176. ancient. 175. the morally I admissible and. 47 77 9-10 China: |A. definitions of philosophy [ Buddha. 190 Church.189 Beginning. Jacob ( 1 575-1 624). good and 177-8. 179. Peter (1079-1 142).C. of God. basic. Gautama. 135 Chinese philosophy.

100 Enlightenment: faith and. 9 Creative originality. 28-38. 88-90. oriented toward God. 97 Environment. 178 God. aims and. 106-8.' (= being. reached through certainty of 43. 87. demanded by unconditional imperative.1536). Alighieri 191 (1265-1321). 91 demanded by 86-7 Disintegration. and witness. 2 good and Discussion. existential. implications of. . 87. 136 Evil: definition of. 36. Compre51. . Comprehensive. and freedom. Community. Duns 18-19. Darwin. 91 and unity of mankind. Ren6 (1596-1650). and the unconditional imperative. 80-1. 54—5 Confucius (551-478 B. source of philosopliical thought. 185 Despair. "scientific". 59-62 statement. 2on. true. 175. 30-1. rooted in the hensive. between security in. Communications before Christian era.).C. of mystics. 1 40Devil. 99. 175 Egypt. 24 Scotus.C. 59-62 Existence: wonder of. evil. 190 Consciousness. empirical. ambivalence of. 125 Comprehensive consciousness of existence. 61-2 Euripides (484-407 B. two-fold. civilization of.).C. oriented to- ward environment. 13. implications of. 10. result of awareness of. in philo- authentic mode to God. visible signs of present. and philosophical 94. nature of. 133. demands of. 53 Death urge. of existence. 56 Deification of man. awareness of. growth of. 89 Enthusiasm. 122 et seq. in the philosophical Hfe. lack of faith and the. 32 Epictetus (a. definition of. 30-1. antithesis of good and. 42-3 Cosmologies.). 9 1 INDEX universal human readiness for. modern. 22. 35. 33. 59. Dignity of man. 191 European philosophy. 1 1 Doubt. 1 Cultures. on source of philosophy. mysticism not commum"cabIe. 46-7 Conditional imperatives. 22-3 Faith. 59-60. 100 Epicurus (342-271 B. Dante. 52 Existentialism. 89-90. 154-6 Dichotomy: subject-object. Master (1260-1327). 56 Ethical level of diflferentiation between good and evil. 32-3.1 1 1 . . 24. 76 Creation.d. 189 Dasein Charles . levels of. 179 Eternal. Cosmological proof of existence of 25 Doctrine of categories as structures. 37-8 Differentiation. Development and progress sophy. 1 Epicureans. free. 83 Devotion. to partake in the. 181. i34> 153. 88. 55 Conduct. the. 45 Descartes. 135 Communication: of truth. 30 Deutero-Isaiah. 85-95. religious and philosophic. 59-60.there). 176. 175. the 83-4 Failure. 50-138). 25-7. and 202 . 20. 32 Death. 31 three modes of. Dialectical method of Marx and Hegel. 175. unlimited. rise of. 13. 181-2 Eckhart. 184 Dasein (being-there) oriented toward. nature of. 53 Decision. 175 Erasmus. 102 Determinacy. 18-19. reality of. 20 Despotic Empires. serving the. faith. 122 et seq. attacks on. 29 et seq. 98 Elijah the prophet. 45.) meaning of. 78 Dogmatism of independence. Desiderius (1466.31-3. a soiu-ce of philosophy. 36 Contemplation: pure. (1809-82). God. John (1265-1308).

T73-4. 97 of. use of. 15-62 Grace. one. will of. a pragmatic substitute for philosophy. 26. (fifth Hippocrates advance from. man's freedom to decide. of. 49-50. 97 et seq. calls for guidance. 14. 90. and freedom of man.). 136-7 German ( 1 philosophical of. 187. 100 result of restrictions never isolated. 1 1 ascism. in the world. 159-2 Greek philosophy. 69 Hieroglyphs of transcendence. movement 760-1840). et seq. for philosophy. 68. 69 Historicity. reud. 4a et seq. causal relations in. 98 Greek conception of science. Galilei (1564-1642). 44. 93-5 aith aith. in self-awareness.C.te situation. 187 "icino. 117. sublime moments. evidence. ichte. 186. 39 et seq. ultimate aim 203 . .=^ultim3. differentiation Johann Gottlieb (1762-1814). manifestation of. 187 Immanuel Hermann (1796179 i879)> 176. 44-5. on fall of man. 90 Greece. the. and ^^^> enlightenment. 140. inconceivable. 39-40 originating in thought (Greek conception). 82. 'ichte. 140 Grenzsituation. 66-9 and transcendence. Johann Wolfgang von (17491832).. 48. 99. 176. in resists source mediation. meaning of obedience to. not an object of knowledge or living of Jeremiah. 32-3.1939). 105-6 Godlessness and philosophy. Sigmund (1856. 57. 40-1 41 proofs of existence of. 138. rorgetfulness of self (Forsakenness). 14 no 'echner. 50. . q. 65 voice of. 49. at three levels. 72-3. 'ire.. 83-4. is authentic reality.— 7 5 . Marsilio. 136. on Christian structure of history. 82. 70. absolutely true but not absolute truth. 134. 1 02 Heraclitus (540-475 B. loi. 47. essential to self-awareness. what he wants of men. lack essential. 85-95 Enlightenment). solitary. INDEX contd. principles 93-5 all of man. the idea Heroism. . voice of. 45. of. 90 176. 140 Sod: revelation and philosophy. 192. 136 [jrerman idealism. and only glory of. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831). point in. unthinkable. 176. 66-9 Guilt. 39-40. 48-9. 59-62. absolute transcendence of. speech of. 8 Historical injunction. 50 century B.). on. true attitude towards. 85. 45. . 47 God: of. the theological proposition. 15 'earlessness of the philosopher.v. existence oriented toward. 82-3. meaning 106-8 104-6. 1 1 71 . 24-6. outline of. 190 Goethe. 98 42 first and last causes. ^9. 64. brief of. basic segments man's awareness of. 136. 190 Salileo. principles of. of. 186. reality of the world and. dialectical method of. where obtained by m. 24 freedom: 37-8. . philosophical. 97. 80. all-sufficiency of. spiritual foundations laid in. (««'^ existence. philosophy of. Guidance. essential is man's inseparable from God. 87. 176. 155 Hellenistic Empire. 189.. unlimited devotion to. 189 Good.C. 40 Good and evil: antithesis of. 47 History: crucial turning 39-51. Gustav Theodor (1801-87). aith reality of the unconditional. 96. in invisible. speaks from within. 20 Hegel. .

190-1 Individual. 188. 140. "A desperates will to be oneself". 2on. on perversion. of man and of God. Immanuel (i 724-1 804). Jeremiah the Prophet. on studying philosophy. ment. of the ultimate of the enlightenj Huangti. See Historical injunction Insane.. spontaneous philosophy of the. always conditional. Laissez-faire. 136. 91 Lessing. relation of. irremediable injustice 108 Intellect and faith. 34 Kant. 74 La Bruy^re. 132-44.1 . 59. 88 . too Judgment. Intellectual passivity I of twentieth! . 140-1 classification of philosophers. 186 of. on the demonic in man. 176. 7. 77 Knowledge. civihzation on. limita15-18. 57 Knowledge. 1 18-19 Independent philosopher. conditional. 28-9 Ideas. 135 Indian philosophy. 177. on doing good. scientific compared with : India. Johaim Christian (17701843). use 98 LaoTse (pre-Confucius). 1 71-3 Kautilya. River. 139-40. development of independent philosophy. 190 La Rochefoucauld. 1 17-18. 190 Kepler. spiritual foundations laid in. 91 Language. 178-9 Hume. no. 134. and God's guidance. on duty and inclination. 157. 1 philosophy. 77-9 Iran. ' century. 185 Holderlin. 99. 190. 136 Kierkegaard. 44 Independence: arianism. 192-3. 52-62. negation to of. See Persia IlLock IrresponsibiUty. 70 Hwang River. the living God of. idea of unity in. and authentic nonknowledge. 48 Imperative. 43 Injunction. Soren Aaby (1813-55). 175. 98. 115. apparent disappearance of. not indispensable. all knowledge is. and the sense of the mysterious. 39-40. 140. 176. in closest approach God. 186-7. on the pheno- Images. iio1 mentality of the empirical world. 1 12-15. 114 (1870-1924). to God. And see Unconditional imperative Imperative. 141-2 Hobbes. 47 Indus. 187 Liberalism. INDEX History of philosophy. 102 Humanists. 67. unconditional. absolute inde- pendence impossible. of. Jean de (1645-96). 87^. 46. 68 Humility in receiving God's guidance.185-6 Lenin. Francois de (1613-80). 43-4. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Institutions. civilization on. 137 Interpretation. 98 Inference that God exists. 8. See Universal imperative Imperatives. Empire of. 175. 100 Jaspers' discussion: u 100. rejected by totalit- no. 186 Leibnitz. 1 13-14 Isaiah the Prophet. 55 Imperfectibility of the world. 117 Knowledge: advance of. Gottfried Wilhelm (16461 716). 60. the. speculative. situation. 42. 136-8. on science. 138-9. the beginning. 204 . Johann (157 1-1630). . 133. 176. 176. 116. of. historical. 138. 136. ambivalence of concept tions of. texts on. Thomas (1588-1679). 158 Gotthold Ephraim (172981). 45. through method. fulfilled. David 186 (171 1-76). 79 . 93 Intellectual opportunism. development and progress. independence of. four periods of. universal. 176. on enlightenment. how to achieve a measure of. 98 Hylozoism. 191 Homer.

176. Maurya dynasty.ouis the Bavarian (1287-1347). 175. 35. empirical knowledge of man not enough. the absolute. 161 Method. meaning of. 149 ^otze. 72 . Objects. 181 ^ove: wordless and impersonal. Emperor. et seq. 106-8 Marcus Aurelius (a.1704). 31 et seq. deification of. And History Mankind. of. see Nero. in scientific Michelangelo knowledge. Matter and life. 102 Meditation. 184 hate. 33-4. exploitation of.ucretius (96-55 B. 57-8. essential that he distinguish between good and evil. 60-2 Metaphysical theories. 138. 63. 140. 190 Mesopotamia. no substitute for. and matter. 64-5. 175. 190 Man. 34-6 Metaphysics: intimation of the Comprehensive through. solitary. 175. communicable. in- Mahabharata. 59-60. Martin (1483. 96-109. 28. to objective authorities and to .. essential to philosophical 120 Other and I. 158 Nietzsche. 186 ^ogic. worldless. 193. basic universality of. for God. in. always experimental. 35 Mystics. authentic 62. i 21-180). Palestine. understanding oriented to- God. 176. of Plotinus. 72-3. apprehension of man as a whole. 188. Michel de (1533-92). 53 MachiaveUi. 117 Nihilism. 190. 50-1. 54 Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64). "^izss influence of. only possible through definitive knowledge. 182-3. unconditional. philosophy.152 7). Thomas (1478. pure contemplation of. civilization of. clearly heard in freedom. 76 limit of. content of. 53 Marx. conditional commandment of. history of. 98 Pali Canon 205 . the true. an important force in scientific authentic. 175. on the intellect. unity thesis of. and wUl to Moral imperative. 69. radical 66-9. 1 78 Metaphysical level of differentiation between good and evil. modem ' unreality. 37 the aim of history. guidance of. 154 Mastery over ideas. 76. existence in relation to God. 134. 175 Martyrdom.. 175 Luther. Chinese. 59 More. 33 Montaigne. 184 the. 65-6.C.INDEX |(ife: and the perative. a pragmatic substitute Obedience: to absolute imperative. 32 Order. Karl (1818-83). 74 (1475. 29 et seq. : Nonknowledge development. 15. 76 ward. symbolic. 95. 52 of. versus Metaphysic. 52 et seq. claim to vuiiversal scientific validity. St.).1564). 80 science. 60. 187 .1535).. 80. moral energy of. 99. unconditional imultimate basis 56. Niccol6 (1469. 182. 190 Mysticism. for '54-7 Marxism. 45. 184. in reading philosophy. 134. 59-60 of . 15. 61-2 Morally admissible. 125-6 iocke. MoTse. 136. ^i et seq. 123-4 spiritual foundations laid 98 of Buddhism. 138. 171-2 Object and nonobject. 63-73. 23.d. \22 et seq. 28 Mathematical conception of universal matter. 160 Nonobject and object. 152 Moral level of differentiation between good and evil. 175. 112 Materialism. °^ God. Rudolf Hermann (181 7-81). 77. life. 191 Mind.1546). 59. John (163 2. 81 ' attitude to failure crucial. Friedrich (1844-1900). 176. 61.

history of. of failure. 148- Racial theory. meaning and 15 Prayer. moved by f' wonder. 206 . 26-7.d. the first question of. ultimate source of. 147-67. 178 Persia. 16. what to read. goal of. physical. grounded in philosophy. 192-3. 8-12: accessible to all.). 72 Premises of faith and of sensory experience. 162 Philosophical faith.. 116. texts. 185 Paul. endures at ail times. 40. 56-8 Pseudo-knowledge. 13-14. without science spontaneous philosophy). and science. 117. 8. Phenoinenology of 79 Mind (Hegel). Pascal. thought and. 9. takes account of scientific 8. concerned with the "whole of being". 53-4 Philosophy: not characterized by progressive development. 122 et seq. 67 Philosophical life. both less and more than science. 159 first. i"]/!^ et seq. the. 17-27. 177. Blaise (1623-62). 166. 175. 1 78 Plutarch (a. iiO~ 19. 147. the loi Philosopbia perennis. 176-7 Propositions to suggest meaning of the unconditional imperative. Theophrastus (1490- 1541)1 »75> 184 Parmenides of Elea {circa 539-474 B. philosopliieal conception of science. 175. 46-7 {and see God) . 159 et seq. no progress beyond. 168-70. St. 168-U 94. 12 Peripatetics. 34. 171. paths of. 32 Practice a source of reality.. 34. 134. three forms of study of.^'' " how to read. 189 Rationalistic pseudo-knowledge. Questioning: essential to philosophy. 136 Peace in the belief in God's being. 157-63 science = and 12-16. unconditional imperative and. 176.d. Philosophers. 100. 140. 175. 36. 12. 11-12. 179 Plato (428-348 B. spiritual foundations laid in. 59—60. thesis of. function of. knowledge. 48 . 22-3. ever-present. 98 Perversion: or true evil. 100.INDEX Paracelsus. 28. speculative doctrine of being. 12. training in scientific discipline essential. 13. Perfection. 71 Peacefulness of the philosopher. 129 Purity essential in philosophy. 175. of God.. 56-7. 92-3. Leopold von (i 795-1886). 129-31 Philosophical thought and rational knowledge.). 1 80 speculative doctrine of being. 49 Ranke. 175. the science par excellence. teaching on God (the Good). 156 Psychotherapy. 74. 48. degeneration of. effects of nature of. 162. 129 Pico della Mirandola. 24. 28 modem scientific trends on. 7-8 . 36. three parts of study. and statements of lack of faith. 126 Philosophize. character'' i no ization of modern. 141. Giovanni (146394). 85 Psychoanalysis. speculative ideas.C. 183-90 Physician. aim of. 128-9 Phenomenality of empirical existence. must be studied with the world in which it was produced. 94-5 Pre-Socratics. 153-4 Plotinus (a. 133. 192 Philosopher: the independent. to find and apprehend. the first question. of enlightenment. 45-125). exis( tence of.i ^ 161. 173-4. dangers of in the philosophical life. 170-3. 204-70). 71 Polyvalence.. 87. 133. definition of. to. objects and methods of. 132-44 {and see History of philosophy) . 1 20-3 1 . 95 Reality. how it becomes science 50.C. 1 56 Radiance. the reading of. 17B Polytheism. 74 Pragmatic substitute for philosophy. sources of. is to learn how to die. symbol of. 8.

third Earl of (1671-1713). 135. 103-4. 191 Speech. Empire of. martyrdom 54 Redemption: search for. 31-3. 22-3. 1 75 Shaftesbury. 100 Time. 98-g. 19-20. Benedictus de (1632-77). 175. Lorenz von. continuity Self-forgetfulness. 88 Self-examination. 36. 187 Schopenhauer. 102 Socrates (470-399 B. absolute. 76 . destructive of faith. 164 Security.d. 35-6 Symbolic logic. truth in. 15 Theology. symbols and. knowledge of. old university. search for. 175. iBo (i 788-1 860). God's. 180 Seals. 37-8 Suflfering. ultimate. 175. 58 Tocqueville. 176. 15072. self- reflection. 193 kholasticism. transcendive reflection. 149 Symbols of transcendence. 136. 50 Systematization of the sciences.— 1 INDEX eality contd.C. son. 24. of. 48 Teachers of philosophy. Arthur 30. 140.. Stillness of being. reflection on im- mediate task. 134. 1 43. John {c. 21-2 Self-assertion and despair. 92 leligious history. 182 Thought. 25-6 Sophocles (495-406 B. 26. three modes of. 82 Spengler. vigilance of. technology. 68 65).. 40 et seq. Scientific attitude. the. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775-1854). Taoists. theological of. unconditional is timeless in. 186 Shankara. in the world. Comte de (1805-59). 136. 86-7 Jaints realistic scrutiny. a main element of enlightenment. circa 470 B. philosophy and. nature of. 49. 191 Lembrandt(Rerabrandt Harmens van Rijn. 74. 165 Sextus Empiricus. of.). religions of. 54 Jceptics.C. 76 152-3. devotion to. approach striving for total philosophical awareness of.C. Subject-object dichotomy. 1606-69). 190 Shi. miracle of. cannot be apprehended. 2 Selfhood. proposition 41 102 loman Empire.). Oswald (i 880-1 936). biblical. the. 28 Statement and discussion.C. meaning of. attempt to 176. And see Knowledge . 31. 23.). <GI^od originating in. 13-14 Seneca a. 98. three imperative tasks of. 176.iences. 177. true. rigid. 136. age of. 91. 97 Spinoza. 1 93 danger of. 135 Reflection: on God. of. 45 Self-conviction. 50-1. 164-5 Thomas. 79.. and radiance. 102 Situations. 77. St. 188 49 Stoicism. 191 Revelation. dangers {d. 175. 185 Spiritual foundations laid (800-200 B.). 123 apprehend God. systematization of the. 1 80. 124 leligion. 45 Self-reflection. Anthony Ashley Cooper.C. 178 ^cibnce (sciences): in sources of. 175. 74. 165-7 Thales of Miletus (640-546 B. 23. of Aquinas (1225-74). critical to. Self-will. 20 Superstition. 157-9 knowledge. and philosophy. 30-1 implications of. 53 Solitude. result of . 134. and Plato's philosophical conception of science. and obedience to absolute imperative. 83 Leason. 188 207 . 815-877). 134. 126-8 Thucydides {b. empty and Stein. 99-102 Spiritualism. 153-4. metaphysics a. 91 Scotus Erigena. 178 schelling. 175.). 140. and 'acrificium intellectus. power of. in the world.1. 176. 90-1 . 29 et seq. modern: spirit of. 123-4. 147-67. 36 Symbol. Sociological conditions of the axial age. 123.

oriented objects. 82 7. an intimation of God's 58. 26 Will of God. 57-8. 60 Will to reality. guidance. precariousness o: things in. 1764 in things. 163 Tsin. 52-6. mystery of. 1 38-9 Unity of mankind. 1 63 et seq. the source philosophy. attairunent of the. and freedom. 80-1 World eternal. 1 13-14 Wealth. 82-3 Transcendence. 60 William of Ockham (1300-49). 189 Max 49 (1864-1920). hieroglyphs or symbols of. 64. 26-7 Will to evil.). 98 100. 190 Totalitarianism. and independent Utility. infinite. 70-3 Transcending reflection. 91 Tools. and philosophy. 11 Vauvenargues. 1 oi 24 World. Wisdom. 10. 12. of Transience. and the absolutely true. 133. World systems and coherent knowledge. 15 no Validity. 70. . 40 Zarathustra. is timeless in time. 7 Van Gogh. 50 and awareness of self. Unity in the history of question of. threatened by overweening claims to the absolutely true. 56-7 has reality in man. 79. philosophy. 10 Truth. scientific and philosophical. 1 2 . guidance through. 97. of God. 123-4 . th< phenomenality of empirical exist' ence. Whole. 82 to. Marquis de (171547).). 47. 75 Worship. subordination to the. 135 etseq. 22. 175. 32 philosophy. 45. 44. and obedience. to achieve unity of sciences and philosophy. man's relation absolute. aim of history. not produced by Toynbee. 100 6^ 6^ 7- li^ 208 . 43-4. Arnold Joseph. 50 Will to communication. invention Upanishads of. striving of. 69. 67-8. 67 toward Understanding. absolute. 22 not eternal. philosophy. 102 Western character of development Christian era. of God. 176. 69-70 University. . sense of. 97 and universal Tradition. Empire of. Vincent (1853-90).C. the. universal.C. 186 Vision and being. the. search for. reality of. . principles.INDEX Tolerance. 46 Wonder. fulfilled only in communication. (circa 1000-400 B. the ultimate source of philosophy. t8l-2 Ultimate. (sixth of Colophon teaching on God. Weber. universal. implies a decision. religious. 32-3. 49 Unconditional imperative. 122-3 Xenophanes century B. 14. 74-84. 26. 106-8 Universal imperative.




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