Title

Factors affecting the work motivation of middle managers in school : a case study

Author(s)

Au Yeung, Yu-shing, Kennedy; kP–}l]WÎ

Citation

Issue Date

2004

URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10722/32051

Rights

unrestricted

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

This chapter intends to give an introduction of the present study. It consists of the background, purposes, significance and the research questions of the study. At the end of this chapter, the organization of this study will be

described briefly as well.

1.1

Background of the Study

“Motivation is symbolic of persistent and vigorous involvement in some activities which is a pre-requisite for good performance whatever may be the potentiality, ability, competence and professional skills of an individual” (Mittal, 1995:5). In this sense, to study the performance of an individual, it is necessary Apart from this, it

to look at the motivation which drives that individual to work.

is believed that to understand the work motivation of an individual is an important step to understand the performance of an organization because motivation is the “processes within an individual that stimulate and channel it in ways that should benefit the organization as a whole” (Middlemist and Hitt, 1998:144). In other

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words, work motivation is one of the important factors which determines the level of efficiency and effectiveness of an organization; and school, which is a learning organization in society, is not an exception. Therefore, to understand the work

motivation of individuals in a school is indispensable when the quality of performance of that school is put into consideration.

In a school, there is a group of teachers who act as an important bridge between the school authority and other teachers. Apart from performing

teaching duties, this group of teachers is also in charge of the administrative and managerial duties in school. Moreover, they also act as school leaders who help lead other teachers to work towards the school goals. The researcher considers

this group of teachers as school middle managers. They are usually heads of subject panels and coordinators of functional committees.

Since school middle managers need to deal with a lot of important and complicated schoolwork, most of them are well-experienced teachers and have been promoted to senior positions. In other words, they usually occupy high status in school and are considered as school leaders as well. Therefore, the level

of motivation they have on their works is significant to the quality of performance

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of the school.

Since the work motivation of school middle managers has rarely

been studied in depth locally, it is interesting to study the factors which motivate the school middle managers to work.

1.2

Purposes of the Study

Firstly, the researcher intends to identify from local studies some factors which affect significantly the work motivation of teachers, school middle managers and school administrators.

Secondly, the researcher aims to explore the perceptions of school middle managers on these identified factors.

Thirdly, the researcher attempts to examine the actual work motivation of these school middle managers. This may include the levels of their work

motivation, the factors which actually motivate them to work and their personal feelings when they work with high motivation.

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Fourthly, the researcher tries to study if the identified factors affecting work motivation are also applicable to the school middle managers under study.

1.3

Significances of the Study

Firstly, to the best knowledge of the researcher, there have not been too many previous in-depth studies on the work motivation of school middle managers in Hong Kong. Most of the studies in the past focused mainly on the

work motivation and job satisfaction of teachers (Wong, 1980; Ip, 1982; Tse, 1982; Hui, 1984; Lau, 1992; Wu, 1993; Cheng, 1994; Poon, 1996; Lung, 1997), principals (Law, 1987), vice-principals (Tsang, 1985; Kwok, 1987; Ip, 1995) and guidance team leaders (Wong, 1995). It is hoped that the results of this research

can enrich the understanding of school middle managers on factors affecting their work motivation.

Secondly, it is believed that the findings of this research are useful information to school principals and administrators who intend to inspire the work motivation of their school middle managers on the one hand, and to improve their

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job satisfaction on the other.

Thirdly, the results of this research may provide a platform for school middle managers to practise reflective thinking of their own. This practice is believed to be a valuable means for self-improvement and self-enrichment.

Fourthly, the knowledge of factors affecting work motivation for school middle managers is useful information for aspirating teachers who intend to become subject heads or functional committee coordinators in schools in the future.

Last but not the least, as the research is a case study of a secondary school in which the researcher has been teaching, the results of the research can help enhance his understanding on the middle managers in the school. undoubtedly beneficial to the development of the school as a whole. This is

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What are the factors. and what are the perceptions of the school middle managers under study on these identified factors? 2.4 Research Questions This research aims to address the following research questions. and what is the level of work motivation of the school middle managers in the case school? 3. 4. what is the situation? 6 .1. school middle managers and school administrators. How will the school middle managers under study describe their feelings when they are motivated to work. as identified by local studies. Do different types of school middle managers (subject heads and functional committee coordinators) perceive differently or similarly on work motivation? If yes. and to what extent are the identified factors applicable to them. which are significant to the work motivation of teachers. What are the factors which actually motivate the middle managers to work in the case school. 1.

motivation theories. data collected will be examined and interpreted carefully. Chapter two presents a literature review on the meaning of motivation and work motivation. 7 . Limitations of the study will also be stated at the end of this chapter. context and background of the study. It outlines the elements which will be included in the process of data collection and data analysis. The Findings will be presented in accordance with the research questions mentioned before.5 Organization of the Research The rest of this research will be presented in four chapters. It explains how the research problem is investigated and why particular research methods are used. job satisfaction theories in relation to motivation and local studies on factors affecting work motivation. Chapter four presents in detail the major findings of the research.1. This review helps explain the Chapter three discusses the research methodology of the study.

Chapter five focuses on the discussion of the findings. Recommendations for further research will be proposed at the end of the chapter. It intends to make comparison of these findings with the ones done earlier by the local studies and to make analysis on the situation of work motivation in the case school as revealed by the research results. some conclusive remarks will be made. After that. 8 .

2.CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter is about the literature review on motivation. In the end. directing. Johns (1983) 9 . and directing behaviour to achieve goals. It consists of the review on the meaning of motivation and work motivation.1 Motivation and Work Motivation Nadler and Lawler III (1977) state that a thorough understanding of motivation is valuable for explaining causes of behaviours in schools. the researcher attempts to identify some significant factors from this literature review which will then be used in the present study. predicting effects of administrative actions. and sustaining human behaviour. motivation comprises three basic parts of activating. According to Steers and Porter (1979). school middle managers and school administrators. the theories of motivation and job satisfaction and some local studies concerning factors affecting the work motivation of teachers.

To understand human behaviour at work. of work performed. Mittal (1995) points out that there are three denominators which are important factors affecting work motivation. They are (a) what energizes human behaviour to work. the notion of goal orientation on the part of individuals is also important as it means that their behaviours are directed towards 10 . Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991) support this view by explaining that ‘effort’ is related to the intensity of employee’s work-related behaviour while ‘persistence’ refers to the sustained effort employees show in their work-related activities. and it is believed that environmental forces always act as trigger to these drives. and (c) how this behaviour is maintained or sustained. (b) what directs or channels such behaviour.draws similar conclusion by focusing on the three elements contained in motivation. Firstly. They argue that these two are related to the quantity They further explain that ‘direction’ is related to the quality of an employee’s work. persistence (the person keeps at his or her work) and direction (the person directs his or her behaviour toward appropriate goals). Secondly. They are effort (the person works hard). it is the investment of persistent effort in a direction that benefits the employer. the energetic forces within individuals can drive them to behave in certain ways.

Hunt and Osborn (1985:129) draw similar conclusion by describing work motivation “as the forces within an individual that account for the level. 11 . Schermerhorn.something. a system orientation is also important as it considers those forces within the individuals and around the surrounding environments that feed back to the individuals. the work motivation of an individual can be interpreted as an integrated force generated by either or both of these intrinsic and extrinsic motives that drive the individual to play his or her roles vigorously at work. and to keep these behaviours persistently throughout the process of the work for the sake of goals realization. direction and persistence of the effort expended at work”. In short.” Following this concept. Thirdly. Mittal (1995:6) summaries that there is “an integrated force produced by some extrinsic or intrinsic (or both) motives which propels or pushes an organism to involve in some activities and to sustain it till he reaches his goal. This feedback may either reinforce the intensity of their drives and directions of their energy or discourage their course of action and redirect their efforts.

The Hierarchy of Needs Theory. (2001) have a very clear and precise description on some content theories of motivation.2. The latter includes Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Related. These content theories focus on people’s needs and identify what needs motivate employees to work in the work place. and Growth (ERG) Theory and Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory. 2.2 Classical Motivation Theories Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991) state that a review of the classical literature on motivation brings six theory areas which can be grouped into content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation. The former includes the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory. Alderfer’s Existence. the Two-factor 12 . They concern with how human behaviour is initiated. directed and sustained or how motivation occurs in organizational settings.2.1 Content Theories of Motivation Robbins et al. attempt to identify the relationship among dynamic variables which make up work motivation. Porter These process theories and Lawler’s Equity Theory and Locke’s Goal Theory.

After this. namely physiological needs. safety needs. In other words. they will be dominated by the needs in the next higher level. separate the five needs into lower order needs and higher order needs. esteem needs and self-actualization needs found within human being. When people are satisfied substantially in one level of needs. 13 .Theory and the ERG Theory will be described as follow.2. only. Physiological and safety needs belong to the former while social. 2. esteem and self-actualization needs belong to the latter. a short evaluation on these theories will be given as well.1. whereas lower order needs can be satisfied externally by salary payment. social needs. Maslow claims that higher order needs can be satisfied internally by creating sense of achievement within the persons themselves. Maslow claims that there is a hierarchy of five needs. a fully satisfied need in a level will cause little Moreover. Maslow attempts further to effect on people’s work motivation.1 Hierarchy of Needs Theory This is the most famous motivation theory which is developed by Abraham Maslow in 1954. fringe benefits etc.

1. Herzberg et al. He further claims that the opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction. It means that it is in vain to remove the dissatisfying elements or factors from job with a view to getting job satisfaction and promoting work motivation. which are consistently related to job satisfaction and some other factors. The hygiene factors are all factors contributing to job dissatisfaction while the motivators are all factors contributing to job satisfaction. usually intrinsic factors. He then points out that there are some factors. and that the opposite of dissatisfaction is no satisfaction rather than satisfaction.2. usually extrinsic factors. Herzberg comes to conclude that there are two types of factors affecting job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.2. 14 . which are consistently related to job dissatisfaction. (1959) observe that people who have job satisfaction may describe differently their feelings towards job from those who have job dissatisfaction. The former includes those factors which are related to conditions surrounding the job such as company policy and administration.2 Two-factor Theory The two-factor theory is also known as motivation-hygiene theory which is developed by Frederick Herzberg.

The latter includes those factors associated with the work itself or with the outcomes directly derived from the work such as achievement. differs 15 . recognition.1. though focuses also on human needs.supervision. salary. relationship with supervisor.3 ERG Theory By revising Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. status and security. Alderfer (1972) points out that there are three groups of core needs. need for relatedness and need for growth for human being. work conditions. personal life. In fact. relationship with peers. to motivate people to work. advancement and growth. work itself. group.2. Therefore. relationship with subordinates. have personal development is the most significant concern of the third group. Theory. namely need for existence. this ERG Theory. the theory suggests promoting the motivators rather than the hygiene factors. 2. responsibility. This is known as the ERG The desire for basic material provision is the prime concern of the first The desire to have good maintenance of interpersonal relations is the The desire within the people themselves to major concern of the second group.

from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in two remarkable aspects. Secondly. with little attention paid on job related and work environment variables. 2.1. 16 . their desires will be increased in a way that go backward to the lower level need (Robbins et al.4 Evaluation of the Content Theories of Motivation Needs Theories in General The needs theories of Maslow (1943) and Alderfer (1972) are basically individual theories of motivation. These theories mainly focus on the characteristics of the individual and show how the role played by personal need strengths in the determination of work behaviour. while the importance of the job and work environment in affecting such behaviour has only been dealt with lightly in these theories (Mittal. this theory also illustrates that when individuals are being frustrated in a higher order need level. Firstly. the ERG Theory shows that there may be more than one need being operated simultaneously with one another. 1995).2. instead of a rigid progress of needs fulfillment from the lower level to the higher level. 2001).

Steers and Porter. there are some areas which are still worth debating like the number of need levels. 1984). There are a lot of variables such as education level. Landy and Becker. which can alter the importance that a group of needs holds for a particular individual (Robbins et al. their order of gratification and individual differences on needs etc. Somers and Weinberg (1984) show only modest support to it while the study of Rauschenberger. little research evidence exists to support it (Wahba and Bridwell. 1980. 1987). Besides. The study of Betz (1984) and Lefkowitz. Alderfer’s ERG Theory The ERG theory is more consistent with the knowledge of individual differences among people. it is found that some other studies only have modest support to its assumption of a hierarchy of prepotency (Miner. 2001).Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow’s theory is a clear and easy to understand theory which is useful in understanding human motivation. 1983. culture environment etc. 1976. Pinder. family background. 1973. In fact. Schmitt and Bunter (1980) even strongly challenges the theory. However. It is 17 .

Firstly. 1973) have supported the ERG theory. Secondly.shown that people in other cultures rank the categories of needs differently (Haire. However. certain criticisms. This is consistent with the ERG theory. it’s human nature to credit on themselves rather than other factors. and they usually attribute failure to extrinsic factors. they may have contaminated the findings by interpreting one response in one manner while treating another similar response differently. Ghiselli and Porter. 18 . 1991). Several However. it is also shown that such theory does not work in some organizations (Wanous and Zwany. studies (Schneider and Alderfer. Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory The two-factor theory is useful in a sense that it has suggested some ideas on the ways how an administrator can use to motivate subordinates. 1963). When things are going well. the Since raters had to make interpretations. the procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its methodology. this theory also receives Robbins and Coultar (1996) summarize these criticisms as follow. increasing autonomy on the job and expanding personnel administration (Owens. 1977 ). reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questionable. These ways may include enriching the job.

2. In this sense.Thirdly. not at productivity.2.2 Process Theories of Motivation The goal-setting theory. Robbins et 19 . followed by a short and precise evaluation on them. Herzberg assumed that there is a relationship between satisfaction and productivity. but the research methodology he used appeared to look only at satisfaction.2.1 Goal-setting Theory The goal-setting theory is a cognitive process approach to work motivation originated by Locke (1968) who claims that an important source of work motivation comes from the intentions to work towards a goal. equity theory and expectancy theory will be introduced briefly. 2. Fourthly. the theory is inconsistently with previous research in that it ignores situational variables. 2. it is a must to assume a close relationship between satisfaction and productivity in order to make such research relevant.

will lead to their higher performance at work than easy goals. specific performance goals obtain a higher level of performance than general goals. participation by employees or subordinate participation in goal setting activities. Campbell and Pritchard (1974) make three generalizations in goal-setting theory. Thirdly. leads to greater employee satisfaction. will cause them to offer more efforts with a view to achieving the goals. Wojnaroski and Prest (1987) also explain that goals have their values of showing to employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. Firstly. This theory postulates that specific goals are better than general goals in affecting employees’ work motivation. as against assigned goals by employers or superiors. 20 . This is because the specificity of goals can act as internal stimulus within the employees themselves while difficult goals.al. when accepted by employees. Earley. the more difficult the performance goal the more effort individuals will make if they accept the goal. and that difficult goals. if accepted and within the ability of the employees. Secondly. (2001) attempt to describe this theory in the following ways.

However. the theory suggests that social comparison is the key mechanism for such a decision. Hoy and Miskel (1991) point out that this theory is focusing on the beliefs of individuals about fairness at work. Secondly. The feeling of inequality resulted will properly lead to a reduced motivation to work. Equity theory explains that if the comparison shows that the input and output ratios are the same. Firstly. Kulik and Ambrose (1992) state that individuals usually compare their input (their contributions to work) and output (their rewards from work) ratio to the input and output ratio of others who share certain similarities with each other in some ways or another. they try to seek for more outcomes such as more rewards and benefits. The perceived fairness of individuals in the workplace is important factor To decide whether individuals are being in affecting their work motivation. Baron (1998) points out that individuals will react in three ways in order to reduce such feeling of inequality. treated fairly or not. a sense of unfairness and inequity will be developed if such ratios illustrated are not roughly the same.2. it can be regarded as a fair treatment.2.2. they try to leave the workplace 21 .2 Equity Theory Equity Theory is originated by Adams (1965).

2. contribution to the job. equity and justice are important motivating If they find themselves being treated unfairly and in Therefore. an unequal way.3 Expectancy Theory Vroom (1967) makes popular the expectancy theory in research on work motivation in organizations. Baron forces to many individuals. (1998) believes that it is important to ensure that fairness and equality should be the standard operating procedure in schools and other work organizations. their work motivation will drop significantly. This means that individuals’ feelings. and anticipate future events. 2. reason. human behaviour is a result of the combination of forces within the individuals and the organizational environments. and they evaluate subjectively the expected value of the outcomes. Firstly. There are two fundamental premises rested on this theory. They then make decisions about their own behaviour in organizations. people use their own abilities to think. Secondly.2. attitudes and values interact with environmental factors to influence their behaviour. Thirdly. Nadler and Lawler III (1977) also state that there are four basic 22 .and find another new job. they try to devote less input such as effort and In short.

people make decision among alternative plans of behaviour based on their expectancies of the degree to which a given behaviour will lead to desired outcomes. Based on these premises and assumptions. Secondly. Valence is the individual’s perceived values or attractiveness of a reward or a particular outcome. individuals make decisions about their own behaviour in organizations. to see the degree that they can satisfy the personal goals or needs of the individual. instrumentality. Expectancy is the subjective probability perceived by the individual that a given effort will yield a specific level of performance. Thirdly. Instrumentality refers to individual’s perception on a probabilistic relation between performance and reward. behaviour is determined by a combination of forces within the individual and forces in the environment. Instrumentality is high when individuals believe that there is a strong association between their performance and their desired outcome of rewards. there are three fundamental concepts related to the Expectancy theory.assumptions underlying the Vroom model. Firstly. Fourthly. different individuals have different types of needs. and valence. These three concepts follow an idea that the strength of motivation is as function of the interaction of the 23 . they are expectancy. desires and goals.

2001).2. 24 . and the rewards or outcomes have positive personal values (high valence). Latham and Erez (1988) show that the goal setting theory is one of the most scientifically valid and useful theories in organization science. In other words. This suggests that an individual’s motivation to work in a certain way is greater when that individual believes that he or she has the ability to perform at the desired level (high expectancy). expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to perform an action in a particular way depends on the strength of an expectation that such performance of action will be followed by a given outcome or reward and on the attractiveness of that outcome or reward to the desires or goals of the individuals (Robbins et al. and valence. 2. instrumentality. there are three shortcomings which are worth noting. the performance will lead to rewards (high instrumentality).expectancy.2.4 Evaluation of the Process Theories of Motivation Goal-setting Theory Although the studies of Locke.

In other words. and other variables combine to determine effort are indeed incomplete. the theory does not state out clearly what determines goal acceptance and commitment. Thirdly. although goal-setting theory is useful as an explanation of work motivation. However. the mechanisms that explain how goal need more elaboration. the processes of how goals are approached still Secondly. In short.Firstly. explanations of why goal setting affects employee behaviour are indeed still under development. Equity Theory Mittal (1995:8) states that “the process-oriented approach of equity theory places considerable stress on the individuals’ perceptual reactions to environmental variables and therefore it considers interactive effects”. the approach does not provide a comprehensive framework for integrating the 25 . goal difficulty. the theory performs better for simple jobs with concrete results but it becomes less effective when dealing with complex and complicated situations like those happen in educational settings. it still has certain inadequacies in its processes and applications for administrative practices. acceptance. Although effort and performance can be predicted reasonably well.

Miner. the theory fails to explain clearly when and how the factors may change over time. 1983.major sets of variables affecting motivation at work. Apart from this. Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory is a promising approach to understand work motivation in organizations (Steers and Porter. the way how they combine and weight their inputs and outcomes to arrive at totals is also a significant issue which is worth discussing. the theory fails to consider many of other impacts of these variables on work motivation. Robbins et al. Besides. 1980). One of the issues is the way how Another issue is related to how employees handle conflicting equity signals. (2001:220) even conclude that “expectancy theory’s power in explaining employee productivity increases where the jobs being 26 . Goodman (1977) and Greenberg (1987) also argue that there are still some key issues which are not clear in the theory. Besides producing feelings of equity or inequity that may affect motivation. Last but not the least. employees define inputs and outcomes. Pinder (1984) draws a conclusion that the theory is a reasonable model of the causes of work behaviour.

Secondly.performed are more complex and higher in the organization”. few individuals perceive a high correlation between performance and rewards in their jobs and therefore the theory tends to be idealistic in some ways. However. the motivational force becomes greater. 1980). some critics (House. DeFrain and Wilcox. it is found that this theory also has some conceptual and empirical shortcomings (Mitchell. Apart from this. 27 . instrumentality and valence. They Shapiro and Wahba. 1976). namely expectancy. In other words. the theory is criticized of overemphasizing linearity in work. increases. 1974) suggest that the theory has only limited use. Firstly. the theory concerns the process of combining the three components in a multiplicative fashion. 1974. behavioural psychologist such as Skinner vigorously challenges the notion that if any of the components. argue that this theory tends to be more valid in situations in which effort-performance and performance-reward linkages are clearly perceived by the individuals. In reality. the validity of which is indeed questionable since some studies show that each component only has a moderate relationship with effort or performance (Miskel. Campell and Pritchard.

1994.2. 1979. Armstrong claims that it is the recognition of an unsatisfied need by an individual. Therefore. Holdaway. Armstrong (1977) believes that motivation is inferred from or defined by goal-directed behaviour. It is in relation to two basic concepts. motivation. 1986). The desire to be satisfied motivates individuals towards Therefore. Engelking. it is believed that as long as such unsatisfied need has been satisfied throughout the 28 . many researchers have applied needs and motivation theories to study teachers’ job satisfaction (Neil. that initiates the process of motivation. Firstly. it is necessary to have deeper understanding on job satisfaction. the goals in the environment toward or away from which the individual moves. Sergiovanni and Carver. In fact. the needs that operate within the individual and secondly. Therefore. to understand the concept of work certain human behaviours. 1973. either consciously or unconsciously. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Alderfer’s ERG theory show that the unsatisfied needs found within the individuals are the basic sources of human motivation.3 Job Satisfaction Theories in Relation to Work Motivation It is not difficult to observe from the content theories of motivation that there is a close relationship between motivation and job satisfaction.

The ‘Need-Want-Satisfaction Chain’ developed by Koontz and Weihrich (1990) helps explain the relationship between job satisfaction and work motivation. This discrepancy hypothesis proposes a direct positive relationship between workers’ job satisfaction levels and the 29 . want and outcome have been achieved. or to achieve an outcome. It explains that the felt needs of individuals give rise to wants which cause tensions. satisfaction is experienced when the need. Apart from the unsatisfied human needs just mentioned above. Thus motivation is the drive to satisfy a need or a want.process of the vigorous work devotion. Kendall and Hulin (1969) propose that the discrepancy between the work motivation of jobholders and the incentives offered them by the organization is also important to explain job satisfaction. Smith. job satisfaction occurs which may result in a further enhancement of work motivation for the individual concerned. Therefore. This tension gives rise to actions towards achieving goals which finally result in satisfaction. the implication of job satisfaction shows that one type of factor which is related to work motivation comes from the unsatisfied human needs found within individuals that help initiate the process of work motivation.

but he will be dissatisfied if there is less than the desired amount of a job characteristic in the job. A person will be satisfied if there is no discrepancy between his desired and actual conditions. If the needs that motivate individuals to work are satisfied exactly by the organization’s incentives. result of the subtraction of organizational incentives from individual work 30 . The Inducement-Contribution Theory of March and Simon (1958) and the Cognitive Dissonance Theory of Festinger (1957) also postulate that job satisfaction levels are related to the perceived difference between what is expected or desired as fair and reasonable return and what is actually experienced in the job situation. The former is related to individual motivation while the latter is related to the organizational incentives.degrees of congruence between ideal work conditions and perceived work conditions. a discrepancy exists that leads to job dissatisfaction. Lawler’s model of job satisfaction (1973) shares that job satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy between what individuals expect to get out of their jobs and what the job actually offers. If the needs of individuals are greater than the rewards received for work. no dissonance exists and job satisfaction is high. the discrepancy yields positive But if the rewards exceed job satisfaction. Similarly. needs. Glasnapp and Hatley (1975) They indicate that job satisfaction is a come to more or less the same conclusion. The studies of Miskel.

4 Local Studies on Work Motivation or Job Satisfaction After a literature review on motivation theories and understandings on the relationship between job satisfaction and work motivation. dissatisfaction results. It is the performance of the working organization.motivational factors. if a negative value is produced (rewards exceed motivational factors). the studies of job satisfaction in relation to work motivation mentioned above help illustrate another factor which is also significant to work motivation. that is. satisfaction results. versus the unsatisfied human needs found within the individuals that is important to determine if individuals have persistent and sustained efforts on their work and thus affecting their work motivation throughout the whole working process. what actually have been offered by the working organization to individuals at work or what have been done by the working organization which have actually been perceived by individuals at work. If the subtraction yields a positive value. Conversely. 2. All in all. it is necessary to have 31 .

and to identify some significant factors which can be used in the present study. the researcher intends to identify more factors which affect work motivation locally. 32 .4.a review on some local studies on the work motivation and job satisfaction of those individuals who work in the schools of Hong Kong. Interpersonal relations with students was perceived as the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction while work itself was perceived as the most important factor contributing to job dissatisfaction.1 The Local Studies under Review Wong (1980) investigated the factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of secondary school teachers in Hong Kong by using the Two-factor Theory. 2. The work motivation and job satisfaction of teachers. vice-principals and principals in some Hong Kong secondary schools will be reported as follow. It is found that the perceived degree of importance of motivators was higher than that of the hygiene factors in contributing to both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In such review. middle managers. especially to inexperienced teachers.

Tse (1982) studied the occupational stress and job satisfaction among Hong Kong secondary school teachers.Ip (1982) conducted a study about job satisfaction and effectiveness of communication channels among teachers in Hong Kong aided secondary schools. Hui (1984) examined the perception of the influence of participation in decision-making on school effectiveness and job satisfaction of aided secondary school teachers. He found out that job satisfaction and involvement in decision-making was positively correlated among secondary school teachers. It is found that interest in work itself is Female one of the main determinants of the teachers’ overall job satisfaction. Those teachers who were deprived of involvement in decision-making would perceive their schools as less effective and reported less job satisfaction. autonomy and personal growth contributed to job satisfaction of teachers. 33 Moreover. teachers experienced less overall job satisfaction than male teachers. Tsang (1985) found that vice-principals viewed interpersonal relations with superiors and peers affect their job satisfaction most. if they . Teachers reported that job dissatisfaction came from supervision and relations with co-workers. It is discovered that skill variety.

the attitude of students towards the school and the frequency of teachers discussing teaching methods also affect significantly their job satisfaction. it is shown that vice-principals would have higher job satisfaction if they had adequate time to complete their assigned tasks. work and personal growth were the most important factors leading to job satisfaction. Moreover. It is discovered that achievement. Furthermore. Besides. Salary and 34 . interpersonal relations with principal and teachers are also significant to their job satisfaction. The findings of this study further revealed that aided secondary vice-principals did not consider salary and fringe benefits or social status as important factors contributing to job satisfaction. Law (1987) investigated the job satisfaction among secondary school principals in Hong Kong. their job satisfaction was found to increase with the support given by the principal. In addition. they would find job satisfaction in participation in administrative work and decision-making. Kwok (1987) claimed that long-range career goal was a significant factor affecting the job satisfaction of the vice principals in aided secondary schools.could enjoy harmonious interpersonal relations with their principals and colleagues.

It was their relative importance that was significant. good management policy and administration. personal life of teachers.promotion were regarded as the least important factors. high social status of teachers and good relationship with students while the least important four factors were high academic ability of students. Wu (1993) studied the job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. self-actualization was ranked in the middle while esteem and social affiliation occupied the highest positions in the order of importance for teachers’ motivation to work. When the five motivators are compared with the eleventh hygiene factors. Lau (1992) reported that the nineteen factors (five motivators. it was found that motivators taken together were more important than the hygiene factors. eleven hygiene factors and three other factors) under study could all motivate teachers of government secondary schools. It was found that secondary school teachers were strongly 35 . The most important four factors were possibility of advance. working under supervision and frequent meetings for communication. The results of the study also showed that physiological needs and security needs were ranked the lowest.

dissatisfied with their promotion opportunities. It was mentioned that Hong Kong secondary schools provided few opportunities for teachers to have a sense of professional growth and advancement in their careers. many felt unhappy and less confident to collaborate with other colleagues and functional teams. This would lead to job dissatisfaction. achievement had a stronger weighting in bringing about job satisfaction while lack of recognition occupied a stronger weighting in bringing about job dissatisfaction. It also mentioned that teachers were rather satisfied with their supervision from school and interpersonal relations with the colleagues. 36 . Besides. Teachers in government schools reported the highest level of satisfaction with pay and promotion. The study also showed that pay and salary shouldered the least relation with job satisfaction. However. Wong (1995) showed that both recognition and achievement were the main factors contributing to both job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction of the guidance leaders in schools. The researcher also mentioned that it was very likely that the lack of both achievement and recognition would ruin the anticipation of future success and the conception of worthiness of the work. and they disliked the increased paperwork which deprived them of the valuable time.

Poon (1996) conducted a research on job satisfaction of graduate teachers of three major subjects in aided secondary schools. 37 . ‘too much to do’ and ‘tiresome’. The three items which lower the score of job satisfaction most were ‘endless work’. As for the overall job satisfaction. ‘the subjects they taught are useful to society’ and ‘they are professional’. followed by factors like ‘tight teaching schedule’ and ‘teaching methods which lack innovation’. work itself. The most two important factors that bothered teachers were ‘students’ attitudes in learning and responses to teachers’ and ‘heavy workload especially in marking’. Interpersonal relations with subordinates was the most important factor The next four important that motivated academic masters or mistresses to work.Ip (1995) showed that the seventeen work motivation factors under study had a certain degree of importance and therefore they had certain effects on the work motivation of academic masters or mistresses in secondary schools of Hong Kong. job security. the three items which teachers satisfied most were ‘the importance of the subjects they teach’. advancement and personal life. factors were achievement. work autonomy and school policy and administration. The least important work motivation factors were salary.

in ranking the importance of motivation factors for Physical Education (PE) teachers. showed that recognition dominated the first position. 38 . while the work itself (heavy workload. interpersonal relationship. It was interesting to find that supervision was listed as the least important motivation factor.Lung (1997). collegial support (from peer group and friendship) and good relationship with students were factors that contributed to job satisfaction of most return-migrant teachers. working condition. students’ attitude towards learning (low motivation and poor attitude in learning). and personal life was listed in the second last position of importance. and school policy were listed from the fourth position to the eighth position. long working hours and stress in work). Ho (2000) showed that income (stable pay in time of gloomy economic situation). achievement came the second while advancement was listed in the third position. low promotion opportunities and administrative behaviour of principals (bureaucratic type of supervision) were factors that lead to their job dissatisfaction. Where work itself. responsibility.

1) (b) Important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2. These steps are described as Step 1: Grouping of factors from the findings of local studies Divide the findings that are related to factors affecting work motivation or job satisfaction into three groups. 39 .2.2 Identification of Significant Factors from the Local Studies There are four steps involved in the identification of significant factors affecting work motivation from the local studies. namely (a) Important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2.4.2) (c) Factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2. follow.3) Step 2: Categorization of each factor with specific terms Each factor will be categorized by the specific terms or wordings used by the various motivation theories in the literature review mentioned before.

4) (b) Categorization of important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2.10) 40 .9) (d) Summary of factors related to work motivation or job satisfaction: in terms of frequency of happens (Table 2.6) Step 3: Frequency of happens of each factor (after categorization) in the three groups.(a) Categorization of important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2.5) (c) Categorization of factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2. (a) Frequency of happens for the important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2.8) (c) Frequency of happens for the factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2.7) (b) Frequency of happens for the Important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction (Table 2.

the researcher has great school efficiency and effectiveness. income. To sum up. personal life. The result shows that there are nine factors which suit this criterion. achievement.11) In each group. 41 . This is because with the introduction of School Management Initiative (SMI) in the early 1990s and the stress of School Based Management (SBM) in the recent years.making. Such ownership is considered to be significant to Therefore. It is hoped that teachers can participate more in the decision making process so as to enhance their ownership in school. the ten identified factors used for the present study are: work itself.Step 4: Identification of significant factors to be used in the present study (Table 2. for the study. good policy and administration. interpersonal relations. the styles of decision-making. those factors that happen more than one time will be identified as significant factors that will be used in the present study. the Education and Manpower Bureau (previously known as Education Department) of Hong Kong encourages school principals to decentralize their authority of decision-making in school. recognition and styles of decision. supervision. advancement. Out of these factors. interest to know if the styles of decision-making in school will affect the work motivation of the school middle managers. the researcher intends to add one more factor.

1987) Personal growth (Law. 1982) Autonomy(Ip. 1996) 30. Importance of the subjects they teach (Poon. Achievement (Ip. 1993) 18. 11. 12. 1992) Supervision (Wu. 1997) 35. 1980) Skill variety (Ip. Collegial support (Ho. 2000) 36. 1982) Decision making (Hui. 1987) Achievement (Law.Table 2. Work autonomy (Ip. 42 . 1993) Recognition (Wong. 1984) Harmonious interpersonal relations with their principals and colleagues (Tsang. 2000) 37. 5. 2. 1987) Interpersonal relationship with principal and teachers (Kwok. 1987) Possibility of advance (Lau. 1995) 25. 1995) Interpersonal relations with subordinates (Ip. 1992) Good management policy and administration (Lau. 19. Work itself (Ip. 1993) Promotion (Wu. 21. 1992) High social status of teachers (Lau. 1987) Work (Law. 1 Important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Favourable factors: 1. 1996) 29. 17. They are professional (Poon. 1995) 26. 16. School policy and administration (Ip. 1995) 24. 7. 23. 2000) 8. 1997) 32. Interpersonal relations with students (Wong. 1995) 28. 20. Income (Ho. Good relationship with students (Ho. 6. 1997) 34. 1993) Pay (Wu. 10. 1982) Personal growth (Ip. 13. Subjects they taught are useful to society (Poon. 15. 14. 1982) Interest in Work (Tse. Interpersonal relations (Wu. 1996) 31. 1997) 33. Recognition (Lung. 3. 9. 1985) Long-range career goal (Kwok. Achievement (Lung. Advancement (Lung. 1995) Achievement (Wong. 22. 4. 1995) 27. Work itself (Lung. 1992) Good relationship with students (Lau.

1992) Personal life of teachers (Lau. 2 Important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Unfavourable Factors: 1. Increased paper work (Wong. 2000) Table 2. 1995) Personal life (Ip. 1985) Salary (Law. 1992) 8. 1995) Supervision (Lung. 12. 1980) Supervision (Ip. 4. 1987) High academic ability of students (Lau. 3 Factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction Unimportant Factors: 1. 2. 1982) Decision making (Hui. 9. 1995) Job security (Ip. 14. Frequent meetings for communication (Lau. 10. 1995) Salary (Ip. 1996) Too much to do (Poon. 6. 3. 14. 2. 7. 5. 6. 1992) Pay and salary (Wong. 1995) Lack of Achievement (Wong. 1985) Social Status (Tsang. 1993) Lack of Recognition (Wong. 5.Table 2. 3. 1995) Advancement (Ip. 8. 4. 2000) Bureaucratic type of supervision (Ho. 13. 1996) Work itself (Ho. 7. 1992) Working under supervision (Lau. 1987) Promotion (Law. 2000) Low promotion opportunities (Ho. 1984) Promotion opportunities (Wu. 1995) 9. 13. Salary (Tsang. 12. 11. 1995) Collaborate with other colleagues and functional teams (Wong. 1997) 43 . 1982) Relations with co-workers (Ip. 15. 11. Work itself (Wong. 10. 1995) Endless work (Poon. 1996) Tiresome (Poon.

1993) 21. 1995) 26. 1987) Work itself --. 6. 5. 1992) 17. 1982) Work autonomy --. 1995) 22. Work itself --. 1987) Achievement --. 1987) Interpersonal relations --Interpersonal relationship with principal and teachers (Kwok. 1996) 29. 1995) 28.Possibility of advance (Lau.Interest in Work (Tse. Work itself --.Skill variety (Ip.Achievement (Ip. 1982) Advancement --. 8.Subjects they taught are useful to society (Poon.4 Categorization of important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Categorization of favourable factors: 1. 1985) Advancement --.High social status of teachers (Lau. 1995) 23. 1995) 24. Work itself --.Long-range career goal (Kwok. 1982) Work itself --. 1984) Interpersonal relations --Harmonious interpersonal relations with their principals and colleagues (Tsang.Personal growth (Law.Pay (Wu. Income --. Interpersonal relations --Interpersonal relations with students (Wong. 1992) 16.Work autonomy (Ip. 7. 13. 1982) Decision making --.Promotion (Wu.Recognition (Wong. 10. Interpersonal relations --Interpersonal relations with subordinates (Ip.Achievement (Wong.Importance of the subjects they teach (Poon. 1995) 25. 1993) 18. 4. 44 . Achievement --. Achievement --. 1995) 27. 1980) Professional training --.Achievement (Law. 1987) Advancement --.Personal growth (Ip.Table 2. Good policy and administration --School policy and administration (Ip. 1993) 20. Advancement --.Good relationship with students (Lau.Decision making (Hui. Interpersonal relations --Interpersonal relations (Wu.Work (Law. 1992) Good policy and administration --Good management policy and administration (Lau. 1996) 2. Interpersonal relations --. 1992) 15.Supervision (Wu. Recognition --. 1987) Advancement --.Autonomy (Ip. 9.Work itself (Ip. 11. Recognition --. 12. Supervision --. 14. 1993) 19. 3. Work itself --.

Work itself (Wong.They are professional (Poon.Recognition (Lung. 2.Too much to do (Poon.Advancement (Lung. 3. 14. 1995) Interpersonal relations --Collaborate with other colleagues and functional teams (Wong. Income --. 1997) 32.5 Categorization of important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Categorization of unfavourable factors: 1. 1996) 31. 7. 12.Bureaucratic type of supervision (Ho. 11. Work itself --. 1982) Decision making --. 1980) Supervision --. 1995) Achievement --. 2000) 36. Work itself --. 45 . 8.Work itself (Lung.Endless work (Poon. Advancement --.Promotion opportunities (Wu. Achievement --. 2000) Advancement --.Low promotion opportunities (Ho.Tiresome (Poon.Achievement (Lung.Income (Ho.Lack of Recognition (Wong. 4.Good relationship with students (Ho. 1993) Recognition --. 15. 2000) Supervision --.Work itself (Ho. 13.30. Interpersonal relations --. 1997) 34. 1996) Work itself --. 2000) 10.Supervision (Ip. 1982) Interpersonal relations --. 1997) Table 2.Lack of Achievement (Wong. 6.Increased paper work (Wong. Recognition --. 1984) Advancement --. Interpersonal relations ---Collegial support (Ho. 1995) Work itself --. 1996) Work itself --.Decision making (Hui. 5. Recognition --. 1997) 35.Relations with co-workers (Ip. School administration and management --. 2000) 33. 2000) 37. 1995) 9. 1996) Work itself --.

1992) Personal life --. 1995) 14. Personal life --. 1985) Income --. 1985) Recognition --.Personal life (Ip. 1995) 10.Personal life of teachers (Lau. 1992) Supervision --.Working under supervision (Lau. 1992) 8. 1995) 13. Supervision --. 2. 1995) 11. Income --. 1987) Students’ capability --. 3.Frequent meetings for communication (Lau.Supervision (Lung. Advancement --.Salary (Ip. 5. School administration and management --. 4.High academic ability of students (Lau.Salary (Tsang. 1987) Advancement --.Job security (Ip. 46 . Income --. Income --.Salary (Law. 1995) 12. 1992) 9.Pay and salary (Wong.Advancement (Ip. Job security --. 1997) 6. 7.Table 2.Promotion (Law.6 Categorization of factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction Categorization of unimportant factors: 1.Social Status (Tsang.

Personal growth Interpersonal relations (Wu. 1995) 1993) 22. Recognition --. 1995) 25. Recognition --. 3. Interpersonal relations --advance (Lau.Personal growth (Ip.Skill School policy and administration variety (Ip. 16. 2000) (Wong. 12.Possibility of 21.Achievement (Law.Advancement support (Ho. Professional training --. Recognition --. 1992) professional (Poon. 1995) Achievement --. 1997) Advancement --. subordinates (Ip. 1996) Income --. 1992) Good management policy and 26. 4. 1984) 2000) Good policy and administration --. Interpersonal relations --Interpersonal relationship with principal and teachers (Kwok. Interpersonal relations --.7 Frequency of happens for the important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Factors after Categorization (in alphabetical order): 1. 6.Recognition (Lung.Income (Ho. 9. 1995) Interpersonal relations --28. 1992) Interpersonal relations with Advancement --. Achievement --. 10. 1992) Advancement --. 1987) 20.Achievement (Lung.Recognition Income --. 1995) Achievement --.Long-range career goal (Kwok. (Law. 14.Promotion (Wu. making (Hui. 8.Achievement (Wong. 1985) 18. 1980) 13. 15. Recognition --.Good relationship with students (Lau. 1987) 19. Interpersonal relations --Advancement --.They are administration (Lau.High social status Good policy and administration --of teachers (Lau. 1987) 1993) Advancement --. 1982) 17. 2. 2000) (Lung. Interpersonal relations ---Collegial Advancement --. 7. 1982) (Ip.24. 11. Interpersonal relations --. 1993) 27.Decision relationship with students (Ho. Interpersonal relations --Harmonious interpersonal relations with their principals and colleagues (Tsang. 5.Good Decision making --. 47 .Pay (Wu.Achievement (Ip. 1997) 23. Interpersonal relations with 1997) students (Wong. 1987) Achievement --.Table 2.

1993) 30. Work autonomy --. Work itself --.Subjects they taught are useful to society (Poon.Work itself (Ip.Importance of the subjects they teach (Poon. Professional training (1 time) 48 . 1982) 31. 5. 1987) 36. 3. Supervision (1 time) 9.Work itself (Lung. Supervision --. 1996) Work itself --.29. 34. Work itself --. 1996) 37. 6. Decision making (1 time) 10.Interest in Work (Tse. Interpersonal relations (8 times) Work itself (8 times) Advancement (6 times) Achievement (4 times) Recognition (4 times) Income (2 times) 7. 1982) 32. Work itself --.Autonomy (Ip.Work autonomy (Ip. 1995) Work itself --. 4. 33. 35. Work itself --. Good policy and administration (2 times) 8.Work (Law. 1995) Work itself --.Supervision (Wu. 1997) Frequency of happens: 1. 2.

8. Work itself --. Recognition --.Decision making (Hui.Work itself (Ho. 1980) 6. Recognition (1 time) School administration and management (1 time) Achievement (1 time) Decision making (1 time) 49 . 5.Endless work (Poon. 4.Work itself (Wong. 6. Achievement --. Work itself --. 2000) Frequency of happens: 1.Bureaucratic type of supervision (Ho. Work itself --.Low promotion opportunities (Ho. 4. Supervision --.Supervision (Ip. 1995) 15.Too much to do Collaborate with other colleagues (Poon. 2000) 11. 2. 1995) 9.Lack of 1996) Recognition (Wong. 1995) 14. 7.Lack of Achievement (Wong. 1982) 8. 3.Table 2. Work itself --. 1993) Advancement --. 2000) Decision making --. School administration and management --. 1982) 10. 1984) Interpersonal relations --Relations with co-workers (Ip. 1996) and functional teams (Wong.Increased paper work (Wong. Work itself --. Work itself (5 times) Advancement (2 times) Interpersonal relations (2 times) Supervision (2 times) 5. 3. 1995) Advancement --. 7. 1996) Interpersonal relations --13.Promotion opportunities (Wu.8 Frequency of happens for the important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Factors after Categorization (in alphabetical order): 1. 2. Supervision --. 12.Tiresome (Poon.

1987) Advancement --. 1995) Personal life --. 2. 2. 1995) 10.Advancement (Ip. 8.Personal life of teachers (Lau. Recognition --.Salary (Tsang.Salary (Law.Working under supervision (Lau. 7. 6.Table 2.Promotion (Law. 4. Supervision --. 1992) 14. 4. 8. 5. 1985) 11. 7. 1992) 13.High academic ability of students (Lau.Frequent meetings for communication (Lau.Social Status (Tsang. 1992) Personal life --. 1992) 12. 1985) Income --.Supervision (Lung. Income (4 times) Advancement (2 times) Personal life (2 times) Supervision (2 times) 5.Pay and salary (Wong.Personal life (Ip. 3. School administration and management --. 1987) Income --. Supervision --. 1995) Income --. 1997) Frequency of happens: 1. 3.9 Frequency of happens for factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction Factors after Categorization (in alphabetical order): 1. Advancement --.Salary (Ip. 6. Students’ capability --. 9.Job security (Ip. 1995) Job security --. School administration and management (1 time) Recognition (1 time) Students’ capability (1 time) Job security (1 time) 50 . 1995) Income --.

3.Table 2. 5. (1 time) 8. relations (8 times) 2. Decision making (1 time) 10. 2. (6 times) Achievement 4. Recognition (1 time) School administration and management 7. 3. Income (2 times) 7. 8. Achievement (1 time) Decision making (1 time) 51 . Recognition (4 times) 6. 5. Income (4 times) Advancement (2 times) Personal life (2 times) Supervision (2 times) Job security (1 time) School administration and management (1 time) Recognition (1 time) Students’ capability (1 time) (4 times) 5. 4. Supervision (2 times) 6. Important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Work itself (5 times) Advancement (2 times) Interpersonal relations (2 times) Factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction 1. 4. 6. Interpersonal 1. Work itself (8 times) Advancement 3. Professional training (1 time) 7. 2.10 Summary of factors related to work motivation or job satisfaction: in terms of frequency of happens Important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction 1. Supervision (1 time) 9. Good policy and administration (2 times) 8.

4. 52 . 3. 2. 3. 5. 6. 2.11 Identification of significant factors to be used in the present study Important factors favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction 1. Interpersonal relations (8 times) Work itself (8 times) Advancement (6 times) Achievement (4 times) Recognition (4 times) Income (2 times) Good policy and administration) (2 times) 1. 7. 3. Important factors not favourable to work motivation or job satisfaction Work itself (5 times) Advancement (2 times) Interpersonal relations (2 times) Supervision (2 times) Factors not important to work motivation or job satisfaction 1. 4. 4.Table 2. Income (4 times) Advancement (2 times) Personal life (2 times) Supervision (2 times) * The researcher intends to add one more factor ‘styles of decision making’ and to examine its importance as a factor affecting the work motivation of middle managers in the case school. 2.

creative or stultifying. Goodlad (1984) points out that interaction and communication among employees is important because they provide them necessary information to perform their duties. subordinates. other teachers or even students tend to work more vigorously and have a better feeing of happiness than those who have not. Teachers who find they are accepted and supported by others in schools. 1966).2. The effectiveness of such interaction and communication may depend very much on the interpersonal relations among the employees.4. for examples.3 The Ten Identified Factors in Description Interpersonal relations Interpersonal relations refer to the positive and negative interactions with others (Herzberg. The work can be routine or varied. overly easy or overly difficult (Herzberg. The affiliation needs mentioned by Maslow (1943) reflects the importance of interpersonal relations of human being. superiors. The work itself is 53 . 1966). Work itself Work itself is the actual doing of the job or the tasks of the job as a source of good or bad feelings about it. principal. peers.

also discovers that meaningful and interesting tasks have a strong positive effect on overall work satisfaction of employees. freedom and feedback. task identity. It also provides opportunities for personal growth. all these can influence teacher’s level of job satisfaction (Locke. In addition. control over work methods. 1976). 1966). mentally challenging job is usually more satisfying. They find that employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks. (Ho. autonomy. task significance. responsibility. 2000). meaningful and enriching work. increased responsibilities and increased social status. Promotion in school can be of promotion in job position (from members to head) 54 . Usually promotion is directly related to salary. autonomy.often considered to be an intrinsic features of the work such as variety. Hackman and Oldham (1980) identify five facets of job that affect job satisfaction: skill variety. difficult amount of work. complexity and creativity. Besides. and feedback from the job itself. Advancement Advancement is an actual change in one’s status or position in the organization (Herzberg. Rhodes (1983) finds that employees of all ages attached great Mottaz (1987) importance to having fulfilling. Promotion is one important form of advancement.

principal and / or directors of School Management Board. personal experience and professional qualifications. trust from or connection with supervisor. performance. 1966). job satisfaction can be enhanced. and socioeconomic background. The promotion in the former does not imply the latter in the If promotion is based on fairness. A sense of accomplishment makes people feel that they were competent at work. The are aspirations for personal growth. career advancement is dependent on seven factors (Ho. solutions to problems. perceptions on present status. whereas connection with people in power is a sufficient condition. Ho believed that aspiration is the most necessary condition.or promotion in career ranking (from Senior Graduated Master to Principal Graduated Master). educational system of Hong Kong. sex. In Hong Kong. and in line with employee’s expectation. Rosenholtz (1989) mentioned that there was a strong relationship between achievement and teachers’ work commitment. 55 . Achievement Achievement means successful completion of a job. their efforts are meaningful and rewarding. availability of a vacancy in the senior rank. Achievement is the direct perception of an individual (Miskel. vindication and seeing the results of one’s work (Herzberg. 1982). 2000).

organizing and controlling (Sergiovanni. Controlling involves the process of reviewing and regulating It is the adequacy or performance and providing feedback for goal attainment. Planning means setting goals and objectives and developing strategies for implementation. Holdaway (1978) and Mills (1987) use four items to measure They are ‘work competence is praised by my recognition in their research. harmfulness or the beneficial 56 . (Herzberg. 1966). Organizing means bringing together all the human and non-human resources for the accomplishment of goals and objectives. praise or blame from others. inadequacy of school organization and management.Recognition Recognition refers to some acts of notice. 1995). ‘good work is praised by principal. leading. School Policy and Administration Generally speaking. school administration and management consists of four key processes: planning. Leading means guiding and supervising subordinates towards the achievement of goals and objectives. ‘good idea is accepted’ and ‘good work is notice’. The recognition on these four aspects helps create job satisfaction and motivation for employees. colleague.

and it can be negative when filled with criticism. 57 . promote collegiality and interdependence).effects of the school’s policies that are significant to people’s work motivation (Herzberg. Supervision Supervision consists of competence or incompetence of supervisors. Sergiovanni (1998) states that there are five sources of authority They are bureaucratic (directly supervise and closely monitor the work of teachers to ensure compliance). 1966). whereas the last two stress ‘what is rewarding gets done’. professional (make professional values and accepted tenets of practice explicit) and moral or cultural (build up a unique culture. The first three emphasize ‘what gets rewarded gets done. 1966). willingness or unwillingness of supervisors to delegate responsibility (Herzberg. make explicit the values and belief. Supervision can be positive with sufficient support and appropriate appreciation. figure out ways to motivate teachers). technical rationality (standard work. monitor process. personal (develop congeniality among teachers and between teachers and supervisors). fairness or unfairness of supervisors. for supervision.

there is a relationship between personal life and job. Many researchers (McClelland. Personal life Personal life includes those factors and matters that influence the ways of living of the individual outside the school (Herzberg. However. 1966). salary is always derived through comparison – in terms of skill. seniority and educational qualifications with their co-workers or peers (Ho. it refers to relationships at home and at other places other than the workplace.Income Income refers to the monetary or other forms of tangible returns one receives from his or her work. 2000). Locke 1976) Satisfaction from find that salary symbolizes achievement and recognition. In this sense. The amount of money one earns from his or her job not only can satisfy one’s physiological needs but also serves as an indicator of one’s status or importance. 58 . In this sense. personal life may also be interpreted as situations involving some aspects of the job which affected one's personal life in such a way that the effect is a factor in the respondent's feeling about his job. 1961.

Collective-participative decision-making happens when the leader involves the members of the organization in decision-making. The leader deliberately asks and encourages others to participate by giving their ideas. knowledge. Autocratic decision-making happens when the leader maintains total control and ownership of the decision. and information concerning the decision. Democratic decision-making happens when the leader gives up ownership and control of a decision and allows the group to vote. Consensus decision-making happens when the leader gives up total control of the decision. perceptions. 59 . The ways how these decision-making styles are performed by school authority pose significant effects on the work motivation and job satisfaction of teachers in school.Styles of decision-making Daugherty (1997) summarizes four decision-making styles. Majority vote will decide the action. The complete group is totally involved in the decision.

The limitations of this study will 3. the rationale for the use of case study. be discussed at the end of this chapter. Besides. from the perspectives of the middle managers 60 .1 The Selection of Research Method In this research. To recall the purposes of this research. this research also aims to examine the work motivation of middle managers in the case school. Bell (1999) claims that researchers using qualitative approach are eager to understand individuals’ perceptions of the reality of the world. they are to explore the perceptions of school middle managers on the identified factors affecting work motivation and to study whether these factors are also applicable to them.CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY This chapter focuses on the research methodology. It concerns about the selection of research method. a qualitative research method will be adopted. They have doubts on social facts and they question if issues related to human beings can be dealt with by using the scientific approach. They prefer seeking insights to getting statistical analysis. the method of data collection and the method of data analysis.

themselves. This research is confined to a local secondary school in Hong Kong. 3. Hence. a qualitative research method. In this sense. it is their perceptions that are valuable to the study. Besides. and on other possible factors which may affect their work motivation. institution.2 The Use of a Case Study The kind of qualitative research method used in this research is case study. which stresses the importance of detail description and understanding of human behaviour. the school where the 61 . group. it is better to communicate with the informants by words rather than by statistic numbers. this research may request the school middle managers. Therefore. that is. or culture” (Wiersma. it is better for the collected data to be analyzed inductively so as to draw some significant insights for further investigation. to provide opinions on the identified factors. event. To enhance a better understanding on their views. A case study is “a study characterized by an investigation of a single individual. who are then considered as informants. and holistic understanding on an issue in order to know more about the reality. appears to be more appropriate for this research. 1995:463).

the researcher intends to use interview as the This is because. study of In the present study.3. as mentioned before. document etc. 62 . This may include observation. the first group consists of four subject heads from Humanities subjects while the second group consists of functional committee coordinators from the student-affairs sector.3 Method of Data Collection 3.researcher is now working.1 Interview There are a lot of methods and techniques that can be used in qualitative approach of research. 3. The researcher will make use of the opportunity to investigate and understand more on the factors which affect their work motivation in school. The choice of case and informants are based on the consideration that the researcher is familiar with the school situations and has been puzzled by the issue of different motivations in the school middle managers. this study main method of data collection. interview. The informants under study are confined to two groups of middle managers in the case school.

this semi-structured interview is especially appropriate to the researcher. They should be treated as informants and let them unfold naturally all the relevant data in their minds through interview. the researcher can collect data directly from native perspectives and can be in a better position to understand what they actually think for the issue. Formal structured interview will be avoided as far as possible since the formal settings and highly structured formats may create uneasy or artificial feelings for the informants. semi-structured interview.relies mainly on the perceptions and personal views of the school middle managers on work motivation. 63 . as long as they will not go beyond the designed scope set by the interview guide. 1988). With limited time and resources. the researcher will rely more on Semi-structured interview is done with an interview guide (Bernard. Instead. such data can best be obtained by direct in-depth interviews with school middle managers themselves. Informants are free to share the ideas and opinions on topics or issues they concern most. In this way.

for the consideration that middle managers in school are usually very busy. The questions for interview will be given at least one week before the interview so that informants may have time to think over the issues if they wish. 64 . Apart from this. the researcher will give the transcripts to the informants to see if there are any mistakes or misinterpretations of their views. Although it is argued that tape-recording may arouse threat and uneasy feelings to informants (Fetterman. During the interview. After the interview.It is planned that each interview will last for less than one hour. The researcher will tape-record the content of the interview if it is with the consent of the informants. the researcher promises the informants that the data will only be used for dissertation purpose. instead of asking a series of responding questions for their initial answers. the researcher will take field notes by pen throughout the whole interview. the researcher intends to follow by asking them ‘why’ so as to dig deeper and clarify what actually are in their minds. 1989) and may reduce the validity of the research.

These questions are contained in the interview guide (Appendix 1). if any. 65 . ‘fairly important’ and ‘not very important’.2 Instrument Instead of using the instruments designed by famous writers in western countries such as Miskel and Heller (1973). Apart from this. The intention of doing this is to enable the researcher to think more deeply in the later analysis if differences. the researcher intends to design interview questions which will be more suitable to the present qualitative study.3. which have been discussed throughout the interview. the researcher will also make use of a simple questionnaire (Appendix 2) by which informants are requested to rank the importance of the identified factors affecting their work motivation. with the conventions of ‘very important’. Hackman and Oldham (1975). ‘important’. Vlentine (1978) etc.3. are found between what the informants express during the interview and what they show on the questionnaire survey about the importance of the various factors affecting their work motivation. by which most of them are suitable only to quantitative studies.

3. Firstly.3. The researcher intends to focus on the subject heads of humanities subjects and functional committee coordinators of the student-affairs sector because of two main considerations. student-affairs sector. humanities subjects. Secondly. 66 . the coming of the current principal in the early 1990s marked the start of all round education for students in the case school. the coordinators from students-affairs sector have been contributing quite a lot over the years. it is believed that their active work and contributions in school can offer plenty of significant sharing to the research.3 The Informants Generally speaking. As a result. namely the subject heads and functional committee coordinators. Based on these two considerations. cultural subjects etc. there are two types of middle managers in the case school. The subject heads have been working very hard and vigorously for this direction. the curriculum reform in the case school over the recent years has been focusing on the integration of humanities subjects in junior forms such as the combination of Chinese History and History. The former is divided in accordance with different subject domains such as sciences subjects. general affairs sector etc. and Geography and Economics and Public Affairs (EPA). while the latter is divided in accordance with different functional sectors such as administrative sector.

Except for the coordinator of Careers Committee. all of them have been working in the case school for more than ten years and having the experience of middle management in school for at least eight years. Geography and EPA. Careers Committee and Discipline Committee. it enables the researcher to get all their consents to be the informants for the research. They are the subject heads of History. trustful relations have been developed.Since the school middle managers of these two groups have been working with the researcher for many years. Extra-curricular Activities Committee. There are totally eight school middle managers under study. Therefore. and the coordinators of Guidance Committee. Chinese History. 67 . All of them have been promoted to senior posts in school. with seven of them belong to the status of Senior Graduated Master (SGM) and one belongs to the status of Principal Graduated Master (PGM).

3.3.4

Convention Used to Report the Results

The researcher intends to conduct eight interviews with the eight school managers individually. The full texts of the interview transcripts will be

contained in appendices, from Appendix 3 (Transcript 1) to Appendix 10 (Transcript 8). Transcripts 1 to 4 are related to the subject heads of Economics

and Public Affairs, Chinese History, History and Geography respectively while transcripts 5 to 8 are related to the functional committee coordinators of the Guidance Committee, Extra-curricular Activities Committee, Discipline

Committee and Careers Committee respectively.

The data in the transcripts will be interpreted deeply and the results will be reported in the form of number-code quotations extracted from the various interview transcripts. Take for examples, the number-codes 1.1; 2.2; 3.2; 4.3 etc. after certain quotations mean that they are the ideas shared by the subject heads while the number–codes 5.2; 6.3; 7.1; 8.5 etc. mean that they are the ideas shared by the functional committee coordinators in the case school.

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3.4

Method of Data Analysis

In this research, the identified factors affecting work motivation will be used as a working frame and this will be examined by using the real situation in the case school. In other words, the researcher does not set a very rigid

framework during the process of data collection. The data will be collected in different ways and they are necessarily be closely related to each other. The

researcher will try to make sense of the data by reading them many times deeply. Throughout this process, the researcher will keep his mind open, to analyze continuously throughout the entire research process by using the most of human mind and intuition. be used. In other words, a qualitative approach of data analysis will

It is believed that human brain is the most powerful instrument for data

processing and the role of thinking and intuition cannot be underestimated in the process of analysis (Marshall and Rossman, 1995). In this sense, the researcher

will act as “the principal and most reliable instrument of observation, selection, co-ordination, and interpretation” (Sandy, 1983:20) during the whole process of the research work.

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Generally speaking, the researcher has the following steps in mind for data analysis. Firstly, the researcher will make systematic recording and This can be done by associating Since the data

continuous analysis of the collected data.

roughly all the similar data together into different groups.

collected varies in different senses, the researcher will keep his mind open, to use his intuition to conduct the classification. Secondly, based on the above

classification, the researcher will identify and continuously generate all possible categories which are related to the working motivation of school middle managers. With all these categories in hand, the researcher will try to formulate some relevant and meaningful concepts. Based on these concepts, the researcher

attempt to explain the situation of the case school as revealed by the data and to compare these findings with the earlier local studies.

3.5

Limitations of the Study

Because of the limited time and resources of the sole researcher, this research has some limitations which are worth noting.

Firstly, by identifying the factors affecting work motivation from the
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. 71 . as the researcher himself is the vice-principal of the case school and some of the questions are indeed sensitive to the informants such as the decision-making styles of the principal. the results of the research can only reflect this limited situation. since the research only focuses on the ten identified factors that motivate the eight school middle managers in the case school. the more it would be appropriate for future situation. the researcher has made two underlined assumptions. it is assumed that all the extracted factors were used with the same meaning or definition in the different studies. Secondly. the school policy and administration etc.local studies. Secondly. In other words. Thirdly. However. the validity of the research findings will be limited by informants’ frankness and honesty in sharing their personal opinions and ideas. However. it is the researcher who assumes that the informants will frankly and honestly share their ideas and opinions in the interviews. the scope of this research is not very wide. they are indeed two propositions one could not ascertain easily. Firstly. it is assumed that the more frequent a factor was used.

personal life. Therefore. In other words. as the ten identified factors may involve some important terms such as advancement. work itself. styles of decision-making etc. Such perception and interpretation may vary with informants’ knowledge and experience. it focuses on the study of ‘what’ motivate school middle managers to work in school. As a result. covered in this research. 72 .Fourthly. the use of the ten identified factors reflects that the frame of this research is concentrated on the content theories of motivation only. Fifthly. which allow the informants to perceive and interpret in their own ways. the significance of the research findings depend very much on if the informants have affluent knowledge and experience to share appropriately in the interviews. although the researcher did provide some clear definition of the terms used when he saw such a necessarily. it does not cover the study of ‘how’ school middle The process theories of motivation are not managers are motivated to work.

the researcher has asked the informants the kinds of job or 73 . Quantitative data will also be used as supports to the findings wherever they appear to be appropriate. 4. The full texts of the interview transcripts are contained in appendices. from Appendix 3 (Transcript 1) to Appendix 10 (Transcript 8).CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS The results and interpretations will be conducted in accordance with the research questions of the study.1 Perceptions of School Middle Managers on Factors Affecting Work Motivation 4. The data in the transcripts has been interpreted deeply and the results will be reported in the form of number-code quotations extracted from the various interview transcripts.1.1 Perceptions on Work Itself In this part. Most of the findings will be supported by qualitative data which are collected as a result of the semi-structured interviews.

(3. I will also work very vigorously for it.1) I can work vigorously and persistently in … developmental work which means that the work is new and innovative to school. I like the second one more because I like to do the work which is developmental in nature. this kind of work can enhance my work motivation. Personally. (8. The first type of work is related to those we need to do in accordance with the established school system. and the work is feasible in implementation. (5. It is interesting to note that the middle managers under study did not demonstrate similar pattern in this factor.1) If the work has clear objective. (2.task that they could work vigorously and persistently. The second type of work is related to the educational reform in which we need to explore and develop the new working system ourselves. more elaboration and more 74 . Some middle managers showed that their work motivations were affected by the clarity of the work itself.1) If the work allows me to have more autonomy. They shared different views on the kinds of job or task that could enhance their work motivation.1) It is also noted that some middle managers believed that work which was developmental in nature could enhance their work motivation. Take for instances: Sometimes even if I am not interested in the work or even I dislike the work. but with clear instructions and clear understanding on the aftermath of fulfilling or not fulfilling the work. target and direction. instances: Take for There are two types of work in school.

One committee coordinator showed that the routine work they did has lowered his work motivation while work with high autonomy has increased his work motivation.2) When they were asked about the real situation in the case school. my work motivation will be worse off.variety. Take for instances: I stress collaboration in work. support each other during the working process. that is to say. all these can push me to work more vigorously. (7. On the contrary. Take for instances: As an ECA coordinator.1) Some middle managers who were committee coordinators showed that those jobs and tasks which required group work could make them work with higher motivation. some middle managers claimed that their work motivation was determined by the different work natures of the school. if the work is repetitive with formalities and paperwork. (5. participate in sharing opinions. Another subject head also said that work with clear instructions has enhanced his work motivation while work with ambiguities has hampered it. (6. I can experience these two types of work nature in 75 . committee members are encouraged to help each other … If the work in which all committee members are able to reach similar ideas. They all claimed that they have experienced all these work natures in their committees or subject panels. and there are some achievements resulted after the work. I can work vigorously.1) Work in which I can lead my members’ involvement and participation.

However. On the one hand. it does not have clear requirements and instructions to the subject panel.12) 4. if panel members can 76 . I have a lot of autonomous in deciding the annual ECA plan in school … (6. like the principal and vice-principals.2 Perceptions on interpersonal relations In this part.15) … the school advocates the use of IT in teaching Chinese History. I need to brief every year for the organization of ECA clubs … On the other hand. In this case. the English Enhancement project … is advocated with clear instructions and requirements on the subject panel.school. as factor affecting their work motivation. Moreover. though the fact that I think this practice is not that appropriate to Chinese History lessons. it is found that subject heads favored cooperative and harmonious interpersonal relations while committee coordinators longed for interactive and communicative types of interpersonal relations. (2. They did not mention anything about the interpersonal relations with their superiors. Take for another example. Some subject heads said: Easy-going.1. This arrangement will only result in my low work motivation. the researcher has asked the informants for the kinds of interpersonal relations that could make them work happily. I will work very vigorously for it. cooperative and collaborative relations with panel members are desirable to my work motivation. It is interesting to note that all middle managers considered this factor by focusing on their relations with subordinates rather than superiors. Moreover.

three middle managers came to realize that their interpersonal relations with the principal and team members have positively affected their work motivation. the lack of mutual communication and support will give rise to a feeling of loneliness which is not that ideal to my work motivation. it is indeed not a good phenomenon. However.2) Some committee coordinators said in the following ways: They (committee members) are willing to discuss sincerely on issues related to work and they are willing to accept divergences or differences of each other. (3. I think this kind of interpersonal relations is important to my work motivation. (6. (2.1) Interpersonal relations with human sympathy and human kindness are important to work motivation. the last book inspection of one of my panel members was scheduled to a later period because he was busy preparing for his marriage ceremony. this is also favourable to my work motivation.2) When they were asked about the real situation in the case school.share the same vision. such harmonious and understanding relations help enhance my work motivation in managing the subject panel. for example. if members only want to avoid conflict … even though it may result in a harmonious relation. As a middle manager. they will find them worth doing.3) Interpersonal relations that reflect mutual communication can also stimulate me to work continuously. On the contrary. As a middle manager in school.2) A kind of ‘understanding’ relation among panel members is also important … If panel members understand that the works are for the benefits of students. if committee members only work for their owns and do not care for each other. One subject head claimed that good interpersonal relations with panel members were 77 . (5. (4. This kind of interpersonal relations can make me work happily.

(6. they always give valuable advices to me and they support me very much. I feel comfortable … being respect and no feeling of being hurt help enhance my work motivation very much. Take for instances: Cultivating good and positive relations with panel members … helps to get the support from panel members for the implementation of some teaching beliefs that are beneficial to subject development. there is a close relationship between interpersonal relations and subject development. two committee coordinators responded that the positive interpersonal relations they had with their members might not necessarily follow 78 . while good interpersonal relations with committee members enabled him to get their supports. In fact. Another subject head pointed out that harmonious relation with panel members helped promote their effective cooperation. In this sense.16) However. they believed that their work motivation has been enhanced. In short. (3.17) The presence of harmonious and understanding relations in the subject panel enables us to cooperate happily in work which in return gives me a satisfactory work motivation.13) The interpersonal relations I have with my superiors are good … my superiors usually give me encouragement and allow plenty of rooms for me to make my own decisions. One committee coordinator pointed out that good interpersonal relations with principal made him feel comfortable in work. (4. I use the same approach in cultivating the relations with my committee members … My subordinates are very constructive.important to get their supports in the subject panel.

good interpersonal relations are the basic element for work motivation … (7. their ages.1) 79 .12) 4. the perception of middle managers on advancement and its relation to work motivation has been asked. If the situation is a SGM status to be promoted to Principal Graduated Master (PGM) status.3 Perceptions on advancement In this part. (1. Take for instances: The satisfactory and positive relations with my superiors and committee members will not result in negative effects on my work motivation … May be it is the absence of fatal or negative relations with my superiors and committee members that makes me consider less about the relationship between interpersonal relations and work motivation. (5. whether it is a promotion post or not etc.15) The good relations established can reduce a lot of vexation that may appear in work.that their work motivation has been enhanced but it was still significant as such relations would not negatively affect their work motivation. In other words. the workload involved after advancement. Take for instances: The impacts may be more obvious when the situation is a Graduated Master (GM) status to be promoted to Senior Graduated Master (SGM) status. It is revealed that such relationship was affected by factors like present status of middle managers in school. This means that good interpersonal relations will bring no negative effects to my work motivation … the good communication among us is indeed positive to our work motivation as I can have chances to explain to them in detail. one needs to consider the age.1. income changed after promotion.

Therefore. others may think in this way. (3.3) … whether promotion is a significant factor to work motivation depends on if the subject itself is a promotion post. instead of a motivation.13) 80 . It means that I have lesser time to share with students on matters and values related to Geography. some showed that it in return enhanced their work motivations. If it is a promotion post. promotion may not necessarily enhance work my motivation.2) When they are asked about the real situation in the case school. Indeed. promotion may be a burden. it is interesting to note that such negative wordings did not totally represent that their work motivations were lowered.… the change of educational environment in Hong Kong means to school managers that after their promotion. (2. it causes problems to my work motivation in the Geography subject panel.14) Though the fact that I will not relate work to money or authority.3) It must not be the case if one says that advancement does not affect work motivation. However. they need to do a lot of works that are heavily loaded. it may have positive effects on work motivation. (4. “pressure”. This is because the works related to PGM are different from that of in the subject panel. Take for instances: After the promotion to PGM. three out of four committee coordinators and one subject head responded by using the words “causes problems”. “upset my original work” and “may be a burden” to describe their situations after their promotion. especially for the early stage of teaching life in which income may be regarded as the main incentive to work. In this sense. which indeed hampers my work motivation … (4. (7. to my work.

human emotion and importance of events were important determinants. it is the pressure of the SGM status after promotion that makes me demand more for my work. I will concern more on family life.17) 4. (8. Some middle managers claimed that time factors. the researcher has asked for the effects of personal life on the work motivation of school middle managers. after the promotion to ECA master.16) Advancement may sometimes upset my original work. Objectively speaking. (6. Rather. For example. good mood will enhance my work motivation in school and vice verse.2) If the schoolwork is not that tight. Personal life and work motivation will affect each other. Subjectively speaking. 81 . this factor may not affect my work motivation very much. (1.1.2) … It is positively related. I will place the schoolwork first. I need to make appropriate adjustment on my working timetable and the priority of my work … it is after the advancement that motivates me to re-plan my work. It is found that there were some remarkable factors that needed to be considered before significant conclusion could be drawn on such effects. it will affect the usage of the time between the two. Take for instances. (5. that is to say. If there are some important events in school. it will affect the human emotion.4 Perceptions on personal life In this part.Since I have been promoted already. I have been occupied by a lot of administrative work … As a result.

Basically. it is interesting to note that they tended to be related to family issues.In other words.2) When they were asked about the real situation in the case school. In this sense. there were two middle managers who showed that their work motivation have not been significantly affected by personal affairs. (3. personal life may. especially for their children. my work motivation will be inevitably. Take for instances. personal life and schoolwork can influence each other.4) As far as important events are put into consideration. to a certain extent. as an ECA coordinator in school. affect my work motivation … (7. I need to do a good job in this aspect.14) On the other hands. to a certain extent. (7. as my children have promoted to secondary school. Take for instances: Yet. as my children have promoted to secondary school. personal life has very slight effects on my work motivation in 82 . (6. Therefore.3) Yet. (4. most of them said that the personal issues which were related to their families have affected their work motivation in school.3) The experiences of my sons participating in ECA make me believe that ECA is a necessity in school. Take for instance: … Yet. the ways how they behave may have projection on my work in school. affected. the ways how they behave may have projection on my work in school. I have to admit that in case of very important or emergent family events.

though the fact that most subject heads valued more on students’ academic results while committee coordinators valued more on the particular learning outcomes which were related to what the committees aimed at. but if their results are not satisfactory. A change in personal life such as having a baby to the family requires me to make adjustment to my schoolwork. It is interesting to note that all the interviewees had one thing in common. Generally speaking. They all related their sense of achievements to students’ learning outcomes. (5. (3. the responses of committee coordinators were as 83 .15) Personal life can have some effects on schoolwork but it may not affect the work motivation. together with appropriate time management. such adjustment may not necessarily mean that my work motivation will be affected.school. the researcher has asked the middle managers the kinds of achievement from work that would make them feel particular pleasant. the sense of achievement all comes from students’ academic results.1. (2. I manage to separate them because of rationality.17) 4. The subject heads said: … The academic results of the students in my subject. sense of achievement obtained from others’ recognition on my work and on students’ academic performance on my subject is important to my work motivation. I will be very frustrated. I will be very happy. However. In other words. (4.5 Perceptions on achievement In this part.4) In fact.5) On the other hand. If they have good results.

3) Apart from relating achievement to students’ learning outcomes.4) Achievement can be reflected by a group of committee members who work with good collaboration under my coordination.follow: Achievement resulted from doing some developmental guidance work and observing students’ positive growth. for example. such achievement can make me work more vigorously. and if the original objectives can be achieved. It enables them to work vigorously with the same end.4) The achievement which is related to a group of Form 6 student who are willing to take up their roles as student-leaders after the leadership training program. the achievements which are related to the successful guidance work will always make me feel happy. (5. (7. effective middle management can help promote effective communication between subject teachers and subject head. understand and identify clearly their roles as students and show concerns to others. In other words. if the work is related to careers and is really helpful to students.3) 84 .5) The ultimate outcome is the formation of a group of students who behave well. (1. (8. and are eager to promote ECA in school. (4.3) In fact. Take for instances: The achievement of running the subject panel smoothly. to solve emergent problems satisfactorily. (6. during the process of nurturing students. (7. some middle managers also pointed out that achievement could be obtained by the successful running of the subject panels or committees.4) Generally speaking.

most of them expressed that the achievement they got from schoolwork could positively affect their work motivation. it needs time to get some achievements from my work. Take for instances: An important decision of using CMI in teaching and learning History in 1996 enhances students’ academic performance in public examination … This kind of achievement can continuously enhance my work motivation to focus on the skill-oriented approach in learning and teaching the subject … changes my ways of management in the subject panel … (3.13) 85 . there was one subject head who pointed out that achievement did not play a significant role in affecting his work motivation. the insufficiency of the system in discipline committee … gives me high motivation to improve the situations.18) Yes. In this sense. This is because achievement cannot be obtained in the short run. They also admitted that such achievement usually came directly from students’ learning outcomes or indirectly from doing something which helped improve the inadequacies of the subject panels or committees. achievement can enhance my work motivation. work motivation as a result of achievement from work should not be overestimated. instance: Take for It is important to point out that achievement itself will not play a significant part in affecting my work motivation. In fact. (7.15) However. (1.When they were asked about the real situation in the case school. The achievement on these two aspects after improvement helps enhance my work motivation.

clear description of responsibilities and tasks. As a middle manager. for example. if the school administration and management can give clear instructions and directions for me to manage the subject panel. the researcher has asked for the relationship between school policy and administration and work motivation of school middle managers. I will be motivated to complete this. (2. it can positively affect my work motivation. (1. If the school administration and management can set clear instructions to my work. they stressed more the soundness. Most of the subject heads claimed that there was a close relationship between them.1. clear instructions to my work. my work motivation can be positively affected too. (3. instances: There is a close relationship between these two.6 Perceptions on good policy and administration In this part.5) Of course it has a close relationship with my work motivation. they did not mention anything about the clarity of the system.4.6) If the pattern of school administration and management is clear to me. with clear allocation of work among teachers. Instead. all these can positively help me manage my subject panel and as a result. They also mentioned that their work motivation would be positively Take for affected if the system was clear enough for them to do their works.4) As for the committee coordinators under review. simplicity and allocation of manpower in the school administrative 86 .

it will be good to the committee… If the allocation of manpower can help the development of the careers committee. (6. (8. In this way. I will have good working motivation. clear instructions given by the school for routine and basic work are necessary. Therefore. A sound school administrative and managerial system can help the effectiveness of the guidance work. Take for instances: … clear instructions are sometimes useful. it is positive to my work motivation. If those teachers who are allocated to the committee have interest in the work. (5. Yet.4) In the school administrative and managerial system.5) I feel comfortable with a simple school administrative and managerial structure in which the work required to middle managers should not be repetitive. to me. As long as I feel the system is helpful to the guidance work. This is because it will affect the development of the Careers committee. at least I will not have bad feelings on the work. Take for instances: There is positive and close relationship between school administrative and managerial system and work motivation. they mentioned that the clear and well designed administration and management system in the case school did not guarantee them high motivation to work. If it is a simple structure without ‘repetitive’ work. it is the allocation of manpower that is important to my work motivation. Repetitive work means that I need to do the same thing several times because of the needs of different sections in school.4) When they were asked about the real situation in the case school. school should give enough flexibility for me to do some developmental work. I think I will work more 87 . especially for those middle managers who are not active and only rely on school instructions to work. though the fact that it could keep their work motivation to a certain level and did not worsen the situations.and managerial system.

(4. it is true that the administrative and managerial structure is well-designed … However.16) Since the existing administrative and managerial system in this school does not create too many obstacles to my work. (6. no matter they belonged to the group of subject heads or committee coordinators. there have been a lot of meetings and paper work requirements made by the school administration and management … these requirements may stimulate certain work motivation but I don’t think such motivation is a kind of positive motivation because it is a result of extrinsic rather than intrinsic factors. in reality. Of course. it is more desirable if the system can be more supportive. (5. the researcher has asked if school supervision system could enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school.18) The present school administration is clearer than before … A more clear school administration enables my work to be done more smoothly … Because of this. my work motivation is not bad in general. (7.18) In our school.7 Perceptions on supervision In this part. it helps keep my work motivation. whether this design is really effective relies very much on the actual communication and coordination among these committees … the sole presence of a good school administrative and managerial structure affects very little my work motivation in school.16) 4.happily and I can have a higher work motivation. though they admitted that supervision 88 .19) Recently. It is noticed the results varied with middle managers.1. (3. Half of them did not think that supervision could enhance work motivation.

if the supervision is real and effective. (3. two middle managers claimed that supervision might have positive effects on work motivation. With supervision. they would still complete the task but the work Take for instances: motivation involved should not be overestimated. (7. instances: Take for Appropriate supervision is good or otherwise the working direction will be lost more easily. they would work with high If it was not. my work 89 .7) Supervision is necessary and important to work motivation. If it was so. it is insignificant to work motivation.7) Although I admit that supervision is necessary in an organization for effective management. middle managers are made to do at least some basic tasks or basic requirements. (8. Take for instances: To a certain extent supervision has positive effects on work motivation. But supervision will not be an impetus to work motivation … If work motivation is a result of supervision.was necessary and was helpful to the completion or fulfillment of work. On the one hand. (6. create pressure but it may help enhance work motivation.5) It may Middle managers under review also claimed that whether supervision could enhance work motivation depended on if the supervision was effective and was related to students’ interests. motivation. Such supervision can make middle managers work harder towards the completion of tasks.5) However. it may not be a good phenomenon.

it can enhance work motivation. supervisors … show a lot of ‘understanding’ during the process of supervision. but on the other hand. hampered.19) The supervision in this school does not affect my work motivation … If constructive advices have been given after supervision. (4.6) If the work being supervised is related to students’ interests and benefits. (5.motivation will be high. If such linkage is not that tight. it does not hurt my work motivation.17) Since the supervision in school is in its infant stage only. most of the middle managers responded that the school supervision was insignificant to their work motivation. work motivation is not related to the supervision.14) The supervision in this school does not have much effects on my work motivation … I will devote more effort to those works which I think are worth doing. supervision will not cause pressure or impetus to my work. (2. As a result. if the supervision is not real and not effective. it may not affect my motivation. to me.19) 90 . I will follow them in order to make further improvement. (6. (4. the work motivation involved will not be very high. Their work motivation was neither enhanced nor Take for instances: The supervision in our school can be described as very ‘tolerate’ in a sense that middle-managers may not need to face too much the aftermath of their actions and therefore such ‘tolerate’ type of supervision does not significantly affect my work motivation. (1.5) When they were asked about the real situation in the case school. Therefore. even the work can be completed with clear supervision from school. though the fact that I will complete the job for school. But I will not view supervision as important factor that can affect my work motivation … Since the supervision in this school is very respectful to human nature.

which is unfavourable to my work motivation.8 Perceptions on income In this part. However. most of the middle managers possessed a perception This was more that income was a factor that could affect work motivation. Generally speaking. Some supervisions … my motivation of doing this is not very high as it is believed that the school authority may not fully use this information … A real and effective supervision can greatly affect my work motivation. if self-reflection appears during the process … such reflection may be good to work motivation. (2. obvious when middle managers were still in Graduated Masters (GM) status. the researcher intended to find some significant findings on the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle managers in school. It depended on if the supervision was real and effective. there were two middle managers who claimed that supervision in the case school could either enhance or hamper their work motivation.17) 4. and if personal reflections have been made by middle managers after the supervision. Take for instances: 91 . (7. Take for instances: Some supervision in school is effective and real … I will work vigorously for it.However. the supervision becomes more systematic … the systematic supervision limits my freedom and creativity in work.13) Now.1.

which is far higher than before. (5.5) Generally speaking. the increased income. will create a kind of moral pressure on work.8) For those who have already been promoted. the income is higher than the ordinary teachers. They said that they had to work more vigorously because of the increased income after promotion. Rather.6) Apart from this. This is more obvious if the subject head is a Graduated Master (GM) than a Senior Graduated Master (SGM). the greater the work motivation.Income is one of the factor that may affect work motivation. It is not a desire to get higher income which make me work harder. It is in this sense that it may enhance work motivation. (1. (5. Therefore. interviewees also pointed out that middle managers who were in SGM status could also work with high motivation but with another reason. (4. income may be an important factor to work motivation because the income difference between a Graduated Master (GM) and a Senior Graduated Master (SGM) is indeed very great. there is a positive relationship between income and work motivation. This is because the percentage increase in income from GM to SGM is larger than that of from SGM to Principal Graduated Master (PGM). it is the relatively ‘higher’ income level as a result of being a middle manager that makes me believe that I need to do more.6) For those who have not yet been promoted.7) 92 . This effect is more significant to those middle managers who are in Graduated Master (GM) status than Senior Graduated Master (SGM) status. Take for instances: As middle managers in school. (3. middle managers should bear more responsibilities on the developmental work in school. the higher the income.

my real income does not decrease. all middle managers showed that though such cut has resulted in lower income. (1. (2. Therefore. Take for instances: The income increased after promotion is only a bonus to teachers’ work. The past experiences in other schools showed me that the relationship between income and work motivation will not be that close in the educational field. (8. it is worth noting that there were responses which claimed that no significant relationship could be found between income level and work motivation. Take for instances: The recent salary cut may not affect my work motivation.However. (6. it may not be the case.14) The recent salary cut in Hong Kong does not affect my work motivation … 93 . This is because salary cut is in line with the deflation in the economy. it is more or less the same.6) When they were asked if the recent salary cut in Hong Kong has affected their work motivation. They still felt satisfied with their present salary as they realized that the standard of living did not decrease remarkably after the salary cut. it did not affect their work motivation in school.15) Because the reduction rate of salary is not very high. not a factor to increase their work motivation … Whether higher income will increase their work motivation is indeed doubtful. income is insignificant to work motivation.6) … But in educational field. it does not affect my work motivation … Since the existing income level is higher than the market value. In fact. the reduction in income may not negatively affect my work motivation.

the income of teachers in Hong Kong is indeed overpaid and therefore a bit cut is acceptable. In this sense. it is observed that middle managers did not mind having the central school authority made the decisions themselves. the responses focused on decision-making styles at two levels. School authority makes decision after considering these opinions and ideas. namely the school level and subject or committee level. (6. In the school levels. In fact. Generally speaking. (5. on the conditions that they were given opportunities to discuss the issues together.20) The income cut will not affect my work motivation.1. the school authority could make the decisions with careful considerations and the school authority could explain to them the rationale for the final decisions. Take for instances: Middle managers give opinions and ideas to the school authority. the cost of living in Hong Kong also decreases because of the poor economic conditions.9 Perceptions on decision-making In this part. the salary cut can still maintain my standard of living.20) 4. their opinions could be respected by the school authority. the researcher has asked the middle managers if the different decision-making styles could affect their work motivation in school. The 94 .

(4. and that the decisions can adjust in accordance with situations.” (2. I may complete the job with hearts…. the mutual communication involved can help each other understand the difficulties and to tackle the problems. even though such decision is made by the school authority solely. I would like the school authority explain the reasons to me before any finalization has been made (8.9) I would like to have a decision made after sufficient discussion with my panel members. on the condition that they are sincerely and seriously considered and that at least a part of these are included in the final decision. it is found that middle managers were willing to discuss with their members before the finalization of decisions. Some even showed that they liked to have consensus with members before a final decision. If none of my opinions are included.7) I would treasure giving my opinions to the school authority.school authority should explain clearly the final decision to the middle managers who will then follow such decision to do the work. Take for instances: … I like to discuss these with my panel members and to search for the possible strengths and weaknesses…I will avoid making personal decision in a meeting in which we have divergent opinions. School leaders who have planned and considered thoroughly before they make a decision are better than those who haven’t.7) A decision made after discussion is ideal to my work motivation … If it is a decision made by mass consensus. In this way.7) In the subject or committee level.6) If decision is made after collecting opinions from middle managers. I will try my best to discuss for certain consensuses with my panel members before a final decision has been made in a formal meeting. it must have a reasonable ground for the 95 . (1. (3.

the decision sometimes may run against my views. Take for instances: … the above arrangement of decision-making is still negative to my work motivation because it is not promising that the decision made by the principal herself is consistent with our preferences. When they were asked about the real situation in the case school. (7. Worse still.21) This decision making style may not enhance my work motivation.18) 96 . which is supposed to be an important element in the School Based Management schools of Hong Kong. Therefore. I will accept this ground. even if such decision may go against my own view. (6.decision. three committee coordinators and one subject head showed that the decision-making style in school did not have too much positive impacts on their work motivation. It is through the process of collective participation and also collective decision-making that the decision resulted can include the elements brought about by the middle managers. (5. they still felt uneasy because it was the principal who made the final decisions. This is because it is not promising that what I have reflected to the school authority can be reflected back in the final decision.9) In fact. it is important to note that the school middle managers under study did not mention too much about the participatory decision-making in school. Although it was a fact that they could voice their opinions and ideas to the school authority.

…Committee members will question why I am not able to influence the school. Therefore, I need to explain to them that it is beyond my control as the final decision is made by the school authority. (8.11) The decision making style in this school does not increase my work motivation. This is because even ideas and suggestions are given to the school authority but usually there is no clear conclusion resulted.”(1.16)

However, two subject heads and one committee coordinator showed that since the decisions made by the principal were for the holistic development of the school; and that middle managers still had chances to share their ideas and opinions; this decision-making style still kept their work motivation in school. Take for instances:

As a middle manager in school, I will not only concentrate on my own part, I will look at the holistic development of the school. As long as our principal is making decision in accordance with this mentality, even though the decision is at the expense of ECA, I will still accept this type of decision-making style. (6.21) … as long as I am able to give my opinions and participate in the decision making process; and I feel that our principal is willing to listen and consider my opinions, even though she makes the decision herself or the decisions are not consistent with my opinions, my work motivation will not be negatively affected. (3.20) After discussing with the teachers, if the issue is found to be worth doing, even it is the principal who makes the final decision, such type of decision making is still positive to work motivation. (4.18)

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4.1.10 Perceptions on recognition

In this part, the researcher has asked the middle managers which types of recognition from work that could particularly enhance their work motivation. Subject heads stated that recognition given by superiors, colleagues, students and parents were all valuable to their work motivation. Take for instances:

Recognition from colleagues or panel members, in a sense that they trust me and do not have suspicion on my way of management. Recognition from superiors help to maintain good relations which act as lubricator for my work motivation. (1.7) I would rather value more the recognition from students than school. The recognition from students on my teaching after they have got good results in public examination … (2.8) Generally speaking, the positive comments received from ‘external’ groups such as parents etc. can help increase my work motivation … recognition from teachers and students may also help. (4.8)

On the other hand, committee coordinators mentioned that if someone were willing to accept their opinions and were able to give immediate verbal praise to their work, all these recognition helped enhance their work motivation. Moreover, they also mentioned that recognition as a factor to enhance work motivation needed to be sincere, supportive and specific. Take for instances:

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Willing to accept my opinions can be regarded as a kind of recognition to me. This is important to my work motivation. (5.8) I like the recognition which is a kind of immediate verbal response to my work … Moreover, if one can describe how good the score (work) is, this kind of verbal recognition is more significant to motivation. (6.8) Sincere and supportive recognition are the most valuable recognition. Sincere recognition means that those people who recognize me really understand the effectiveness of my work … Supportive recognition can be reflected by the whole-hearted support during the process of the work. All these are good to my work motivation. (7.6) Recognition must be specific … should know very clearly from the recognition that in which parts of my work are worth appreciation. This specialization may illustrate that the recognitions are real and they are not a show of ‘courtesy’ only. (8.8)

When they are asked about the real situation in the case school, seven out of the eight middle managers showed that the recognition they got in the case school was an important factor for enhancing their work motivation. From

recognition, they felt that their works were significant and right; their opinions were worthwhile; and they were trusted by the school authority. instances: Take for

… such recognition can positively affect my work motivation … This is because recognition from others may imply that what I have decided or done is right and is significant. (4.19) Of course it will affect my work motivation. Recognition means that the feedbacks to my work are positive; it shows that what I have done is correct, worth and significant. Therefore, I will have good motivation to aim at higher …
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100 . (1.17) 4. (5. before they could respond to the question. They had to think it for a short time One subject head needed to think of Take for instances: this example by referring to the task thirteen years ago.2 4.1 Work Motivation of Middle Managers in the Case School Particular tasks or jobs that middle managers work with high motivation In this part. and that they still felt happy with the results thereafter. the researcher has asked the interviewees to recall one or two tasks or jobs from their past experiences which they thought they have worked vigorously and persistently.(8. This is because it shows that the school leader is willing to consider or accept my opinions made to the school.2. These recognitions represent that the school authority has trust on me.12) Yes.22) The school’s recognitions on me have positive impacts on my work motivation. recognition greatly affects my work motivation. It is observed during the interview that most subject heads found it difficult to think of these tasks at once.

9) It is the leadership training program organized every year in the school. I may not have too much of this memories. I feel very happy … (7. On the one hand. rather than the management tasks they dealt with as middle managers in school. apart from the Chinese as medium of instruction (CMI) issue I have mentioned before. (6. this kind of memories will happen more in my teaching life. as a Chinese History teacher in a particular class of a particular year. They managed to give out examples right away. which are all challenging to me. Rather. the responses were different when the interviewees were committee coordinators. This is because it is a whole year program which involves a lot of designs.7) 101 . when I heard that someone is a cook now.10) As a middle-manager in Chinese History panel.9) It was the Game stall work related to the subject Economics for the school tenth anniversary years ago. someone is a policeman now.8) However.11) To me.Frankly speaking. For the issue of swapping CMI in teaching History … (3. (2. the event that made me feel very happy was related to students. Take for instances: It is the training of a group of Form three and four students as peer councilors every year. (1. It is noted that most of the examples were related to students’ learning outcomes. dimensions of work and problems etc. I find it difficult to recall any particular events. not management of the committee … a group of students who were very naughty … I tried to get into their life … A few years after their graduation in our school. it is noticed that these students have positive personal growth for themselves … (5.

(3.2. that the feelings they described were associated with high work motivation. for instances: Such feeling represents that I have good motivation on the work. it took years to persuade our principal.11) 4. I decided to make this change. The researcher also asked if such feelings All middle managers agreed Take represented that they had high work motivation. the Chinese as Medium of Instruction (CMI ) issue. In fact.9) 102 . to accept my idea … I still had strong struggle on my mind when I considered some practical measures… For the sake of students’ benefits. (1. the researcher has asked the interviewees to describe the feeling they had when dealing with the particular task or job in which they worked vigorously and persistently. such feeling increases my work motivation during the process of the work. The subject head described in this way: For the issue of swapping CMI in teaching History.It is worth noting that among all the tasks mentioned by the middle manager. there was only one example.2 Feelings of middle managers who work with high motivation In this part. which was related to the process of management. our senior subject teachers etc.

(7. optimally challenged or significant to others when they worked with high motivation. (6. Happiness is a result of increased communication and understanding among subject members … Moreover. it was a difficult task. I could have chance to succeed. I also feel satisfied from this work. all committee coordinators and one subject head would relate such feelings to happiness and satisfaction. I felt pleasant and happy (8.10) In regard to feelings associated with high work motivation.8) It can say that such feelings illustrate that I can have good working motivation on this job. it may be the case. happiness is also due to the fact that students do benefit from the change of this new teaching method. I got this feeling.10) On the one hand. This kind of ‘optimal challenge’ gave me very special feeling.9) Apart from feeling happy and satisfied. After getting positive comments from students.9) I feel happy. (6. On the other hand. (4.Yes.10) Apart from the feeling of happiness and challenging. Take for instances: The feeling that everything goes smoothly. Take for instances: Sense of satisfaction and happiness obtained because of the developmental and innovative work leading to the positive growth of students. (3. colleagues have trust on me … (1. (5.12) During the process.12) 103 . It helps quite a lot to my work motivation. subject heads would describe the feelings of being trusted.

the work is too routine . Take for instances: Not much. I do not have much similar experiences.14) If subject management is put into consideration.3 Frequency of happens of the above feelings It is interesting to note that all subject heads did not have such feelings frequently in school. In this sense. as a middle manager in History panel. (1.2. They all claimed that the routine nature of management on the subject panels gave rise to limited developmental opportunities or challenges by which they could work with high work motivation. as a middle manager … the routine management work cannot give me too much of such feeling.13) The feeling that the work is significant because it affects not only the Geography subject panel but also the others. the lack of developmental work also limits the happening of this ‘challenging feeling’ to me (3. The reasons may be that … the management required may not be that challenging … the management of this subject is mainly focused on routine work. (2. But if it is a subject-based activity… I will have more of this feeling.… set a good example for others to follow.11) As a middle manager in the subject. (4.10) Frankly speaking.10) 4. This is because. this feeling is not that frequent. I also had a good feeling that my work is really significant to the school.11) 104 ... This is because the management work itself is not that developmental in nature. this kind of feeling is not that frequent. (3. (4.

However.13) I always have this kind of feeling. he added that such feelings tended to be diminished gradually because of the increased administrative and managerial works involved in his work. I always have sweet feelings for a long time.9) Take It is worth noting that one committee coordinator. for instances: I can have this feeling frequently. I have (these kinds of feeling). The pointed out that it was the nature of their work that gave them opportunities to experience such feelings when doing the tasks. But I have to point out that as a middle manager. Most of them showed that they had these kinds of feeling frequently in school. though he showed that he also had these feelings frequently. there are some graduated students who come back to school and share with me their ways of life after graduation. I need to handle an increasing amount of administrative and coordination work. (6. Take for an instance: Yes. it is the nature of ECA that gives me a lot of opportunities to experience these feelings. (7. This is because I believe that my teaching to them in the past is really useful and significant to them after their graduation in school. Every time after the sharing. This was something like the situation that was experienced by the subject heads mentioned above. In other words. Every year. the situation was different when committee coordinators were put into consideration. less time is available to the 105 . This is because there are a variety of extra-curricular activities in school that I can observe the growth of students’ leadership ability. As a middle manager in ECA.

(8. it is hoped to collect factors which would affect their work motivation. (2. have good performance on the subject etc.2. students’ career awareness has been raised by my work.11) … In this sense. if students have interest in the subject.10) Apart from these students’ factors. Take for instances: The reasons are related to students factors only. some middle managers tried to relate 106 .actual implementation and face-to-face contact with students. It is showed that most of the reasons given by the middle managers were related to students’ factors. (5.4 Factors affecting work motivation. Therefore. all these help enhance my work motivation.15) The main reason is that students can get something from my work. from middle managers’ own perspective In this part. particularly on their positive academic and non-academic performance outcomes. the concern on students’ benefits enhances my determination and motivation to make such change.. that is to say. For example. the researcher has asked the middle managers to think of the reasons why they were motivated to work in the particular tasks or jobs they have mentioned above. I believe that an earlier change of using CMI in teaching and learning History can benefit our students. show progress on the academic work. (3.11) 4. This may reduce the intensity of the feeling mentioned above. From this.

12) It is the colleagues’ recognition and good communication during the process of problem solving that give rise to my good relations with the subject members.12) Team members share and work together towards the same objectives.their work motivation to their subject or committee members. This feeling helps enhance my work motivation further. Take for instances: A sense of individual responsibility pushes me to do something to help students who have problems in school. (4. (7. (1. instances: Take for The main reasons are that during the process of the work.16) Middle managers also showed the importance of school support which 107 . this would result in higher work motivation to the middle managers. They said that if there existed good communication between members and middle managers.10) Moreover.12) Two middle managers tended to explain that it was their missions or responsibilities of being middle managers that made them feel necessary to work vigorously and persistently. As a discipline teacher. good interactive and mutual communication happens between me and my colleagues. it is a sense of ‘necessity’ that makes me work persistently throughout the way. (3. it is my mission to make students not to learn bad things and not to be bad guys in society in the future. (5. Such relations gives rise to me this good feeling. since it is my belief that such change is indeed necessary.

middle managers also mentioned that the outcome of their works were also important factors affecting their work motivation. and not very important to work motivation. They would be motivated to work further if the outcomes of their work showed that the work was important and significant to the school and that their objectives were realized or their missions were completed. important. Take for instances: The outcomes of the work show that it is significant.” (6. The figures below show all the results.3 Relative Importance of the Identified Factors to Work Motivation In this part. They might show the importance of a particular factor as very important. (7.14) It is the most 4. Take for instances: The school can provide me a favourable environment to fulfill the objectives of the work. 108 . (5.13) Objectively speaking.14) The objective is realized or the mission is completed.11) Last but not the least.” (5. a good school system which stresses more on human touch also helps motivate my work. fairly important.was influential to their work motivation. important reason. a simple questionnaire has been given to the middle managers under review to rank the importance of the ten identified factors in affecting their work motivation.

Coordinator g en t on fe n en t lf m ns ak in lR ela tio ni ti Ad hi ev em na l rv em Re co g or k M an d Pe rso n pe De cis io lic y Po d Factors Affecting Work Motivation In ter Go o pe rso na 109 Ad va W Ac Su nc In co m Its e isi o Li e .Figure 1: Comparison between subject heads and committee coordinators on the importance of factors affecting work motivation 16 14 12 10 Scores 8 6 4 2 0 Subject Head Comm. .

Figure 2: Ranking of importance on factors affecting work motivation: all middle managers under study 30 25 20 Scors 15 Total 10 5 0 Its elf Ad va nc em en t en t al Li fe er pe rso na lR ela tio ns Re co gn iti on M ak in g Ac hi ev em De cis io Go od Po lic y Factors Affecting Work Motivation 110 In t Pe rso n Su pe rv isi on W or k an d n In co m e Ad m . .

committee leaders. After that. 111 . In fact. it is worth comparing the significance of these factors on work motivation between the local studies and the case school. The first part intends to make a comparison of results between the case school and some local studies on factors affecting work motivation in schools. The second part intends to make analysis on the situation of work motivation of the school middle managers in the case school. 5. subject heads. proposals for further research in the light of the present findings will be made. The discussion is divided into two parts. vice principals and principals. the ten identified factors are extracted from a number of local studies which are related to the work motivation or job satisfaction of teachers. followed by some conclusive remarks from the findings.1 Comparison of Results with Local Studies In this research.CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION This chapter focuses on the discussion of the research findings.

It is said that routine work tends to lower work motivation while developmental work and work with high autonomy tend to enhance it. Ho. study come to realize that interpersonal relations with superiors and team members are positively related to their work motivation. 2000) to work motivation. Wong. 1996. findings of the case school also illustrate similar results. 1996. They can get supports. Ip. 1982. Poon. Wu. It is also interesting to note that work with clear 112 . 1993. The results of this research show that it is to Three middle managers under a large extent consistent to these local studies. Ho. effective cooperation and comfortable feelings because of these relations. The Middle managers in the case school believe that work itself is both positive and negative to their work motivation. 1987. 2000) while a few of them show that it is not favourable (Ip. though not totally support this view. 1997) and unfavourable (Wong.Many local studies conclude that the factor ‘interpersonal relations’ is a favourable factor to work motivation (Wong. Two committee coordinators. Ip. Poon. 1985. also claim that good interpersonal relations will not give negative impacts on their work motivation. Lung. Tsang. many local studies show that it is both favourable (Tse. 1992. 1980. 1987. In regard to the factor ‘work itself’. 1995. 1995. 1982. 1982. Kwok. 1995). Lau. Law. It depends on the nature of the work.

Wong. 1992. 1987. 1982. situation of the case school shows that it is only to a certain extent consistent with these local studies. to describe the situation after their promotion. Ip. Ip. Wu. 1987. The factor ‘achievement’ is described by many local researchers as favourable factor to work motivation (Law. Lung. Law. Most of the local studies reflect that the factor ‘advancement’ is favourable to work motivation (Ip. they still claim that work motivation has not been negatively affected. 1995. 113 . Kwok. In short. Lung. “a burden” etc. 1987. Some even believe that it is the increased responsibility and sense of mission after promotions that make them work with high motivation..instructions tend to increase work motivation more than those with uncertainties and ambiguities. 1995). 1993. 1993. middle managers in the case school do not think that advancement is an unimportant factor. Lau. ‘upset my original work’. Ho. 1997 ) while there are still some which show opposite view (Wu. 1987. Besides. Although half of the informants in the case school use some negative words such as ‘pressure’. 1995. some local studies even bring to the point that it is not The an important factor affecting work motivation (Law. 2000).

Most of the school middle managers agree that achievement obtained from work can positively affect their work motivation. 1996. 1995). and they are trusted by the others. Poon. Most local studies show that the factor ‘recognition’ is an important factor for the enhancement of work motivation in school. The situation in the case school draws similar Seven out of the eight school middle managers believe that recognition from others can enhance their work motivation because such recognition represents that their works are significant and right. 1997). 1995. This is to a large extent consistent with the case school. 2000) but a majority of them state that such factor cannot be over-estimated as it is not that important to work motivation (Tsang. Lung. Ip. Local studies have two different views on the factor ‘income’. their opinions were worthwhile. 1995. 1993. Ho. This is only one subject head who argues that its significance should not be over-exaggerated as achievement from work cannot be easily obtained in a short period of time. (Lau. 1987. 114 . Law. Wong. Wong. conclusion. Some show that income is favourable to work motivation (Wu. particularly those in relation to students’ learning outcomes.1997). 1992. 1985.

School middle managers claim that a clear and well designed system of school administration and management will not guarantee an enhancement of their work motivation. it is worth 115 . 1995). The situation in the case school is to a certain extent consistent with these findings.The findings illustrated in the case school can to a large extent reflect this situation. Ho. Ip. However. though the fact that it can keep their work motivation to a certain level and will not worsen the situation. Lung. Most of the school middle managers show that supervision is Their work motivation is neither insignificant to their work motivation. 1982. They are still satisfied with the present salary and are able to keep their working incentives. 1997). 1992. Some local studies show that the factor ‘good policy and administration’ is a favourable factor to work motivation (Lau. 2000) or unimportant to work motivation in schools (Lau. 1992. the findings in the case school show different conclusion. Local studies show that the factor ‘supervision’ is either unfavourable (Ip. enhanced nor hampered because of the school supervision. However. All the informants share that the recent salary cut by the government does not significantly affect their work motivation in school.

A number of them believe that personal life. though the fact that there are still two middle managers who claim that their work motivation will not be affected by that. it is interesting to note that the school middle managers under study do not totally come to the same conclusion. 1984). and if the one being supervised can have personal reflections on their work after the supervision. However.noting that there are two middle managers who believe that supervision can either enhance or hamper their work motivations. especially for those events which are related to their families. will affect their work motivation significantly. 1992. The factor ‘personal life’ is regarded as unimportant factor in affecting work motivation by local researchers (Lau. Ip. There is one study which examines the influence of participation in decision-making on school effectiveness and job satisfaction of aided secondary school teachers (Hui. The local studies in the literature review do not reflect too much on the relationship between the factor ‘styles of decision-making’ and work motivation. It is found out that job satisfaction and involvement 116 . If this is the case. 1995). it helps enhance their work motivation and vice versa. It depends on if the supervision is seriously and effectively enforced by the school authority.

in decision-making is positively correlated among secondary school teachers. 5.2 Analysis on the Situation of Work Motivation in the Case School Before making an analysis on the situation of work motivation in the case school. it is necessary to make a short review on the findings which are related to the work motivation of school middle managers in the case school and their perceptions on the ten identified factors. the school middle managers under study still find it valuable to have opportunities to voice their opinions and ideas to school authority. Although it is the principal who makes the final decisions in the case school. Three middle managers make it clear that such decision-making style can at the best keep their work motivation in school only. they believe that it cannot enhance their work motivation. though it is also true that it will not worsen the situation. Even it is so. 117 .

4. The former attributes this to the unique nature of their work while the latter claims that it is the routine management work that hinder them to have high motivation to work.1 Re-visit of the Research Findings Work Motivation of School Middle Managers in the Case School The research findings which are related to the work motivation of middle managers in the case school are as follow. It is noticed that functional committee coordinators can response more promptly and have more sharing on the particular tasks or jobs that they work with high motivation than the subject heads. It is observed that functional committee coordinators can experience such feelings more frequently than the subject subjects. School middle managers agree that when they work with high motivation. Most of the tasks or jobs being described are related more to students’ learning outcomes than the management processes of the subject panels or committees. optimally challenged and significant to others. 2.2. 118 . it is usually associated with feelings of happiness and satisfaction. 3. and feelings of being trusted. 1.5.

Interpersonal relations It is interesting to note that all middle managers focus on relations with subordinates. 1. 2. Some find that group work is important to enhance work motivation. Work itself: School middle managers have different views towards this factor. rather than their superiors when they consider interpersonal 119 . Perceptions on the Ten Identified Factors The research findings which are related to their perceptions on the ten identified factors affecting work motivation are as follow. It is found. from their perspectives that. communications with subject panel or committee members. their own senses of missions and responsibilities. the main reasons affecting their work motivation are related to students’ academic and non-academic performances.5. Some believe that the clarity of work is important while others find that work which is developmental in nature is helpful to work motivation. the support from school and the outcomes of their work.

before any significant conclusions can be made. which appear to have significant impacts on their work motivation in school. 4.relations as factor affecting work motivation. 6. simplicity and effective allocation of 120 . 5. workload and income after promotion and whether it is a promotion post or not etc. Achievement It is shown that the achievement of middle managers usually comes from students’ learning outcomes. Advancement To consider advancement as factor affecting work motivation. though the fact that some may relate it to the successful running of their panels or committees. Personal life It is found that the most important personal events under consideration are usually related to their families. 3. Subject heads tend to treasure more on cooperative and harmonious relations while committee coordinators like to have interactive and communicative relations with their members. school middle managers claim that they need to think of other considerations such as the present status. Good policy and administration Subject heads tend to value more on a clear school system while committee coordinators regard the soundness. age.

9. Even though they cannot make the school decisions. 7. They also claim that it is the increased income after promotions that make them feel responsible to work with high motivation in school. Styles of Decision-making School middle managers perceive this factor from both the school level and the committee or subject panel level. Supervision School middle managers believe that supervision is a necessity in school but it should not be overestimated as a factor which can enhance work motivation. 8. they will be appreciated if the school authority can explain to them the rationales behind. which is supposed to be an important element in the School Based 121 . In regard to school level. In fact. it is important to note that they did not mention too much about the participatory decision-making in school. Income School middle managers believe that this factor is more significant for those who are still in Graduated Master (GM) status. they find it comfortable if they are given opportunities to discuss school issues and that their ideas are respected by the school authority.manpower by the school authority as important school system for high work motivation.

In regard to subject panel or committee level. supportive and specific if they are helpful to work motivation.2. they also point out that recognition should be sincere. 5. Recognition Subject heads claim that recognition from superiors.Management schools of Hong Kong. They all believed that high 122 . they all focus on their outcomes rather than processes. Moreover. students and parents are all favourable to their work motivation while committee coordinators regard someone who are willing to accept their ideas and give them immediate verbal praises as significant recognition to enhance work motivation. 10.2 Similarities and Differences between Subject Heads and Committee Coordinators on Work Motivation in the Case School Similarities between Subject Heads and Committee Coordinators In regard to jobs or tasks that they can work with high motivation. colleagues. most school middle managers are in favour of discussing and sharing for consensus among their members before making final decisions.

middle managers share that they all have the feeling of happiness and satisfaction when they have high motivation to work.motivation to work is related to outcomes of students’ learning. if there are any. They seldom mention the management processes involved in handling the jobs or tasks. Moreover. all middle managers tend to focus on relations with their subordinates rather than superiors. middle mangers usually relate their important ‘personal’ events to family issues (usually in relation to their children) when they consider the relationship between personal life and work motivation. will inevitably affect their work motivation in school. Furthermore. In other words. when they are asked to link the relationship between advancement and work motivation. Besides. all middle managers believe that the sense of achievement that motivates them to work vigorously and persistently will be 123 . In regard to the perception towards interpersonal relations as a factor affecting their work motivation. They all claim that there are some other factors that need to be considered first before determining such relationship. they believe that this is only an indirect relationship between them. when the feeling associated with high motivation to work is put into consideration. They believe that important family issues. all of them do not make a direct relationship between these two. Moreover.

derived from the successful learning outcomes, both academic and non-academic, of their students. Apart from this, it is noticed that all middle managers like to

have a part in discussing and understanding the rationales for school policies in the decision-making process of the school. They will be happier if the school

authority respects their ideas and opinions during the process. However, they did not mention too much about the participatory decision-making in school. Last

but not the least, when the ranking of relative importance of the ten identified factors affecting work motivation is put into examination, both subject heads and committee coordinators rank recognition and achievement as the most important two factors affecting their work motivation in school.

Differences between Subject Heads and Committee Coordinators

The findings show that functional committee coordinators have a higher work motivation than that of the subject heads. This can be reflected by their

relatively prompt and significant responses on the jobs or tasks that they work with high motivation on the one hand; and the fact that they can experience the feelings of happiness and satisfaction more frequently than the subject subjects on the other.

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Moreover, it is shown that there is a significant difference when subject heads and committee coordinators perceive interpersonal relations as a factor affecting work motivation. Subject heads value more on cooperative and

harmonious relations in which they can work in a peaceful condition. However, functional committee coordinators value more on interactive and communicative relations in which members and coordinators may have more dynamic interactions throughout the process.

Furthermore, the research findings illustrate that subject heads are usually in favour of a clear school system in which they can work in accordance with school instructions and complete the work as required. However, functional

committee coordinators appear to appreciate more on a simple and sound school system, together with good allocation of manpower and higher flexibility to deal with the assigned work.

Besides, when recognition as a factor affecting their work motivation is put into consideration, subject heads and functional committee coordinators have different focuses. The former tends to focus more on the targets who give them

the recognition while the latter tends to value more on the ways how such

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recognition is delivered to them and on the nature of the recognition.

Lastly, though the fact that they all value recognition and achievement most in ranking the relative importance of factors affecting work motivation, they differ in a way that subject head will then value good policy and administration more while functional committee coordinators will pay more attention to the work itself and styles of decision-making.

5.3

Suggestions for Further Research

In this research, the researcher focuses only on eight middle managers in the case school in which four of them are subject heads from humanities subjects while other four are functional committee coordinators from the student-affairs sector in school. In other words, most of the research findings cannot be

applicable to the other subject panels and functional committees in the case school. Therefore, it is a good suggestion to extend the study of work motivation to the other parts of the case school so as to make a more comprehensive view on the issue.

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Because of the limitation of time and resources. that is. the present study has made an analysis from the research findings that different types of school middle managers may have certain differences and similarities in their work motivation in school. all these factors come from the content theories which stress the importance of ‘what’ factors which may affect work motivation of human being. It is clear that the present research focuses on the study of the ten factors affecting work motivation which are identified from some local studies. the researcher can only focus on the situation of work motivation of the middle managers in a case school which is an aided secondary school in Hong Kong. In other words. the relatively small scoped research leaves plenty of rooms for other researches which may focus on the work situation of school middle managers in other types of school such as government schools. direct subsidized schools etc. In fact. ‘how’ school middle managers are motivated to work may be another area of interest for future studies. the stress of process theories. In other words. Last but not the least. Comparisons on the situations of work motivation for school middle managers in different types of schools appear to be an interesting field for investigation. Such analysis 127 .

4 Concluding Remarks This research focuses on the perceptions of school middle managers in the case school on the ten identified factors affecting their work motivation. developed or modified by other researches in the future. It is found out that functional committee coordinators in general have better work motivation than subject heads in the case school. The differences and similarities can further be tested. there are two important remarks which are worth mentioning. In other words. Hence. This may have far-reaching effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of the school. Moreover. their work motivation in the case school has been examined as well. one of the major tasks of school administrators is to do something to enhance the work motivation of subject heads. the general level of work motivation of school middle managers in the case school cannot be too optimistic. 5. Generally speaking. This is a very significant remark as there are more than twenty subject heads and only thirteen functional committee coordinators in the case school. 128 .may merit further investigation or examination.

job satisfaction and thus work motivation. it is found that the work motivation of school middle managers under study is usually associated with students’ learning outcomes. school administrators need to observe this dilemma and to find ways to bridge the gap between subject or committee management and students’ learning outcomes. 129 . Just like teachers in general. Therefore. This is especially true for the recent curriculum reform and education reform in Hong Kong in which middle managers need to deal with a lot of documentary and administrative work. This refection is significant because most of the management work in school may not directly relate to students’ learning outcomes.Apart from this. handling management work in school. though the fact that they are school middle managers. It means that they need to spend relatively a greater share of their time doing the work that may not directly or immediately give them happiness. students’ learning outcome is the most important element which affects critically their work motivation.

What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? Interpersonal relations 2. What kinds of achievement from work can make you feel particularly pleasant? Good policy an administration 5. Do you think there is close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? 138 . what the real situation of these factors are in school and if the informant thinks these factors are important to work motivation. What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? Advancement 3. the researcher will bear in mind focusing on what these factors should be in enhancing work motivation. Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? Achievement 4. For each factor.Appendix 1 Interview Guide Name of interviewee: ____________Date: ______________: Time: _______ Venue:_________ Part I: In this part. the researcher tries to ask an open-ended question and then followed by asking ‘why’ for further clarification of informant’s ideas. the researcher attempts to set interview questions by focusing on the 10 identified factors which affect work motivation. During the process of interview. Work itself 1.

Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? Recognition 10. Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? Decision-making 9.Supervision 6. Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? Income 7. How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? Personal Life 8. Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? 139 .

2. Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? 7. the questions listed are related to informants’ perception of the situation of work motivation in the case school. How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? 3. Does the recognition you get in this school affect your work motivation? Why? 140 . 3. questions 1.Part II In this part. Question 4 is set to collect data on the important factors that motivate the informant to work. 5. Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affects your motivation to work? Why? 4. 4. Being a school middle manager for years. They will be asked during the interview whenever it is appropriate. Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? 6. including the work related to management. Part III In this part. in your subject panel or committee affect your work motivation? 2. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work? Did you have similar experience after that particular task(s)? If not. 3 and 5 are set to collect data to see the level of work motivation of the informant in school. Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? 8. could you share with me a task or two in the past that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt largely happy with the results? What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or were you felt motivated after or during the task? Look back. why not? 2. 1. Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? 5. 1. How does the work.

4: very important to work motivation 3: important to work motivation 2: fairly important to work motivation 1: not very important to work motivation Factors affecting work motivation Work itself Interpersonal Relations Advancement Personal life Achievement Good policy and administration Supervision Income Decision making Recognition Level of importance (1 to 4) 141 .Appendix 2 Ranking of Importance for Factors Affecting Work Motivation How will you rank the importance of the following factors in affecting work motivation? Please rank in accordance with the following conventions.

1). If the situation is a SGM status to be promoted to PGM status. Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: It may have some impacts on my work motivation. active and mutual communication among superiors. Work motivation is a matter of mutual interaction between subject-heads and subject teachers. it is the subject itself and my interest in the subject that affect my work motivation more. 142 . It is not related to the work of middle-management. As for my age. such relations will strengthen my work motivation. one needs to consider the age (1. The impacts may be more obvious when the situation is a GM status to be promoted to SGM status.Appendix 3 Interview Transcript (1): Subject head of Economics and Public Affairs Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: The work that is related to subject and personal interests. including the work related to management. A: How does the work. Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: Harmonious relation with good communication between subject heads and panel members A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: If the relations established are a result of interactive. I think advancement may not have too much impacts on my work motivation. in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: The work of middle-management itself has only a bit impact on my work motivation. subject heads and teachers.

Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: There is some relationship between school administrative and managerial system and work motivation. it needs time to get some achievements from my work. work motivation is not only affected by the ‘workplace factors’. that is to say. Therefore. Personal life will affect my mood that will in turn affect my work motivation in school.3). it is important to point out that achievement itself will not affect play a significant part in affecting my work motivation. However. If the pattern of school administration and management is clear to me. it needs to look at the person as a whole and therefore personal life can to a large extent affect work motivation. This is because achievement cannot be obtained in the short run. A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: If interactive and mutual communication can be achieved. Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: The achievement of running the subject panel smoothly. will make me happy. It is positively related. to maintain good academic performance for students etc. for 143 . School administration and management can be one of the factors that may affect work motivation but it may not be the most important factor. In this sense. the subject panel can run smoothly which will in turn generate positive impacts on my work motivation.Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: Personal life will affect my work motivation in school.2). for example. to solve emergent problems satisfactorily (1.13). work motivation as a result of achievement from work should not be overestimated (1. good mood will enhance my work motivation in school and vice verse (1.

This effect is more significant to those middle managers who are in Graduated Master (GM) status than Senior Graduated Master (SGM) status. This is because the percentage increase in income from GM to SGM is larger than that of from SGM to Principal Graduated Master (PGM)(1. Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: Supervision is negatively related to work motivation.14). my work motivation can be positively affected too (1. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: The administrative and managerial system in this school has positive impacts on my work motivation as it has been reviewed and revised consistently and continuously over these years and such improvement has good impacts on my work motivation. Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: Income is one of the factor that may affect work motivation. This is because 144 . A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: The supervision in our school can be described as very ‘tolerate’ in a sense that middle-managers may not need to face too much the aftermath of their actions and therefore such ‘tolerate’ type of supervision does not significantly affect my work motivation (1. Supervision may reduce my work motivation. Therefore.example. with clear allocation of work among teachers. clear instructions to my work. A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: The recent salary cut may not affect my work motivation. my work motivation has neither be increased nor decreased because of this ‘tolerate’ type of supervision. all these can positively help me manage my subject panel and as a result.4). income as a factor affecting work motivation is more significant to the GM middle-managers. clear description of responsibilities and tasks. Supervision will cause bad feeling to me too.5). In other work.

This factor is very important to me. The school authority should explain clearly the final decision to the middle managers who will then follow such decision to do the work (1.6). This is because even ideas and suggestions are given to the school authority but usually there is no clear conclusion resulted (1. This helps enhance my work motivation. It should be appropriate. These recognitions represent that the school authority has trust on me (1. such recognition should not be abused. A: Being a school middle manager for years. income does not decrease. it is more or less the same (1. work motivation can be enhanced. In this way. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: It was the Game stall work related to the subject Economics for the school 145 . A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: The school’s recognitions on me have positive impacts on my work motivation.16). my work motivation has not been increased. Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: Recognition from colleagues or panel members.7). Therefore. in a sense that they trust me and do not have suspicion on my way of management. However. A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: The decision making style in this school does not increase my work motivation. Recognition from superiors helps to maintain good relations which act as lubricator for my work motivation (1. School authority makes decision after considering these opinions and ideas. Decision making In fact.salary cut is in line with the deflation in the economy. my real A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: Middle managers give opinions and ideas to the school authority.15).17).

(1.11) 146 .12) A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. This is because as a middle manager. (1. A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during) the task? B: Such feeling represents that I have good motivation on the work. In fact. (1. such feeling increases my work motivation during the process of the work. why not? B: Not much. colleagues have trust on me (1. This feeling helps enhance my work motivation further. Such relations gives rise to me this good feeling. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: The main reasons are that during the process of the work.9) A: Look back.10) All these make me feel comfortable in my work. In fact the routine management work cannot give me too much of such feeling. good interactive and mutual communication happens between my colleagues and me. such kind of activity may not happen frequently.tenth anniversary years ago. (1.8) A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: The feeling that everything goes smoothly.

I will focus more on what I am interested in. A: How does the work. if both of the above conditions are absent. I will have very low motivation to the work. To me. including the work related to management. This arrangement will only result in my low work motivation. Of course. Take for another example. For example. the English Enhancement project. it does not have clear requirements and instructions to the subject panel. my motivation to the work will be low. Yet. I will also work very vigorously for it (2.12). in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: If the school does not have clear instructions on what I should do in the Chinese History panel. I can still work very vigorously for it when I believe that the work is significant to the academic outcomes of the students. I will work very vigorously for it. the academic result of students is my prime concern. is advocated with clear instructions and requirements on the subject panel. In this case.1). though the fact that I think this practice is not that appropriate to Chinese History lessons (2. which requires Chinese History teachers to do something in class-teaching so as to enhance students’ English proficiency. If the school’s concern does not match with my concern and the school does not have clear instructions on what I should do to deal with that concern. However. Sometimes even if I am not interested in the work or even I dislike the work. I will work vigorously. but with clear instructions and clear understanding on the aftermath of fulfilling or not fulfilling the work. 147 . the school advocates the use of IT in teaching Chinese History. I have to point out that sometimes even the school does not have clear requirements or instructions to some work.Appendix 4 Interview Transcript (2): Subject Head of Chinese History Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: If I am interested in the work.

work will be completed in a ‘just to get the work done’ manner. promotion may not necessarily enhance work my motivation (2. As a result. I have been marking for the HKALE paper. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: It has some effects on my work motivation. In this sense.Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: An interpersonal relations with human sympathy and human kindness are important to work motivation. As a new marker. they need to do a lot of works that are heavily loaded. it must have direct effects on my work motivation. For those who have fair or even negative relations with each other. Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: Honestly speaking. I think this kind of interpersonal relations is important to work motivation (2. I will be 148 . work can be completed more willingly. Now. the last book inspection of one of my panel member was scheduled to a later period because he was busy preparing for his marriage ceremony.3). it directly affects my personal life and my work motivation in school is also affected by this Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: The academic results of the students in my subject. Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: In the past. As a middle-manager in school. I will be very happy. If they have good results. For those who have good interpersonal relations with each other.2). Recently. it may not be the case. This is because the change of educational environment in Hong Kong means to school managers that after their promotion. it might have some effects on my work motivation. there are a lot of supervision and monitor that I need to care for. but if their results are not satisfactory. for example. smoothly and efficiently.

4). my work motivation will be adjusted in accordance with this. In other words.5). though the fact that I will 149 . In other words. I can work very vigorously. If school administrative and managerial system focuses on aspects other than academic results. school administration and management can directly affect my work motivation and pattern of work. As long as students can show good academic results. those from Po Leung Kuk and Education and Manpower Bureau are also influential to my work motivation. Therefore. I will be motivated to complete this (2. the sense of achievement all comes from students’ academic results (2. If the school administration and management can set clear instructions to my work. Since there are a lot of comparisons between our school and other schools in terms of academic results. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: Apart from the administration and management in this school. my work motivation is particularly high when students’ academic results are put into consideration.very frustrated. Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: There is a close relationship between these two. all my work in the panel is to focus on students’ academic results. but on the other hand. If in this year. I will do something to consolidate these fruitful outcomes. If students come out with unsatisfactory results. if the supervision is real and effective. it may not affect my motivation. Therefore. if the supervision is not real and not effective. Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: On the one hand. I will react at once and to do something to remedy the problems. my work motivation will be high. I will be motivated more to concentrate on the work which is related to students’ academic results. the students get good academic results. A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: My work motivation in the subject panel is affected by students’ academic performance in my subject.

I will work vigorously for it. But decision-making styles may affect the way how I complete the job. Since the existing income level is higher than the market value. it will negatively affect my work motivation.14). the ways 150 . the reduction in income may not negatively affect my work motivation (2. A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: Some supervision in school is effective and real. A real and effective supervision can greatly affect my work motivation (2. What I concern more is to complete my job. Even though it is the central authority who makes the final decision. and that the decisions can adjust in accordance with situations. Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: Income and work motivation is positively related A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: Because the reduction rate of salary is not very high. such as the implementation of English Enhancement Project in which my subject needs to do a part for it. if the rate is high.complete the job for school (2. my motivation of doing this is not very high as it is believed that the school authority may not fully use this information in the process of staff appraisal. Decision making A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: The different types of decision making styles do not matter me too much. However. so high that the salary after cut does not reflect my actual work contribution. I may not complete the job wholeheartedly. In short. Some supervision such as the writing of staff appraisal reports for panel members. it does not affect my work motivation. I may complete the job with hearts.13). no matter what kinds of decision making it may be in school. it is the real and effective supervision from school that can greatly influence my work motivation.6). If decision is made after collecting opinions from middle managers. If it is a kind of absolute or autocratic decision.

This is because if someone recognizes my work. I want to point out that sometimes recognition may be negative to my work motivation. such expectation may create uneasy feeling to me and my work motivation will be negatively affected unconsciously. School leaders who have planned and considered thoroughly before they make a decision is better than those who haven’t (2. As long as I manage to follow that instructions and requirements. the recognition of my work as reflected by the public examination system. If the work assigned by the school is related to my own interest. I may not have too much of this memories. Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: I would rather value more the recognition from students than school. they will have high expectation on my performance.7). This is because the decision-making in this school is always with clear instructions and requirements. I can still work with high motivation. which in turn positively affect my work motivation. The recognition from students on my teaching after they have got good results in public examination (2. which is a set of objective criteria on my work. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: As a middle-manager in Chinese History panel.8) can enhance my work motivation very much. this kind of memories will happen more in my 151 .how the school leaders make the decision are very important. even if it may not have clear instructions or requirements on me. will make me feel very satisfied. Rather. my motivation to work can be kept. The running of the philately club is an example of this. A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: The recognition from principal and panel members may not have too much effects on my work motivation. To say in a more direct way. A: Being a school middle manager for years. Instead. A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: The decision-making style in this school may enhance my work motivation a bit.

As a middle manager. why not? B: As a middle-manager in the subject.. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: The reasons are related to students factors only. the feeling of ‘work pressure being released after the completion of certain tasks’ is more important than the feeling of ‘happiness obtained from the job’.10) and it does not directly relate to the interpersonal relations with students.9). A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: Yes. This is because the management work itself is not that developmental in nature. For example.teaching life. show progress on the academic work. the work is too routine (2. A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: The feeling of ‘willing to do extra work actively’ if I have good motivation on the work.11). 152 . all these help enhance my work motivation (2. if students have interest in the subject. I do not have much similar experiences. have good performance on the subject etc. Such good feeling means that I have high motivation on the work. as a Chinese History teacher in a particular class of a particular year (2. A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. it is. A: Look back. I will have a feeling of ‘resistance on the work’ that I have very low motivation on it. On the contrary.

Appendix 5 Interview Transcript (3): Subject head of History Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: There are two types of work in school. Moreover. management is an important part of my job. Personally. including the work related to management. These two types of work nature can give me different work motivation. Moreover.2). Sometimes instructions are necessary to certain kind of panel members. in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: The management work in the subject panel has certain impacts on my work motivation. I like the second one more because I like to do the work which is developmental in nature (3. The second type of work is related to the educational reform in which we need to explore and develop the new working system ourselves. If the work is repetitive with formalities and paperwork.1). Management in the subject panel can affect students’ interests in learning the subject and teachers’ interests in teaching the subject. I will be happy about this. Some panel members who do not follow closely the instructions may create difficulties in cooperation. A: How does the work. this is also favourable to work motivation (3. I enjoy this kind of interpersonal relations very much. if panel members can share the same vision. Therefore. Therefore. Some panel members may not agree to the given instructions but as long as they can follow them and fulfill the work. Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: Easy-going. I prefer having those members who show cooperative relations with me. Sometimes panel members may disagree to the instructions and they are willing to communicate with me and solve the problems together. appropriate management also helps the development of subject panel itself. my work motivation will be worse off. as a subject panel. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members 153 . cooperative and collaborative relations with panel members are desirable to my work motivation. The first type of work is related to those we need to do in accordance with the established school system.

I will concern more on family life. Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: To some extent. I will place the schoolwork first. If the schoolwork is not that tight. personal life may influence my work motivation in school. In this sense. If there are some important events in school. Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: It must not be the case if one says that advancement does not affect work motivation. especially for the early stage of teaching life in which income may be regarded as the main incentive to work (3.5). In fact. In other words. The relations resulted helps to get the support from panel members for the implementation of some teaching beliefs that are beneficial to subject development. Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: To get achievement from managing the subject panel is difficult in the short run. sense of achievement obtained from others’ recognition on my work and on students’ academic performance on my subject is important to my work motivation (3. as a subject panel.4).17). personal life and schoolwork can influence each other (3.affect your work motivation? B: Cultivating good and positive relations with panel members through formal and informal channels is important to work motivation. In this sense.3). personal life may to a certain extent affect my work motivation in school. interpersonal relations are important to my work motivation. It depends on how I handle this. the main consideration for work motivation is not ‘promotion’ any more. After working for years and have already been promoted to a higher rank. 154 . there is a close relationship between interpersonal relations and subject development (3. It follows that.

After the use of CMI. This kind of achievement changes my ways of management in the subject panel (3. This kind of achievement can continuously enhance my work motivation to focus on the skill-oriented approach in learning and teaching the subject. As compared with EMI. panel management usually focused on routine matters. which is related to students performance. Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: Of course it has a close relationship with my work motivation. middle managers can only follow the 155 . Since middle managers in different subject panels may have their own patterns of management. for example. Before the use of CMI. panel management begins to have specific focuses every year. students’ performance may affect management in the subject panel.A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: Take for an example. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: The system of administration and management in this school cannot be regarded as very clear but such unclearness can in return gives rooms and flexibility for me to do my work. This is because the use of CMI improves students’ analysis on historical events on the one hand and their way of expression on the other. This kind of achievement can positively and persistently affect my work motivation. As a middle manager.6). this year we stress on nurturing students’ writing skills and next year we focus on improving the assessment mechanism so as to enhance students’ learning outcomes etc. such ‘not very clear’ system allows them to work in their own ways. and it also guarantees the satisfactory academic performance of students in public examination. an important decision of using CMI in teaching and learning History in 1996 enhances students’ academic performance in public examination. In short.18). CMI enables mutual communication between students and teachers in class. if the school administration and management can give clear instructions and directions for me to manage the subject panel. it can positively affect my work motivation (3. can affect my motivation to work. and such management. If the administration and management are too systematic.

clear instructions given by the school for routine and basic work are necessary. I will not have bad feelings to this supervision. In this way. its significance varies with people. Therefore. I think I will work more happily and I can have a higher work motivation (3. In this way. middle managers should bear more responsibilities on the developmental work in school.7). Rather. Therefore. the income is higher than the ordinary teachers. Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: As middle managers in school. Because of the supervision. I will follow the school instructions and complete my work. I think I will not have too much job satisfaction if the situation is like this. middle managers are made to do at least some basic tasks or basic requirements (3.8). clear instructions are sometimes useful. the significance of supervision to work motivation should not be overestimated. 156 . In this sense. especially for those middle managers who are not active and only rely on school instructions to work. Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: To a certain extent supervision has positive effects on work motivation. This is because supervision is a necessity in the school administrative system. With supervision. As a middle manager. the uniqueness of different subject panels will be neglected. Yet. However. It is not a desire to get higher income which make me work harder. I may encounter difficulties in my work if there is an absence of this supervision.19). to me.instructions given by the school. However. Such supervision can make middle managers work harder towards the completion of tasks. it is the relatively ‘higher’ income level as a result of being a middle manager that makes me believe that I need to do more (3. A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: It has effects on my work motivation. If middle managers themselves are enthusiastic in their work. school should give enough flexibility for me to do some developmental work. they will work vigorously even without such supervision.

it is my responsibility to share my opinions with her. as long as I am able to give my opinions and participate in the decision making process. Since the school principal may not have full understanding on the actual practice of our subject panel. we will reflect our opinions back to the school authority. even though she makes the decision herself or the decisions are not consistent with my opinions. I will use more time to discuss personally with my team members after the meeting so as to persuade them. I will try my best to discuss for certain consensuses with my panel members before a final decision has been made in a formal meeting (3. Such sharing can in fact enhance my work motivation. if we find the tasks worth doing. As a subject head. I like to discuss these with my panel members and to search for the possible strengths and weaknesses. (3. I do not mind the principal making the final decisions. I will avoid making personal decision in a meeting in which we have divergent opinions. A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: I believe that the decision making style in our school can enhance my work motivation.20) 157 . willing to accept this. If we have divergent opinions in a meeting. In other words. This is If salary reduction can help the government. I think I will have higher work motivation if we do it in this way. Decision making cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? salary cut will affect my work motivation. If we find them not worth doing. After discussion. my work motivation will not be negatively affected. If we really need to make decision ourselves. and I feel that our principal is willing to listen and consider my opinions. we will work vigorously. it needs to look at the results of our discussion. I am Therefore. motivation. salary cut is insignificant to my work A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: When school authority gives instructions to my subject panel.9).A: Does the recent salary Why? B: I don’t think the recent indeed a social trend. she needs to seek opinions and information from us.

apart from the CMI issue I have mentioned before. A: Being a school middle manager for years. though not all. With strong belief in mind. our senior subject teachers etc. I get a lot of satisfaction. The recognition as a result of managing the project work scheme helps to increase my job satisfaction. since many of the work are routine and administrative in nature. Perhaps the CMI issue mentioned before may be one of the limited examples that I can illustrate to you. I decided to make this change (3.. For the issue of swapping CMI in teaching History (3. A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: The job satisfaction obtained from students’ recognition helps enhance my work motivation. their academic performances in public examination. I still had strong struggle on my mind when I considered some practical measures such as the availability of notes in Chinese. to accept my idea. on the direction of this scheme gives me a lot of job satisfaction. though with a lot of uncertainties and worries before the change. the final outcome proved to be successful. For the sake of students’ benefits. this indeed made me feel particularly happy. all these are important to my work motivation. the capability of teachers using CMI in teaching History etc. This is because the scheme allows me a lot of flexibility to do my work. During the process of exploration. it took years to persuade our principal.10). could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: Frankly speaking. too. The recognition from teachers. Although I believe that the change of CMI is inevitable as the English language performance of students at that time were not very satisfactory. there are limited stimulations for me to do the developmental works. I find it difficult to recall any particular events. Such recognition can be reflected by the number of students taking History in the senior forms. 158 . students’ willingness to share learning after school etc. In the management of the History subject panel.Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: I try to answer this by using an example which is not related to my subject panel.11).

this subject did not have too much changes. I also had a good feeling that my work is really significant to the school (3. Moreover. since it is my belief that such change is indeed necessary. it was a difficult task. this kind of feeling is not that frequent. unlike Chinese language or English language. is a small one that involves only a few teachers. This kind of ‘optimal challenge’ gave me very special feeling (3. the management of this subject is mainly focused on routine work. as required by the Education Department. I could have chance to succeed.13). Our successful experience in using CMI in teaching History set a good example for others to follow.12). The reasons may be that this panel. the lack of stimulation outside lowered my motivation to make changes for the subject. 159 . A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: Yes. On the one hand.16). could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: As a HKCEE marker for years. Therefore. I have noticed the decline of English language proficiency of students in Hong Kong and our school is not an exception. the lack of developmental work also limits the happening of this ‘challenging feeling’ to me (3. A: Look back. A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. As a result. Besides. over the last ten years.14). Moreover. I also had a sense of challenge for the work. the management required may not be that challenging. it is a sense of ‘necessity’ that makes me work persistently throughout the way (3. On the other hand. apart from the recent radical changes because of the curriculum reform.15). the concern on students’ benefits enhances my determination and motivation to make such change (3. Therefore. why not? B: As a middle-manager in History panel. I believe that an earlier change of using CMI in teaching and learning History can benefit our students.A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: I felt happy during the process. In this sense. In this sense. of course this feeling can represent my high motivation to work on the task.

As a middle manager.13). If panel members understand that the works are for the benefits of students. Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: Generally speaking. it can affect my work motivation greatly. The presence of a harmonious and understanding relations in the subject panel enables us to cooperate happily in work which in return gives me a satisfactory work motivation (4. including the work related to management. This is because this kind of work is worth doing and I can do it happily. Since some works are imposed by school or EMB. A: How does the work. it may have positive effects on work motivation (4. Moreover.2). such harmonious and understanding relations help enhance my work motivation in managing the subject panel (4. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: I think interpersonal relations have positive effect on my work motivation.1). concepts and values to students. a kind of ‘understanding’ relation among panel members is also important. Panel members understand their roles as Geography teachers. these works will avoidably increase teachers’ workload. they will find them worth doing.Appendix 6 Interview Transcript (4): Subject head of Geography Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: The work that can promote the subject matters. To 160 . Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: Of course. whether promotion is a significant factor to work motivation depends on if the subject itself is a promotion post. in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: If the work is related to the subject matter. it should be a harmonious relation. If it is a promotion post.

when I think of work motivation.3). Yet. during the 10th and 15th school anniversary. promotion is the factor that I will consider the least. In fact. affected (4. A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: Achievement can affect my work motivation. it causes problems to my work motivation in the Geography subject panel. together with appropriate time management (4. Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: Basically. rather than excellent academic results only. which indeed hampers my work motivation in the subject panel very much (4. effective middle management can help promote effective communication between subject teachers and subject head. I have to admit that in case of very important or emergent family events. As we could all share the achievement after the work. In this sense. It enables them to work vigorously with the same end (4. 161 . If students are nurtured to have positive change in value. it is the subject itself. For example. In fact. It means that I have lesser time to share with students on matters and values related to Geography. I manage to separate them because of rationality. The feeling of completing the job together gave us a lot of achievements. my work motivation will be inevitably. such achievement will always make me feel happy.15). After the promotion to PGM. to a certain extent. management has its contribution to work motivation. This is because the works related to PGM are different from that of in the subject panel. during the process of nurturing students. its values and students factors that are closely related to my work motivation.me. personal life has very slight effects on my work motivation in school.14). subject teachers and subject head all worked together to do exhibitions for the subject.4). such sharing can enhance my work motivation thereafter. Generally speaking. Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: The achievement obtained from nurturing students’ overall development can make me feel happy.

In short. there have been a lot of meetings and paper work requirements made by the school administration and management to subject panels.5). I think that there is a close relationship between work motivation and the school administrative and managerial system. subject panels understand what they should do and they can do the follow-up work more vigorously. Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: If the work being supervised is related to students’ interests and benefits. it is the QAI which strengthens the role of school administrative and managerial system to subject panel heads. the work motivation involved will not be very high (4. The difference is that I will devote more effort to 162 . The QAI has made a lot of recommendations that are related to the subject matters. A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: The supervision in this school does not have much effects on my work motivation. The school has to communicate these with subject panels by means of its school administrative and managerial system. these requirements may stimulate certain work motivation but I don’t think such motivation is a kind of positive motivation because it is a result of extrinsic rather than intrinsic factors (4. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: Recently. work motivation is a matter of intrinsic stimulation. Therefore. In fact. To me. It becomes more and more important in affecting their work motivation. After the meeting or paper work. I will complete the job as required by school even though I think the job is not that worth doing. If such linkage is not that tight.Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: There is a close relationship between work motivation and school administrative and managerial system. Through this system. even the work can be completed with clear supervision from school. In this sense. especially after the Quality Assurance Inspection (QAI) two years ago. it can enhance work motivation.16). subject panels have to do appropriate follow-up work.

there is a positive relationship between income and work motivation. As I have been promoted recently. In this way.those works which I think are worth doing. I think A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: After discussing with the teachers. the positive comments received from ‘external’ groups such as parents etc.6).17). the greater the work motivation. This is more obvious if the subject head is a Graduated Master (GM) than a Senior Graduated Master (SGM) (4.8). In this case. Apart from these external groups. this will result in a higher work motivation for all. such type of decision making is still positive to work motivation (4. can help increase my work motivation. the salary cut does not result in any significant difference on my income level. Income Therefore. if the issue is found to be worth doing. Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: Generally speaking. the higher the income. the mutual communication involved can help each other understand the difficulties and to tackle the problems (4.7). 163 . even it is the principal who makes the final decision. However. It will not affect me.18). recognition from teachers and students may also help (4. I will still complete the job for her but the work motivation involved will be uncertain. work A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: Generally speaking. I have no particular feeling on the recent salary cut. A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: No. Decision making A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: I would like to have a decision made after sufficient discussion with my panel members. motivation is not related to the supervision (4. to me. if it is found that the work is not worth doing after the discussion but the principal still made a decision that it should be done.

A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: Yes. 164 . and its positive outcomes match with my original expectations. After a series of trials and errors. Moreover. the result is quite encouraging. This is because recognition from others may imply that what I have decided or done is right and is significant (4. I can work happily throughout the whole process and thereafter. even though it is a policy imposed by the school. such recognition can positively affect my work motivation for at least half to one year. Although it is a policy imposed by the school.Promotion cannot be regarded as a kind of recognition because there are a lot of reasons accounting for promotion and these reasons may not necessarily relate to subject.19). In this sense. promotion may not mean that it is a recognition of one’s good performance in the subject. It can really benefit both teachers and students. A: Being a school middle manager for years. In other words. I do believe that it is a method that can increase teachers’ professional development in Geography. The effect is indeed great. as long as it matches with my belief. After being recognized in school. students also understand that this method is good to their learning. recognition must have effects on my work motivation. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: I work very happily with my panel members in the implementation of collaborative teaching.

The feeling that the work is significant because it affects not only the Geography subject panel but also the others (4. Happiness is a result of increased communication and understanding among subject members. and that we can solve the problems together.10). happiness is also due to the fact that students do benefit from the change of this new teaching method (4. problem solving etc.9). this feeling is not that frequent. A: Look back. The feeling that the work is worth doing and it is feasible and workable. work is recognized by others. I will have more of this feeling (4. as a PGM who advocated this teaching method at that time. The feeling that colleagues are cooperative to each other for planning.A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: I feel happy. why not? B: If subject management is put into consideration. The feeling that this A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: Yes.12). A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: It is the colleagues’ recognition and good communication during the process of problem solving that give rise to my good relations with the subject members (4. Furthermore. Such feeling can reflect my good working motivation. 165 . it is. Moreover. the recognition received from other subject panels on the effectiveness of this method really made me feel very happy. exhibitions in the school anniversary.11). But if it is a subject-based activity such as inter-school geography exhibition.

Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: Committee members share the same vision and have consistent objectives.3). including the work related to management. In short.1). Work which is student-targeted and is beneficial to students Work in which I can lead my members’ involvement and participation (5. Of course. if members only want to avoid conflict and to work in accordance with instructions only. They are willing to discuss sincerely on issues related to work and they are willing to accept divergences or differences of each other. it is a trustful relation among committee members that is important to work motivation. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: The satisfactory and positive relations with my superiors and committee members will not result in negative effects on my work motivation. in your subject B: The guidance work itself can absolutely affect my work motivation. 166 . This kind of interpersonal relations can make me work happily. even though it may result in a harmonious relation. A: How does the work.2). This is because I like to see the growth and positive growth of the students and the guidance work in school can match with this objective. On the contrary. it is indeed not a good phenomenon (5. May be it is the absence of fatal or negative relations with my superiors and committee members that makes me consider less about the relationship between interpersonal relations and work motivation (5.Appendix 7 Interview Transcript (5): Coordinator of Guidance Committee Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: Developmental work which means that the work is new and innovative to school (5.15). it is better if such relations can be developed positively further.

Rather. advancement may not be that important to them.Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: Since I have been promoted already. A change in personal life such as having a baby to the family requires me to make adjustment to my schoolwork. it is the pressure of the SGM status after promotion that makes me demand more for my work (5. Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: Personal life can have some effects on school work but it may not affect the work motivation.4). A sound school administrative and 167 . However.16). For those GM teachers who have high educational passions and enjoy their teaching life very much. A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: The achievements in guidance work have positive effects on my work motivation. Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: There is positive and close relationship between school administrative and managerial system and work motivation. The effectiveness of guidance work in helping students’ growth and the establishment of developmental guidance programs give me a lot of confidence and encouragement which in turn enhance my work motivation. such adjustment may not necessarily mean that my work motivation will be affected (5.17) Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: Achievement resulted from doing some developmental guidance work and observing students’ positive growth. the achievements which are related to the successful guidance work will always make me feel happy (5. this factor may not affect my work motivation very much. In other words.

However.18). the existing problem in this school is that such cooperation and coordination are not enough.managerial system can help the effectiveness of the guidance work. This is because. personally I concern more on the students’ learning outcomes than the supervision from above.6).5).19). supervisors themselves understand our difficulties and they aim to get us familiar with the operation first and therefore they show a lot of ‘understanding’ during the process of supervision. A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: Since the supervision in school is in its infant stage only. income may be an important factor to work motivation because the income difference between a Graduated Master (GM) and a Senior Graduated Master (SGM) is indeed very great (5. Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: Supervision does not have too much impacts on work motivation. supervision will not cause pressure or impetus to my work (5. such importance relies very much on the chance of promotion that is affected by many factors such as the number of promotion posts in school. it is more desirable if the system can be more supportive (5. the school staffing etc. As long as I feel the system is helpful to the guidance work. Although the school administrative and managerial system can improve the communication among different sectors in this school. it helps keep my work motivation. it is positive to my work motivation (5. Since collaboration among different sectors in school is important for the holistic development of students. while performance of work 168 . Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: For those who have not yet been promoted. Of course. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: Since the existing administrative and managerial system in this school does not create too many obstacles to my work. As a result. it fails to integrate these sectors together and establish shared visions.

This kind of decision-making process is desirable to middle managers. such importance will be offset if the chance for promotion is limited. Secondly. the income of teachers in Hong Kong is indeed overpaid and therefore a bit cut is acceptable (5. A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: To a certain extent. However. In this sense. we are able to discuss the school issues together and our opinions are respected and put into considerations. For those who have already been promoted. rather than the income. the increased income. even income may be an important factor to work motivation. Therefore. which is important to work motivation. will create a kind of moral pressure on work. That is to say. the school authority is able to do some collective decision-making practices. middle managers share their opinions and make decisions together with the school authority. To improve the quality of decision-making. school leaders should be able to set clear direction for discussion and to rank the priority of issues for discussion. It is in this sense that it may enhance work motivation (5.7). we are a group of people in Hong Kong who do not worry too much about the problem unemployment. it is the chance of promotion. It is through the process of collective participation and also collective decision-making that the decision resulted can include the elements brought about by the middle-managers (5. which is far higher than before.20). Firstly. Although the principal is the one who makes the final decision. A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: The recent salary cut in Hong Kong does not affect my work motivation. We should be satisfied with this situation. it is worth noting the above arrangement of decision-making is still negative to my work motivation because it is not promising that the decision made by the principal herself is consistent with our preferences. Decision making A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: Collective decision-making can enhance the work motivation of middle managers. 169 .is only one of the considerations.21).

8). A: Look back. On the one hand.22). A: Being a school middle manager for years.13). Team members share and work together towards the same objectives. This is because the feeling means to me that my work is significant to students.14).9). it is. and on the other hand. recognition greatly affects my work motivation.12) The school can provide me a favourable environment to fulfill the objectives of the work (5. 170 .Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: Willing to accept my opinions can be regarded as a kind of recognition to me. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: The outcomes of the work show that it is significant. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: It is the training of a group of Form three and four students as peer councilors every year. A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: Yes. (5. A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: Yes. A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: Sense of satisfaction and happiness obtained because of the developmental and innovative work leading to the positive growth of students (5. they are also helpful to the personal growth of the lower form schoolmates. This is important to my work motivation (5. This is because it show s that the school leader is willing to consider or accept my opinions made to the school (5. It is the most important reason (5.10). it is noticed that these students have positive personal growth for themselves (5.

171 .11). I need to handle an increasing amount of administrative and coordination work. But I have to point out that as a middle manager.A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. I have. This may reduce the intensity of the feeling mentioned above (5. In other words. why not? B: Yes. less time is available to the actual implementation and face-to-face contact with students.

I have a lot of autonomous in deciding the annual ECA plan in school (6. the ways of filling in the ECA forms and the procedure of submitting ECA reports etc. Worse still. the lack of mutual communication and support will give rise to a feeling of loneliness which is not that ideal to my work motivation (6. Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: A harmonious interpersonal relations is ideal to my work motivation. On the contrary.15).1). interpersonal relations that reflect mutual communication can also stimulate me to work continuously. These two types of work nature A: How does the work.. rumors etc. On the one hand.Appendix 8 Interview Transcript (6): Coordinator of Extra-curricular Activities Committee Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: It depends on the work nature. my work motivation will be worse off (6. in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: As an ECA coordinator. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: The interpersonal relations I have with my superiors are good. They give me a lot of flexibility in work. Even though sometimes I need to comply 172 . Besides. If the work allows me to have more autonomy. if the school atmosphere is full of negative criticism. if committee members only work for their owns and do not care for each other. the necessary formalities involved in the recruitment of new members. I can experience these two types of work nature in school. I can work vigorously.2). However. can give me different work motivation. the interpersonal relations resulted are undoubtedly negative to work motivation. I need to brief every year for the organization of ECA clubs. I can decide if certain new activities can be introduced to school etc. On the other hand. for examples. more elaboration and more variety. I can decide if certain activities are worth doing or not. if the work is repetitive with formalities and paperwork. including the work related to management.

I use the same approach in cultivating the relations with my committee members. The experiences of my sons participating in ECA make me believe that ECA is a necessity in school. I just wanted to make some contributions to the school. My subordinates are very constructive. I will observe their workload. I was promoted to a higher rank. I need to make appropriate adjustment on my working timetable and the priority of my work. Above all. Instead of setting strict objectives to achieve. Therefore. Therefore. for examples. At the time when I got into this educational field. I have been occupied by a lot of administrative work.16). advancement may sometimes upset my original work. In fact. Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: I will not consider advancement as a factor that will affect my work motivation. the feeling of being respect and no feeling of being hurt help enhance my work motivation very much. I feel comfortable because of this kind of interpersonal relations with my superiors. it may say that it is after the advancement that motivates me to re-plan my work (6. In fact. For example.17). personal life has positive effects on my work motivation.with certain school policies. not a factor that affects my work motivation In fact. As time went by and my work has been recognized by the school authority. to me. less time is available for me to deal with the dance group and the PE subject. I need to 173 . which are indeed the sources of my work motivation. my superiors usually give me encouragement and allow plenty of rooms for me to make my own decisions. they always give valuable advices to me and they support me very much (6. As a result. advancement can be considered as a bonus to my work. as an ECA coordinator in school. Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: To me. after the promotion to ECA master. I am willing to do so because the requests are reasonable and the guidelines are clear and affluent. I need to hire outside coaches to promote other sports so that I can have more time to deal with other work. In other words. allocate their works by considering also their works in other aspects such as teaching duties.

5). my wife may say that family activities are more important than school activities in weekend. though the fact that they are limited by resources and leadership ability. If I found out that the training I offered to the student-leaders was not that sufficient. 174 . On the contrary.3). I can be more concentrated on the work which is significant to me. If it is a simple structure without ‘repetitive’ work. I will take up the jobs myself or share with those committee members who are willing to help during the weekend. Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: I feel comfortable with a simple school administrative and managerial structure in which the work required to middle managers should not be repetitive. Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: The achievement which is related to a group of Form 6 student who are willing to take up their roles as student-leaders after the leadership training program. Generally speaking.4). it could give me stimulation to work better and in a vigorous manner. In this sense. and are eager to promote ECA in school (6. it does not necessarily mean that my motivation must be enhanced because of this simple structure. such achievement will always make me feel happy.do a good job in this aspect (6. Repetitive work means that I need to do the same thing several times because of the needs of different sections in school. Therefore. my committee members are very supportive in this aspect. it means that a simple school administrative structure can reduce my discontent on work so that my work motivation will not be hurt. A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: The achievement obtained in ECA management can positively affect my work motivation. However. Therefore. they may not be happy. If I ask my committee members to do the work for me during the weekend. at least I will not have bad feelings on my work (6.

But supervision will not be an impetus to work motivation. I will follow them in order to make further improvement. to my view. to report the activities etc. A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: The supervision in this school does not affect my work motivation. such supervision may negatively affect work motivation. To me. The present school administration is clearer than before. if the decision making process can be made simplifier further. I know where to seek help. Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: Appropriate supervision is good or otherwise the working direction will be lost more easily. for example. with the use of a lot of measurement tools. discipline etc.A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: As for the administrative structure in this school. If work motivation is a result of supervision. But if the issues are not that job-related with ECA. It is indeed a progress. Because of this. I would rather prefer the school making the decision itself if it is the case mentioned above. But I will not view supervision as important factor that can affect my work motivation. If the supervision is too complicated.18). Therefore. An appropriate supervision. If constructive advices have been given after supervision. A more clear school administration enables my work to be done more smoothly. students’ performance in activities 175 . with a view to maintaining or improving their performance level. a decision-making may involve teachers from different sectors of the school such as ECA. This is because I only work in accordance with the performance of my students. it may not be a good phenomenon (6. The division of manpower is more precise than before. the opinions I give may not be that professional. This kind of supervision will not cause harms to work motivation. the involvement of me in the discussion may not be that constructive.7). it will be better. is the supervision that is feasible and simple. guidance. my work motivation is not bad in general (6. It is the feasibility and significance of the work that are influential to work motivation. In the present pattern. though the fact that I will attend the discussion meeting to show my respect to the invitation.

will not have too much effects on my work motivation. if not affect my standard of living significantly. a decision to have ECA lesson introduced recently. But if such common ground is made from a group who does not have enough experience and knowledge. Therefore. I will negotiate with them. not a factor to increase their work motivation. it must have a reasonable ground for the decision. and that the decision is incompatible to my principled and beliefs. income is insignificant to work motivation (6. A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: The style of decision making in this school affects me only slightly. In fact. even if such decision may go against my own view. I will support this. As for the decision that is related to ECA. In short. If it is a decision made by mass consensus.20).19). Since the supervision in this school is very respectful to human nature. If it is a decision made solely from above without discussion from below. Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: The income increased after promotion is only a bonus to teachers’ work.6).and their actual outcomes are two important considerations that affect greatly my work motivation. the increase or decrease in income. If the final decision is made at 176 . A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: The income cut will not affect my work motivation. In this sense. the salary cut can still maintain my standard of living (6. This is because the income level of teachers is high enough for them to have a satisfactory life. that means the final decision may contain my own elements. Whether higher income will increase their work motivation is indeed doubtful. If I can successfully influence them. Decision making A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: A decision made after discussion is ideal to my work motivation. for example. the cost of living in Hong Kong also decreases because of the poor economic conditions. the quality of the decision will not be guaranteed. I will accept this ground (6.. Therefore. it does not hurt my work motivation (6.9).

it is natural that the principal will give feedbacks to my work. This is because it is a whole year program which involves a lot of designs.the expense of ECA. the immediate and positive recognition given by our principal will be more real and significant to me. our principal gives more of this immediate verbal feedback to my work than our colleagues. 177 . she will be more objective in giving comments since she is the supervisor in school.21) Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: I like the recognition which is a kind of immediate verbal response to my work. If this kind of immediate and positive feedbacks are given by both the principal and my colleagues. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: It is the leadership training program organized every year in the school. I will still accept this type of decision making style. As a supervisor in school.(6. I will be more happy if it is coming from the principal. In this sense. In short. A: Being a school middle manager for years. even though the decision is at the expense of ECA.8). this kind of verbal recognition is more significant to motivation (6. if one can describe how good the score is. if these feedbacks are positive and immediate. As long as our principal is making decision in accordance with this mentality. relatively speaking. I will look at the holistic development of the school. Moreover. I will be very happy about this. Just like many sports activities. it is the ‘immediate’ effect that can make me happy. I will also accept this for the sake of the holistic development of the school. As for the principal. I will not only concentrate on my own part. As a middle manager in school. team members’ immediate verbal response after a score can stimulate motivation very much. This is because sometimes the ‘recognition’ given by my colleagues may be a kind of ‘courtesy’ only. Although this recognition is only a ‘small’ action. it will not have too much problems to me. if the decision made by the principal matches with my views on ECA. A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: In this school.

10). it is the nature of ECA that gives me a lot of opportunities to experience these feelings (6. As a middle manager in ECA. 178 . A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not.14). (6. This is because there are a variety of extra-curricular activities in school that I can observe the growth of students’ leadership ability.12) A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: It can say that such feelings illustrate that I can have good working motivation on this job (6. why not? B: I can have this feeling frequently. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: The objectives is realized or the mission is completed (6.dimensions of work and problems etc. A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: Apart from the feeling of happiness and challenging. which are all challenging to me (6. A: Look back.11).13). I also feel satisfied from this work.

I stress collaboration in work. In other words. Generally speaking. and I will not give bonus to those who perform well in their work. including the work related to management. If work can be done in this way. If the work in which all committee members are able to reach similar ideas.Appendix 9 Interview Transcript (7): Coordinator of Discipline Committee Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: Firstly. I never think of myself as a manager in school. directing the work. for example. it is not feasible to do so. A: How does the work. and there are some achievements resulted after the work. I myself will act as a ‘brain’. Rather. Therefore. support each other during the working process. I need to guarantee the achievement of goals. that is to say. This is because it is my belief that work can be done better with a consistent ideology but it is very difficult to get one since different people may have different ideas and opinions. In this sense. 179 . This is because if I put forward an ideology and my committee members help visualize it in action. to supervise my committee members and to have effective monitoring on them. committee members are encouraged to help each other. it will enhance my work motivation. But in school.1). I will stick to it persistently. If I think the ideology is good. it means that what I think in my mind is really effective in practice. in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: The work nature should be like this: the work should be coordinated by a unique ideology. I focus more on the cooperation of my committee members and the coordination work in-between. all these can push me to work more vigorously (7. To manage. the school environment cannot provide me with enough support to act as a manager. while collaboration and cooperation among committee members happen only in the implementation part. even though there may be oppositions around. a ‘controlled’ ideology proposed by me appears to be desirable. participate in sharing opinions. I have no power to fire those members whose work is below standard.

I would rather use a kind of interpersonal relations which stress the importance of encouragement and nurture so as to make the members more active in the their works. This is because even the member has been kicked out from the committee. The relations established by using this approach will help committee members value themselves more so that they will be more active in work. school cannot use strict way. good interpersonal relations are the basic element for work motivation (7. Instead. Though the fact that committee members and I may not have 100 percent consensus on certain ideology. once we can establish consensus in work through effective communication. Therefore. though the fact that teachers may have diversities among themselves. they will be happier because of these interpersonal relations. to deal with colleagues who do not have satisfactory performance in their works. the good communication among us is indeed positive to our work motivation as I can have chances to explain to them in detail. This member. 180 .12). However. and the results are sometimes not that promising. strict way appears to be ineffective. This approach is better than just kick him or her out of the committee. we can work vigorously together.Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: Unlike commercial field. it is worth noting that the establishment of this relations needs time and effort. The good relations established can reduce a lot of vexation that may appear in work. Also. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: The interpersonal relations with my committee members have significant effects on my work motivation. In other words. such as kicking a member out of a committee. the problems have not been solved as long as that member is still in school. still faces the difficulties of dealing with disciplinary problems of students. Good relations help promote work effectiveness. This means that good interpersonal relations will bring no negative effects to my work motivation. who is a teacher in school.

Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: The achievement in a factory is the production of high quality product. 181 . Instead. as my children have promoted to secondary school. affect my work motivation though the fact that such impacts may be indirect in nature (7. The ultimate outcome is the formation of a group of students who behave well. I have made request to the principal to return me back to a GM status but in vain.14). Therefore. I only aim at doing something that may have educational implications to students. that is. achievement can be reflected by a group of committee members who work with good collaboration under my coordination (7. advancement is a factor that is insignificant to my work motivation. personal life might not affect my work or work motivation in school because I have tried my best to make a clear separation between them.4). Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: In the past. instead of a motivation.3). to a certain extent. promotion may be a burden. others my think in this way. I only had a simple mind of doing my best in school.2). the ways how they behave may have projection on my work in school (7. In this sense.Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: No matter it is before or after the promotion. The achievement in a company is the good performance of its shares. do what I believe to be good to the students. Before my promotion. Therefore it may say that no matter it is before or after the advancement or promotion.: Though the fact that I will not relate work to money or authority. After my promotion. it has no significant effect on my work motivation. understand and identify clearly their roles as students and show concerns to others (7. personal life may. it may create burden to me after I have been promoted. I had no intention of doing the work well so as to get the promotion opportunities. to my work (7. I still keep my belief of working. As for the discipline committee in school. In fact.13). Yet.

the sole presence of a good school administrative and managerial structure affects very little my work motivation in school (7. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: In our school. students’ behavioural issues can be handled by a holistic approach because of the involvement of the various student-affairs committees in the school structure. The achievement on these two aspects after improvement helps enhance my work motivation (7. the insufficiency of the system in discipline committee. achievement can enhance my work motivation. Therefore. In fact. without effective communication and coordination. Yet.A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: Yes. not the system. whether this design is really effective relies very much on the actual communication and coordination among these committees. Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: School administration and management may not have close relationship to my work motivation. and the insufficiency of committee members’ abilities and skills. it is necessary to point out that work is still going on even after this achievement. It should be non-stop and continuous in nature. Theoretically speaking.15). 182 . give me high motivation to improve the situations. the weak documentary work. the Pastoral Care Board includes the discipline committee. guidance committee and form-teachers committee. it is true that the administrative and managerial structure is well-designed. In fact.16). handling of disciplinary issues etc. an effective implementation requires good communication and coordination of committee members and teachers. for example. that is important to me. in reality. In this sense. it is the human factors. careers committee. for example. for example. That is why I call this as ‘sustainability’ of work. A well-structured school administration does not necessarily mean that it is helpful to the actual implementation in the discipline committee. However.

the effect of a further increase in income on work motivation will not be so great as compared with the short run situation. Therefore. if self-reflection appears during the process of handling the documentary work. I like freedom and therefore I don’t like any kinds of supervision on my work. it is insignificant to work motivation (7. it is the sense of achievement and the need of self-fulfillment of doing something worthwhile and significant that are important to work motivation. such reflection may be good to work motivation (7.5). Although I admit that supervision is necessary in an organization for effective management. we are far better than them. income may have certain effects on work motivation because income is the reward to one’s contribution to work. which is unfavourable to my work motivation. My work motivation does not change before and after the salary cut. the supervision becomes more systematic and it involves a lot of documentary work. Now. in the long run.17). Frankly speaking. the supervision in this school was not very tight as it stressed the importance of human trust. no matter whether this supervision is goodly-intended or not. But compared with others who cannot find jobs outside. the effects of supervision on my work motivation is indeed uncertain. more work has been done by our committee even after the salary cut. As a coordinator in discipline committee. A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: In the past. 183 . the feeling of salary cut must not be good. A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: Salary cut does not have any effects on my work motivation.Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: Perhaps I am also an Arts teacher in school. However. Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: In the short run. In the long run. Indeed. the systematic supervision limits my freedom and creativity in work. This is because I believe that responsibility to do things which are good and worth for students is more important. However. it means to me that I need more time to deal with the documentary work at the expense of the worthwhile work related to students. In this sense.

I think this kind of decision-making is more effective. Supportive recognition can be reflected by the whole-hearted support during the process of the work. In other words.18). A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: In this school.Decision making A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: Firstly. I will introduce and share this with all teachers in school. a decision will be made within the ‘leadership group’ in the discipline committee while teachers as a whole need to understand the work and help for its implementation by referring to the clear instructions given by the discipline committee.. Then. Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: Sincere and supportive recognition are the most valuable recognition.6). After that. though we have encountered a lot of difficulties inside and outside school when dealing with the recent 184 . Sincere recognition means that those people who recognize me really understand the effectiveness of my work and that the results of the work are consistent with the objectives. Even though it may encounter difficulties during the process. the school authority will seek advices from middle-managers on school issues but the final decision is still kept in the hand of the principal. I will discuss for its feasibility with my committee members. This decision making style may not enhance my work motivation. when I think of something which is worth doing. Worse still. I will put forward for discussion with other coordinators in the discipline committee with a view of getting consensus. some teachers may not totally accept the ideas behind. A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: The sincere and supportive recognition obtained in this school can help enhance my work motivation. This is because it is not promising that what I have reflected to the school authority can be reflected back in the final decision. the decision sometimes may run against my views (7. such difficulties will not hurt my work motivation. All these are good to my work motivation (7. for examples. For example. negative comments on the work may be heard etc.

I have to point out that management can help indirectly only. A few years after their graduation in our school. when I heard that someone is a cook now. Objectively speaking. as a discipline teacher I have encountered more unhappy things than happy things. poorly behave and did not take advices from school. it is my mission to make students not to learn bad things and not to be bad guys in society in the future (7. To me. Therefore. not management issue. I feel really good about this. After getting positive comments from students. it may be my mission that motivates my work.summer uniform issue. Therefore. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: A sense of individual responsibility pushes me to do something to help students who have problems in school. the event that made me feel very happy was related to students. I remember that few years ago there were a group of students who were very naughty. Although it appeared to be a very difficult job to discipline them. someone is a policeman now. It helps quite a lot to my work motivation (7. go traveling with them. A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: Happy and satisfied. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: Generally speaking.7) because what I have done to him or her are indeed very significant. I tried to get into their life. I feel very happy (7. it is the students’ issue.10). 185 . our principal shows her real support during the whole process. not management of the committee. and play with them in order to understand them more. that I can have more happy experiences. in a higher sense. I got this feeling. A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: Yes. Therefore. As a discipline teacher.8). it is really difficult to describe the feeling. A: Being a school middle manager for years. destructive.11). a good school system which stresses more on human touch also helps motivate my work (7. it may be the case. A: Look back.

why not? B: I always have this kind of feeling. This is because I believe that my teaching to them in the past is really useful and significant to them after their graduation in school (7. Every year. 186 . there are some graduated students who come back to school and share with me their ways of life after graduation. I always have sweet feelings for a long time.A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. Every time after the sharing.9).

it is a difficult task to deal with interpersonal relations. it is an important factor in affecting work motivation.Appendix 10 Interview Transcript (8): Coordinator of Careers Committee Work itself A: What kinds of job or task that you think you can work vigorously and persistently? B: If the work has clear objective. some committee members who are 187 . This is because different people may have different interests in work. A: How does the work. some need more development and elaboration of their own etc. systematic recording is necessary. People have different personalities: some like to follow rules to work. Therefore. A: How does your interpersonal relations with your superiors and team members affect your work motivation? B: The interpersonal relations I experience in the committee discourage a bit my work motivation.1). They can also act as a base for evaluation of the work and activities. In fact. this kind of work can enhance my work motivation (8. target and direction. and the work is feasible in implementation. During the actual implementation of the work and activities. Because of friendship. in your subject panel / committee affect your work motivation? B: The management work in careers can to a certain extent affect my work motivation. for example. Yet. For examples. Of course. if the job or work matches with his or her own interests. Interpersonal Relations A: What kinds of interpersonal relations can make you work happily? B: It is difficult to say. good filing of work and activities are helpful as they act as references for work in the future. The reports are also useful materials for the development of the committee etc. the subject selection for Form three students belongs to this kind of work. It is difficult to handle because of the complexity in interpersonal relations. This is because these records may act as reference for others or myself in the future. it is good. I am not that good in this aspect. The division of manpower in school may not guarantee that those appointed to a task must match with their own interests. I have to say that although it is a difficult and complicated issue. including the work related to management.

May be they did not have interest in the job so they only did it superficially. if the work is related to careers and is really helpful to students. teachers can show to the school authority of their interests in promotion if they believe that they are performing well in certain aspects. Generally speaking. In other schools.2). achievement means that the original objectives of the work can be achieved largely after the completion of the work.3). In our school. I don’t feel much achievement from my work. Therefore. if the original objectives cannot be achieved or they are sidetracked in some ways. However. the work motivation that it can generate is indeed doubtful.indeed good friends of me promised to do a task but they might just get the work done and might not have wholehearted devotion to it. it will affect the usage of the time between the two. Subjectively speaking. it may help a bit their work motivations. This may positively affect their work motivations. if teachers themselves are not aggressive or if their good performances have not been observed by the school authority. Achievement A: What kinds of achievement from work will make you feel particularly pleasant? B: Frankly speaking. to me. such achievement can make me work more vigorously (8. it will affect the human emotion (8. if there is a channel for teachers to show their preferences or interests in promotion. Job can be completed but the way how they handle the work may negatively affect our friendship. Advancement A: Do you think the advancement system in school can affect your work motivation? Why? B: I think it will affect work motivation. Personal life A: Do you think your personal life will affect your work motivation in school? Why? B: Personal life and work motivation will affect each other. their chances of promotion or advancement will be missed. and if the original objectives can be achieved. though the work has been completed in the end. This is because. 188 . Objectively speaking.

Although the objectives of careers education in school have been listed clearly and committee members have been allocated to carry out their specific domains in different forms. there is a close relationship between school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of members in the careers committee. I intend to achieve the objectives year by year. A: Does the administrative and managerial system in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: It may sometimes affect my work motivation. it will be good to the committee. in the activity of mock HKCEE release day. it may negatively affect my work motivation. it will negatively affect my work motivation. I will have good working motivation (8. If the allocation of manpower can help the development of the careers committee. it appears that the work is handled with the mentality of ‘do it because I have to complete it’. the outcomes are not very satisfactory. Because of these problems. if the school administration and management can show clearly what the careers committee should do. However. In other words. it will have effects on my work motivation. If I encountered difficulties in managing the careers committee and the school administrative and managerial system is not supportive enough. it is the allocation of manpower that is important to my work motivation. If those teachers who are allocated to the committee have interest in the work.4).A: Does the achievement you get from your work in subject panel or committee affect your motivation to work? Why? B: If what I intend to achieve from the work cannot be fulfilled. In this sense. the quality of the work should be improved year by year too. For example. 189 . Good policy and administration A: Do you think there is a close relationship between the school administrative and managerial system and work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: In the school administrative and managerial system. It is team work with effective sharing and communication among members that are important to my work motivation. Therefore. This is how I am motivated to develop the careers’ work in school. I have to enrich myself by looking at the foreign countries’ experiences and bring back these to the committee. though the fact that I may have difficulties in managing the committee. I will be highly motivated to develop something to achieve these ends. This is because it will affect the development of the Careers committee.

it may not be the case.6). A: Does the supervision on subject panel or committee in this school affect your work motivation? Why? B: The supervision in this school is very generous.7).5). I would like the school authority explain the reasons to me before any finalization has been made (8. If the principal seeks our advices via discussion but he or she will make the final discussion. I would prefer him or her not finding me to give advices. Income A: How will you describe the relationship between income level and the work motivation of middle manager in school? B: In business. It may create pressure but it may help enhance work motivation (8. But in educational field.Supervision A: Can the school supervision system enhance the work motivation of middle managers in school? Why? B: Supervision is necessary and important to work motivation. especially in dealing with some important and global school issues. on the condition that they are sincerely and seriously considered and that at least a part of these are included in the final decision. I have no feeling about this. I would treasure giving my opinions to the school authority. even though such decision is made by the school authority solely. 190 . Although it appears that decision made by group consensus after thorough discussion. it may be a case that higher income will lead to higher work motivation. cultivation and communication is desirable. It can be stronger. it is important to note that such decision-making process takes time. Decision making A: Does the different decision-making styles affect the work motivation of middle manager in school? Why? B: I do not think central decision made by the principal himself or herself will make me work happier. The past experiences in other schools showed me that the relationship between income and work motivation will not be that close in the educational field (8. If none of my opinions are included. A: Does the recent salary cut in Hong Kong affect your work motivation? Why? B: I have not thought about this.

Recognition means that the feedbacks to my work are positive. the decision not to allocate a Chinese language teacher to the Careers committee. Therefore. A: Being a school middle manager for years. Committee members will question why I am not able to influence the school. for example. I need to explain to them that it is beyond my control as the final decision is made by the school authority (8.12) and continue doing the work after getting such recognition.11). I should know very clearly from the recognition that in which parts of my work are worth appreciation. it shows that what I have done is correct.A: Does the decision making style in this school enhance your work motivation? Why? B: The decision made by the school authority will affect my work motivation. Recognition A: Which types of recognition from work that can particularly enhance your work motivation? B: Recognition must be specific. no matter what are the means these recognitions reach me. Some decision made by the school. 191 . Therefore. worth and significant. though the fact that the outcomes showed that objectives were not really achieved.8). Frankly speaking.9). I felt pleasant and happy (8. A: What was your feeling when doing this task(s)? B: During the process. could you share with me a task or two in the past (when was it exactly?) that you think you have worked vigorously and persistently and afterward you felt happy (largely) with the results? B: Not many indeed. may not be favourable to my work motivation. A: Does the recognition you get in this school affect you work motivation? Why? B: Of course it will affect my work motivation. In other words. I work vigorously in the process of making the careers pamphlets to students. This ‘aim at higher’ means that I am motivated to the work. This specialization may illustrate that the recognitions are real and they are not a show of ‘courtesy’ only (8. I will have good motivation to aim at higher (8.

A: Does the feeling you have mentioned mean that you have a good work motivation on the task? Or Were you felt motivated after (or during)the task? B: I admit that the feeling of happiness and pleasure mean to me that I work with good motivation on the task. could you find reasons to explain why you were motivated to work?? B: The main reason is that students can get something from my work. students’ career awareness has been raised by my work (8. A: Look back.10). I have to say peer’s support and school’s support are not enough indeed. A: Did you have similar experience after that particularly task(s)? If not. 192 . why not? B: Such kind of feeling diminishes as time goes by. that is to say.

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