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MANDARIN
VOI'CES

II

English-Speaking Instructor ... , .... ,.. liay B"'O}\\n1 Mandarin-Speaking Instructor, . . .. . .. Qi11'g Rem
Female Mandarin Speaker ,.. . . . .. Ailei Ling Diep
lfaohua

Ma~e Mandarin Speaker..

. . . . . .. . ..

Shi

CO RSF: \rVtUTERS Yaohua Shi • Christopher J. O,aJT1Ity

EDI1lOllS

Joan Schod~l1Ier.

Beverly D. i~Teinh;;

E~xl)c '11VE PRODUCER Beverly D., Heinle
jp'RODUCER.

& n.IRECT'UR. SarahH. Mcinnis '. Kelly Saux

R_ECo.IlOING ENG~N~EnS

Peter S., Turpin

Simon & Schuster Studios, Concord, MA

. . • • " • .. • .. . " " . " . . " . M0 'n~t7 Oa .' .. . nU6.' 16 Unit l~ Busines Travel: . . . • • • •• .. ... '.. .. e !II + • " . ' + "". '. . n~t8 Popular Entertainment Unit" Beij ing Opera " . .. . . nil2 Dining Out . ... . " " . "" " ..... Movies "' " . Stores and Shopping. Unit . • + ". " . .. 15 + •• '] . " . . " '" ... • .4 Teahouses " .. " Women in the Workforce + • • • • • • 7' UnitS Travel in China by Tnlin and Plane.... . . .' ~ ~ • I!.to i it. .. . '. '... . .. . . t8 + • • •• " • +. .... 17 Coffee .' " " . ... . ill 0 '~ai. . •• LII i Li ill . .' Chengde .. • " • • • " " .' '.s and Monrhi . " . ii' ~ ~. . " .. ... .ote: Unit 1 Regional Accent Particles.. " " . .wan. . . 4 ... . . .... . 7 .. nit] ' + •• • + • ". ~ . I '" IF. " ." " .. " . 2 '. ' ."".. 'I !. . . ~2 + • • • • • . .. " . . . • 3 3 4 5 6 Alcoholic Beverage Friends and Fami ~y ' . .. " .. " " ' '.

. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. 37 .. . . . . . .. . Traditional Chinese Medicine .. •. . ..~ . ..Unit 11 Hohdays and Leisure Time. 2....... . . f 0. .r Unit 12 Hangzhou Suzhou .. . .. . . . 'h a 32 33 n~r 17· zizangguo . . . ... .JIf} The Phone Svstem.. '" i jI. . Forms of Address . ..... . 3 m ~.~ a .. Measurements .0 Jleness . . 22 . . . .... .~ a. . . .. .. . .... .. .~ 9 Chinese Pastries . . ~ .. .... . .... .~ :Hi ank s . +.... . . " 27 UIllIU15 Personal Questions . . ... . ... . . . ..... .~ a. 38 . .. .0 . ... ..... . . . . .~~. . ~.. . 34 Unitt 1:8 Chi Olese Stud-en~sAbroad . .. . .t. ...~d Policy . ... . . 24 25 Un~t 14 Travel outside China.. . ~. . . . .~~". . .. '. .. .. . 20 M desty an d. .. . . .. . . .. 35 Unlt 19 1 Medical Care .. . . .. . .. .. .~ a '" Ii a . 23 Unit '~3 Combatiag the Summer Heat . 'i iI. .. • . ... . . . .. . . .. .... ... . . . " . .. 26 The ~~ThreeLinks~' . 30 a UmU.. ... ..... 28 China's O~le-Chi. ...

.. " 45 . .. " s- .. . ... . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . 28 Qingdao .. . . .0 l' If''e. . .. . Order . Umit~24 Parks Currency Unit 2' C Unit 2:. .. . . . ... . . + + • • • • • • • . . 57 . .. . . . ... . .. " 40 . .. •• • • • • • . . 55 56 English in China . . . .. . ... . . .. 47 49 VnU23 Getting Around ... 53 Beijing. .g· . . . .. .... .ng $11 MI. 54 Unit 29 UmU30 Tianjiu. Boa t Tra vel . . . . . . .. . . .. ..nj'. .. . . • . . . 53 + • . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . • • .----------- -- - - --- TABLE O'F CONT'ENTS Notes (continued) Unit 20 Shanghai Unit 21 Unit 22 E-maH and Imernet Cafes . .. . . . . . .. . ..i n. .. ... .. . . . . .. 5'_·· . •• + • •• 4I The Postal System Chinese \\lord. . . . • .. .. . . . . •. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . .. .. .. .. • • • .. .. . + ••• " 42 43 Sports and Board Garnes . Unlt 2:7 Unit. .. . .. . . .a. . .. N. .. . a ••• ..5 . . . .---------- . . • . . . . .

the last s y] lable of certai n compound words unstressed . Today virtually all young people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait understand and Spe. while Southerners will pronounce it ren sh. The neutral torte a'iways occurs in. As you might expect.1U< Mandan n. rhelast syllable of a. Northerners . when southerners speakMandarin. but it . The absence of this tone does not usually CalI1SJe confusion 0]' misunderstanding.peop ~e last syllable and. The "soft sound." is often absent fi'omthe~r speech. will pronounce the word that means "to be aequaiated with" as renshi (fa~lrung and. Whereas Northerners will leave particles and. China 's standard spoken language. in add~tion to their native d ialects. Few people in the South can reproducethe kind of Mandarin heard ontelevision or infi~nns. Mandarin.~ stressing the "neutral tone. giving it its full dictionary tonal value.For instance. COJ1npOIUlId word.For example.Mandarin II Unit I. It has becomeeven more widespread through the reach of television.' also known as the from Taiwan or Hong Kong are more likely to give equal stress to each syllable. they tend to stress every syllable. is taught ill schools throughout Mainland China and Taiwan. does mark the speaker as a Southerner. the degree of fluency varies. neutral tones).

such as le.-------- -- - - ---- -- - --- MawdadnU Unit I (COl. "'What about yOM?~' Some particles.\Vha~ever tonal value they acqtsire in natural speech is bar-ely audible. to The purt~dede can indicate possession: wo de shu. and ne. you add te to the verb: chi Ie. they are sometimes eel led "functicnwords. perform a number of jmportant functions. word "neutral" is used because their exact tonal value depends on that of thepreceding syllaJble." You have also come across IUt as in ni ne. forthis reason. ~:I~!c1lJ1dh~g these three. are always pronounced w~th ~he neutral tone. That is why they are also said to be "soft.' kan te. The." 2 ." Forinstance. particles. de. "saw.. "ate. '~111Y book. tin tied) P:articles In Chinese. toindicate that anaction has already taken place.

' -- - .11_- :"1 'I.h .. C[lJSll'The associate d - I '.Jlmg.1' restauranrs featuring a vast array of cooking styles dot the city. the imperial family made a concerted effort ."'!-I"-'-''''I-'~ ·h· .-- "-"'I :"'--'-~-~I-. In 1703 Emperor Kangxi built a summer palace in what was then an obscure provincialtown . Eventually the palacegrew tLO the size of Beijing's Summer Palace and the Forbidden City combined.11 '. - .. has changed drarnaticajly in recent years. they are increasingly dining out One of the most famous traditional restaurants ill Beijing is QuanJude.a. 'The summer retreat cal led Bishu shanzh.ria n UnU2 A part . Good and inexpensive lccal fcod is plentiful. The restaurant serene.e Impel. Now thousands 0. 'I j "'-1- '"" Vi .~dial cui . As people become more and more affluent. . Chengde is a resort city about 135 miles northeast of Beijing. Because their empire was both huge and multiethnic. particularly known for f1111e dining. Us Peking duck is renowned throughout China. om' Heat-Fleeing Mountain Villa. In the past Beijing was 110~. boasts a vast park. .iI urn t . however..- theManchu emperors...- II. as wen as exotic fare from all over the world. I .Mund.

it popular alcoholic beverage. A formal meal or banquet would uot be complete without what the Chinese cal ~bai ji u. To ~his end they built a group of Lamaisr monasteries to the nom~~h the palace.g . either beer or wine... Rice wine. n -------------- Uni. Recently the local government of has restored unany of the jralace structures and monasteries for ~he sake of tourism.Mm:ndad. urban and westernized Chinese. however" prefer Chinese hard liquor to. served warm.ageg. Almost al~liiquorws consumed to accompany food. or whue liquor made from grains. A1110fll. UNESCO has designatedthe former imperial Summer Palace a~ Chengde a WoddHedtage Site . beer is the mo.t:2 (combuuN:l) to appease the Mongolians and other followers of Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhism. Despite joint venture: with internadonal wrurrue akers. Alcohof~cBever.~s popular in certain parts of China as well .zhe m production and consumption of wine lag far behind that of beer.D. Many people.

of course. After a meeting. Relatives. close relatives still frequently visit one another. guests are often treated to a lavish melticourse [neal in a fancy restaurant or hotel.Unit..any people have heard of cocktails. 5 . they are less inclined toinvite friends to ~herurhome than are Americans. are another matter . Away from tourist hotels and official iuterpreters. Since most Chinese ~ivie in cramped apartments.uwith western ways.3 (continued} A~though m. (hey are not common even among Chinese who are reasonably faIn~·~i. Foreigners visiting China are most likely to interact with the Chinese in a business setting. Some tourist agencies also arrange for tourists to spend a day "vith a. however" spontaneous invitations to one's home afe infrequent. Chinese family. especially in urban areas. Whi le three generations Iivingunder one roof Is becoming increasingly rare.

e become more and more affluent.'eahou es feature antique fumiaure or 01d farming implements ~o play on people's sense of nostalgia. ided variou: form. today. "divers e flavors" . San u'ei shu l'VU literally means the Studio of Three FIa\ ors uneaning. tory by the famous early twentieth century writer Lu Xun. but al. as the Chine.]n recent years. Although tea remains the most popular non-alcoholic beverage.MandarlnH nit 4 Teahouses were once ubiquitous in market ~OW11lS and other urban center' in China. teahouses are making a comeback.Hke!. To attract more patrons. a theywere replaced by modern.. during the 19605 teahouses VrnJ11mBy di appeared from the Chinese urban landscape. storytelling u and puppet theater. of entertainment '"' ch n.. _ . and the . .eishu wu is named after a . any of the' new t. teahouse: pro. San l-v. The ma~111)' malic' clientele went to teahouses not only to quench their thin t. we tern-style theaters cinema -. 0 to socialize..

11 Urdt 4 (continued} The percentage of women working outside ~_he horne is qu. There are also many women doctors and scientists. virtually all women have jobs. Women who occupy positions of power are still far-c. numerous airpons have beenbuilt or expanded. In other important areashowever. The burden of restructuring the manufacturing industries in the last tweruy years has also fallen more heavily on women. while all over the country. they haven't yet achieved parity with me Ill. as they are more likely to be laid off than.he high in China. their male counterparts. The transportation system in China has seen vast..~ women dominate certain professions. improvementsin recent years. 7' . The coastal areas are wel ~ served by an.---- -- ---- -- Manda rill . In cities. Older. As in the U . such as teaching and nursmg. ever-expanding network of railroads and highways.S. unskilled women particular have difficulty finding a job. mil Travel in China bv 'Train and Plane ~.

and special e-xpress. Instead of filfS~ or second class. "-1 . which cost about ~he same as hard sleeper.-. direct express.accomrnodate only a li mired number of people. 0' . Since few Chinese can afford soh sleeper. and often airconditiouhig. or son sleeper.d -. lace curtains. passengers carl take . . hard seat is in fact no~ hard. tickets.. sleeper is the ultimate luxury. passengers choose hard seat..IIIll1i1 .hike and Ice. By contrast. S. Since those fares are the cheapest. Tbe(.po:r:ted plants.'.E1 an" smoxmg are not pel mute '". 'Wil[hl'~ourcomfortable bunks in a dosed compartment complete with wood pandiog.~m". Some of these are still powered by steam engines. For a surcharge. bu~ padded. although there are three main ones: slow. There are half a dozen bunks ill three tiers..--. The faster dir-ect express zhiku"i make fewer stops. a sleeper carriage cam.. bard sleeper . sheets.~.. which cost twice as much as those for hard sleeper.~ l.5 (cofuiJfUecl) Trains. In son seat.-" • China has many different types of tralns. and blankets are provided.0'f."'" ned overcr O~. colloquially known as manche or "slow trains. are the traditional people-movers in China. are easyto obtain . ":~!.-. pillows. .MaadadnU UJlU.' stop' at every station. son sear.-'. hard seat is often uncomfortably cr-owded. Despite its name. On short distances some trains have soft seats. often packed to capacity.

ternation. In the past few years. modern Boeings and Airbuses have for jhe mot part replaced the earlier rickee Soviet-built plane' that caused western tourists much con. air travel ha become increasingly popular. the ~.ate-owned rail r bureaus have tried to introduce faster and cleaner sei ice. The special e" pres: tekuai make the least number of stops and are usually fueled by die d or by electricity.peed rai lway between Beijing and Shanghai is in the planning . tage. roughly twice that of the direct express.- - ---- Mandarin U nit 5 {continued) one tball run 81 a higher peed. 9 . Foi a sti]] faster special express train. the surcharge for higher spied L.• especiall y to rou rist desti n ati 011 S • A su per '. Furthermore. There are now frequent fI ights between n~ajor cities. 'onduions in trains have also improved con iderably. Faced with stiff competition from airline and~ong distance buses.

ete. The Chinese began to move to Tai wan in large numbers after file fall of the M. fake Prada..M. Department stores in major cities remain open wen after 9:00 p. jackets.3. i Taiwan lies across .~ng dynasty in the 1660s. Service standards in these upscale commercial establlshmems. Gucci shoes. state-ewned stores cater to the tastes an d p urcha sin g pow1er of the workrung class. [Janow strait from southeastern China. After a hunlmat~ng defeat in 10 . still limited in number. are comparable to those of their western counterparts. By contrast. It was first settled by aboriginal peoples 1'r011'[ Southeast Asia. are popular with local residents und western touri sts (~]ke.- --- ------ - Unit I' Shopping ~s a favcrire pastime for many Chinese. Street peddlers selling counterfeu goods. Designer brands and labels are available to those who can afford them.Westiem-suyle convenience stores have also appeared in big cities: so has warehouse merchandizing. 'I\l[any of the morepopular department swresand supermarkets are joint ventures with international retail giants.

economic integration is progressing apace. is meanr to aSSIJIJ. (continued) the Naval Battle of . Whi ~e officiaf relaticns acr-oss the Taiwan Slnd~ have experienced ups and downs in tile bast Il.. where land and labor Clost'S are far lower than in Taiwan. Tai wan reverted to Chinese sovereignty . In 1949 dIe N ational iSI government retreated to Taiwan after losing the civil war wilth the Communists. a number of srnal ~I and medium-sized companies have shi ned theirmanufaeturmg operations to rhe mainland. the greater Shanghai metropolitan area. setting up factories and running hotels and restaurants. Taiwanese businessmen are eager to exploit their cultural and li nguistic ties to the mainland. two systems' model.Unit 6. Today the People's Republic of China is eager to reunne with the island under the "one country. According to the Chinese government. Today they <can be found in all comers of the People's Republic .. .e the 'Iai wanese that they will be able to maintain their economic and politicel system after reuni fication with the mainland. which became its colonial master for half a century.WO decades. the Manchu gcvemment ceded Taiwan to Japan.1895. Despite the Taiwanese government's misgi vings. After the Second Wodd Walr. first proposed to Hong Kong. This formuki. alone is 110W horneto over a quarter million Taiwanese businessmen and their famifies.

instead of using .stianm. and xingo: flu (Saturday).lmedia.'(ingqi.. with llbai tian for Sunday.' The seven days. one simply adds the appropriate number tothe word xingqi: xingqi er (Tuesday) • . Tian and ri both mean "day. in written formal Chinese. and so on.gqi tiatt. were known as libai )'i (Monday). meaningt'worship.sionades who.MandJadoll U On 7 . Each momh was divided into three lunar phases of ten days each. x.'t·ingqi san (Wednesday).. lihoi 131' (Tuesday). In fact. xingq! sf (Thursday). there the word UDai is the nonln rather lhanxingqi.. but they have belen preservedin spoken Chinese. Monday is considered the first day of ~he 'week andis cal led "week-one't-s. ~2 ." The seven-day week was inrroduced to Ch~na by Chri.ingqiwu (Friday).xingqi yi.~::. . in colloquial Chinese. Days and Months It's easy to remember the days of the week ill Chinese. the Chinese followed theJunar calendar. Because of'theirrellglous overtones. therefore. Before the introduction of the seven-day week. settled on the word libai. the terms fell out of use in the off ci a. particularly in the south and in Taiwan. or xingqi ri. To name the rest of the week. Sunday is caned xln.

qi yue. known as [he first ID1J}onLh. The word (. However. Therefore." vue.vue. er yue . However. September.. February the second month.. May. JUHle. the twel ve months jn Chiuese are: yi yue. January. July: ba yue.lu~itseU means "beginning. ch« 'er. one puts the number before. April. chusan. shi yi J"U'f:'." The lunar calendar. December. rraditional 1:11 holidays and festi val s are sti ~I ~observed accord'il'liIg to the yil1li. February. shi yue~ October.l\fandarin Unit '1 (continued) [I The first ten days 'Of the rnonth were caned chuyi. The names of the mouths are similarly straightforward. J anuaryis 13 . .. rather than after. WU! yue. liu yue. s i yme. san. March. November: and shi er yue. the word for "month. and so on. or yinli ~ was abolished ~ ~ 911. August: jiu _vue. continuingup to chush).

On the whole. which can be found on every street corner . People's Republic American blockbusters such as Forrest . watch fil ~ms at home on pirated VCDs and DVDs. f lm has been animponant form of entertai nment for the ChilI1HeSe. in 19'49" Hotlywood films disappeared fromjhe scene. had a very limited release. To attract more customers. however.~ 99'Os. number of new. .G. especially those fiving in cities. when the Chinese government reversed its policy. Then. Most people. Some Chinese movies were banned ~ others. after the founding of the of China. Since the . Westerners may be familiar wwth a number of Chinese films that the Chinese themselves have never seen. audiences are dwindl ing.~11Chinese cities. However.M£IllldiariJl II UnitS Cinema was introdnced to ehruna one year afterits debut in Paris on December 28. young film directors and producers are beginning ~O' attract 14 . Hollywood films dominated the Chinese market in the m 930s and ·405.~ 895.ump and Titanic have drawn large crowds wherever shey were shown in China. however. like Raise the Red Lantern. Ever since. Chinese movie theaters have started to convert to American-style muhiplexes. a.

Good-natured . even ifyou can 't hold a nme. The Road Home is just one of the newly-released films that have received critical and popular acclaim abroad. has. Card games are also eagerly arranged and anticipated at family reunions and parries. in bars. Quartets of men or women often play lateinto the n~ght amidst Mahjong. be a good sport and play along. Small fortunes are won or ~OSl ax ehe mahjong table. ibbing r and hamming are part of the merriment.MandaFin n Il~t8 (continued) notice worldwide. Karaoke. has also regainedits populari ty after being banned for decades. At times hke these it's best to. or at family gatherings. other forms ofentertainment have taken hold. traditionally a game clouds of cigarette smoke. IS . for Inseance. As movie audiences dwindle. for men and women of leisure.become wi ldlypopular with both young and old at banquets.. Guests are often invited to join in the fun.

often a small white triangle between the eyes and acros 8 the nose. Th e ~ ua~:e. jing. Actors specialize if[ one of four types of roles: the sheng.. Tile sheng are the leading male roles. The libretti. The dan are the female roles. Props and scenery are minimal: except for aI. ~I s are Rom eli me s proje cted on yrie top of the prosceoium arch 0:1" on one side of 'the stage. roday.lp.__ _ - I Beijing opera. lo[]UeraJ]y Beijing dmma •. andwarriors .. they were played by meu.. F or thi s re as on. These usually inchide martial or heroic characters and supernatural beings. the: stage is. mime. dance. of Beijing opera are adapted from classical Chinese literature and are well known to those who re gu ~ arty at tiend the performances. opera star Beverly Sills attended a performance of' Beijing opera during a visit to China and subsequently decided to introduce SlI. Reportedly. ia nrchalc and difficult to understand. and occasionally even magic. bare. dan. The actors wear clown make-up . Traditionally. The chou are essentially comk roles.eri'6 . The jil1g ate dle painted-face roles. They portray chasacters like scholars. O[ chou. officials. OIm]Y a few female impersonators are left.is more rhan just opera. however. It combines vocal and iustrumental music. table and a couple of chairs. ang however. acrobarics .

The state paid for all their expenses. took bu 'ines. at the ew York City Opera. The sight of businessmen ~n. dle. POI' lack of other nCCOln1110datioDS. some ornate.and looking. man portion of the population.cri ~p suit" and .laudann II tit~c .for better jobs. traditional courtyard theaters have been renovated for tourisu . trips. with a booming private. 110J'de. . economic sector. niii 10 BtIJ:siness Travel In the da So when the state dominated all facets of the economy" onl~ a.. migrant are fleeing rural -poverty.e.opera take place in modern theaters. party secretaries. boarding train and plane contrast starkly wuh the tcene at bus terminals and train stations.ofpensants from China's inland provinces de. Co . 11 .hiiny leather shoe. Today. Although mos l perfcnnances of Beijing . many remain ill the depot' . There. 'factory dir-ectors. cend upon the coastal cities. China is seeing more and more people criss-ere rung the country seeking business opportunities 01" cementing business ties.rriving by the thousands every day. and S:O 0111.

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'[andadm Iii.

Although tea is by fat the 1TI0~t popular beverage in China, coffee ha. made inroads, particularly in big cities, In the ]920s and ; 30 • coffee hom es in western en lave in Shanghai and Tianjin were favorite hangouts 1'01' writen and '0 tudents, During the 'Cu,l,lur,~1 Revolution I(] '966- 1976). coffee houses, along \ WI we. tern re taurants, virtuallj disappeared, In recent years, howe' er American franchises such as Starbucks, caned xil1Ji:bake in Chinese, have opened run Beiji ng and Shanghai, Part of Yunnan province and Hainan Island in southern China are ideal for growing coffee. evertheless, to most Chinese in small citles and rural areas. coffee remains a bitter, exotic drink.

18

Mandarin

n

nit: 11

In recent years China reduced the si x -day work week to five, In addition, employees get at least several days off for each' major Jrolidey: the Chinese New Year (bate January or February), May Day or Labor Day (May I), and Natioual Day

(October I] . These, however. are presently the ) only paid vacations, 011 average, Chinese people,
ar Ieast those who live in urban areas, have from two to three weeks of vacation, Because everyone goes on vacation at the same time.jourist destinations are jam-packed. Those who crave peace and quiet would do wellto avoid traveling around these major holidays. The increase m leisure time is ha ving a farreaching impact nil China's economy and society. creating financial windfalls for restaurants, amusement parks, hotels, and towns with picturesque waterways or pagodas. Unli ke Americans. the Chinese ami€! Jess likely to' takeparr in outdoor far sports such as skjing Orr scuba diving when they go on vacation.

19

Mandar.iu U
UI.1IJ.~t II {continued)

Mong bean cakes are small, bite-size pastries
~nuf1lg beans ~ they are especially popular in the south and in Taiwan, Moon cakes are another favorite: they contain various fH~i.ngs SlH.:i1 as red beam paste", lotus seeds, ham, and salted made from

yolks of ducks" eggs.
Festival (Augus~ l Sth
011

During the Mid-Autumn
the lunar calendar, usually

sometime in September in the western calendar), the Chinese eat moon cakes in celebration of ~he ful ~Imoon. Elaborately packaged moon cakes are frequentl y exchanged as gitls.M,any restaurants
derive a substautial part of their annual profits from, the Mid-Autumn Pesrival, Mung bean cakes and moon cakes ere frequently served with tea, Desserts are not normallypart of a meal in Cbina: they are served only as part of a formal banquet.lnsteadl,

pasuies are eaten as snacks,

When the Chinese invite friends over for dinner, the host almost always begins a meal with the apology, "There's nothmg to eat" ~ despite the fact that he has probably gone all outand prepared H feast.
20

M:andadlll UnUn (con tiJ tued} [1 Guests then express unease over the abundance of food 0111 (he table and ~. 21 .. This is also a good way to politely discourage overzealous hosts frUITI continuously offem'ing more. while theguests exercise restraint." A suitably embarrassed expression accompanies the saying to further show one's 111. Chinese has a number of frequently-used formulaic expressions and. us Chinese culture highly values modesty . "There's nothing anywhere worthy of praise. the host heaps food on the plates in front of theguests." Like an languages.105t Chinese. "Where? U Where'T~ meaning. you. again. Once the [neal begins. rut is best to leave it discretely on the plate. they say nali nali. when Cbinese people reed ve a compliment.' the: Chi ne: e say bu' hue» yi si.When they accept an offer of help or receive ill gift. rather than "thank. U a guest does not care for a particular dish. For example. or "thank you. The high value placed on modesty also explai ns wI1 y Chi nese win de nee t a co mpl ~me nt rather than acceptingit graciousfy.odesty. "This ~~ embarrassing" or "I feel embarrassed [for having imposed 011 you]. insteao .hehost 's extrevagance.of xiexie.(1 social ritual for n. meaning . literally. This exchange js .

or ·'\¥elcoriD1e. Many of the sights around the lake have literary associations. These sightsinclude the Leifeng Pagoda. and the stone bridge. Hangzhou is also known for several important Buddhist temples. 22 Haogzhou . they often say yi lu shun [eng ~or "M'ay the wind be w~ithyou. the journey from Shanghaito Hangzhou takes slightly more than two hOlUS by train. It is famous for its picturesque West Lake" which is surrounded by IllJ1Sh hi] ls and has long been eulogized by Chinese poers. Tourism is an important part of Hangzhou' s economy.Mandarin II responsesvWhen animportant guest ora customer arrives Chinese people say huan ying gutlng lin. Shanghai. which collapsed in [he 1920s and is now being reconstructedrthe caus.'" When seeing someone off. especially beautiful when snowcovered in winter. The villages surrounding Hangzhou produce some of the besttea in China." Hangzhou lies south of China 'a Jargest city.eway. Besides Wesr Lake.

l of the famous gardens In' uzhou date from lhi era.With (uri sm booming.Mandarln II Uniit 12 (continued} Suzhou An hour to the northwes t of Shanghai ~ Suzhou was an important cu ltural center during '(he Ming and Qing dynasties. During is period it was also horne 'to a disproportionately large number of scholar-officials..pecially popular with Taiwanese high-tech firms. Today Suzhou ]. Unfortunately. The Suzhou metropolitan area is rapidly becoming one of the world s most important manufacturing center. al. urrounding . Mo. Much IOf the charm of the city carne from its dense ul network of'waterways. which are miniatures of Suzhou and feature the same combinations of ~and 'caped gardens. and canal scape s.mall towns. 0 an economic powerhous e. .. efforts are being made to re tore some of the . lis. suburbs have become e .er.. uone arc h bridge .' of the small canals and rivers were paved oy. which lasted from the fourteenth century through ibe nineteenth century. man. of laptop computers.

paper fans. extends from mid-June to the end of September. Moreover. playing ~ cards or chattingwith theirneighbors.- -- ------ ---- Mandal'i. poor 1y ventilated old quarters sit under shady trees. Banana trees and legendary beautleswere favorite subjects.Tnaddition. especially in the scuth. In fact. not everyone call afford an air condi~ ioner. Those lucky enough to Jive near ~he coast _". fan paintings were prized possessions among Chinese men of leuers.. Light in weight and easyto carry arou nd. yet many Chinese still find. Scholars and intel ]ectua Ispreferred folding. 24 . silk.[he Chi nese resorted to other methods to' stay cool. the se foldi ng f UI1IS were 0 fte n works of art as we] ~as. highly functional objects.. which. Beforethe advent of modern ai m'~cor1ldit~on~ng. barley tea. C h inese who h ve ill crowded. can be unbearably hot and humid in some parts of China. Women's fans wer-e oval-shaped and made of paper. They were often painted as well . tryi ng to catch the coo] evening breezes as the sun sets.~1JJII Unit 13 Summer. Today air conditioners are becomingmore and more common. Ollie inexpensive way was usmg a ftUl. om' feathers. all Chinese enjoypopular SUmD1er drinks such as ice cold rnung bean soup and. fans indispensable.

Personalnames are reserved for intimate friends and family members. connnonly address each other by adding either lao (meaning "old") or xiao (meaning "young") to the family name. they are celled "first names. l!I10S~Chinese are not on a firstname basis with many etherpeople. hierarchy and the nature of the relationship pia. Depending on their respective ages. Manager L" HI. U nlike Americans. co-workers. n UBit '13 (continued} take to the beaches in droves. Principal M -S' .Mallildarin.y an importam role in . In other words.S. thefamily name is spoken first) It's considered impolite to address one's superior by hls or her personal name. even younger siblings are discouraged from lISrullg Ulek older brothers' and sisters' personal names Instead they say gege C'dder brother") or jiejie C'e. for example. tthe personat ~ I T" ian.ill Cbina.' but remember [hat. pronoun ni C'you'~) is best avoided when talking to ones superior: the more formal nin is preferred. However.mn'I any.e 25 . Swimmingpools and water parks with various ridesare also popular destinatiens. Personal names alone are rarely used. The usual practice is to 'Use the official position Of title plus the famaly name. etc. especially for families with children. (fin the U.]de[ sister").

UD~r 14 After 1'949~when the Communist Party came into power" China became closed to. AI SO. With their recent economic dow nt urn . Malaysia. it's a good idea to avoid using the third person singular pronoun ta ("'he" or "she") if the person in question ispresent. Srarting in the [990s~ Chinese began to navel abroad as tourists. these countries eagerly welcome Chinese tourists. Furthermore. .estinauons d include South Korea and Southeast Asian countries such as Singapore. Japan and Austraha also began granting visas to Chinese tourists wHhin the last couple of years. U Unit 1. However. the rest of the world. Popul am.l\landar~rI.. except for state guests. as i111 the U.. no foreign visitors were allowed into Cbina. For nearly forty years it was almost impossible for ordinary citizens to leave the country. 26 . reflecting the new official "open-door'' pol icy and the increasi rig pros- perity of ordinary Chinese.S.3 (contbuu:d) determining how one refers to or addresses someone else. and Thailand.

alh. "no' to confronts tion. UnU 14 (continued) until recently." but al 0 wanting to avoid conn let the Tai wanese government has reacted with its own "Three _ 0'" policy: "no" to reunification. traffic 27 . communicatlons between the Chi nese mai iii land and Taiwan were broken off. . De pire the mainland s cal] for direct navigational links. Chinese wishing to go abroad had to participate in package tours.(1) the resumption of comm erce: (2) the exchange of mail. l". ines s and personal. the Chine. "no' to complete independence.1-· #11 r~ rIi.!lJa ." -- After the Civil War between the Communists and the National]. e government has given high priority to the renewal of three ties: . both bu. It is sti U very difficult to' travel overseas as an individual."'. s the Taiwan Straitvthe two. ts. As tension mounted aero. Likewise obtaining a passport is also becoming more "hassle-free. ·1]. and (3) the establishrnent of direct connections by air and sea" for born good and people. These have ceased. Fearing the inexorable pull of these so-called "three links. ~althouah les: so _.In order to pressure Taiv an into closer integration with mainland I hina. than in the past.. Ides e: changed dai Iy barrages of cannon tire.

ame income.-------- landarinH .often Hong Kong on-Macau. However.ed in a culture '[ha~ enerates old age. the Taiwanese government has recently allowed se eral~maJ] offshore islands to resume direct link' with the mainland.hrough a th ird destinatlon . Therefore. Much of hina L still predominantly rural in form and mentality." A scaled down version of the mainland's "three links. bowing to increasing internal and external pre ure. all' tong ~ which means "small three links. or marital status." it is widely seen as the first step in the full re toration of direct cornrnun ication ties. (he amount of money an acquaintance made wa . and notion of privacy differ from th se in the ~r. the hinese consider asking how o:ldomeone is a perfectly innocuous question.5 Westerners who go to China are often asked about their age" .alary. nwt 1. Ra~. nit 14 (continued) aero the narrow Tai wan Strait sHU has to be routed ~. everyone En I China bad marie or less the . t. This experiment is dubbed xiao . And for decades.

becomes\fvwder. and the . western notion of privacy are beginning to seep into Chinese society. Like one'ssalary. On the other hand.gap in income level. ~ openness to discus sing. However.lVlandarin II today. a 'king about ialary L n(ll~a breach of etiquette. Westerners sl ould not lake offense at any of these que aions. It remai ns to be seen whetheradverti ingwill make the Chine e a" youth-obses '. and can even be polite.ed as Americans. 'or 29 . Rather. There i.. Finally if a Chinese shows interest in a \VeslemlCr~sITUlrital status it is because family L important to the Chinese. less willingness am ug the Chinese to tall about issues of depres: jon and other mental health problems . but newspaper advice columns are already exhorting readers to refrain from asking women about their ages. anyone who is not comfortable an wering them directly can simply deflect them with a general or vague reply. Chinese people are apt to find American. EVl'!1m usually not a. it L also a good topic for conversation. inner turmoil rather puzzling.'. as China becomes more urbanized and commercialized. indicating an interest in you and your financial well-being. yinsi (pri vacy) is being gradually assimilated into everyday vocabulary. big secret.

A fifd1 (lfthe people in '~he'world llveln China. however.o$~. wen. the Chinese government began to enfom:ce population oun~mll ilmll earnest ~ the late ]970s .M.. population gro:v. Couples whose (i. Fom' example. Minorities are exempted fru:rn the one- child policy as.ght are Sl!JIbjCCl to penalties tha~ range from fines '[0 the child's being lneligjble for free education. The ~ ncreasing nl:obi~IJ of the populet ion mho makes it ~ dH:ticuHfor the governmentto catch violators of the oae-chikl policy. faT1ni~y planninghas taken ho~d run the cities. Implementing the one-child policy in China's va t hinterland has been far 11I10fe challenging. IIve in ru ral t i areas.. e who are ealLl.h . For ·the most pan. Shanghai and BeEjilli1g have achieved zero. one-child policy since 1979. Exceptions arc made in n cases of remarriages where one spouse does not have a biological child. However. To ensure suseainable growth. The po~icy may seem Draconian \1Vcs~:en::llers. (0.even negative. Chinesepeople. only IS to 20% of (he country's land is suitable for agricuhure. be seen. Ot1 a long-term basis. ).landariu n )lit 15 (c(mtinued) China 111(1 had an ofridal. Tho.0 . theimpact ofthe one-child policy on Chinese society remains no. om. bur it was deemed necessary by the Chinese government.rst child: isphysicall~ly memaUy handicapped are also al lowed [0 have or a second child.

and Bell-Alcatel aU have joint ventures in China.. coin-operatedphones are rare. 31 . In fact. Mos~ of them most accept cards only. Pay phones can be found on £1.nications companies have to cffer.1 every street corner. Tcdaypractically every adult in China's urban centers OWJlS a cell phone . WaSI!U1tw because Chima's phone system l recemly SIQ inadequate.stpeop. China.Mandarin II Urdt Hi Twenty years. Today Motorola. Ericsson. not to mention a beeper. i[was a rare Chinese family that had a telephone. the country has belen able toleapfrog the old analog technology amidemploy (he latest digital technology that western telecommu . Mo. Paradoxically. is the largest market for cell phones in the world. Nokia. ago.le relied on public pay phones. even non-existent in rum] areas. evenjn big cities. with one hundred twenty minion oell phone users.

stride' on the 'technological front Computers have replaced abacui es. In addition. (lindATMs are cropping up everywhere in big cities. A f ~W years ago. Chinese bank have made great. foreign banks were required to limit their business olely toforeign currency transactions.Banks The Big Four of hma's tate-owned banks are Bank of China. and Construction Bank of Chi na. f reign banks win increasingly be allowed to conduct busine "in (he local currency. major international banks have opened branches in China as well. with China's formal acceptance into the World Trade Organization. Chine e ATM accepted only local cards Today ~ foreign tourists can access their accounts from almost any ATM in CIhina. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China ([eBC). Until recently. 32 . Agricujtural Bank of China. Nevertheless. thus creating competition for the more inefficient state-owned banks. renminbi. However. many province andmcnicipalities have established their own bank ~and over the last decade.

hov ever. After the Qing d~ nasty was 0 erthrown in ill911.when hina wa under Manchu or Qing rule. rernai ns zhongguo. .andariin II UnU17 The Chinese refer to their country as zhm~Kg&w. .Iumghua mingun (Republic of China) . ong .t:uo for short When the Communists . To this day.h came to power in 1949 ~the country was ren amed zhonghua renmin gongheguo (People's Republic of China).the country wa known as the Great Qing . Therefore.mpire. the COILl ntry wa named after the reigning dynasty. Before the twen ti eth century. The word was invented to distinguish the original.. from I 644 to 11911].. In ancient times zhongguo referred to the various Chine e states in the central plains in northern 'hi1!la. Chinese nationalists called the new republic ::.M. hort version I. [he. which literally mean: {he Middle or Central Country. ethnic Chinese state: from the territories 01lJt ide Chinese civil ization.

. however. or abom a pound) of spinach in a grocery store Of '[\'\'0 liang (two hundred gram.''1 tem. 'owl 17 (continued) Measurements Like most other countries. Shoe sizesfollow the continental uropean .S. China now uses the metric ystern. Medium. are often labeled Small. people still a k for a jh~ (half a kilogram.en"IIU-ed on the Celsiusscale. 34 . and Extra Large. ding to tradition and measure distance in li (half a kilometer.e largely become a thing of the past One exception rnsweights. Clothing sizes vary. These do not nece . or about seven ounces) of WOmOI1 in a restaurant In rural areas peasant. an article of clothing marked "Extra Large" in China may be closer 'to a Medi1L111l1 in the U. Those bearing Amerjcan brand name. However... Large. Traditional measlLllremeotshav.. Most follov tbe European system. orr about a third of a mi ~e). whether or not (hey are authentic. Temperatures are I11. For example. onl y the metric system is official ~y recognized. arily correspond to American izes.

a. to stud.-- -- Mandarin II Unit. tm nation for Chinese ~tudents re ersing the historic traffic between the two C'OII. As a re ulr.'. Many ~. Buddl ism. capital. Changan.. Aller a. Becau e of its geographic prox imil" and it ' early start in modernization Japan became the most popular de. """'" 'Ii.afll~ 60. during the 19~-O. handful of brave Buddhist priests from China went on an ardueus trek to India in search of B uddhi st . and . erieso d]. between China and Japan deteriorated in the 1920s and 30s . a'. However.U1ILde'" However.astrou confronratiom . relation..with the West and with Japan.e. particularly Japan and Korea. At the same time. IS In its heyday during the Tang dynasty (618-907)1 Chi na wa a magnet forsmdents from neiahbori ng countries.. Chinese headed ]nstead to European and American universities Then carne the Communist Party 'sri se to power and the Korean War. time to send students abroad en masse. the Chinese realized how Cur they had fallen behind and began for [he 'first. government. and the Chinese language.- took the perllou: journej b land or sea to the Tang.. the former 35 . criptures.jhe I hinese did not begin to study abroad EO any significant number' until the early twentieth century.

". But.. From I978 to ~998 an estimated three hundred thousand Chinese pursued advanced degree. and America helped to shape every a peer of Chinese society. China isolated mt elf from the [est of ~he world.tudents with a foreign education are one of China's most important assets in its quest for modernization. best uni ver . particularly in science and engineering programs . any of the ke figures. the former Soviet Union.. This time America was the 0 erwhelming desti nation of choice. uing two decade. after Engl rn' h. Chinese students make up the largest group of international students ar America': universities. Today fifty thou and Chinese student are in the Ll. 36 .Mandarin II Unit ]. Chinese .S. in twentieth-century Chinese history studied abroad.8 (continued) Soviet Union and Eas [ern Europe replaced the West as the training ground for hi nese scicnti sts and engineer-s" In the eo. Chinese is the language most commonly heard in the research labs.ities. At some of America'.abroad.wn the 1980s~ China' brightest and most ambitious were again able to leavethe country. alone. Their experience' in Japan Europe.

if not all. AIL the' arne time. A substantial number of state-owned companies are ai ling financially and em] no longer afford '[0 fully fund their worker · medi . plan to spread OUI the cost of wel fare. Thee itinerant dOClOtS wen! often pes . CO. rural residene ~ receive inadequate medical care.ant themselves. barefoot doctor. har become mandatory m certain parts of China. v Recently 11Q\I_ ever. medical inc urance for children..Manda _ (] ." who served in rural urea.. as '~ en . China was once famous for rut. Employees are now required to hare medical cost. the health care system is also in nux. .. they have to assume complete reo ponsibility for their medical. 'They had a rudlmentary. 'Ilane ann _ UnU19 rfedical Care Like many other things in Ch~:na. al care. Unllke their urban cousins. the Chine e government ha begun to reorganize the System. State-ox ned companie used to reimburse mor t.'1' those of family members. These changes are all part of the government'._t. have ]argel~ disappeared. t . Unfortunately. Generally speaki ng. of their employees' medical co. but highly practical knot ledge of medicine and provided basic medical services to their fellow villagers. 37 . paid for b~ the family. "barefoot doctors.

a . mol nature. Hov ever.ers. the Chinese art of healing i also attracting belie. Xsrays and Mk]s.. A~o1J1g with imperial rule and foot-binding. we-re established to train of Chinese medicine.·~ two decade . Thi: viev of the work] ngs of the human body sterns from Chinese eo smolog . Chine e medscine aims at redressing the imbalance of po: iti e and negative energies. Chinese medicine was disrnis ed as part of an outdated .1l n in China swear by t~aditional Chinese medicine. the uni er se in duali: tic..which ee. moribund tradition. Today. In the West.. A fter tbe founding of the People 's Repu blic of China in 1949~ traditional Mo: t people Chine.l\llandari. e medicine Specialized college: practltioners Chinese doctor of traditional me dicine are schooled in western medicine as well and they routinely lise modern diagno: tic tools such a. JS . purious science. ets traditional Chine e medicine apart from its western counterpart is U' holi tic What primarily regained respectability.of the twentieth century Chine e medi ine \j a under attack by intellectuals educated in America and Burope. or even worse. along with more traditional means. Rather than treating symptoms. in the fil'.

Mox ibu t~on is another com mon therapy: this involves the application of moxa.btained from wormwood plants. e physician.ubs ranee . acupuncture. [til additi on to herbs and minerals. repertoire of the 39 . massage" and diet are frequently used. a •.-- ----- I nit )'9 (continued)' counteracting tenus. U the se to Is make up the therapeutic traditional Chine.

Public] ibraries and large bookstores are al 0 good place '(0 get online. Each year lens of millions of Chines e add computers to the increasingly Im'IJg li"IL of electronic equipment they 0\. China has. U nti~ a few years ago. were thri ing. Tine charge.ni. Meanwhile" computer ownership L increasing bv leap and bounds. caught the Interner fever. In a country where the government controls the mediav the Internet provides an alternarive venue for the young and the .D. Because of it capi tal-intensi e nature. e- There is a regional a. dot-corn busines 'Ie'. average abour five yuan (about sixty cents). the new technology also attracts the young and the affl uent of Chinese society.t 20 E-maiH and Internet Cafes Like the rest of the' world. Internet calif'S are becoming permanent fi xtures of the urban landscape. reflecting the larger overall di-purityin development between the more progressive coastal provmces un the east and 'the more traditional jnland pro inces jn the west.. lthough the fe.ndocioeconomic imbalance ill Internet acces: . •ubsided as ulany dot-corns have fallen by the wayside.Mandarin II . Cable companies in major cities already offer broadband services.er ha . an hour.

On the other hand. and mu. On one hand. Seoul. when direct Hight become po sible. Shanghai \ as transformed into a world-etas . Internet chat rooms have become all importanr barometer of Ute mood of an increasingly influential sector of Chinese society. Hong Kong. Beij ing Tokyo. t v al k a tightrope between nurturing the nascent technology and maintaining political stabi Iity. metropolis within decade". it is nearly equidistant from all] . Shanghai was a sleepy county Silent. hanghai is a thriving metrop lis. and. Once opened to the West. the c. however ~ igilant in suppres ] ng s what it considers su bversive views. t. U ntil the mid-nineteeruh century. Shanghai" location give. Situated at the mouth of the Yangtze River ill the middle of Chi na's east coast. By the 19201' i[ had 41 . the major cities in nom-thea.t~ an unbeatable competitive advantage. Asia. Osaka._.Mandarin II Unit 210 (continued} opinionated to sound off. Taipcicarc alii about tv 0 hours - away by ail". it reaches along China 's longest river into the vast hinterland to the west. Sbangha~ The largest city in r 'hina. The government.

attracting the brightest and t he most adventurous from China and from other part' of the world. and cultural center.. With the new polk)' of reform and re-opening up to the West. than its American counterpart. For instance. Today Shanghai is sizzl ing once again. most newspapers are delivered by mail. Shanghai began to experience a renaissance in the '~990s. At the same time it had also acql!l~red a reputation for being one of the most iniquitous places on earth.and culture.Unilt 20 (continued) become China's economic._ . ed down brothels and opium dens: it turned Shanghai into an industrial city" thu stripping it of its domi nance in trad '. ervice . After 1949 the Chinese government do. Also. in the days when private phones were few and far between telephone in the PO'·t office provided one of the few option for making dome uic and international 4. . financial.' finance. (em offers more . The Chinese postal ~.

Foreigners u' ing the pos tal: y temrnay encoun ter more fed tape than they are used to. '~wozu« . The government considers the. fewer people are lining up to use them.e precaution necessary '[10 prevent the dissemination of pornographic or antigovernment materials .. as phone cards and private phonesbecome more and more common.t' 0.l\ilan. materials often requires prior authorization at a desi gnated govern ment office. Packages and boxe: must be left open fOT postal clerks to inspect before they can be mailed. However. II Unit 21 (continued) long-distance alls. Even today the bigger branch offlces contain phone booths.0 go to my friend": place to ha e 43 . Sending audio or video.darin.[' Chinese "ford 'Order A salient feature of Chinese word order is the observance of the chronological principle.di lie q« wo de pelfg ".Oilnar elli wall jan. . A relatively new service that is gaining in popularity is postal savi ugscwhich offers a convenient alternan e t ' traditional bank'. Consumer can now open a savings account at any major po t office. Iote the example in the title which means: "I'm gOoi ro ng take the subway 1.

"The tea." of so in Chinese. Another factor affecting word order in Chi nes e ." rather than saying. Similarly. you could also s ay: "I'm going to my friend's place by subwayto have dinner.' Because you ha e to be at the uni ersiry before you can study (here. I finished it. 01" is the focus or topic of a discu sion. "Where did all the tea go?' he or she might an swer. to say th. tn Chinese. "My son is studying at Boston University." In English. You have [0 go to the place before you caw have dinner there. the word order WS determined by the' sequence of actions: You mu t get on the subway before you can go to your friend's place." 'When someone or something ha: already been mentioned.' Saying. Forinstance. • 44 . all. you must literally say. Another example L the English sentence. then [hat thing 'Orperson must be stated first. "My son at Boston University L' studying.i' "ropicatization. if a Chinese person were asked.I _ __ _ __ __ Mal1lJdarirl II UI1U 21 [continued) dinner. "I'm going to pick up my friend at the airport" is not possible in Chine 'e. "I'rn going to drive my car' to go to the airport to pick up my fri end." Here again the chronological principle is at work.a~you're going to pick up a friend at the airport. "'1 finw hed all the tea. Chinese say' Iiiterally.

t today many stand empty. In addition to taijiquan. All over the country. soccer clubs have loyal followings. Amareur teams were establ ished all over ~he COtlrIDU·y. E very morning ~ens'of thousands of retireespractice it in parks and on street corners to taped music. so many bowling alleys were buih tha. However. Falls often travel to different par~s of'the .For many years table tennis was perhapsthe most popular sport in China. The reason is s]mple: it doesn't require expensive equipment or much space. But becausethey are so intense. other Chinese martial arts are also popular. Bowling was introduced to Cbina in the late 1980s. and Chine IdUn1J]11Hl~ed the sport ill! international competitions for decades. country [0 follow the matches of local dubs agai nst their competitors. 45 . U quicklyreplaced table tennis in popularity. The most popular spectator sport in China is soccer.nd the elderly. or wijiq"um. There aretwo professional leagues. Traditional sports such as shadow boxing. are popular with women 2I.

calligraphy. The e ·ok:ricweiqi has. Shaolin is also famous for having produced generations of martial monk. by the J apanese pronunciation. Today Shaoljn's reputation is built primarily on its H hm. more exalted status. Traditionally. Besides taijiquan and martial arts.Japanese name. beuer known in the U. or as internat tional chess.. There aee many differenr sty les and schools of martial art'. H wa one of the four requisite accomplishrnents for the. and painting. H~ei. martial arts school.S. It is the birthplace of Chinese chan Buddhism. . better know J] in the West by i~-.. achieved enlightenmenr is much lesi well known. the Chinese al '0 enjoy more cerebral sports such as Cbinese che s and the board garnew'eiqi. the founder of 'hem Buddhism. young and old play Chi nese chess. a. go .Mandarin n martial art require years of trainina under experienced masters. Chinese cbe . AU over China. which are often rivals.well-educated man of leisure ~.• i . zen Buddhn m.. ~he osher three being musk. in villages and cities. story as the place where Bodhidhanna.qistill has an elitis t image today. said to descend from the same ance . Us 46 . Perhaps the most famous scboel of manial arts is the Shaohn temple in the Henan province.

Unit 22 (continued] name means. Buses are plentiful. Street names are often written in both Chinese characters and pinyi» (a transcription into Roman letters). bLW~ they can be uncomfortably crowded: and for foreigners who don 't know the local language. grid pattern. Ithe game appears deceptively simple.jt can be difficuh W know where to get off. Many cities. China. Its complexity rises from the immense number of possible board positions. especi ally provincial capitals. H Umit 23 Finding one 's way around large Chinese cities is a relaf ve~y straightforward affair. Played with ~80 white stones and~.hebest professional players from these three couraries. and Korea sponsor tournaments attracting ~. Every year corporations in Japan. "game of encirclement. were laid cutin a. 47 .:8·~ black stones on a grid consisting of 19 horizonta] and~19 verticall ines.

Several models of taxis predominate dependi [Ig on the city. taxi!' ill Mandarin is ZIJ{} ciuan qiche.dj Several cities" such as Beijing. boast subways. form of the Cantonese word [Of "taxi.n:it 23. di is a short. For this reason. lrr Tianjin the city is overrun with small taxis called xiali made locally wnh Japanese parts. "To take a. Guangzhou. Be-cause of regional protectionism. and. they ate still affordable for the average citizen. and S[j]~ others have plans to build ithem. The municipal government of Shanghai banned xiaii from the city several years ago. another term has come inro popular usage: da di. claiming than they were big polluters and incongruous with the image of the city as a world- 48 . Shanghai.odadn I[ . locally made cars are often favored Olver models madein otherparts of ~hecountry.ruthfhe: German carmaker. taxis. or simply zuochuzu. In recent years. have become a welcome alternative. ne-arly all the taxi s m Shanghai are Volkswagen Santanas made by a Shanghai-based joint venture w.' Although taxis are more expensive than buses. which comes from Cantonese. For city-dwellers who are in a hurry or do not wish to fight for sta. or chuzu qiche.--- ---------- - Ma. Tianjin.. (c01uimu.nd~l1g room in a crowded bus..

. Rickshaws. this will help to ensure tba~ you are charged a fair rate.hID a predominantly rural society. down by as the Public Park....I . In any taxi. irs a good idea to ask fora receipt. For ordinary urban dwellers . Unit 24 Parks Parks in the English sense of the word did not exist in imperial China. Western-styleparks were first mtroduced ro urban Chinese in the late nineteenth Both had long traditions in Chima. once ubiquieous in China" disapOm' peared decades ago and can be seen onlyin films touri st spots in a fe w ci t~ es.--- _ _ classmetropolis. century in semi-colonial Tianjin. scbolar-officials their private gardens. limits to intruders (or commoners). The first park the British. was known gate reputedly featured cities such as Shangtlaw and in Shanghas. Emperors had rheir hunti 11g preserves. and both were off . laid. Its from a placard forbidding dogs 49 . temple grounds and open-air markets provided the main public spa/oes.

As a result. The authenticity of this legend is disputed. the world with a huge foreign exchange reserve. Unit 2.and Chinese from entry. After the Repu blican revolutioni n the early twentieth century . China is one of the biggesttrading nations in.former imperial playgrounds were opened to the public. 50 . Those lucky western by the enough to have foreign currency remittances from overseas could shop in special stores. bard currencies were highly coveted Chinese. but it has become part of the natienalistie Chinese lore. Today. Many of [he famous parksm Beijing. black markets dealing in foreign currency exchange thrived. The government bas therefore somewhat relaxed its control on 'Lurn:ncy exchange.5 In the old days of chronic shortages. such as (he Summer Palace Park and Beihai Park.. had imperial be gi nnings.

no formal official timetable. economy from the rest of [be world. er ice " t Chinese willing 'to travel abroad can also obtain foreign currency up to an amount set by the government at local banks.all pr-ovide currency exchange .. airports. which to a certain extent 5l . Howe er.ore _'. 'lin mol fully convertible. [lit rally. major bank branche . upscale department _. insulates the Chinese. the Chine curr _ ncy renminbi. but there i.") L.-- - Mandarin ]1 Unit 25 (continued) Foreign touri sts. Big tourist hotels. HIP ople' n oney. have no trouble exchanging money in China.~o' ernment has plans to make '[he renminbi fully convertible. of coun e. The .

. wlll adve .. ha: become a fad in the We't in recent years. Private busine ' owners frequently consult with feng shui expert 'ill order to she their factorie: and horne in the most auspiciou locations and thereby improve their balance sheets.energy. Theaim of feng shui is 10 bring various water bodie and land configurationsinto complete harmony so as to direct the flow of qi. in China the practice largely disappeared after the Communists carne into power. and genera] happiner s. Since then it has made a comeback. the traditional ar~ of auspicious siting. E en ~orne Fortune 500 companie have hired Ieng hum masten to improve the circulation 0 positi e energy. Ironically. - "'" 52 . . Benefit' of good fengshui encompass health and longevity. Feng shui is an amalgam of'ancient Chi nese belief. fecundity. for instance.. and feng shui was dismi sled as feudal superstition. es pecially in southeastern China.ely affect the well-be ins of one 's children.- - - -------- nit: 16 Feng hui. and they extend to one' descendems. prosperity. According to the princi ples of feng sbui. or vital . an ill-chosen ~ire for a grave.

The local brewery is the largest domestic producer of beer in China and part of the ci ty 's German iegacy." When the Chmrwese Communi st Party drove the Iationalists to Tai wan ~IW 1949. and German architecture makethe dry one of the most.- - - - -------- - --- MtuJJdarinl1 Qingdao. Qingdao's beaches. fresh air..Ill addition to the light thirst-quencher. Beij ing resumed both ][S original 53 . N anjiug and renamed Beijing "Beiping. clean streets. ana frequent patrons of Chi nese restau rants ~ the West. the name of the ci tv is n synonymous withi ts epon yrnous beer. Beijing. The cityis known for its abundaru local seafood and for its previous incarnanon as a German colony. In 1928 the N ationalisr govenunent moved the capital to. -~' Except for a brief period of time when the Nationalist Party was inpower. atso known as Tsingtao. popular touri s~ desti nations in China. sits on a peninsu la in N orthern China.--. formerly known in the 'Ves~as Peking. has been rhe capital of China since the Yuan Dynasty 0206-1368). In the minds of most Chinese.

Beij j ng. known 4~S the Forbidden City." is the political and cultural center of a high]y centralized country. however. Each year thousands of Chinese book tr~ps on cruise 1mers up the' Yangtze Riverto see rhe Three . a seaport to the south." While the massive wall surrounding the city 'was destroyed in the 1950~~ the vast former imperial palace complex. Several longstanding services.- - -- -----.---------. Other tourist attractions inclade the Great Wall. can still be visited. are another matter.. and air travel is increasingly aJfcwdable. lnerally "Northern Capital. for instance those from Shenghai to Ningbo.-.- - - - ---- Mandarin JI[] name and wtsstatus as the capital of China. were recendy discosuioued. Gorges before they are permanently submerged by the huge dam under COJ1sWucL~orJ. 54 ..-. which lies outside the city [he Summer Palace. Chinese travelers are abandoning boat travel en masse En favor of other means of transportation. Cruise ships. and the Temple of Heaven. China's network of h]ihways~s expandiug... U now houses the Palace Museum..

·· _ei saa . nree 'G-orges r' . The . but Chinese are getting busier every year. It was Ute capital of Chi na duri ng the Six Dynasty period. in southeastern 55 .. from 222589. [hem will be a more constant water level and wider shipping lanes. Both have been restored Cor [he benefit of tourists. is one of the ]1101'e attractive cities in the country. During the Miug and Qing Dynasties.----- ----- l\rlalld:ari.'. nenents 0. one Om may be declining. as was the Confucian Temple.-. In fact. V . The old plea' ure quarter along the Qinhuai Creek was faenous throughout China. In addition.-.w II ait 2:8 (continued) Boat travel waterways government is dredging rivers and widening canals in hopes of incecasing freight shipping. Nanjing boasts the longest city wall in the world. II i'-' . 1 TIl.Trom the fourteenth tothe nineteenth centuries. me dam project istheimprovement of the upper Yangtze River. as wel ] as numerous other historic Nanjing.. Nanjil12 China. the city was an important economic and cultural center.--.~. . of" ~.··l De = '~. of the navigability With the creation of a huge reservoir.~.. -'10' COFilJU) ..

indu strial center in northern Chi na.9 (continued) sites. ]n t:he cit y~and this history is. anjing is one of the so-called "Three Furnace 'on the Yangtze River. century by the Qing government.tern powers were able to carve out enclave. It is also the largest Tianjin. Together with Wuhan and Chongqing. i the capital s gateway to the sea. It was one of the fl e cities opened to foreign trade in the nineteenth. 56 . Tianjfn an hour away from Beijing. N an] j iIlg is also known for its steamy summer weather. Becau e of its proximity to Beijing. reflected in it architecture. We.- --- -- I andarinlI Un~t2. however. Tianjin often find: mt elf playing second fiddle to rutspowerful neighbor.

For this reason many people attend pedal nglis h language school or cla . English teachers are in gre'at demand. ses ill their pare' time. Although Chine estudent: begin learning Englis h as early as elementary . teachers and textbooks emphasize grammar over communication. Wi ~h Chi na now a member of dIe 'World Trade Organization. In pre parati on. they will also have to. a do textbooks and insrructional tapes. while many educated Chinese can read English few can speak it fluently. many government institutiorn and office.II11pany to a or chance to study abroad.ople wi: hing to hone' their con er rational skill . pa s an English language test before' obtaining their license 57 . Proficiency in Engli: h can lead to a highpaying job with an international Co. and with the 2008 Ol~ mpic: (0 be held in Beijing. des igned especially for them. taxi driver' listen to instructional tape. nglish language schools abound.- -- ---- -- -- EngJt h in Chlna English isa highly marketable skill in present-day China. In fact. and itis not unusual for tourists to be approached by young p . pay employees 1:0 take English classes during work hours.or - middle school. Therefore. In the flied' future. English will only become mor-e popular..

to drive a cab. people are encouraged to add rhe designased word 1:0 their vocabulary. a recent government policy stipulates that some coursesin selected universities be raught in English . Beijing has also instituted an Englisb-word-of-theday program: every day. Others inthe service industry are equally eagertopolish their English language skills. Furtherrnore. 58 ..

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