14 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011

Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Kevworas. Augmentea Realitv. Collaborative Mapping. E-Entrepreneurship. Ethics. Geolocation.
Geoslaverv. Geosocial Networking. Location Basea Services (LBS). Mapping Software
In recent decades, each technology innovation
has led to new entrepreneurs, oIten young people
with no business experience whatsoever, who
have taken advantage oI these opportunities,
oIIered with a click oI the mouse. Some oI these
ReaIity Mining, Location
Based Services, and
E-Business Opportunities:
The Case of City AnaIytics
Jose Antonio Ariza Montes. Universitv of Coraoba. Spain
Alfonso Carlos Morales Gutierrez. Universitv of Coraoba. Spain
Emilio Morales Fernanaez. Universitv of Coraoba. Spain
Alfreao Romeo. Citv 2020 Lta.. Spain
The use of internet along with other technologies that enable wireless connectivitv ana the expansion ana
aissemination of the real-time positioning (GPS) in all countries ana levels of the population is a great op-
portunitv for entrepreneurship in the hela of information technologv. This paper shows how the effective
channeling of the available information woula place aecision making at aifferent levels ana. regaraing aif-
ferent concerns of toaavs societv. connect the online worla of the Internet with the phvsical worla. This paper
has three parts. The hrst part shows characteristics of some applications that emerge from inaiviaual neeas
geosocial networking- ana those that arise to improve the functioning of societv ana of the public interest
like collaborative mapping ana augmentea realitv. In the secona part an example of e-enterpriseCitv 2020
Ltais aescribea as well as its use of these sources of opportunities. Finallv. the thira part analvzes the main
socio-ethical problems ana some opportunities of location basea services.
entrepreneurs, young and billionaires, appear in
the Forbes ranking, hobnobbing with the clas-
sic Bill Gates or Steve Jobs: Mark Zuckerberg
(Facebook co-Iounder), Yoshikazu Tanaka
(Gree), Sergey Brin and Larry Page (Google),
Robin Li (Baidu, the largest Chinese search
engine, with over 70° market share), Jerry
Yang (Yahoo), Pierre Omidyar (eBay, Iounder
and chairman), JeIIrey Bezos (Amazon) or Shi
DOI: 10.4018/ieei.2011040102
Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011 15
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Yuzhu (Giant Interactive, a company Iocused
on massively multiplayer online games).
Social inIormatics research Iocuses on
the relationships between inIormation and
communication technologies (ICTs) and the
larger social context they exist within (Kling &
Rosenbaum, 1998). The social implications oI
technologies have been explored under several
diIIerent theoretical Irameworks, including
technological determinism, social shaping oI
technology, critical inIormation theory and
social inIormatics. Just, the perspective adopted
in this paper Iocuses on the business opportu-
nities linked to the development oI a technol-
ogy such as Geolocation and Location Based
Services (LBS), one oI those technologies that
have opened a Iield oI possibilities unknown a
Iew years ago.
The business environment oI the 21
century is
accelerating more and more. The consolidation
oI the internet as the most important shaping
Iorce in the business world has generated new
business opportunities, changing traditional
patterns and the speed at which decisions must
be taken.
Our purpose is to show the opportunities
Ior entrepreneurship in the Iield oI inIorma-
tion technology, Iocusing on geolocation
systems. These opportunities require: a) the
use oI internet along with other technologies
that enable wireless connectivity (such as wiIi,
Bluetooth...), b) a real-time positioning (GPS),
and c) the expansion and dissemination oI these
technologies (mainly through mobile phones)
in all countries and all levels oI the population.
The antecedents to the use oI geolocation
systems are located in the Iirst websites that
adopted geocoding or geotagging Ieatures (the
process oI adding geographical identiIication
metadata to various media such as photographs,
video, websites, or RSS Ieeds) like Google Maps
or photo-sharing communities such as Flickr
or Panoramio. In this sense, YouTube staked
in July 2007 Ior this technology, upgrading
the service to Iacilitate geotagging capability.
Since then, Google Earth users can choose a
speciIic location on the planet and watch the
videos related. But it is actually since 2008
when expanded geolocation technologies in-
cluding cell tower localization have become
available, and devices such as digital cameras
and camera phones have integrated Ieatures
such as Wi-Fi connectivity and GPS naviga-
tion into more sophisticated capabilities such
as auto-geotagging.
Although the location capabilities were
incorporated into mobile phones in 2000, the
great turning point was determined by the ap-
pearance in the market oI iPhone, which pro-
vided the users with a technology with many
Iriendly location Iunctions (mapping soItware,
Flixster Ior showing schedules and reviews
oI movies, etc.). Since the inclusion oI these
geolocation Ieatures in the iPhone OS 1.1.3,
which complemented the cell tower location
technology with positioning systems Wi-Fi and
Skyhook Wireless-Assisted GPS (iPhone 3G),
there was exponential proliIeration oI location-
based applications.
The main obiective oI this paper is to show
how the eIIective channeling oI the available
inIormation would place decision making at diI-
Ierent levels and regarding diIIerent concerns oI
today`s society, connecting so the online world
oI Internet with the physical world. OI the many
possibilities oI combined use oI geolocation
inIormation in the network, the most important
one will be described in this paper.
The literature identiIies both current and Iu-
ture applications oI LBS to track and monitor
human subiects. These applications include
employee monitoring (Kaupins & Minch,
2006), government surveillance (Smith, 2006),
law enIorcement (Troshynski, Lee, & Dourish,
16 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
2008), source oI evidence (Strawn, 2009), pa-
tient monitoring (Xiao & Shen, 2006), locating
Iamily members Ior saIety (Masters & Michael,
2007: Brown & Taylor, 2007: Chou et al., 2008),
locating students at school (Glasser & Good-
man, 2007), identiIying kidnapped victims, and
socializing with Iriends (Nan & Guanling, 2009:
Page & Kobsa, 2009). In this section we will
develop some oI these applications that Iocused
on two main areas oI interest: those emerging
Irom individual needs and those arising to
improve the Iunctioning oI society and oI the
public interest.
3.1. IndividuaI Needs:
The emergence oI social networking is trans-
Iorming the Internet use by integrating Web site
creation, music, and communication networks
among peers, in a single application (such as
Myspace, Facebook or Tuenti). This dizzying
metamorphosis oI Iorm and media is evident at
personal and proIessional levels, while it requires
Irom all organizations a signiIicant eIIort to adapt
to these changes iI they do not want to stay out oI
this phenomenon. The president oI the Federation
oI Electronic Commerce and Direct Marketing
maniIested in this sense when she said that 'the
popularity oI social networking is transIorm-
ing the Iunctioning oI organizations, business
models and even attitudes toward customers
and employees¨
There is no doubt that the use oI mobile
phones that allow Internet access and participa-
tion in social networks have increased in recent
years. Thus, and according to a recent study by
the Pew Research Center-2009, 32° oI adults
surveyed use mobile phones to surI the Web,
which represents an increase oI 24° compared
to 2007. In addition, 47° oI adult users kept their
proIile in a social network in 2009 (compared
to only 8° in 2005), a percentage that reaches
72° among young people between 18-29 years.
Thanks to the widespread use oI these
technologies among the population are emerg-
ing business opportunities Iocused entirely on
the potential oIIered by social networks: market
niches within reach oI any smart developer whose
only opportunity cost is the time spent developing
the proiect. Moreover, as programmers oIten do
not develop their Iirst application with the aim oI
generating income, the success or Iailure is not
evaluated with criteria oI economic eIIiciency.
This Iact Iacilitates innovations that, in terms oI
investment, would never see the light.
This situation is the starting point Ior
entrepreneurial career that some authors have
already dubbed 'the Facebook economy,¨ a Iield
oI limitless opportunities available to anyone
since May 2007, when Zuckerberg, CEO and
Iounder oI Facebook, announced that the social
networking site Iounded in 2004 would open to
third-party developers, transIorming itselI into a
platIorm on which other businesses can operate.
In January 2008 there were more than 14,000
active Facebook applications Irom outside de-
velopers, allowing users to do almost everything:
Ilirt, look Ior books or play with other people in
any country oI the world.
This double expansion oI the use oI social
networks and the availability oI technologies
permit to know the location oI anyone at any
time, inIormation oI great value as it enriches the
possibilities oI social interaction. In this sense,
Kartik Hosanagar, ProIessor oI Operations and
InIormation Wharton, suggests that 'social net-
works based on the location have a high potential
because the service responds to people`s natural
desire to belong to a community and gain social
status¨ (Universia, 2010).
But, what is GeoSocial Networking? Born
Irom a combination oI location-based tracking
capabilities and the social networking phenom-
enon, geosocial networking is a method to con-
nect people based on their location at a certain
time through mobile devices, either by cell tower
triangulation, Wi-Fi or GPS capabilities. So,
Geosocial Networking is Location-Based Social
Networking (LBSN) in which the geographic
capabilities oI techniques such as geo-coding
and geo-tagging are exploited to unleash the
possibilities oI additional and enriched social
Geosocial Networking allows users to
interact with other considering location and
Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011 17
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
time. Web mapping services with geocoding
data Ior places such as streets, buildings, and
parks (such as Bing Maps or Google Maps)
can be used with geotagged inIormation (such
as meetups, concert events, or nightclub or
restaurant reviews) so that a user can ioin a
place or event or group oI people in order to
socialize, or a group oI users can decide on a
meeting activity.
Thus, we observe how internet technologies
are getting back the real world bringing the ben-
eIits oI lightning-quick, highly collaborative,
data-rich systems into social lives.
Although the number oI studies related
to this particular research question are scarce,
given that the Iirst popular LBSN application
was launched in the beginning oI 2009 (Google,
2009), with only beta applications existing in
August oI 2008. Until 2008 many GeoSocial
Networkings were set up, with websites like So-
cialight or Loopt as some oI the Iirst examples.
But the list ballooned to literally hundreds iI not
thousands over 2009. According to the research
Iirm Hitwise, Internet traIIic in these websites
has increased by 350° in iust one year and up
to 400° Foursquare traIIic since October 2009.
While it is true that most social network users
are university students or young proIessionals
in urban areas located in the age group 20-30
years, in Iact these social networks now have
over 800,000 active members scattered to diI-
Ierent parts oI the world.
3.2. Opportunities to
ResoIve PubIic Issues:
CoIIaborative Mapping and
Augmented ReaIity
In addition to the particular interest that any
individual may have in knowing where another
person is at any time given, there is certain inIor-
mation that may be useIul Ior solving problems
oI collective interest that could be channeled
through location-based services.
a) CoIIaborative Mapping
So, in disaster scenarios (e.g. Haiti earthquake
oI 2010), geosocial networking permits users
to coordinate around collaboratively Iiltered
geotag inIormation and to develop a collective
situational awareness through an assembly oI
individual perspectives. This type oI geosocial
networking is known as collaborative mapping.
In our everyday liIe, a person walking
or driving a vehicle on the streets oI the city
shows displacement patterns that explain certain
problems oI traIIic or pedestrian traIIic density.
To the extent that a growing percentage oI
these people walking in the city use devices
(usually mobile phones) with Bluetooth, much
inIormation could be analyzed to solve urban
problems. In this way, cities can become more
livable and healthy places.
There are already companies like Bitcar-
rier, Iounded in 2007, oIIering speciIic tools
to manage traIIic. These applications include
mobile devices with Bluetooth in cars that
provide inIormation used to improve traIIic
management in the city oI Barcelona. They are
currently working with the MIT SenseableC-
ity Labs (USA) and the UOC (Spain) in the
development oI new solutions.
In a more prospective level, reality mining
can be used by public institutions at diIIerent
areas, whether Ior dynamic mapping oI speciIic
tourism behaviour on certain monuments or
places, or Ior the control and management (lo-
gistics, saIety...) oI events involving abnormal
crowded oI people in conIined spaces (protest
demonstrations, public entertainment, etc). This
inIormation can also be used Ior commercial
b) Augmented ReaIity
Augmented reality (Haller, Billinghurst, &
Thomas, 2006: Cawood & Fiala, 2008: Hainich,
2009) is a term Ior a live direct or indirect view
oI a physical real-world environment whose
elements are combined with virtual components
to create a real-time mixed reality through a
set oI devices (GPS, accelerometers, digital
compass.) that allows to add virtual inIor-
mation to the existing physical inIormation.
In this way inIormation about the real world
becomes interactive and digitally usable when,
18 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Ior example, a user Iocuses a street on his mo-
bile and appears superimposed the image oI
the cash points, restaurants or metro stations
available. ArtiIicial inIormation about the
environment and the obiects in may be trans-
Iormed substantially suggesting its potential
in many areas, such as:
· Tourism: Ior example, when visiting an ar-
cheological monument could Iocus it with
a device that shows us the original state.
· Training: Ior example, new environment
Ior e-learning and simulation.
· Medicine: Ior example, incorporating
signiIicant data obtained Irom other di-
agnostic tests in the real image, Ior use
in telemedicine, telesurgery.
Numerous initiatives are emerging as a
sign oI growing interest oI this new technol-
: more than 150 applications Ior Apple
Store and dozens oI them Ior Android phones.
ThereIore, most companies aIIected by this
business area are positioning in the market.
Mobile phone companies, GPS devices, video
games (in this case real scenarios with virtual
players) or a 'reinvention¨ oI the Google
Streetview will have to adapt quickly to new
market conditions.
4.1. Core Business
(Information UtiIity) and
ImpIementation of TechnoIogy
Current technology allows real-time moni-
toring oI people movement in cities (while
going to work, walking, shopping...) and
this inIormation can be used Ior commercial
marketing. This individual behaviour can be
obtained in an anonymous way and then stored
and analyzed by businesses (shops, restaurants)
or even by public agencies (municipalities,
security Iorces) with the aim oI improving
decision making.
An example oI an e-enterprise that uses
this source oI opportunities is the company
City 2020 Ltd. It was Iounded in May 2010 by
three entrepreneurs and a share oI the company
Blobiect Ltd.
(owner oI the technology). Their
obiective was to become one oI the Iirst sensor
networks Ior gathering inIormation on what hap-
pens in the physical environment. InIormation
is the raw material oI this business and interest-
ing inIormation can be oI sociological nature
(analysis oI Ilows and movement oI people),
environmental (temperature, CO2, gases) and
may be compiled independently and without
human intervention. The inIormation collected
is transIormed into meaningIul knowledge that
can improve and optimize the decision made
by the users oI the application.
Initially, the company has developed
a product-application called City Analytics
(http://www.cityanalytics.net/), an essential
element oI the business. Conceptually, the basic
obiective oI the company is to become a utility
business, as it happens with certain basic sup-
plies such as electricity, water or gas. This would
be a business model similar to Google Analytics
with a strong local logic, but transIerred to the
physical world (Figure 1).
The service implies scanning mobile de-
vices with Bluetooth module enabled. From
these data, and through a process oI data min-
ing, the computer system Iacilitates and suggests
the automated decision-making Ior diIIerent
proIit or nonproIit users: public or private
(Figure 2).
The range oI City Analytics services has
two types oI technological approaches, depend-
ing on the type oI customer. In both cases, the
key lies in the simplicity oI the technology
implementation: a USB key or a watertight box
The basic technology Ior commercial es-
tablishments is a selI-installing kit (USB key)
which connected to a computer with internet
connection downloads the program City Ana-
Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011 19
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
lytics and, immediately, Data are analyzed and
inIormation is provided in real time
For malls and cities, the technological solu-
tion is more sophisticated and involves the use
oI small devices
that can perIorm the counting
oI people in diIIerent types oI environments
in which the organization has no communica-
tion available. This hardware is also rented to
companies Ior sustainable mobility and research
and technical consultants and market research
interested in collecting data.
The main advantage oI using this tech-
nology is the possibility oI deploying outdoor
devices to provide solutions to any city with an
interest in monitoring the Ilow oI people and
vehicles in speciIic areas.
4.2. Service Recipients
City Analytics soItware transIorms inIormation
into valuable knowledge available, in a service
that aims to help mainly:
Figure 1. Citv Analvtics
Figure 2. Operation of Citv Analvtics service
20 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
a) CommerciaI EstabIishments
Local small business is one oI the most numer-
ous and so important industries in the Span-
ish Economy. In 2007, the number oI retail
shops reached 645,000 establishments, with
an average size oI 2.91 workers per branch
and an annual turnover oI 200,000 million
Euros. Approximately less than 10° (60,000)
are Iranchised stores Irom some oI the more
than 1,000 existing Iranchise Iormats. About
100,000 establishments are restaurants, pubs
or coIIee bars, including about 20,000 a la
carte restaurants.
The availability and processing oI relevant
inIormation about behaviours and patterns oI
actual and potential buyers allows the computer
system solve relevant issues Ior the eIIective
management oI these small businesses such as
tight schedules oI opening and closing oI the
establishment, staIIing optimization, Irequency
analysis and customer loyalty, eIIectiveness
oI promotional campaigns and potential com-
mercial synergies with other establishments
Irom routes Irequented by customers (Figure 3).
b) PubIic and Private Agents
ReIated To Tourism and Trade
Tourism is the main source oI wealth in the
Spanish economy and there are many agencies
public, private and mixed responsible Ior the
study and analysis oI tourist behaviour in order
to adiust the supply oI products and services
to the demand in an increasingly competitive
Many oI these agencies employ specialized
consultants Ior reporting on tourist behaviour
in order to analyze the most important tourist
oI the area under study. The main
limitations oI these studies are asynchrony due
to the timing oI realization and, secondly, its
static nature, despite including many indicators.
Precisely, City Analytics service is a tool
Ior the study oI real-time behaviour oI tour-
ism (visiting areas, Ilows over the tourists,
most visited monuments, average time spent
in the area). The Iact oI obtaining inIormation
dynamically provides access to real time data
Irom any computer with Internet connection
(via web). At the same time, the rest oI tourist
agents present in a common area (restaurants
and shops in the area) could access the data,
knowing the tourist behaviour at that moment,
and making decisions based upon the analysis
oI inIormation provided.
The development oI these systems can go
a Iurther step by proximity marketing, popular-
ized by sending inIormation through Bluetooth
as a communication strategy. This would beneIit
both private institutions businesses can bid in
real time their products to passers like public
institutions (municipalities and tourism institu-
tions) who want to announce certain services
or cultural activities or attractions.
c) Enterprises of
Prospective Market
A prospective market consulting Iirm uses
the Ilow oI people walking down a street and
looks at whether this is the optimal location Ior
a business. Typically, this analysis is based on
speciIic counts on certain days oI a period oI
time and in small areas.
This approach is ineIIicient because manual
counting only allows knowing the number oI
people passing, without distinguishing between
those who are residents oI the area Irom those
who are occasional or assiduous (passers-by).
City Analytics service works as a prospective
market consulting Iirm, providing real time
inIormation on Number and type oI people
who pass by.
Another business line is renting standalone
devices Ior these companies. The rental oI de-
vices and access to web service inIormation will
enable these companies and other specialized
consultants to provide reports to others easily
and with little investment in time and human
d) Superstores and MaIIs
One oI the obiectives oI managers oI shopping
malls and supermarkets is to know the behaviour
Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011 21
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
oI users and customers. City Analytics service
can provide patterns oI people movement in
supermarkets. This can help in merchandising
techniques, optimizing the placement oI goods
and advertising claims in the area oI sales and
increase sales oI related products. It is also pos-
sible to investigate the behaviour oI people in
, taking into account issues oI particular
stores location, attractiveness and habits or
Irequency oI attendance at malls throughout
the year. With this inIormation schedules and
staIIing could be optimized.
e) Owner / Operators of
Business Premises
Another scope oI City Analytics is the rental oI
commercial premises. The tenant pays a Iixed
monthly price to the owner. Currently, the price
is Iixed, regardless oI what happens in the area or
the density oI potential customers who pass by.
However, the dynamics oI changing prices in
some industries, such as air transport oI passen-
gers or hotel accommodation is also applicable
to the real estate industry, especially in times oI
crisis with many properties that are not rented.
Setting a variable price depending on the
actual Ilow oI people and the subsequent monthly
billing makes more Ilexible the relationship
between sales oI the establishment (linked to
the number oI people passing by local rental)
with the optimal price to pay Ior monthly rent.
f) Other UtiIities for Agents
of PubIic Nature
Currently, municipal taxes Ior businesses are
calculated according to the geographical area
neighbourhood without distinguishing the
Iact that in the same geographical area there
are streets where the Ilow oI people is massive
compared to others in which the Ilow oI people
is residual. City Analytics service applied to
count the number oI people passing may involve
the development oI variable commercial taxes
depending on the Ilow oI real people who go
through the same physical location, thereby
contributing to greater social iustice.
Figure 3. Example of information proviaea bv Citv
22 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Another City Analytics service application
is to manage the accumulation oI people in areas
and/or speciIic events such as demonstrations,
concerts, sporting events or, Ior example, airports,
where the inIormation provided by City Analytics
helps manage the queues Ior baggage check, the
check-in oI the passenger and passage through
the screening oI passengers beIore boarding.
The Iocus oI the literature on LBS in general
does not surround the technological aspects
oI design but the use and implications Irom a
social inIormatics perspective. Most oI these
researches have been conducted on humancen-
tric LBS in terms oI their social implications.
So, Michael, Fusco and Michael`s research
(2008) note on the ethics oI LBS provides a
concise summary oI the literature on the socio-
ethical implications oI LBS. These authors
identiIy trust, control, security and privacy as
the main social-ethical implications oI LBS.
First, regarding the inIluence oI trust in
the LBS, the literature has predominantly
used scenarios (Perusco & Michael, 2005),
theory based discussion oI workplace practices
(Weckert, 2000) and addressed consumer trust
with respect to LBS (Borriello, 2005).
Secondly, in terms oI control, Dobson
and Fisher (2003) provide an account oI the
concept oI 'geoslavery¨, which is deIined as
'the practice in which one entity, the master,
coercively or surreptitiously monitors and
exerts control over the physical location oI
another individual, the slave¨. Otherwise
Troshynski, Lee, and Dourish`s (2008) work
draws upon two Iocus groups oI parole sex
oIIenders to explore the ways that LBS Irame
people`s everyday experience oI space. A
handIul oI studies have made mention oI the
parallel between LBS and Michel Foucault`s
Panopticon design Ior prisons (Troshynski,
Lee, & Dourish, 2008: Joore, 2008: Dobson &
Fisher, 2007). Foucault argued 'that the omni-
present threat oI surveillance renders the actual
exercise oI power (or violence) unnecessary:
the mechanisms oI pervasive surveillance
induce discipline and docility in those who
are surveilled¨ (Troshynski, Lee, & Dourish,
2008). LBS represent a modern Iorm oI the
Panopticon prison, exerting implicit control
through the ability to observe.
Thirdly, LBS can be used to provide
security, such as law enIorcement in order to
Figure 4. Problems ana opportunities of socio-ethical nature
Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011 23
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
make 'police more eIIicient in the war against
crime¨ (Dowdell, 2005) and also Ior border
security (Glasser & Goodman, 2007). However
they can also present a threat to security (Lockton
& Rosenberg, 2005).
Finally, the most problematic issue is indi-
vidual privacy. LBS poses a threat to privacy in
the way that inIormation is collected, stored, used
and disclosed. The threat to privacy is Iurther
exacerbated by the aggregation and centraliza-
tion oI personal inIormation enabling location
inIormation to be combined with other personal
inIormation. However while privacy is important,
a hypothetical study requiring users to 'imag-
ine¨ the existence oI a LBS, provided evidence
to show that users were 'not overly concerned
about their privacy¨ (Gadzheva, 2007).
Figure 4 shows a summary oI the main
problems and opportunities oI these issues.
In relation to this matter should be noted
that the inIormation handled by City Analytics
is completely anonymous, so that privacy is in
principle assured as the only reIerence that
captures is a code Irom their mobile phone and
in no case the person is identiIied, since it is a
mobile telephone component, and thereIore
independent oI the associated telephone line.
Nevertheless, these new uses Ior the e-
venture is not exempt Irom Ialse rumors or
risks that can slow its spread and dissemination
such as the existence oI legal barriers related to
the protection oI personal data. In this sense,
we consider that monitoring can be done to an
individual by controlling his Bluetooth device
is undoubtedly much more anonymous than any
surveillance camera, increasingly common in
both public and private establishments, in closed
and open spaces.
Ariza, J. A., Morales, A. C., & Romeo, A. (2007).
Breaking through barriers in new technological
initiatives: Entrepreneurs in the context oI Iree
soItware. In Medina-Garrido, J. A., Martinez-Fierro,
S., & Ruiz-Navarro, J. (Eds.), Cases on information
technologv entrepreneurship (pp. 112137). Hershey,
PA: IGI Global.
Borriello, G. (2005). RFID: Tagging the world.
Communications of the ACM, 48, 3437.
Brown, B., & Taylor, A. (2007, September). Locating
Iamily values: A Iield trial oI the whereabouts clock.
In Proceeaings of the 9th International Conference
on Ubiquitous Computing, Innsbruck, Austria (pp.
Cawood, S., & Fiala, M. (2008). Augmentea realitv.
A practical guiae. Raleigh, NC: Pragmatic BookshelI.
Chou, L. D., Lai, N. H., Chen, Y. W., Chang, Y.
J., Huang, L. F., Chiang, W. L., et al. (2008, July).
Management oI mobile social network services
Ior Iamilies with developmental delay children. In
Proceeaings of the 10th International Conference
on e-health Networking. Applications ana Services,
Singapore (pp. 79-84).
Dobson, J. E., & Fisher, P. F. (2003). Geoslavery.
IEEE Technologv ana Societv Magazine, 22, 4752.
Dobson, J. E., & Fisher, P. F. (2007). The Panopti-
con`s changing geography. Geographical Review,
97, 307323.
Dowdell, E. M. (2005). You are here! Mapping the
boundaries oI the Fourth Amendment with GPS
technology. Rutgers Computer & Technologv Law
Journal, 32, 109131.
Gadzheva, M. (2007). Privacy concerns pertaining
to location-based services. International Journal of
Intercultural Information Management, 1, 4957.
Glasser, D. J., & Goodman, K. W. (2007). Chips, tags
and scanners: Ethical challenges Ior radio Irequency
identiIication. Ethics ana Information Technologv, 9,
101109. doi:10.1007/s10676-006-9124-0
Google. (2009). See where vour frienas are with
Google Latituae. Retrieved Irom http://googleblog.
Hainich, R. R. (2009). Augmentea realitv ana bevona.
Charleston, SC: Booksurge.
Haller, M., Billinghurst, M., & Thomas, B. (2006).
Emerging technologies of augmentea realitv.
Interfaces ana aesign. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Joore, P. (2008). Social aspects oI location-monitoring
systems: The case oI Guide Me and oI My-SOS. Social
Sciences Information. Information Sur les Sciences So-
ciales, 47, 253274. doi:10.1177/0539018408092573
24 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Kaupins, G., & Minch, R. (2006). Legal and ethi-
cal implications oI employee location monitoring.
International Journal of Technologv ana Human
Interaction, 2, 1620. doi:10.4018/ithi.2006070102
Kling, R., & Rosenbaum, H. (1998). Social inIor-
matics in inIormation science: An introduction.
Journal of the American Societv for Information
Science American Societv for Information Sci-
ence, 49, 10471052. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-
Lockton, V., & Rosenberg, R. (2005). RFID: The
next serious threat to privacy. Ethics ana Informa-
tion Technologv, 7, 221231. doi:10.1007/s10676-
Masters, A., & Michael, K. (2007). Lend me your
arms: The use and implications oI humancentric
RFID. Electronic Commerce Research ana Applica-
tions, 6, 2939. doi:10.1016/i.elerap.2006.04.008
Michael, M. G., Fusco, S. J., & Michael, K. (2008).
A research note on ethics in the emerging age oI
überveillance. Computer Communications, 31,
11921199. doi:10.1016/i.comcom.2008.01.023
Nan, L., & Guanling, C. (2009, August). Analysis oI
a location-based social network. In Proceeaings of
the 12
International Conference on Computational
Science ana Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Page, X., & Kobsa, A. (2009, August). The circles
oI latitude: Adoption and usage oI location tracking
in online social networking. In Proceeaings of the
International Conference on Computational
Science ana Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada
(pp. 1027-1030).
Perusco, L., & Michael, K. (2005, October). Hu-
mancentric applications oI precise location based
services. In Proceeaings of the IEEE International
Conference on eBusiness Engineering, Beiiing,
China (pp. 409-418).
Schapsis, C. (2010). Location basea social networks
links. A list of location basea social networks. Re-
trieved Irom http://bdnooz.com/lbsnlocation-based-
Smith, G. D. (2006). Private eyes are watching you:
with the implementation oI the E-911 mandate, who
will watch every move you make? Feaeral Com-
munications Law Journal, 58, 705721.
Strawn, C. (2009). Expanding the potential Ior GPS
evidence acquisition. Small Scale Digital Device
Forensics Journal, 3, 112.
Troshynski, E., Lee, C., & Dourish (2008, January).
Accountabilities oI presence: ReIraming location-
based systems. In Proceeaings of the Twentv-Sixth
Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in
Computing Svstems, Florence, Italy (pp. 487-496).
Universia. (2010). ¿Seran las reaes sociales basa-
aas en la localizacion el proximo gran fenomeno?
Retrieved Irom http://www.wharton.universia.net/
Weckert, J. (2000). Trust and monitoring in the
workplace. In Proceeaings of the IEEE Svmposium on
Technologv ana Societv, Rome, Italy (pp. 245-250).
Xiao, Y., & Shen, B. (2006). Security and privacy in
RFID and application in telemedicine. IEEE Com-
munications Magazine, 44, 6472. doi:10.1109/
The behavior oI the more than 20 million Inter-
net users in Spain attests oI this change: 78°
oI them read blogs, 65° are integrated into
a social network, 44° download pictures on
the Web, 73° use networks as entertainment
and to make decisions, 55° make purchase
decisions by advice Irom Iriends, 75° use
Web 2.0 tools.
A compiled list oI 'Location Based Social
Networking¨ sites is the Iollowing (Schapsis,
2010): Aka-Aki, Belysio, Bliin, Blumapia,
Blummi, Brightkite, Buddy Beacon, Bud-
dycloud, BuddyMob,BuddyWay, buzzd,
Carticipate, Centrl, CitySense, ComeTogethr,
Dodgeball, Dopplr, Duzine,EagleTweet, Find-
byClick, FindMe, Flaik,Footprint History,
FourSquare, Foyaie, Fraced, Friend Mapper,
Friends around me, Friends on Fire, GeoMe,
GeoSpot, GeoUpdater, Glympse, Google
Latitude, Gowalla, gpsME, Grindr, Groovr,
GyPSii,ICloseby, iPling, Ipoki, IRL, Jentro,
Junaio,LightPole, Limbo, Locaccino, Locatik,
Locatrix, Locr, Locle, Loki, Loopt, MapMe,
Map My Tracks, Match2Blue, MeetMoi,
Meet Now Live, MicrosoIt Vine, Mizoon,
Mobilaris, MobiLuck, Mologogo,Moximiti,
My Adventures, MyGeoDiary, MyGeolog,
Myrimis, myWingman, NAV2US, Now
Here,Nulaz, Ovalpath, Plazes, Pocket LiIe,
Pownce, Quiro, Qlique, Rally Up, Rummble,
Shizzow,Skobbler, Skout, SniII, Snikkr, So-
cialight, Sparrow, Spot Adventures, SpotJots,
Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011 25
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Stalqer, The Grid,Toai, Tonchidot, Toodalu,
Tooio, TownKing TownQueen, Trackut,
Trapster, Tripit, Troovy,Tweetsii, Twibble,
Twinkle,Twittelator, Unype, VicinityMatch,
Waze, weNear, WHERE¹, Whereis Ev-
eryone, WhereYouGonnaBe, Whrrl, Zhiing,
The Belgian company Blip Systems has
developed these types oI services, including
proximity marketing in airports such as Brus-
sels, Manchester, Copenhagen and Oslo. Blip
Systems delivers solutions to optimize the use
oI resources: people, space and processes.
Based on the Bluetooth technology, the com-
pany oIIers advanced business intelligence
solutions, which brings real-time manage-
ment inIormation about people movements to
achieve transparency, improved documenta-
tion and eIIiciency oI daily operations.
Examples oI such initiatives can be Iound as
Iollows: Layar (www.layar.com), Wikitude
(www.wikitude.org) and Acrossair (www.
The case oI Blobiect was described in a previ-
ous work (see Ariza, Morales y Romeo, 2007).
The design oI the computer system allows
queries to the database occur in the shortest
time possible and that the response time is
immediate. Likewise, the system is ready Ior
the reception oI all data types both in need oI
calculation and storage.
These devices contain a plate Ior process
control, wireless communications (XBee),
GPS, SD card, GPRS and Bluetooth module.
These indicators include the number oI visi-
tors, the most visited monuments, the means oI
transport used to reach the city or the average
expenditure per visitor.
For example, Pathintelligence company,
Iounded in 2006 in UK, Iacilitates decision
making oI malls and superstores by measuring
the passage oI clients within a commercial
zone that position Irom the radio Irequency
emitted by GSM phones.
Jose Antonio Ariza Montes has a PhD in Economic ana Business Science as well as Principal
Lecture of the Human Resources Area in the School of Business ana Economic Science -ETEA-
(Universiaaa ae Coraoba). Researcher ana professor. has publishea numerous articles in scientific
magazines ana is author of several books. Gestion integraaa ae personas. Una perspectiva de
organizacion (in collaboration) (Desclee De Brouwer. 1999). El reto del equilibrio: Vida personal
y proIesional (Desclee De Brouwer. 2002). Direccion y Administracion Integrada de Personas
(in collaboration) (McGraw-Hill. 2004).
Alfonso Carlos Morales Gutierrez has a PhD in Economic ana Business Science. Lecture of
Organization Theorv ana Strategic Management in the School of Business ana Economic Science
-ETEA- (Universiaaa ae Coraoba). He has written several books among them. Analisis y Diseño
de Sistemas Organizativos (2005. Thomson-Civitas). Direccion y Administracion Integrada de
Personas (in collaboration) (2004. McGraw-Hill). Analisis Economico de la Empresa Autoges-
tionada (2003-CIRIEC). Since 1990. he leaa the research group SEJ-148 'Co-operatives. Non
Profit Organization Stuaies ana Social Innovation (ETEA)` subsiaiea bv the Junta ae Anaalucia.
Emilio Morales Fernanaez has a PhD in Economic ana Business Science ana Senior Lecturer
of Organization ana Management of Business ana Human Resources in the School of Business
ana Economic Science (ETEA. Coraoba Universitv. Spain). Researcher of the research group
"Cooperatives Stuaies ana Non Lucrative Organizations" (PAIDI SEJ-148). As researcher he has
publishea articles in scientific magazines ana is coauthor of several books (Gestion integrada de
personas. Ea. Desclee De Brouwer. 1999 ana 2000, ana Direccion y Administracion Integrada
de Personas. Ea. McGraw-Hill. 2004).
26 Ìnternational Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Ìnnovation, 2(2), 14-26, April-June 2011
Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic Iorms without written permission oI IGI Global is prohibited.
Alfreao Romeo maiorea in Finance at the St. Louis Universitv (USA) in 1997. Financial analvst
at the Commerce Bank of St Louis for two ana a half vears has entrepeneurea in aifferent proiects
relatea to the Knowleage Societv. He is also author of the book 'La Pastilla Roia, SoItware Libre
y Revolucion Digital`. first book written in Spanish on free software ana the aigital revolution.
Blobiect's founaer ana partner. is responsible of the technologv consulting area of the companv.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful