.ANATOLIAN AND CAUCASIAN STU.

DrES

Igor M, Di:akonoff'
Th~ .Pre-:Mmzy ofdJe Arme:~: PiI!opJe (01985) Igor M. D~akooQ1iand V.P. Neromik

P1uyW~(1986)
Fint Intell':i.u:i(iltloV

Conrer;ence an .ll.!:Ine'mm Linguisrics

ed, by JonnA.. C. G'repp:in (1.9'81) fullltb: Inre-matiolW' C~(\'J'lce
0.11 ,Atmeniill1rm~r:i'C£ ed, by John A. C. Gttppin ('1992)

ThO:m$, V. G.amkn:1i:dze A1pkib~c Wriri~g .'V1d ,the Old Georgi,;m Script: ~. J)'p:cdogy md Pwv:cni~nc,e o(A1pbab~dc Wriiling SyJi~

(1.994)

John, A. C. Grepp1n Baik' cali.tll'{l;§:i~ The Greek~W:;V! Dic[foni1zy to Gale-n (1.985) John .11. C. G:reppi.n and .Amruy~H. Khat~h;lI:uri3l1 A" Handbook of Ar:l'neniow,Diilecwlogy (1986) Chaco Gudj edJi:w~:and Le:t~ Palmaids A" Svan-:Englis.f.J, DictilOnary' ed, by B., G(;Olge fleM.tt (1985)

Dee Ann, HoUsty Aspect and GoorgjaJ1 Medii! Verbs (1982)

The lfi1digenQlmLaugu~ges of tl:u~Caiuc.1Sm VoL 1~lne K;ntvelian .LmpAlge~ 00. by Alice C. Banis: (1992) Vol. 2: :rh~'North West C2uc.11S:ian. ~ap cd. by B. George Hevritt (1989) Vol. 3: The Norih. &t C::n:J~i.m ~~ges~ Pm 1 ed, by D. MichaelJQband Ricks Sm.eeu (in.ptep.) Vol 4: The Ntmfh ,WE CaLi'C~.tIl Lmgua:ges. Pm 2 ed.by Rieks Smeeu (1994) Antoine Mei.Ue[ (i91J~ tpf. 1981)

AJbJme'.rWc,h:e;$em.enwbuch S
O~te

Martiros Minassian d~~niU! orienw (1,982)
Do:[;1 Si.bym AnneW2t.l ,Proverbs' (1994)

Alphabetic Wri'ting and the Old GeDrgian Script
A Typology and'Provenience of Alphabetic Writing Systems,
- _, .- •V_ GAMKRmlD,By Tn OMAS __ .• -. '.' - .
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I'

CARAVAN .BOOKS D~, :NE\V' YORK. "99"

Tfar.i~red infO English iTomdlc Russian Edition of.l990pubmbe,d by Tbilisi Umve-.rsi,tyPress :English .Edition. Publisbed. by Cara!van. BOQks Dclnw'. Nt;w Y Q:rK·11~54...{l344, u.s .A. First Printing 1994 English tta!l\Slation 1994 Acade:mi<: Resources Corpouri.o:n .All rights ftSf;:wed.

!@

The p-a.perustd in mls publication meets the minim:umreqwrements of the American. National Stanmrd. for p.er:mant':rlce of Pa!?~r
for Printed Materiihi Z39.48-1964.

[Geris mban.uri. slstema da.ive:li. k~;ut'uli dam.ce'dob;ll. English] AJph.abeticwri~_ng :and the Old Georgian. script : a typology :and provenience of alphabetic w.riting syste:m.s: I cm..-·· (AIl.;t:oUan and C:ilI.ucasianstudies) Includes b~llliogti.phical [e:,fertnc.es.. ISBN Q..:88206-0S2-·t 1. Gemgim. 1m:guage---"Alphabet-Histo:ry. 2. Alph;\looc-Histo"Y', 3. Graph~mics. J. Title. U. Series. PK9ULG3613 1994
499' .. &----dc20 9 elP 94-15617 Thomss p.

v. Gamkrelidi2:e.

Con,ten,ts
7' 1. Old Semitic Comonan,t.U-Syllabic Writing 17
'2. The G[eeJtA1phah~t:icWri:ting 27

.3. Scripts of me Chrbtian Epoch Orlgi,lla:ringfrom, Greek
43

4. Old Ge-Orgl,iIllW'riti.n.g; "Asom.uvru.li: 8,3
Notes

97' :Bihliogra,phy

t.
,Old Semiti,c Con,sonanbll-SyUabicWridng
1. lHl' origi'n' Q/ ~lphal1tti'writil'lg S}'5t't'tm "'I the' Ckristii!j11 l'tnQd as a prlV'4'~ prtiblem of gen.tTDI ,typ.(!'fl'J<l1 DJwrl'tlng.
t .1.. The 6J:St alphabets of the Christian period, fuUovring Gre'ek and Latin, were' Coptic, Gothlc. Classical .A.l:menian. fberian (Old Georgian}. and Old Slavic. And. thQugh the histories of these language5 are weI known, the precise origin of their: writing systems, remains uncl.ear. The)' all com.!: under a common typological group of alphabetic; 'scripts showing ,quire a number ofstfUcrur.UBLypoIogical fcatmes. 0 ne should ~onsider 'these re3t1lres; ag:rinst the broad. backgrQund of the

pbylogenetic d,evelopment of writing and the fo:rma.ti.on. of ,3. p,rope[' alphabeti.c sYStl:ru, of whi c:hlhe Greek script is the earliest example. 2', Writing dU 4; Simi'otic. system and the General Thc~''1IifWriting t" Gmmmtdoloa.r U). ~j'Tht,Pltm.t Df Ccm'mt~' and ,!rn" PZane of
EX,f'EltiOfJ
11

of d Wrl£inl SJ'sum. HPanl,iigrnll'.tKs ~~~:r.rd!UmtltJc.st~of Wr:i'li:f~'

I'

Ifnd

2.1. Wri'ling $yst~ms will he conce'pr:uali:zed in what follows as a see of i.nt:e'rrelat~d characters 'Of.1 special nature. (orming a single integral s'tmc:ture. The concep'tu:;iliz:::!con of writing as a. scmioti~ syst'em places it on apar with the ether such human sym:ms. This defines the. theory of
lvn;ting; proposed in modem linguistic science, 'EO be: named ~!w1ogy ld. GeIb~, 1974; 1975.: l 04 0 :II.; 1980J. as a divisi;ou of the ge neral theory of si~ systems, viz. semiotics at semiology. 1 Thus we may .apply, to. the \vritingsYfitern. a. number of operaeienal conce-plS developed in other semiatic disciplines, primarily in. unguis-lies.. This is fac.:il:jUted not only by tbe dose histoeical r.eladomhip thill: exlSt'l, between language 3n.dwrlti:ng-th.e latter in a sense bel ng superimposed on hng.uag;e-bu:t, also by the. very nature of writing, which disp1aysmany of the common structural feature~ of a. language system. The ·c:onc~ptuilization of wriEing as a sign :system, affords a be:tter insight intiO its ontological nature. This c.onceptuali~ation enables one: to develop a. general 'typology of writi ng aad 'EO. determine it'S place in. the deve1opm,e:n't. of human eulrure. 2 .. . ill, a semiotic system. writing consists of visual symbols of 2 sign seruznrre. This mean'S that tVcry,,~riuen sign-symbol consritutes a

7'

OLD S.9I1ITIC CONSONANT
two-sided

AL-SYLL.ABIC WR.IT.lNG

entity .• i.e., ~ sy:stem.ic unie charncteru.ed by (\vo sides: expression of 11 graphi.c: symbol,. or illS .signdier (signans) is th",t ph~"&ical, substance by mems of' which II vlsuill represeruarion of a ~ll}lt is real:iz.ed. This repl'~el1ta.donmay be a dr,twing. iii g(!mnenic sign. Of a figure. The content of it graphic sj'gD. or its signiJied (s.fgna,rum) is ill thin is exp~e:d by suib ~ Vi1T1Ila. symbol. aU 00. '\i'II'b'ic'h it l5 cOr!e:'latcd. This may be Jl d~'finil~e cDncept, idea, numbc,t, word, sylh,'b]e, or an indhridiual sound. The wIlI'lJnl!!:>ynem. when seen as 01. agn SYSEem, is eharacrerized by ewe pbncs.-lilmse of expl'1t:ssion and ceneeru, ro wb.i:ch. because of their dual natnre, liIe g~ph.ic signs of .1 particular WtJitlng system are cerrelared, Such dual namre of the \vriring sy:wem gives grounds for a typoiogicil elassification ofwriting according to the character otiEs "plane of expression," This cbssilie:arion in [Urn 'pe:rrnilS " comp3Qt:ivc analysis of various l:'5'pe;s of ~ccipt in order to de,vclop cdrena for tbe:Lr assessmene,

C'Xp'cession :md conrcnt. The

necessary for the d.aritk~uon of the quesdon of the origin of \vri ting and
dl!;'benmrurion oEthe principM snges afits, phylo~ne:cic dC'I,·clopmeru,.2 2.3. Two principal t'Ypo]cgicru d.lSSi~m.ay be ideflrified "!vim refl.~d to the "plane of COliJJ[Cfl!["': (a) 5~nJJSilJgrnpby 0'[ ideograplJry. and
(b) phonography.

Sem.asiognph~· i$ ebaracteriseie of the d3SS of writing syStems 10 which me yaphil: !ti~ des.tgnue not me phonetic side of a particular lmguag.e (indir..'idual ",,"Or-dis. ynables. or sounds of the given language), ~ but i.nstead denote COIl.!I;it:[C concepn or even whole simatim'lls. They corre]lliLe chr:ecdy \!II1tfI the "plana of ceraenr" of the bnguage. [n ether words. ~n such 'wnong ly!itc~ the pl~t: of [,O'!J,te.!J'~p're~jed' by 'the wmiiJL.;and phrases of :l PktlcuLa.r la.ngu,a8~ diree d.YIil: Heeled in :rigm. the latter perliorn:iingtbe iote OIr UDlts wbich.-.don.g Mlh the words and. word combllu,doorS of a xoacrete lanSU:l~e-der.lgnl1te universal conceprual categories of various levels of WsEntIlOlt'L Such$lgns in ideoguphic (slUlUSiognphic) S,Ylitems, being conehtied re debnll;e conc~pl:S but devoid of the pbOIlcriC i!J1\r·e]opeof words of concrer:e ~~guigeS. Me undetsteed :a:nd read comedy by tepreseneanves of diverse bngu.:a~ who po~ kno'\'li'~!!dge rhese s-igns. i..e.. knmyledge of the of Cicrre1luon of IIhtse signs ~>rith,ecrncepts.. Such knovilcdse of the coment

me

me

of me Sl~gm;and sym bob of an ideographi I: :r;YII[em 1s base d either on m.1il identification of the~lr $lgnifie:rs Vllith objects. or me real world, whose icorm; rellccnon mey 1t~. or on a conven.pondilly adopred rehnon of concrete signs of:!. vlrlitinc syste:m (-0 corresponding semantic ,conceptu~

signffie:rs.1 [n dns c:onnC(;llon the quesDOIiiI arises rc.gwiing the plane of ~mion 0' 3. \vriting syst~m.. Tbe characters of an idoo~aphk sysrem

8

OLD SEM[T[C CON'SON.ANT.Al-SYLUililCWR.ITING mily graphkaUy re:semblew:ith thei[ signlDers me ol1jects of the re~l wodd which 'they .'lIe ccu::rcbt'Cd through their connection~vith co~~pondi.IJg COnC epts. Thisi.con.lc fC$embl:m,ce of the signi6er~ of the signs, ,of the system to the obj ects they reflect charaetenaes the writing Siys~emas pict(;lgr;~phic. i.e .• an iceeie sy:nem of '\.\'rici:ng. Vlbcnthe~ is no extewal :rese:m.blance be!::\Qeen the ~ymboJs of the ideograpni,c sys;tem and. the obje'~ of the real world ED whi.ch they are coudlaited byvinu.e of their Hnk 'W:ith. couec.Spon,di.ng conceptual c;ttego:rie~ (er: for: example, numeric::!l d~slgn:ld.ons) t:hewriting sys.re.rn, n1(l.¥ be deseribed as convenOOJl:ll. Pho.nogr~phyrefeI'S EO a class, of writing sYStC'I1llS in which the ~igt'l,i:liers, f the signs are con:eb,f,ed not to ,the uni versii.cmu:::eptu;d o C ategories of the langllage-essen.tially ;'I:l;,;ra±lableto aU Janguage communities iU a de6.mite level of cultural development-bUE re the ecncrere phcnerics of a patticuL.u bngn;tge. In. such s~ems it is not concepts th3t play the role of the signified of pam,cub;r si.gns" but concrete \:l,"otds charactedZeed by concf.f:tesour:n;ii:n:eh Ot b;nguage :units of a lower cmer--indi vidual syUablesand./.or sounas. ln the case of ph'l2l2og;faphic .~:.rsreJ'IDijknowlcdgt of the writing s.ysf,em prem.pposes mepreliminruy knowled&<: of rditti.on.'ihip--<l!ften wnvenD·M.u-----br:t'Wce:n the sign OUld.th~ concrete phonetic word ofthe given language, or the sound $~gmcnt ,of a lower order (syUable. sound). Writing p~operis belle:ve:d-a:pp:tre:ntly 'Without gufficiem: g:rom:uir-iO be represented by phonogrnphic ~ms,wrule ideogmphy constitutes in il$ phylogenc:tic dev.elopment a sert of preCUrs<l\r ofwri~i:ng. Thus.i np.nonogrJphic s'1r1cern.sw.riting is ah:e~ady correlated to ~pt:er;:h,and phonetic f:0I:rtl. of a language serves :<lStbeplane of co.nt~nf of such syst~ms--definiu~: sound scgtne;n:ts (phonetic word, 5yUables, or mdividual wu:nds) rum intJO~h~ $:ignijjc;d of the graphic signs of <I. writing
[0

me

me

Awrlting ,s;ystcm,. r~lSlted to phonography and p.o:s:se~lng ~huacters (:x'pre~singindividual lex.em:es of accacrete language, is de:fined 0.5 log(Jgr3ph.ic. A ~'eparat!! sign of such a syr.r.em is ::I. .logagrnm. A ;,hono~phiG :s;ys~em. wJthcharac:terS. e:l1pre~s.:in,g M.1;p'l'rnte syUibLes is j~'lined ~ syllabogr:aphy" The characters of such a ~ys.te:rnare s.,olllbo.WaJ'l!£ .. Aphonog;rn.phic systemtNi.th signs expressing in.div:idu;d seunds {somnd uni.ts)is d.esc:ri eclasrn.:dpb.:abe:t h In. the typdlogy of writing,~he alphabetic !iyst.c:1l'l occupies the ~-:! ~hest rnnk. It is the mQ:rit, eccaomiesl in terms ·oftheflumber of signs. ::le~dtd fora complete :rccordi:ng of phonetic~pee(h and for the ::.m:mussio.n of lnf(:lf1ll.arioll over a diU:lnce. Thereby th<l h:1vl::ntlo·n of ";phibeclc\\v:r:iting si.gnified.:rn Dutstlnmng achievement [n tbe cu.lt'Utii.

OLD SEM[TIC CONSONANTt\I.-SYll.A1UC\VR,ITING devcLoprnem of mankind" In the fonn. ofdphabeci,c wr.iti.ng m1ll1k:ind :iI,cqui[ed 3. simple ;m.d c:ff'ecti.v(:rrH~:ans of gr:aphicre-cotding of ~peechan.d

of 1ts; transmission over space and. time {cf. GeIb 1963; 197.5~ 19'80; Pulgrnm 19"76).4 In its tum, the ,il,ph.:tbetic :S~t:emi~ ~ubdl:vidcd inte phonQlOglCill' and plw,ncdctypcs. The pJu;moJo,gica1 SYfite:11l of w,riting ,re;cords graphically only tbc phonemic u:nlt$ of languagc.l.cav:ing out Oif cOImid.en:tion the :sound va:ri,m~ of phonemes, nomanee how th~y differ phomdcaRy .Phonologh::31 writiagi ~ 3]l;mifidal recording of the mu:nd form. of language in terms 'Of 'we phon,ologicai (phonem.ic.) units of language. employed in special litl guis.tic srudles, The phoJ'1.~ric s,y~item of writing expresses indi vid,uaJ. scund units of ]anguage. irr~spective of me!:!: phonemic s't<i.tus in the language system. The: b:is;roricall.y ~v:otv'ed 31phabetic systems of \vnting aee phor}.etic
although implicit reiliz:Hion ]s often observable of the phOll.O]Og:iCal principle and the :r~cmding in ~cript only of those 'ph.oneti., diff~(cn C~$ th;li!; hav'C afu:n.,t1QnaJ, disonc;ti VII:! m.eaning" Wi~h :r<;g:\l'dcQ the pl~e of expres'Sion,. phonographic sYllterm mea';!'be characterized by both picto~,y and COJlW'e:ntio"mwry ofth.c relation be['I.Veen the s:ignii1ed and the: sig;lifY.ing .of a sign. Thism.akes sense Vll'ithrtspect [0 JogogI'Jphr. whose signs. IlI.ay be e:h:herpktagrams or cOl1vr:rU:lQn,al g[~phk wmbol$.. With regard ro syllabograpllY and the $11.abet one should speak ora :full convcnDon:wry' of wrld.ng, fbt insuc.h $yste:n13lhe signified of the gn.:pmcsymbols,the:rn.selvesa:n1:11ot sign$ and are devoid of any CO.:r.Itent Theeefore, the signifIer'S' of such signs can by no means resemble mei.r signified.. In lhis case, one may specilk of the picmgl:aphy of graphk symbols only in the bistorical aspeet, i.e., from, the v:h::\vpoilJ.t of their probable gra:phic .re:&embb:n.c.e (if such is the c~e) 'to definite obj eets of we real world. My such resembla:nce _would rcllectthe primary origin. of :such &ymhols an:d their use in the semasiograpbic Or' log'Ogrlphk functionin :I. writing typology of non.:dpbabetic origin {d. Pu1gmn 19'76). Th:us,rne p:lme of ,o.llret:l:r of a script as a semiotic system is 'the. unLty of the h.~m;; of\"arious ],ecvt1s, f bngua,ge (sound, syllable word! o number. e~c ). denottd. in. variouswritingsy~tern:s .. by relevant. graphic symools., we concrete aggregate ef which fO.TIl'IStne p.l1mC of cx:prllSsio.n of
sylltems.
I

an

a p.:uticula:r wrid.ngsynem. S Specific de::;.1gn!ltions of the gra.phic. symbols of;!, conc[e:te:synem, 3.'], well as questio:ns of the di:rection. of writing, etc., ue ·aIso rel~ted to the
plane of e"ypres"Sio,n.

:2.4. Al.ong with the conceprs of the plane of expres'Siot.l 3:ri,d.the pJ:me of co.rlten.t of a writi ng sy~ceOl..the concepts of the pm,di~tk5 10

OLD SEMITIC CONSONANTAL-sYLLAB(CWRIT[N'G mel :tynbgmatics

,of writing should. also be trulsfe:rred ·fi:o:mlinguistics :[0 gmnm~ILtolo8T as a: se:mi.oti.e discipline .. . The pax.idi~!Iia ofwridng Ples,upposesme correlations ,of·the elements of wncng (grapbit: symbols) in a system. and their; eonsecutive
(linear) 3.m!llge:mt:ntwith
respect to one anoth,cr .. PaudigmOlt:ic!i of writi:n;g

a, S'tructmc govem.ed by the rules of ·om·ering of ·the set ·o:fgraphlc symbols in the s~Eem. and theil rc:presentation In. a definite linear 5.equ:ence~. Every wridng h~ i:rsspecial pandi.gmatic structure, :i.• e., its· own specific order of elements in. the S}"Stelll; its. O'W'l"l speciallinc:ar sequenc-l': of graphic symbols. IS The sy:n~¢s of writi.ng p:resu.p:poses correlations of the eleme:nrs of 'W'ritiIl;S (s,nphic symbols), r~p,[ese:l:'Jted in a defi:nire sequencc in the texit~ \"riwj" Lndi.viduu words, word combinations. or larger units of the synta:gmiilDcplane. The explidt demucat:ion. of the paradigmatic and syn.ugmatic
is plan,a of (l system. in·a:oduiCed into li:ngulS'UCS by de S~ure. should become an ahUg:atcO:ry p,rit'lciple also in. the. analYl!ls Qif a 'Writing system, in the generiltheo.ry ofwridng or gr..tmm~tology,.
2 i/.

A~ ..llt-DIY ~J t, Itl! ..xffiI:IiC ·r'l'J': ,•• '."0" ;ei ~~~. ,. ,.".:ntinJ

'J"........

pfop<er, Gdb 1963: 148 .5:; cf. how~ver. Ullendorif l. 917 ~ 5,13). The rease·n for thds is. [hat Old Semirie writing appem simultaneously as co.nson"nw. (parndigm3tic:illy •. Le.., "vidrin the system) and is syll;toic ·CS'y:n:tagmatic:ill:y..r.e., in the te.xt). -fn a. way, drls lS 3. dual system, emc:rging in the (ypologyofwriting a1S 3. certain intennediate link betvll"~n consistently syl1abJ'c [i.e., syllabi.c. both in. pandigrmucs and syntagmatfa: (c(. c. g.., the: Greek lin.ear: B writing)] and a1phabelir;:p[o~t s:ystel:n$of writi·ng {of the type of Cfmlcal Gree:k). :.\.2.. The Old. Seminc conson:mtd-syUabic writing,. cODS1sting of
'C'Wentyc-·two gra:p'hic signs of 3. lineuc:l:l.3IiI.Cte[. hi1.5a definite p!l.Udi.gmaric s.trucbll:e and strict O1"d,e'[of gn:phic dem.e1tt.$ within the system.. r't: ls. in. p:a.~djgnu.ti.cs that the consenaetal chuilct.eT of Old Semitic wcitingis manifested. defined by mumilly unifonn conespondence between the:

3.1... The Old Sem.i:ric:,. Or m.ore pr'eds~ly,. plI'O'to-Sem:i.·I::k ·writing, Dom. which the du-eeprincipal varieties of Semltk ,vrlting-Phm:nici;w, Cannn~te. and .Ar:m12ic:-originated later, should be desenbed as. 3. ,onson:mtH-~l1abir: srs-tern. of wri.ting (rather than conso.nantal ·p.ropet, i.e. I. an esse:ntiidly alphabetic system; c£. D:ri.VCT 1948: or wllabic

no,

grapbic symbols and co.nson:anw pbooe:mesof the language ..' In the :synagma:ti.cs of wri,ting tb~ same symb!:;lbpertbm:!. the: function of' syllabic: signs. The symbo.1s h avc the structure como·n:mt: p~1l'S

n

OID 'S~nTIC

GONSONANTAL-SYLLAIHC

WRITING

any vowel of the language. or the absence of ~.vowcl. depending on the morphological structme and ChilC:3Jcter of the word Or a:u:nbination of words (tesp. morphemes) exp,re.ssed by 3. cancrete~yntagmacic s~qu.en(;:e:

of graphic sy.mbols. U elike the pn,pedy syUabic system of ''ioVrld:ngwith, ;graphic symbols of the stmc;wt:e: c0n5onmlplns a definite voweJ----.
characteristic of' such it writing s.ystem both in paradigmaeics and in sy,nugrtL3dcs.---me: colUona:na1~jbhiC 5y.nem is chIr.ll.cterized by graph!c signs of the m-ucture: comonan[ plu~ ~y v:owd' crime language (Ot absence of ~ vowdl in syntagnutics" with the stmcrure of puce conso.nmt in. paradigmatics.,8 Thu.~. for e:nmple. 'the signs of Old Semi:tic: wri.ting. ", . " ' ,'-~ ~t . , .• an," '...l~" ·.:n . ,,"11 '::I expreSSing. .oonsonanw 1 VOi;.LUeS '" d b parawgmaticowY., cane d,<I.If'p'•...h 9 in !iyn:~gmati." c:o:mbination \Vi,th each. other {In and. bct'l respectively,. order to exp:t,'C:-ss dcfini[t. \vo:rd}. denote not individual comaoiiJ1:tS but ,a, concrete syib.bles of C(V) .strucl~re. S'llch 2. syntiligma;cc cornbinati'on of <:h:mctel'S In ancieet 'Pbocn.1dan f'e~epc'1lding on the con:ttxt-as Iabc'Utther"OJ" •~bi~Im.y fume!;'." The K 'i1eph rlgn. here denotes the syllilible raI, while, the &:ignJ ,becb s[,01nw:,ror 'the syllable; Ibi! or lbeJ/. a c,onso:nant 'with an. ili~ntV'owe~ which, in laJterda£~ co:n.sonant-syUabic systems, 'was designalled by a special diacritical sign. afme typ.e of Hebrew ~wi. Syr. ~~ Arab. sutban. AnalogQusl}"ro 'miist ·the chmdm of Old. Sem.i:ti.cwritin,g" ~phi;~ S" 'ajin. and '7 limed, whiCh occ:u·PY' definite pl::u::es in systemic sequence -of the ch;U'Ktcrs of Old Semrtic writing and express 'the parndi;p:u:ically conson:wtlll values of P~.', and 1, in 'me syn~tic sequence ~w (which in 'Phoenician :realE as ph, 'm "did" (sing.) or ;}a'3J.u"'did:'· (pl.)), express, concrete syllables of -CV- SU\lctW'e. Herein shQuld the specitl.dty of c.'O'nljonantal-synab~c writing be seen, dbrin;guishiug it fromp:rQpedy syJJabic and oons.istently Jpb2betiC systems

m,e

ofwri:ti:ng.tO

3.:3,_ The inv~tion of the Old Semitic conso:nmw..Isyllabic writing is considered by 4,. number of researchers as ;m.nde~dent
creation of aJ),iodividuil, genius <cf. Gelb 1963; 139-14,6,) .. :l:n so.lvi.n,g 'me problem ,of 'the creation. or ancient S,emicic.'writi:ng, the possibility of cen~n ~emal intiuen.ces ~hoiIJld also be taken into ;a<!count. In. partic:ubr Egypli~ hieroglyphics should, be considered" it being a nIhled-type' wri.ci:ng. which also contamed graphic symbols "W'ith single comonantal value$. of the s, r; d, etc, type: (c( Lundin. 1982). 3.4. In tbe typology writing. c01lSon!'llltid-8y1labic writing emerges as the more perli!:c:t'writing system :th:msylhbic o,r (evl!:n more so) th.e :$J'lIabo-logo1Jf3pbicwridng. It is pu:adigmalicillymor:e eeonemical, pemdtting an :uiequiII.tc' expression of th.cphon:c'tic si.de of the language by means ,of a small .Dumber of graphic sy.mbols----a,pproximatdy

or

corre.spondin.gro

'the nuniliC'..[ of oons.onant phonemes.

Hence

the

12

OLD SEMITIC CONSONANTAL-SYLLABIC

WRITING

invention of consonanral-sv H:l.bk writing was vnd.er1l11a:nd:ablyan eIlO'.IDlOU'l achievement. marking a new stage in 'the d_.evelopm~nt 'Of w'liting and pavlng ·the ~., {'CI'[ the fOml3ncn of a qu.alitativ'cly new writing; viz. the alph:tbetic system of writing.

13

OLD sa-lIT1C CONSONANT.ALSYLLABICWRITING TABLE 1. THE PHOENICIAN WRITING

Ab.i'nim

Jet;imil.r(t

tI

,
t

.,.'

M

S
if

K 1:
I

1

.<1

"'\

m z
I

.ft

j

,

m.
I'

,

, ,
'.' p.

., .. •• it' '" , ·t "" " •"a •
I
)IV J:

rV
i

., " •
A

"'Ia~
;:
1
i\

Y'

:1:%

'If'

2.

0) '=I,.,

M

I

(,

'?

n

I

t

I

.~

0
)

0

,
r

+x

w

C1

" w
4
)(.

t

)

1 ,;...
~

w

1

x

14

.oLD SEMITIC CONSONANT AL~SYLLABIC WRITlNG
TAB:I:E 2

THE .ANCIENT HEBREW SQUARE \VRJl'lNG
, il
II;
I

f(

:l.:l

a.",
;J ~

9 d h w'
Z

n r'
Ii

,, ,
~

:3

H

11

=
.,.
i
"

l

;\"11

n
t

f

t

• f\..n
·66
I

I

,

"
I 'el

,

t
j If' I

In

n

p'
q

,Cc)

, ", , , ~"
I,
~,

»

J

,
I

n

U

.,

"
.::lJ

,
~

3.1'1

l1
~D JJ

:J D

J

!J 'D
.I

7

,
,

~,'a

0

(:

Y'

,

I

" 'J. II" .,n,,. .t! b
fill,

,

, .,

y

.Jir

V b1

0

,,
t:I

~

,
!I'll

,It

,P

tr
l'

r ,

'IV
P'

.,

18'

III

"

15

,2~

The Gree.kAJphabetic Writing
f. na:nif~umdlidlft ~J Old Stmitie' CiHfJtltlllnt:al-SIJla~'i', Wrilinlin tit Greek and lin Trllmlaoll'Jto .the..A.lphdbt.ti£ Sl'lttmi oj Wntitl'R. 1.1. The emergence 'Of 'the ancient G'ftek system of wrl'ting an the basis afOld. Semitic (Ph.oenician} cD'lUooanral-syH.:Ibic script heralded the ~dvent of a, writing of a new strucru:r.al type--tbat of the .2lphabetic ~"'Ste:m ofwri'ting.. The transition from the Old Semitic c-onsonmta1-syllabic writing to a consistently alphabetic systecm WiS ,effected as th'e result of the u:e.:rlon of :spe:ei:d cbaracter.s.to express vowel s,o,und! of the langIDlge, ::ndependent of their combination with conso:nints. In (nher words" the formation of the :alphabeti.c system of writing became fe3Sl,bIe Vllith the ~ppearat:'icein tbeparadigmadcs of writing of special characters fordle
'rowel

phonc:mes a1o:n:g:w:i.th character.; Cor como.umtt proper.
of p:u:adigl:l.Urics caused radical

Such

changes in [he :~mugmatic$ of "Writing. In the sy]]tag[ruui~ of 'su,ch. a system, pwndigmaticaUy co!l1sonmta! ch~.c:t'e'n express '11m s:yUables of C (V) structure-as in the case of conslonanw~y1bbjc writing-but C01lfonmra1 phDn,cwes :proper. 'Vowel phQnemc:s ;In: oeoll'Vt'yed by spe,,~ai. ~igns ::ntrooUted into the pandigmatl.cs of writing. Thus the content of the ~o1s in. alphabetic writing appears, to beiden'!:ic:al in 'ilie :puldigmatics iL":'id syn,ta,gtnatics of the system {m.e sepi['ate expression. of vowels and :;j·nso:nantal phonemes). This is in concasc W 'the ccnsonantal-svllabic ~"5.tem of wri:ting in which. 'the: same signs expr,ess COU.'SQnm,t;s in '!he ;-uadigmadcs. and zyUables,along the :SYlItagmatk axis of th.e sy~teD~. 1.2. Such c;:hange frOnt 'me Sen:ricic.consonan~-s:yUllbic writing :,::;, he alphahetic system prop.-eI'-which led to a quaJitati.\'e le:tp in, t ~IQgy of writing-oc.cutted for the first time in post-Myoenaem Greek \vritiIlg. This was a result of the te,placemen'[ of 'the consonantal ..-.Jues of a number of '~gns by voc.alic values in. borrow:i:ng: the Old Semi:tk (phoellida:n) YnitinS: and, adapting it to ,the Gleek bngltage. In. ;--m:kulu, the Semitic sy:mbo!swid:i comon:m:talvc:llues: ;. h; i. ~.nd. w a ~"'C'ret.tansfQt1ti.ed. in the Greek system. in:to graphic. symbols with. the ~ctiv'e me:mi ngs of a, e. i, 0. and. u, cballicter.is1ic of these symbols ~ in. paradigmatics and in syntagma:ncs. The retendon of cheo'me:r ~ o:fthe ancient 'Semiti.(:\mting as ,o[lsonw,uiI.~1'·mbo1s In G[oek gave ::soc; co anew kind. of writing. alphabetic., w.hich initiated all the currently

transfom:latl.ornl

me

17

THE GREEK AlPHABETIC

WRITING
[11

known consistently alphabetic systems of writing.

creating the Gn:ek

writing to ,the Greek. language, the paradigmarics of the Old. Semicicw:riting 'w"aStiiJUy preserved, This was aw.incd. through me repL:l.Ce:me:ri:t of the Senri.oc consonanl:al values of inruvidu:lIl characters by cOIfespondiing vocalic
values in Greek and through the transformation of definite values of certain signs of the ScIlliti.csyst:em_ The plane of expression of the Old. Semitic system was aisou:1:aincd:, the' O'tulines of the sigm, tb.eir names, and the direction of writing nOm ri.ght to lett. This iIllem,1ted with, the direction of left to right in aleemaee lines in the;rrchak Greek boustr-ophedon writing. Howeqer. the sy:ntagmancs of writing in G[et:k altered significantly in compuison ',vitb the Old Semitic \"lr:iring, fur the introduction of special letters {lOll vowels tumcd~he Old. Semitic cOll.u:manw-sy:lJabic syu.ecm into an illphabetic one in which each gra:phk symbol expresses a. separa:te phoneme-consonantal or vocaJic-both in the p;u;adigmaoc'S and in the syntagm3ucs of the sys:tem. t .3,. ln 'me archaic Greek system of~ting" representi ng as it does the oldest variety of Greek 1.I,phabeo.c w.riti.ng in. the: fon:n it was originally cre:«ced,the Old Sctrtitic COimlon3l1t:u signs 'ileph, he.jdd, 4ajin,. and. w.i'w assumed. the function, of vocalic sign'S lot designa;ting the coacsponding G[(~ek vowels 3, e, i, a, and u-bQfu short and their correspondiag :Iong co~b~~es .i~.e, i; 6. and u (er. Table :3, of Greek
I)

alphabeti c system through ada.:pti:ngthe Phoenician

writing jU:X13posed 'With Old. Seminc), 11 In the archaic Greek sys[:em of writing" the ietrers \ and

synt:llgmaticalJ:y played a dual function, for they might express the vocal values of (i] and [u1 <IS well. as the values of (he non,-syll,,;bic elemen.t'S snd .[,u] (in sy-ntagmatic combinations wi.rh pmpe:r vowels e, ~.•and 0). Strictly speaking. the lettea, IimlllJ and Y u '4u16v in the a:rcl:i3lC Creek syst'e:r:n do not designate 'the i and u vowels proper but. sonantrc phonemes. Iii and IV'! with two positional. varia:n:ts: syllabi<: [i) and [u]" and cor:t:e!lpcmding rlQn-,syllabi.c; [jJ and ~] occu:n:inS 111 diphthongs of the lei, 3,,i..Oj.] and le~> a.~> CI~J types.12 t'n iUchaic Greek, the labiodental element [v']. occurring ill the intervocal position V-V in anlaut 'befure the vowet #- V serves as the third pos'donal variant of the same phoneme [IJ] {c( Morpurgo Daeies 1970: 80,6:).13 It WOIS this round [vl

me

u.]

me

of the archaic Greek hm.guOlIg'e th,u was expressed. I'll. the Greek writi:ng sYStCtn by the letter .f digMlUW (Greek .FaD), derived frOr.t1. Ehe Old g,emhic.Vwiw. The Greek letter in the Ollphabc'tic sequence occupies the s.a:mc,sb,,;th. place as the co:r.resP'O'ndingOM Sem:U::ksign. representing a oe~:tin graphic modi:6cJtion. of the lat~er. The '[racing ,of the: Secmitic wi"; ['eC'U1'S.in Greek 'Vlrriting in the arehsie Greek letrer y U ~:V.6v which derives from. the same Old Semitic letter. However, in Greek
18

THE GU1!K

ALPHABBTIC \,VRITING

: :::~.digm.aucsit occupies [lot the Sl~[:h place ccnespcading to Semitic '; i:~.digmarics {the place halting been occupied already by the letter .f

::.~,

deriving from. the same Semitic pI'Ototype:h bu~w'as placed :a;re

:_-. end of the Greek dphabetic sequence whkh ended predsdj'\llrith ~ :,,-;,~S, !:'!!V·¢nty~rhkd. graphic '!)j"mboI, 1.·4..The Greek voiced. ()cdlJs~ves b d g were expressed by ~he ~~m!.ric s<~g~"fur th.e corrcsPQ[J;rung voiced b d g; which in Greek ~~adigm~lIjG~ occupied. the same pbces 'i,mth respect to oth.er letters asin :::.~_ ~ corre~ponclj ng Semill,c. F.rom. the pOlm o[",'i.e'!.v of rendering Greek occlusives by : .:~pOl')din g Semitic graphic prototypes a.n:cntion. is 3uT<l:cted by the :-j,;t that to expre~'S the Gre-ek. voice1e~ (non-as:pirOlted) stops p. t:. k, use is ::-;ld.e of Sereiric charaeres for ccnespondi ng :lSpiratedp~ J!'I~ (c[ 'the

':-~d Semio.c lenerH)p~e. n law, and JJtap~ with Greek n 1ti,. T 1:0.6"and S;, ~(ml'm:). C cmve:rsely, the; Semitic letter ~ ~el. :x:p~i.ng e in Scr.nlcicr-ne 7:,-::.eren:taJ.ning voiceless aspIr:u:ed ecclasive phcnemes in Greek, /pkj and - b" .k +- .11,or q+j

>

(',

:",:'l'H~piI3.ted) emphatic derual pho.nem.e r. is tra:n~fe[l'edintot'he Greek . ;"_.~tem 'to designate the G{eek(lSp1raood pheneme t (cf. Gl'e.ek ® ~lll)"

""':.' are rendered in HCh.aic Greek'llv;riting tbrcm:gh joining the letters p • b_'15 This is d.ue to the f;tet~h~t the system .of Old ~-miti cwddng comprising only tv\l'etiLty-cvv'Oconsonant ~igns. had nO :-:.j:pe grl.phk s)f':nbob left t!o designate th.e wholes!!:t of Greek :-::.onemes.l ~ Special letters to designate these: G{eek aspirated phonemes o.5\veU a:ppe:rred ontyin later local varieties of Greek writing. ln [he ~,lJtcrn GtC!ek system of writing. special additi,Ql:lill symbols ~ ''Pi and X Xi .;~ 1Jariou~ gra.phi,c variallts) were developed to designai~C:'th.e voiceless i~b ~;-if.a:ted.l and These new symhols h.ad no prototypes in Old Semielc

e.

--'.:'long,
How should one accounr for the fa.ct, that. the creator' of th.e :;';eek alphabet identifIed the Semitic aspnared srcps p! (' fl iOVi.tb the :.ceek non-aspirated 1lI:lK,((.:ndcring them thtoughthe sigTIsit\, 'faD, and ":~~a. (t.<pm;:o:), which rdl.(1:ct Semitic graphic ptCitCli:YPCS for :dspirfltiCd ~,~ nds, where~ ~:Q d.e~lgl:lat:ethe Greek aspirated /t~I use is made of the u ~~:ai tic sign fo~ the (non-aspirated) I1:'mpn:;ltic r?li' Such phoaetic discrepancy between the Old Semitic and aIIChaic :~;eek writing systems, being obviously 'the ICSu~t. ofa deliberate =~i:sformil:tion of [he Old SemiticsYSICetn when adapting i[ to the Greek g,g1l3ge. is again explainable by the e>rccprional litlgLlisticfl~ir ~f the ;re..toe or the: G[~ek alphabet, A phonologically essenti at felture: of ; ~:::titi.c:: mphatic ccnsonants ls jdentified inthe Greek: :~yst('!:m, with the e ;':;'l r~tion of voiceless stops-~ featureessencal to Groeek.....--lwhe[easthe
:.~ ~·~,ureof:l!Spira.tio.n-phon,oJ.ogicaily

tedutuil3nt

f()l'

Semitic voiceless

19

THE GREEK .AlPHABETlC
c::onsmlants-JS

WRITING

disregarded, and the Semitic f Jt aree:quattd ..vim the .1t t ".fn accordmcewith this. the Semiti.c signs for the voiceless 3.S.pitate.d Jl were berrewed into the Greek system in order to render the pure voicekss S'oops.p t 1, while retaining :thcirretevwtpbces in the Greek pa:radigmatiU.18 1.5. Specifit ttUlSmm13ti.OIIs underwent ilie sysu'w of Semitic

Gtte:k pure: (n.Qn-aspiratM) ~tops

l'

lt

sibilmts
Unlike

Semieie, in G'I'eekthe need. arose ttlexp:r-e$8 only' two sibilan·t pho·neme-s:the voiced sihiImt spitant z (or a complex sound zd:. cf Hin 1902: 69; Fasmer 1914:: 10; Allen 1987: 5.9) and. thevoiceless spirant s, Of the fOur Se.mitic symbols designating sibilant spiran.cs.. in the Greek system it suffi.ccdEO use two syntbols to express corresponding sibilan:t &p:i:raors. Of these. the Semitic letter fot: z {za.jin} was used to express the

.z. s,

~,. and. iIi in ad;:lpting th.e Old Semi.tic "Writing

to

Greek.

Gruk z (rcsp. zd). Greek Z ~iita.while in older to designate the GrelCk

s.ibiLantropltant $: use was: made: not of th.e Semitic CI ~. (the phon.e6c v:due s). whkhwould have been CJ.uite nsrural inview of the :phon.etic s~mHarity be:meen the Semitic s and the Greek S', but the Se:luiric 'II! irll which itl Semitic expressed tbe hushing and/or hissing-hwhing phon.eme u~· (G" 'k le . ~ <R1J.l.U/ •.. '., .\ 19 :>J s .' rees; enee ~ Originall.y·, to expressthe hissing spiranr s in the archaic G[eek system use was. made of a special lerree M deriving from the: Semitic J: ~ide_ The: Doric name of rub letter. oav., may be related to the Semitic name sin. But 3keady in the eaily period of developmenr ·of Gtoel writing Gil:1IfeU eur ofuse, gi:lling place to the lener I: mljlU toexp.re:ss the G[~k :spirant s.. An exoeptl:onaly early loss by the le'tter oov--'whicb goes bad •. to Semitie J 1ide - of phontti.c v.iluc [s:Jand. its tnmsfe[ to the letter o;i1.J.mC3t.l be seen in. the fact th'i,llt he lerter aiN,. inh:bill.y t occupying a. place c..ouesponWngto tile Semitic ~.jde in Greek p313mgmati.cs,. dropped out of the system. Th.e le~el' oov did nor re~n in the: Greek. alp.hilbetiC sequ.enc;e lis originally held. place 'l.vith. its CQITe~pondingnumerical value (as was the case with leners I&l:y~u. 1;1, mlrnl1., which. had lost Of altered ·their:phonetic values but retain.ed. the1T ori:ginil places in the alphabetic sequence that reflected the corresponding aneiem Semitic paradigmadcs). This letter in ·the fomt of the symbol ":'>1 continued a later ex]srenc.e :i n 8yzmtine Gn~'Ck.LU:l.detthe :nam.e: of aUp.m « &t; Q.v 7t'1 "as nt") amdMm d'!Jc ItifinencM. value: of "gOO'" (cf.. Lufeld. 1914; 225).

rue

me

me

20

THE. GREEKAL'PHABEnc '\VRJ.TING
TABLE 3

1
'.,J

'... ,ii'

;;.

'i9, !lli<

.13

~ ·c Z !:Ii

E

Ji"
'..

I!! , Ii

ili
I:l

+
~

"~'1 II 8:8 '1 I ~ lr.I" I ',1"1\
I,
il

;1

A A •.
.di.

~.o.

AA

,4\
~.

"(Ill

~ • ~~ 'iM ',./1\ M: ,~ III. rf1 M M !!Ii ;~ ill. MfrN' •. tvN rlN r !!/'F1t rtN 1V'!!!1 , • "I' .. $!: ~ h,;:, X+'" o . Jaoe a q 0 a • cfl) a .0 II
!!II

J: ,!if" I) I H 8 iLl H B • r 'I' GI e tI, i: J ". ntl t .f I f ~"M 'NtF - ~. G'I. ,I "' f'tA,r " ~

I.~~" ,_'
I S

d,

;it E, ~',~.t, R"

rr "ill D ; ~

,

:'I'for lilt>. ap. 0 ,1'1 ~ FJi PF I~ Ft
iE.iII':t'

cc

J\,'. 5 S:

A,A,"

4AR

E!ooA

AA

<11

A

!!

,

~.

,.. <: (, liP, taO .# ~ 'E ,.. F '8
I

&

.I'BI'~.
,f' 01 ~ I'

A .: '. EI~ 1'"
H
,f

r ,~,r

I:

,til.

t:
I, iii
.. "

'!lIe;

"'\Ii

i HEI 4P& /'A

':l'

Eli

.(,.'
'Il :1
,If
I

~H . ~ t' K

.'.

A.II

BHI

rl' ~ [..

I' ~ K 'KK

11~I
I

113

II

1\ /'/\

Gil Mi II '" K, r AI

j

.t" I
iii,
ill, ,'ON

..
'"

M"
0
3:,

N!I:~.'~
b ". i
I '"
'II

,r- , '" M • , , tot if' <;' " q I":uot rp, r'
x+ Y!p
W '. 1-',
t~4.

')

~

1M'

r r ~' rr rn rr
~U
PPD r,Pt
11": T

,II'

M '• ~ : (1J?)9 : 'I

rh' rt).(rn " r " a.
9'
t'1'11! ,'Cj
i"

II

",'

T'J'
.",

{e

t

Yrv. ~~ '~,
... oX of)!:

,~::~1'v ; ,~~ ::: ~~
T ' ITf T T
iT,
t ....

PP:R ~PP" t po P I I" '" R~ tU 'iol: • :i(:.
I"

,.
nl
l'

lH!I.I

T

e

,..0,

'~TfY

X..

IIHVq'

~

"t''f +'

'i

** ,.1In, ,.1~ 'f
iii'

X

h 'bI I
ct'

I; 1"':1t

2J.

THE GR.EEK ALPHABETIC \VR[TING The Semitic 'l ,ide is the only graphic symbol among Old Semitic letters whose equivalent in Greekp:aradigmatics is '[1 ct represented at ~he place ~oi'Tesponruns [0 the Old. Semi tic paradigmade sequence. AU the other: symbols of the Old Semitic system are :retlected intheir Greek. graphi.c equivalents, wl'm the retentioe of their places, in the puadigmatic series, and with phonetic values tmns:fQrnled in accordance with the :phonetic structure of the Greek lang,uage. In several cases, characteristic of later 'sy~tems of Greek. wri ring, the grapbic symbols arc devoid of a concrete ph.onetic value, yet retaining 'their o'riginal places in the

paradigmatiC'S of the s,ystem and" accordingly, concrete nnmerical values.
1.6. Thus, the par.a,dj,gm3dcs of the Old Semitic system. can be

'fuDy mapped ontn its Gn:ek cO'unretp,m" apart from the singk; case of r:h.e
loss,of the gnphi~ equivaleot 'of the Semlric '! :!iide in the Greek A fi:'w additional leerers are identifiable in the Greek system that were created on prop,eily Greek ground in order co des-ignat{! Greek phonemes or combinations of phonemes fhat had not been. expressed in the archaic Greek system. This archaic Greek system with twenty -theec letters, in the alphabetic; sequence, c:nrung with the symbol, Y i} 'lItA.OV' constitutes that ecramon original core 'from which later all other varieties of Greek il:phabeticwd'ti ns were derived (Kirchhoff 1887), This, archaic Greek syst.em. of wriring-rcpreser:u:i:ng the oldes[ sped men of alphabetic scrip&-m!lSt have beenthe result of 'the indi.vidual creativity of an outstanding personali.ty who adapted Old Semitic writing: to 'thcrendc:ring of the phonetic system of the Greek language, thereby deveLoping a qualitatively new-alphabe:oc--systeM of Vi.mting. This presupposes the creation of archaic GreekwriOn.g initially at some particular place (probably on the islands of the southern archipelago). with its subsequent diffusion througho'Utthe Greek world in ,the shape of di.fI'ering local variants (d. JeHery 1961: 2ff.:). The beginning of t'he first millennium :B.C. should be: considered the period of creation of the Greck alphabetic writIng. It was then tbat the Old Seminc signs assumed the graphic shape characterisdcot' me 'tIadng: ofthe letters of archaic Greek writing (c:( :the highly characteristic s.hape 'of 'the <l,r'ch;ricGreek tc: "Wt:rw, whlch expresses the graphi;c form. of [he Semi:t'ic.H.t.~ap~· appears in Phoenician inscriptions only &om, t~hc that beginning <i,fmc: 9th century B..C. (cf. Gelb 1.963: 180 if.).

THE GREEK ALPHABET£C WRiTING

2.1.. The stable pat.ldiigmati:cs of Greek 3lp:habe:d.c wri,p.ng,• .:cur;wely tt-flecting mep"aradigmacics of itll protO'type, 'the Old Semitic ;::;;nson;mt-syllab.k wrilJng20----served as the basis fbrtn,e expression of zumerieal vahres 'by 'l'tl.earlS of letters" L e., for 'the em.ployment of these :~:t,e:rs:IS numbers, Thus, the plan;: of content of such writing should :.:.volve HOlt only the system ofphrn'ietic values expressed by individual ':":::lers but alse n1Jm,ecical v:Ll,ues whk:h cm be expressed. 'with rhe help' of ::: same graph.i,e symbols. The decimal D,umeution in Greek led to ehe decimal recording :f n,umber.s 'with the aid. of the gr<Iphk symbols of the Greek alphabel. r.,eli:m nine symbols of the paradigmatic sene'S served to eJCpICSS e'si:ngJe ±:,glLS,," [he not nine. "eens," and the follovnn.g nine, "hun&eds";

TABLE 4
NUMERICAl. "lureges"
,A

V.AlUES "Hundreds" 10

"Ten~'"
1

a
b g d
eo:

.I
K A M N

f

P
:E T 'J tb X

r

r

B

Ii E

2 ,3 4

k I'

m,
n

so
40 50

20

s
t
U

2{10
300

lOCI

5
61 S 9

ph
kll

500.
600

400

r;

(a)

a;
0 II

:z;
H

z
I

0

--P

b

60
70
80

'P D
"

F!!
0

700 800
900

0 th

9

(q)

90

For ~:ample', the numbe:r 11'1 IS recorded m,m: PIA (or AlP and ?L~).. 121 as PKA (or AKP and PAK), and so on. Undmnn.dibly. sllc,h.a system of e.x:p['~ingnume-ri(;d values by :::.~ansof individual gu,p.hk symbols of "Writing;requires a minimum of 9 • 3 == 27 symbols in. the synem.,ll and precisely Z7 graphic symboh: are ='~ntained in the classical Greek wnll:ngthat. took shape in, .Atbens tow:uds, ::e end of m'e fifth century ftC. on. the basis of the Ionian 3lphabet. :!l4iucterislically,the letters, of IEIl!! G~eekwri:Eing tharhad i.os~the'ix ,::::,idects d 'the Gn~.ck JeulC[S f Siyul1,!l«. C
23 :::::gilmI phonetic val,u~s as a result of pho.neti,c; tl::anifun.natio:ns of Greek

G. 1OO1rnCl) were

not. deleted from

THE GREEK ALPHA.ElETIC WRITING ilph:abetic seq,uence, even. though deprived ·o.faUphonelicv:alue. This s.hQuld be accounted for by a desire roprcese:rvethe old pmdigPl~tics ,g,f W'rldngmd,. accordingly! the old .numericOllvaloes of the tenen of the pa:radigmaticse:ri,(:s.The loss by cettain lenm of their phonetic values sad their exdusion.rrom the: writing :syst!em would eicbtime email oJ.chan.ge Oif the paI'~gmaci:cs Qfthe :!iystml and a.ccordiinsly ,of th.e numerical 'valUI!:$< of the len~rs r.emair:dng in '[he system, The sys~m of the numerical values ·of loloiri!ing se1'llesm,ert:by as akind of conswining factor oppOlled 'to the Ch:ange of the: mcienl: i:nhcrited. parlldi:gm_atics ofwriting.
It ean be concluded 'Otl. thesegt:ounds ma't ~he system. ·of nlm'J.e:r.kal alues in Oreek writing o:ri.gin~ud prior tome eeeueeeeee lin v Greek dialects ofth.e. oldest pooru::ti,c changes, (loss of the di~j, fusion. o:ffrletl.Vo varianltS oflhephane:me Ik/, etc ... It is hardlyp~~ble. ).

m,c

paraili:p1atic sei:ies but were retained

31C

their old. places in the

hovil'ev'e~. fOf such a sy.uem.. ro ha.V'e origi:n::Itedmc::ad,y In meuchaic Greek ''Wri.ripg'Wim its 23 graphic ~ymbo~ which--oV'ling[() me .small a:m.o!.tnt Qf wri.tilng $yrnbols-is not suiredfor the e:xpreS5io:n ·of numen.cal vMlles,. Such. ;a, s.yM:em, of d~s;ignal;ion o.f n.umericalV'~ues could ol.ri.gjnare in G.foeek VIIl'idng only 'with the .appea:rance .of additional. letters md by brin.glng the nu"mber of gI3.pbic . 's.ymba!s 00 27,'22 i.. to' a num.ber e., necessary and suflld.ent fO!rrnc dLeslgnarlon of ~~inoogeISI>,,' tl'E:ens!'" and.
Uhuncheds. ,. For me same
r~asO!l:'l'jlt

1$ dmib:cful ma:t the Old Semitic 'Writing

'vri[h22 graphic .symbols ·of CQmo:nmbl...syU<lIhk chxact.ers should. have; originally expressed a SY$te'mof numerical vi!lut'!Sa!l 'WeD. A.. writing system., hav:ing few'CT than '1.7fiymbols is in.Ci1Jpableof expressing the entire system. of numerical vatu~s.. Such a defective SYSLe:m. of nu.merl:ca!.values must evid.ently have arlginat~cl under th.e int1ult;l'l!ceof Greek \vriting <IS a result of the ad.optionfrom the Greek wri:lingsy.s~em of numeriGalv3lues and. the d.e:si:i;nadon of inregen: 'by the :litst nine symbols. hundreds: by 'the fo:l1o'Wing .r.ii ne, :md me in.compl.e:[tse'ries of ,tilouSO!:nids me rem~nlng by fOUI ~y.m'bo1s. Tbe compm:tivdy LJ[~r e;mclgencc of a .synem of expressing numerical. values in G:redt wridllg (fu1!lowi:ng the c«;a:lion of 'the archaic Greek. alphabet p:rQpcr~m.er ·than concurrcndywid:i it) is see:nlIl me '~xdmion. of an equiv:altntol the Old. Se:mitk; x ~iaefrom the Greek pmdigrr:l.atic. series: and. its rde,gation. ee the end of the alphabetic s.oguence as the 27th symbol 'Wim,me nurn.e'ri!cal. value of ··'9nO. t.2J The: droppi:n.g out of the Greek equivalent of me OLd. s,em.itic J !tide (the ie:tl!![ M cmv of the archaic G[e:ekwrlclng)~ltl CQiIltnl:S:tr.Q the lettelS .f SiroJlJ-E..a {0't!Iilii3) 3tlAq ~. wmch Me preserved in the paudignu.ric series a!:.mell' R-ropec:tiveplaces, "With th.elAil1merlcal 'V:ilues of
24

THE GMEK .ALPHABtE'TIC WRlTlNG
"6" and u90n-must be in.dicati;ve of the fact th:lit:, by the time oftne

deriving from. the Old Sell'!.iticli ~.~dc Greek tletterGllv) WM already in &void (If aUphone:tic :fu:n.ctkm (the phoneme hi 'was a!:re'wy de~i.gr.:iU\Cd by the b::tt.c-T 1:. o;l'YI.H:I.,deri.ving f'rolM the Old Sc~tic W {sin), wher(a'llhe biers p 8iyallP.~ and C; KOmtU cOIll.tinued. to exp.ter.'S definite phon.e:cic ~lues (cf. Gardtbaus~,n 1879.: 2(6) .. The droPP1.n;g of the 'equivale;nt of the Old. Semibc ~.adecut of !:b~ Greek .alphabetic ~,eq;uenc:e I:esulte-d in. a c:e:ttrin "condensation" of G.mek pandigmatks :andashifi: of the~ettrJrn one step upward in c:o:rnpm.~o.nvri.ththe Old Semitic patadigmacie ~rics<" Thjl!'~s the cause Clf iii ccttain disetep~ in the: numeri.cal values bC'MlCen. tho Old. Semitic md. Gl;eekgl;a.phic symboh:. me letter G~., fdllo\\<:in:g i:r.nmedi~t;dy dermel~tte[· Uni ~ u80.·' in th.e Greek a];phabeli.cse;rie~is ch.;rrac(~ri:7;(d byrne numerical value of "90,;" whereas th.eji qop\the OLd Semitic prototype of 1(6l1ma~ which in Old Se:mlticpara.digmOlitics fdllowsthe lctt~t' :!l .iiac·= n90," is~gnedthc value of "lOO:' In IheGreek pmdigmatic sen.es then:u:merlc:ll values of foll~Mng le'tt:f:rsace ~hi£ted wpeclively by one s.te!p.

ae~ti()n in Greek vn:i:ri.1:i8 a sysJte:m of numerical of

v:a1ues, the s.ymboI

me

:20 .2. Theexpresslon of numerical values by means of leuers leaves 3.speciill imp:rintCiIl iliecliuaGrer of wn:angt viz. on its puadi.gmarlcs and dl.e numericalcompo:sitiOill. of Its gnlphic symbols. Under the abovedes.cribed. sYStlem. ·of eX(lire&!Sing nume:ricali.values u..e \Vrlting syst.em should hiv>e :a,t]eas.t 9 :x 3 = 27 ~ap.hk symbols to design:a:te respectiv>ely :the .mt~gers.tell:f,. md hU1'lldre& (while!:housm& are design;ated by means of ~ddi:ti.ooal diJ:(:ritic:al marksa:1l3ched to the prindpal symbolis). A writing system COl1iuin~ng !!L ]es$er number ofkUt(S necessaryro· exp;ress,ilie pho.nericuniu of the: lilllguage isesised CO27 graphic symbols (Olidntircing 3, whole I'lIllmber of ~ymbo1s "'WlidloutptH)nCIIlC value~), ncce~ary and sufficient to exp{e£S the entire :SYSlem o:f nu.meric.al v:;Uuc!s., A typical exa:mple ofsuch.\vriti ngis the Gte:ek :l1phabedcwrl.lingMdl its 27 le~[tl:S fmthe cxp:r<ess.i.o:n o.finccg:en,tens·, and.bU1l~. and dia<:riti.(:al. marks. to express rhOUSa:.":lds.

It isnnural

to

expccttha:t

w.ri.ting sy:stew co:ntlllininga.b:rgef

rI.umbet ·of sn'phic sym.bols fur the e:xpres..'5'lonof the pha:fie'tk: uoits. of a language sheuld strive, to leacn1l, number I'l:ecwary mel. suffi.den:c to designate ·with respective letters the s;Ylltem .of numeri cal values: .in.reget$, rem. hun~. and WOtlsmJ,ds, i,e., to teach 9 x. 4·.""36gtaphlc symbols, even through ·the introduction {Oi[re,tentkm,) of certain Ieners dcvoi.d of concret~phonedc values. [11 other weeds, a writingSYcstetn that e:xpressesr-dOing\Vlthphoneti c values-asYSA:em ofn;umeric31 va1uesas weU,tlCn& to co.ntain. a number of graphic symbols forming a multiple: of
25

Tf:1E GREEK ALPHABET~:C WRITING mne. In such. a ~.ys.temthe ~Oiiphk symboh oumh.er 27 or 36. d.~pending on tb.e number of' phonetic units expressed in. eacb pWli.cubrsystem, of :phoneti,c unils: 27 graphic symbols whe:r~ the number of phonetic units de5ignated. in wrldng ls tess than or equal to 27. and 36 ~phks'Ymbo1s 'where the n,umber: of phonepc symbols, designated inwritin,8 exceeds 27. ,A wh~.e nW'nbel:' ofwIiti:ng; sy$ltems. o:ri:giml'tinB di:~dy the Greek systeUl\ of wri,ting or funned. Gn, 'the :patte:m of Greek writing. are prec-isely by the foregoing features. However, m~chier ,c:h.anlc.te:risri.c of::dl chest; systWl5,.tra.ced,b~.c'k to diff:erent'l,,I'arlanu of G~ekwri:tiJng. is its oonsisreniJy alphabetic c:b.uaCreI, as opposedte the
da.m:.terized t'Onsonan.w-syU~biccl:J,arac~[ of pl:oto-Semi:Eic writing. To these belong primarily;mcien.t :Eulic scripts, based on the: weseemvsrisnt of Greek writing (proto-Tyrrhenian" Etruscan. and, reb.ted, Rilis<:a.rt-La'tin and Osco-Umb:ri;an wrilting systems)., ancient .Ash. Mino:!: varl.eties: of writing

mom

(Phtygian. Lydm. Lydian, etc,.). as. 'W¢U,liS ,!iii whole cycle of later writin.8 systems 'mat 'origin;n:ed.in the Christian period.

26

3,,, Scripts of the Christian, Epoch Originating feom Greek

Gmekwrilling sysl)em. represent a specific grouP' ot alphbetic 'Writing:. CQPlic. Gothjc~ Cbmcal Anneruan, and. Old. SbV'QIDc. iIS 'wdl ~ Old ,Georgian Uberiari),,'INri,ting sys«:ms. With, the proclamation of Ct:llis:limi:ty as the naaonil, r:eJigionin Egypt. Ne,w Egyptian h~mto, revive as,lhe: offidal state l~l1ig:e; since me times of Ale:xand,er the Great this language had been ousted by Greek. Christian, cu.lture: in Egypt now' began to develop on the 'basls oflhe 1'0;(;.11 m.tioJUl New Egyptian (Ol' COptlc) bnguage"clw:igingfiom the; complex Egypua;n Dem.otic script to a new writing sy;ste:mbased on 'the Greek
~habef.

1.1. Scripts

of the Cb:r.iMi3;f1period

that originated :6:o:m 'We

archaic graphlc '~}'mbol.F ijiyG~ WlS devQid of phonetic nlue. carrying u omy the numerical value of 6."· Inthe Coptic alphabet, the place ·of tbeGTeek .:;, KOmtu is, taken, 'by the 1em:[ q ftj, 'with the :phonetic valu'e '[t] and numerical value !~90." The letter G ~. which b:lid lest itl,pho:n(l;i.cmuf: in 'the Greek phonetic system. is ascribed in the Coptic alpbabet the phonetic valu.e of

Coptic writing ori;gi:n~ted from th3.t variant of' Greek unda! wri;ling which ~ppeac,ed in the 6:a:t cenwl'Y Re. The o'U'wu'cs, of Copti.,e k\1;te:[S ate mentidy 'We S3I'Dt; as the COJtesponding graphic symbols of GJ::cekuncialvrnting, The earliest Coptic written monuments :K'C dated 'tQ these-cond, and third cenwry B.C. To tend~t ,oorresp'ODding Coptic sounik, '25 lettel'$ were oo'Il:owed from the Greek ilpluOct in the' established. sequence, Orches!:" one letter" namely tIl'at holding the stxm p!ace in I;be Greek alph3betic 'sequ.,cnc,e:, is employed. in the Copti,c only in the numerieal vOllue..Tbis rdI,c:crs the peculiarity, of'the Greek, alphabet of a. definite :period wh.en Gltik lette1"C ~1J.ia.~ occupying the sixth place md.stemming fIom. the

me

'Ii,3liue

(q-spe-cIDC tome latter langu~. Ihe letter p[ese:rvesihe01il:phabetic sOqu.el1c,e of the cO[RSpondin.g Greek, prototype and gsins th,e :nU1llecic:d

~j90."~

.

SCRl.PTS OF THE CHRISTlAN :EPOCH

TABLE 5
COPTIC WRITING

l

.. u ~
:;

..:l

!

..
E Z

.Ii:

~ ~

~i

~ :0' ~

IS Z

f

r; 0

;

1

~ !:
u ;;.

.s

:!
;;: ,::I

..

";

·ti
.iii

...
'+!'"

~

.iii

tJ

'0

e

t

!Ii

:.I

,3

,,
fI, 4
,~

aJffJ
'itU.a

a
n
l"

,A.

!.i'

qamm!J
!lQida fj~
<fOlU

~
£,

A
E
%

.'
r
~

Ii

6 7'
t
~'

l;,
H
,8'

~adil!
biidl1
UdUi

,
I

C;;,
:H'

a
f
10
~I)

,.1.

8

s. ~
ok

jOQia
killik !ikl

M

,30

,.0

m
'~.

m'j
!til d',iir '"U

~o
60
70

k ..

..
:1
0

"
U

A. ,N
TI

"

.'

~
JI

iO
J(lQ

,..
s:

he;
nou mmm'l!

n
f'
'C

n
,C

0

"

2(1'0

300

,
i
p-li

r

.ou5(1(1

cia'
he

T

lij
,l:.lj

000 .00 IO{l

~-I!,

X

~
Q

et.n~
I

'.
T'
II.!

T V
T W

• x

,

W

gOG

PI'

SCRIPTS OF THE CHRISTiAN

EPOCH

The Coptic lc:tter,com:spondin:B 'to the last symbol ~,~d:ll'l\'!:l in lIe Greek i1phabet, is employed sin:bJlarlyto its Greek prototype, only in.

~~ n:u:m;eric:ilvaliue of"'900."
TABLE 6

'!'I

i
! '~

,!:I

'01

·i t
Z

~ ...
~: I""",,
'~

:II

..
1:1 ill,
1

~ ~,
1i C

g,

.s

:!

..

:~

l

Z
't,:!

... ..
E ~

I

:i
i~ ,~

~

~'~'

.=

~

'~

'a. d:

'~ '0

b
1110 'iii Clf!iO

ICI.

Q

J 9G

,l!j

1Y
q:

I'
tI

t~
bilJ
ltlJ,l'"i'

:s
~ ~

::c

l!kt,
.._

,I>

"
j
(g.~J ti

a
'I"

,
Y'

1
I,
A
~
Q.....D 0

,

laniQ
lIma

0" i

«:
t

~i'J

29

SCRIPTS OF THE CHRISTIAN

EPOCH

The Table presents the seven graphic symbols that complete the Copdc alp.habetic sequence, The symboh otte tta.c.eabt.e tn their eor.res;ponding demotic prototypes, apres,sing &pecifically Coptic sounds that have no phonetic ,equi,yaIc:ll'ts in Greek. Their hier.oglyphic: proto;types,ue also adduced (cf. 1I:Jl5eIl 1969; 478). The: names of 'We letters of 'the Coptic 3ilphabet e&SentiaUyreflecr their cOl:Ucspondi:ng Greek designations. In the properly Ceptie :pm the

names of the' letters are based, on coaesponmng demonc dc.signationll (Sch\vyzer 1931: 193,-194). The Coptic alphabetic sequence thus consists of twO pam: a
"principal" part. corresponding 'to the Greek alphabetic leque:nce and

repeating thc: pbonetic and numeri.cal values of Greek prn.d.igmaocs, ;md. an, "additioifl,aJ'" part~ ,attached to Greekparadigmatks" gra,pnk

vnth

symbols ex~pftSting specific Coptic sounds that have no phoneric equivalents in. Greek. The symbol q; 13j should ilsc be: referred to the Greek pm of the Coptic alphabet; in the il:phabetic. scqu,ence it occupies place comspon.ding eo Greek KM:r!:f1. (numerical va1u.e ~'90''). but. expr~ the pmped)' Coptic phonetic v.alue [fJ. Thus Gteek, p31ildigmati~.e phonetic and numerical values of correspondjnggaphk symbols-is fully preserved in that pm ofthc Coptic alphabet whjch corresponds to Greek alph~betic sequence. In one case"me phonetic value [f], spedfu: to Coptic, is ascdbed to th.e symbol q fJj,t'hu stems from the Gl:clf':k K'6mw:. However. there remained sounds in. Coptic that had no phonetic. equi:vaients in Greek. and wat had. to be expressed in writing by means of special graphic sywbols." Su,cb phonetic units, were Iend!!;red in the .newly created Coptic writing by the additional six letters for which the 10c1Il demotic writing served as me p:rototYPe$. These Letters were placed in. the Copti.c alpb.abetic s.equcnce :dier: the properly Qcee:k part of Coptic wri ting [see

me

'me

c:

me

c:

T~b]e6).

The Gothic: alphabetic w,ri'ting. created at approximu.ely the same

eime, is. of analogous, char-acter:. In this, case :liS well, the creation of a new alphabet ',>vasconnected wimthe adoption of Christianity'. In order to
tr'al1ibte the :Bible into Gothic, th e bishop of the W cst Gcw! UL6l;s (A.D. 318-388) rejec.ted.~he: ancient .mon,umentil. Runic writing,linked. to pa.gan be.lieG, andiaveaeed awritip@ ,of anew type. Le.,. the Gothic :dph3betic script.

30

SCRIPTS Of THE. CHRISTIAN

EPOCH

Gred:. undd wrilirl,g served. as the model fo:r d),e Il.iC'Wly created. Gothic a1pmbet, which is incontCstably manifc:md in the shape of Gatld.c leJttm, md mcDady Gr«'k aJphibetic ,arder. :rd1tcted. in the ~g,matics ofdl¢' Gothic ~p~ (see Table 7). In mt. Gothic alphabet Idle paradigmatiC'S of the Greek prototype B~ed through ·the. u:fc:reJ1(:C of speclkalyGllmj,.c phonetic units to
letltlS of.the Greek phoneti,e series ,dw .are devoid of phonedc nfu.e in Greek. o&: apress, mtmdsi ~en to the Go.tmcla:n~e:. This pre~ ~ vlobtiOH of the puadignutics, of the· prototype system. Por e:umpie" the sixth pIa<:e .inEh~ Gothic: 3lphlbetic series, Yri:th ch~ • .. . -~~.1 _1 _.I: UO!: e. .~.:I "" ...... .. .L :1eSj?e(;U:VC:'. numel'lli;.;;.p YiI.L]JJe: 'Ul:V. .•• ' 'IS 'hewu. ·L. ...L u'Y !.IIJI'eoi.,.u:u..OJ.. U ·wr.rh 'U:d~ . '1..·.1 '. phonetic V3lue [q;'1. speci6c ee Gothic (equivalent of the: Greek (' ,mtnw:. -_L .L . ,.,,' ..;,~" ,r ..6,··..) .• W1!.ll w.e .ntmle;I1CiiU. v..aue 0 _.At eighth 'place in. we: Gothic ~bahctic sequ,ence, instead. of me H 'lit« we find. aJ~ expressing the :pho.n-eme !hI (long: vowels are

mOsc

me

::ilieoto, Gaime). Followins:it.and.bavin:g

l,em:r .'designating I spedica1ly GodBc inwdenWspWnt" 1)1 (~pitated. stops, ~e:n(i!t ~co:f GotWc). Gnphiedy. 'dU,$ letter is tncdjk: 'to 'the Gmek ,. mH. while thi!; place ,corresponding to the Greek m 1S Gecupied 'by t:h~ letter (i)with the spc:citicd:.y· Gothicphonerie value (h:WJ!. nmnerial M.e'·700·~ (the ~e Gtleek 8ijtu ~ all the ~p'hk pfototype of dDs Gothic .Ie~[). Theplacc (;OU'espoP,dmg to 'the Greek 8· ~i :in. the Gothic alpbabetic .series is held by ·the lettel: C; with. the phonetic v21ue [jJ (_twmericaI value "·60',), bel!ievedto be a. borrowing from the latin. The Grtek .~ S I;i. 'e'XIUe'S5i"!C me ccmson~t complex Ja. alien to Gothic, is replaced in me latter's alphabetic sequence by a l~t:r expl~g the :pbon.eme .lj/. The next letter [l in Gothic ilphabeti(; seq.Qetlce. with 'th,e numerical value '"70~) (in pba::of ·tb.cGreek 0 6 I1UCpOvJ. expresses me phoneme lui. tnceablle W :I. co~ondi:ng ·Et!tter of RUI'lic ·wri:ti1ng. T'O; designate the value luI. lJlfiiw did. nO't 'td::e the graphic 'equivilent of the G«!ck dignph OY' but borrowed. a letter' from RWlc wridng. He did. lb.e same in daignmng 'me vowel lolby the~tw JZ ·that in ·the Gothic ;lph~d.e S'eri~ occupies ·the p!ac<l. of the Greek _ d!i peyo. (numer:ic:d n

plaOI!: ,t.OIte$pcmdmgro ·tb,cG['oek. 8

&ftw:l. stmdStb.e

the numericil.vllue

'~'9" (ilt: the

e

me

whle "800"'). ,In th-e. iGothlc: 3tph-et. the letter 4 ·with.the n.lll1nerl!l;::Uvalue "'90'" d£:ri.vcd ftomthe G1'eek GK6:Ima--Uke dle lictter .~ :i:nthe .bre Greek alphabel:-is hete ,devoid of ph.otl.dic vuue.1S

31

SCR[PTS OF THE CHRJST.lAN EPOCH
ThaLE7

GOTH[C WRITING

·tiD

I


.;:
Iml

.! , ~
!,I

..

,'"
Ci

1
~
,

Il; ;;

,;:'
"J!"l

~,

~i
I: 0'

I

Z
I

E :=I

i
~
D

:I:

I
d
I
I

's' .
I
'1

,A, b
;U,

'!J
Z

r ,r' ee q

BI

,.
.,!;

...
·U

'E J

e

'9

I

'" f.:li "i
p

~ ',i;; ~ oX --" ~ iii
,

~u

=

.~
c
'I:

0

A-

8

It

e
, sO

ZZ h h,
''If
,

~
;f
,

SO
30

It I
18, li!:
,

,to
® IIiII

AA 11 H

K, K

.., •
If

La:t.

J
U

.0
iiO

p
r
,is

eo
tOO !IOU

c:; , ~ nn nn
~

N NI
bt. Run"

c.,

aoo
100

t'
W

~oo
6l!XI 700' IiQO goo

f
X
hw ii,

TT Yy

S'

R ut.
:L<!',

XX
(!)

,F f

.La:t •.

- 1'"

JI

e St -r-

Run .

32

SCRIPTS OF THE CHIUST1AN' EPOCH

ThWi~ in usitng the Greek. alphabet as, :ii, proto'typc (0:[ the creation not omit lettoem e.x:prwing specific !Greek " $01lJl<h €rom, the alphabetic sequence; but :[cpb.ced them in 'their :~pettive p1!aees by lcu::ers with, spe:ci6c: 'GclIhicp1wrtetic_ v'31ues. Thereby the pmdigrmtia ,of the G1:eek pr;ototype Syslem is mOected~n, Godlic. wilth Ihep~ition of Ithe numcrlC& values of the llespectiv,e l~tten in the IGreek and! Gothic systems., Th~ G[ec'k ~d Gothic syttemsfiill.y coindde. The Gothic

of Gothic wnting l.llfihsdid

~babet has no so-e1lJed Ciadditional" leru:rs, in, compa:risonwtth Gr,e;ekllpb~t, as is the C~ in the Copne system.
Similafty

the

'I:ctt.¢~ 'in, an; of It!,es.e"t)}e tim nine express ·~intf;gcl:S:· the foM.owing nine~ "!tens."·and, tnt; final mn,e, ··h.undlreds." The closing 27th symbol of the ,Gothic alphabet-used only in, men:umeric:i value: of '<900"--u:(Ic;cu dIe

to Greek. th,e Cop,tic alphabet contains 27 (i.e.• 9 x 3)

Greek episemofl

The absente 'in GoiIhic: of "additional" 'ten.etsb aocountedfor

?'1 oo-J.Utl. 'wilh

the numen.calv:alue "9000."
by

the fact, ,that specific Gothic SO'l.lndi fiw;d, :penoc:dy intotffile 'iamewo~k of 'Gtec:kpwdigtftlties dlroug_b :J:'epbecmen!t of some sip«Uicdy Greek pbaneti.cwlUies--redWldaflit from tbe viewpoint, of Gothicl?'hon,ell~Y' phonetic values necessary fOIL Gothic. Thereby 'the Gotmc :sys,tembecame ,£.'11 .iL. '....lI. r 'we ·ft~ 1 ,!tUlly ., '-''''~,..I..1~,..I'''' 'm '~e G"'k. "', c:m~!l .," ;as a, i!alecno,[I. OL ... 'G ,~,'. 'eU1J.J~W ,,:ree system (w;:th, :a,'CCO'UDt Qf c.cttain, p:]ronedc and, graphic su!bstiwti,on.s:). Ancient, Ru:nic writing, 'to' which som.e of the le:t:t:ersof the Gothic:dphmet u-e tfaCe-abte, is cQruidcmd to hil.ve been the' principal sour:ce of FPhic !ubsti;wtions in, Gmiuc (Gutenb:r:u:n:ner 1950: 3(1). Th.elink of the Gothic alphabet 'with and,eDt Rwtic writing is mmifes(;ed, al90 in the sp~dill names of Gothic letters. Th,ese['cpresen.c the: mmlCS of ancient, l~tt:et5and rdh:ct c,otnIpted Ger:mani,c, wo,rds, (c£ ,Arntz
1944,: 171&:).

The ,Mmem3n, alphUlet ,Erhr''agir or "Iron writing" should aho be ascribed to the same group' of O~dChdstian ,scripts basedbrgely on '!he Greek 'writi:ng 'system. &me:nian histori,c31 :traditio.n links 'me creadon ef the :Iil.pb:iliet in ,quesl1ion "With 'the enllightened work of the 'first tca.c:he1' 'oftbe J\nnellims" Mesrop Mashit:olS. The Greek. basis ,of' C~mical .Annenian. writi:ng is nunifem:d primarily in the com.tmction of the ~phaJbeti.csequlmce ;ccording to Git<ek. p~diiptics. as. seen ai.el:' 'the eli:min~do:n from the Amlenia.n :5equenc~ of letters expr,:esd:ng specmc:ally- Anncn~;m. se,unds 'Were ltJ.en te Guek. The: se:q,lll.ence of 'me Iellen of the Annenim. alphabet.

mat

33

SCRIPTS OF THE CHRISTJ.AN~POCH obtdn.ed thereby, fuU,"", ooillcid,es\.Vi;ili we- Gr>ee.k atph3!betic s.equexlce. Only .seve:nllenen. wi:tb spedticaU,y G[t'ekpho.ne'tic 'V31u~ w'ere omitted. To Creit~ 3. new writing. me Compileii!.' of idle C'WsicaI Al'rn.eni:an al.:phabc:;t ook the Greek wri:P[lg sys!tem. ;}:S ,a_ model. Each spedalletter of r ~ newly,-ueat>ed. script. WllS cOlI,elatd with each letter of the G«ek dphabe-tmat ~~d a phonetically oou-.espondlng KI'I.U1,d in Ann<:f.llaIl. Thus: enter-sed. a special se,quence of .i\rmetrian souods. e~~ by corres,ponding Flphic: sy:mboh and. coinci.din:gin the man with the Greek. alphabetic ~qU!e;nce, It is he'N that '!he Greekb1sls of·the: elassi.cal

me

Armen:i:m. Up.habet be~ome~~p~nt.i;.e., the creatl.OJl of the ,Armeniow, iJlPbabet ••COn£OmDogw the sjI'"l;itemof Greek syU3b]es.'· In ,e::ompariflo:n with, GEed:!:. Cb~ ...cal A.m:I,enIm WiS chm.cteciz.ed. i 'by a la:r:ger n.umber of oom.onant pho.nemes. Only pm of the: Arm.enim comon1mt'l were bei:ng coveted, by Greek eqw:valenm. Therefore., fbr~he addJ:lion~, GOrJSO:n:utlS :ill ,A.m\cnim. Le.,for specificallylwncni:m, SOWlW

tha:Ehad

0.0

p:ho:tttdcc~etliCes

in. Gteltk:, :Uthem arose a need

to

c.:[ea~e additional symbo1sthat. would s~!ementdl.e

:seq,ue:nce o.f~.eut[S

e:;::pwsing CLassical A:rm.enian. rounds thillt W'et:t ph.on.eci.caly simibr t'O Greek ones, as walitne c~ in. Captic writing. But the creamt of Cmsiciil Armenim.'Wri:rlng had, reeeurse to a ditfexemprocedmoe.The ":liddld.o:fial"~ttm of me ,i\mteruan,;rlp.h:ahe[ VII''et:el1ced. :not at the end. of me :alphabedc s.equence" n~ tome ~phl:c p s;yrnbols, designati.ng phenetic writs. similar :EQ G~ek" but weee inserted ,OU; difie.rent places in jbe m.un :p3It thlt Cc,uer>,(loru:led. m Gue.k

me

pandigmatics. These "add:i:bonat'· le:tte[$ were dist:riblJted,ViIi:tb]n,tb~ pnlIl31Y pm of the .Armenian alphabet whic:h.rdl~ctsthc Gtt~k, :alphibr::cl.c sJequence .. TWsp~ core oftbe Aanenim alp.habet,. bunt ootne basis .of me Greek: p.uaw~E:i,C'S,. commenced. ~ili. Ittter 0.01

and ende;d. 'With.

'me symbol "k",

me

In d:a:i:sespect, the l\nnen~an. alph:abetr3the[resem1:i1es r Gothic vniling M.W CUI, alpmbeiic series limited. to G~e-ek ~digmatics. Tbeir diffe:ren.cel!i.es in th.eCI.ct tlu:t while [be Gcu:hk alphabet fO.UO\IVS, me; Greek pllOLQ[JpC not onJ:yin reg-aut. to the a1ph:abclic senes but ;ilio 'Mth :[~pect to the (1urooer of lew:rs in the system~ C1Us~ca1Armenian writing has a oo:nsider.ably b:rge.rRLllm.be[ of letteros in, c~mparison 'Withb Greek oou:n:tc:qmt (36 ietters in At:rn.e:nian as.'Qmp~4to the 27 lett~n of the classical Greek. syste;ml Tbis accords m.th the bmader scope of .Amterrlan <;!OllSon:mti'S'm. Themb:~e, whikt..llfi'bs cG'lI!;<cn.t-ed himself 'With substitution of properly Golhicv.duesf'or !>pecific-dy Greekphone:dc v~u>e$~n the system. without ch~ging inrheGQmic: syste:m the s:equence of ktt~ ~dthei:r .ou;m}:lJ:::r ch~cclistie of the GReksystem. Mwop Mashtog:s

me

SCRIPTS, OF THE CHRISTIAN E'POCE,
WU'

obtiS:ed

[(I

intt'O!iuiCe

i~lO

the

Armenian

s;~e,m,

;3,

numbe[

of

addidon:ill letters apteMing sped6caJIy ,Ann.en~an phonetic umts (cruetly co:nson:anul). These addicoo;d Je'rtt[Si.n ,the lUtti.em;m, alph3be.tic sequence Canl,e n.ot :afintbe Greekp:m~ bUI: are· dismbut~d. ;1[ditTbent
p.laces,yri,thOUIt my noticeable [egUbrity"

·'principil," Greek plW: of system. Thw.io:m we viewpo:int of cru:r.eb:don 'Mth its Gmek. poototypl'::, me Anneruan, 2ll,phabet dlff'ers metu:i,ally mam the Coptic 2S as t.l:te Gothic sy5ttnlS of writing. Z7
TABLE 8

me w~n

among

the gmpht>m~s of

me

CLASS.leAL .ARMENU\NWRITING

1.

2.
3:. 4,

'J. d
I

,.
7. I,
g. Il

5.

"• , "•
I, I
t-

" .. ,
I

I It ..

a

2" ,B b

21·
21.

fI,m

~,r I'
t4d

S~
, I:

it

s.
l 1

I

11

Ze H'

:23-'"

,e ,

5.. "
26.
fl. 21,

M.

00

n.
I.

"j
II

,,,.

R

'IJ J
II- ,

I

B. -

n ... ,
. ,.

16. P ,. 17.

,. ,

g. )'

i:

2!.

lis

E,
T,

SI. i
:11.

"
1&

I. .,.

Mi.Ir'

nP"
3:3,'
I~

~ .c A
fl...

'19.

i
,,

,15. 3E;,

• "

pfr.
lit

I.
i

m.

T iI,lJ,II pi

nX ..• '

35

SCRIPTS OF THE CHRlSY[AN

.EPOCH

Such a.dislCri.bucl:on of th.ead.ditlonal lettetS of the An:nenian oiph~be:t :1mon:gthe letters: of its "pri.ocip~.'· pm expressing Greek

pm.digma:tics ]e;.Cis to a row disruption Qft:he system. QfnlIrnencal values c:hmctensdc oime Gttt::k prowEYpe. A coinctdence ofllum,e,ri.cal values in the: G.reek and Arrn.ell.i:a:n sysre~ is obsew~bl~ only bC:Meen thetitst s,'CV(:rnleuc.ers of the: alphabet. Beginning: wilhthe eighth lewer,th.e symbols oflhe Amtem.m sy:stem. in.dic:a.4l!: dlffi:tent n.umericd values. The
first symbQI of the gJjoup of "'addi:rlonai.." leteers, in pan:i.cu~:w the: one desigOOiidng dle vowel a, was in1troduced intotne ~~primar:y core" of the .Arme:nim system .m:er thesevt::nm lener l- whiGb. exp·rw.ed ehe VOVl!'l::l t -the .Arm~n.imphon.r:dc equi.vaienc of Gi:~k c:::::: ~. Since me: .A:rm.enian. y~m had 3. g~te:r number of lettetS that:!: s me GreekpIQtotype~ ,conformably to the greater nli:IrIIDe:r of 1U;meni.an

me.

conSon;a;n[

phOI::l,em.e~ (xp·ress,ed .in.vrriti.n:g.

.~t

appe'Ued pr~ctic3.ble eo
values in Ann.eui,lliL.

Grt,lte a mo:r,epe:rf~ct syne;m· of ex]?[essing: numerical

By means of the: 9x 4 = 36, lette~ of .t\.nn.eni.iU1 writin.g: it pwved :re~b!t. \e'l'l.m m,c aid of individual written ~mbob. to express "'thousands" as well, 18
TABLE

T.HE NUMER~.cAL SYSTE.M:Of CLASSICAL ARMENlAN'
"bltegeilS"
!i!~TCiDsi·l~

9

a1 Pb 2 g 3, d .4 b e .5 ~. z 6 £- ~

~,. .~

a

,J.
/OJ

Z

JO
20

ea
{I-

,

i I. I .It x b- e .r, k
,~ II:

21· C 100' fI .m 200
8!f
"to

fl.;. I ..OOO IJ s :2.000
0{ t'

30 40 50
60

n f

300 400

3.000

8. l~ 9

~ .1 'I. t

70 BO 90

e

l: j Il e

SOD
600

7QO • p800 ~ 1 900

$t rr 8f Ii W

4.000
5.000

6.000 1.000

4:i> p~ 8,000 .~ k,!i' 9.000

T.he foregoing

does not e:xbitllst

me

diffeEje'n.ces between

Classical Armenian. :alphabet. on the one hmd. and OYptic and. Gothic :~Stems of writing, on. me other, A ·ciOfls~de'rJb]e: difference
between these sYSICems aho :is seeo~n~e ~<lJcrer of the <!'plan.e of

me

me

cx:pr¢$Si.on·'and its c:o.rrd~tion.with th.e graphic ~prw~on of the Greek :prorotype. W}J,!!:te~ 'the Coptic and G.r~ek s.ys!lJemli repea:t-=ahnos[
uncbanged-th.e ~ph:ic fun., of the conespon.di.ng leu:en of Greek

SCRIP'I"S OF THE CHRISTIAN

EPOCH

uncial writing, Clzsic:dAnnenian. 'hre~ ill gntphkd links with the ~ette:fSof the Greek writing syst.em. The ClassicalArmenian le:tter:s 'that e:xptes, sounds phon.erlcally equivalen't eo Gn:ekha,ve nothing in common graphically with ,em:rcsponding letters 'of Grtek. writing. They are c;h~cterized bym abs.olutely dJ:ffi!rent graphic basis.l'!I This graphic pe:culiari.'ty of Erk"3r'3gir has often provided ~Qund for hypotheses on the origin of Cbss:I,c;d Anne:nian writing from the: most divel'S'e written sources. Classieal Annc:n'ian writing has been pronounced as deriving from Semitic" and. pardy .from Greek (cf. Milner 1864). :p:u:ticubrly G['eck cursive {Gatdth<'!useti. Hl76),P.ah1avi (whic'h, in its tum derilf~from. Aram.aic (T~ylor 1899: 268; Junker' 192511926), pomicutarly me Aramaic of the Noah Mesopotamian type (Perlkhan-ya.n 1966; 1 t 1 :6':).

Such derivation. of an entire 'lW'ritingsystem :6:00'1 a ceruin wri'lten
source on the basis ·of' i>lm.iluhies and. dif[~renu:s, in the outlines, of individual letters, :i .e., essentiaU.y only on. the basis of a graphic a:n.alys.is of the plalU~ of e:x:p~essio:nof the writing systems utide~discussion, cmnot be considered metbodologicdly j ustified, Graphic re5Jcmbbnce of individual letters in vuioU!S wrinng systems does not yet give ground. for asserting th.eir o:rigjn, :fi:'oJ;n. Qr <mother wri:tingSOIXc,e. Such assertions call fo'l one mo[c: substantive: inner systemic ehiU'actecistics of writing th.at could seTVe as tbe basis fo:r hypo:thes:izi:ng 'the dependence of this Oil"'that w.O.'ting

system on a ddl!nlc.e 'Writing source. The pXd:di.gmatics of a writing systcem.conslitti.t~s one such inner' sysr,emic cbaracteristic of writing. lntbi:s respect, Cb.sskal Armenim writing :r~veals an indubitable l'elationShip with the Greek writing system that served the Crcato,r of the Armenian alph,abet as 'the: ini.tbl writing
model.

A:n;nenim sounds (aswe:n as. phone/lie uni'ts sp'l:ci:fi.~to, Annemm) were identified. and:urm8:cd in a definite sequence origi,nalIy reflecting the G[m atphabe'tic series. However, the Creator of the Arm.euirnwrithlB consciously severed ill external :l:IeLluofis with the gra:(ihic symbols of the Greek prototype' system, freely inventing the graphic. form of corresponding [etters according to l definite prl1'ldple. In the cousse of
such "grapbic c;r.cathri.'ty," MeS[OP Mashrots could naturally use the available gr.aphic specimens from most diverse: w.riting syst.¢:tm, su.cb 3S Aram1k-Pahl:avi, Syriac, Ethi.opic, Greek, etc .• scripts whose writing displays, some likeness 'EO the graphic symbols of Classical Armenian writing.30 Classical Annenian wri.dng is theprodut't of lin ingenious

.!:t. was acco(fding te

'tlle G[cek writing

'dl~:t CQ:n:espo:nding

,creativity of its a:u~:bO'r:rathe:rman 37

the

Tt:!i111t

of the histori.cal

SCRIPTS OF THE CHRISTIAN' EPOCH

~foI1l:l;:tion 0,1 ~phjc I"f,produc:tion Qr a. d.e.'finite wrir!ing'. Thils aeceunzs fur the graphk links of CL:wicd Armeui:an writing with vmollS sy:stems~ Dot :redu.cib1e eru:b::e1yto 3. defimte graphic syst~m. Such5:ee creati!O:n of the graphic symbols of Classi"a1 Ann(;nim VI!1itingand the de'""'1elopment of lCIl~ of originid, ouiline. mft"ecing graphically frQ:1llme;ir Greek oollnterp~1> must have heenmODV2ted by a
desire to eencesl the de,pendenc:e: of the newly' Cre!31t:OO writing (mille "Vriting roU'tC~~, ;015 a :model for ctearing it-lu We pr:ese.nt C:l$iC~ on Grc¢'k writing. In. 'this way,. an apparently original national writing, W<\S created_indc:p!!:nde~n:t, as it wetc, of myextt:maliint1uen.ces Or: links. Tbe:dis:tribucall of "'additional" letters of the ,A:rm.enian, 3lph:tbet nno:ng the symbols of the uprinci,pal" put. coItespooding [0 GFOek p:aradigmatic:s. must apparently be explained by me same oon<Sid,erttions•. Thereby the Sieqll>cncc of' symboL> i:nherited, from the Gree.k. system W'3:.i violated, and;J.a:mc~pon.dingly new system ofnUllleric.:d va:l!u~ came buo being .. Thesam.e '~p~blythe ,c-auseo! 'the replacement in. ,Amt,eni;m. writing system ,of the n;mles of letters chmcteriWc of the GICek prototype .. The majority of these names are words created on a prope:dy .Annz!!:ni~ p,h.onelic bask SQm.en~ nuy ha\;i't been. fO:nt'I!ed

me:

:mreign :pattems... Thus. the ,Armenian ,pe W3iS p¢rha:ps created. 'unde[' the lnilue:nce ,of its co«esponding Se:n:Utie (Syriac-Hebrew)' name, The nantes ~, l,te, ~. je. se,li" and lie' follow the same pattem~lbe l'l3n'J.C:S 'YeW (Sem. w.iw). pm (Sent ,gime1J. and <fil (Sem. dilel, Sy!. diJ2f) ~ possibly based on. the Senri.ti.cpa1tem; 28, ~ ia. ~.i'I•. and 12, foBow me sante model n.e names to. ho. and !';O were :pemi'pi SUB~d by the G[eei prototype PIi. aad otl!.ern Cd: SC:h~u 1931: 194-195) . .1:0 all probability this W:as~,manifestation of the tend,end.e$, in. '!he easrern Christi~. cullUm world of tbe period') dictated by definite religj,uUll ::md. political camid.e~dons. 'row:ii:rd$ concealing all Hn'bmd dependence of tb.e loca:l Cbrisdm culture on Greek. culture (Peeters 1929). .An~.ogowtendencics we're m~ in the creation of ocher scripts oi idle Christian period. :p;ani,e;wa&:iy rhe .old Sb:v1o:nic writing.
Qt!.

.Beginningwi_th Ime 9th cennuy A.D .,fuUr developed original wri.t:i:Qg systenlS; based on the 'Greet. "Nri:dng system.came:inw being in. m,e: Slavic culmnd. world. The Sb:vonlC YiI1itings.y.stemst 1W1Ded ~go1idc:' :and Cydllk. Vieae in.vented f(x[ 'the RCOtding 'of tc::tts in :th;t Old Chl1i'(;h Slavonic language., M if! which m.vine: worship began in me: Sbv:ic Christian werld and SIlf,v1C ChE:btiorn .literature l.V~ :fim: wri,ttell.

me:

SCIUPTS OF THE CHRJSTIANr EPOCH

Historial tradition :ueribes dns to the erutRhtemnenitaGtivities of the Cbristi:an :mimonari&-lhe fj.tm: teachen Qfthe Slavs---dle~ brothers
CollStmil:i:ne" later mm:am¢d, Cyrll(82.7-86,9) ~d. MetbOOiw, (d. fH::!.5), .. !l 3

9w...,cmmuy

S)/'stem.·sprototype is lmok'enonl~r i't severalpbces owing eo the iru.en3on of:i1 nUillbcr on~ttea 'expttSSing pl'Qpedy S12vonic sounds,l' 'Th:is~n WifiiI caused some shiftof' n~merlc3lll values e.~d by the r.espective letters in the Old Slavonic system. as compared with the system of m.e Greek prototype. I'nmnuch: ~. 'rbe Rumber: of Ole sound units of Old. SbVOMC exceeded c:~id.enb~'tbe nUlllber of Greek

essentiaUy IdJ.e:eling the Greek sequence. Thepmdigmatic.s

ToOaU. appear.u:tCe&,the Ol!d, Slavonic Glagp,litit arose: from the G[ieel;, :~u1!ewii.tin:g. This,mmifeus itself :~D the GI/eek ~ement of the Gbgolitit alphabet. in paradi;gmUics of'me letters.

me

o.r

the

me

phonemes. 'it becaae

:net:tSS2fY

to

create ,~ whole group of additiond

clurxrersto express such specifically' Slavic sound.s. Acco:tdin:gty; tbe nwnbe:t: o(1eit1eIs in the newly' de'vdoped 'Writing, whicli was, int-en.ded to s1:mwbneously express the: s:yste~ of numerical values as wei, mmt, n.ot be less, thm, 9x 4 := 36 (£01" !the expressi.on, of il<integeIS.'· "tens," ubundreds,·· '.d ." tho~" by individual loeue.n) •. And, indeed" the Old. Slavonic GJagQfitic originally'c.onuined 9 x ,4,= 36 graphi.c,symbols. The last nine lellot'IS of 'the alphabetic s'Cd~ wer,e used. 3$, numerical symbols ~[essi:ng ·'llI~ds·':
TAB,I.E 10 THE GlAGOUT.IC ALPHABET

I

:2 I: b 3 V 'P 4 9 ,5 A ,d: G 3 c' '7 a6 i 8, S 'I ~

+

G

)0

• •

I

..

8: 30 II 40 :10 ,Ao 60 20

-r W

it

,

10 'f
80
90

..
r
I'

..,

100 b
200

.t
"

'"

til 11

300 4100 A iiI 500 I 600 Q z. ·'100> C!I ot

'.
R

,.

,
I

:2000

1(1)1) "

l WJ

3000 H •
.5000

....

'000

.a ,j (t) .' .6
2\ •.

0 ~I

aoo w r

6000 l. 1000.
8OOilI,

i:I
,N

.P'

900

'V ~

9000

e

Vu,.
I'

The graphic specifi.dcy of GIag;clliuc: writing stems from; me rid: tha.t 'the letters of the Greek minuscule cun;ivc: 3Ce representedbsee in synbgIllati.c's, asimliatcd graphic s,ynibo\s;. At we :same time. me is'.ynlbol~of the Gbg,olhiO---,in compuison, with oon:esp<lndiing lette~ ,of Greek

39

SCRlPTS OF THE CHRlSTIAN

EPOCH

minuscule writing----beu' th.e imprint oftbeir Cf~3IO(S graphic modification., formally distanc.ing them iomtn.eit' G[eek gtaphie P:[otolYPe:s. The tradng of the exceedingly ,oomplex and hlmcilite le-ttets!

of G~:iIi,goliciiCwri,ring. with numerous lo'urishes and loops is sopeculix that some l'csearchcICS believe it to 'have been we result of Co:nstmtinec.yri~,·s1ind-epe1!ldentorigioall.creati.vity (Georg:iev 1.952)..34 There can be nodeubt tha~ Itbe C:r,eator of m,e Gbgolitic e:ff:'e,cood writing on ItS, Gir:c-ekcOm:i.terpm and 110 c:reatingth.c imprcssion OrOll, compleee jndependeeee and o,rigi:n:alitY of the new national writing: {Fottunttov 19'13: 13). However. Greek nDnU$culew:ridng, vrithEhe ga:phic ,symbols cbarecteristic of cu:rs~ve, must have served ss the basis ,of :all.such'Leiler.>. In the CiiSC ofiJi number of Gl;gotipc!ettenl belonging to 'the ~·a-.dditilo.n<li,'~pm o[ 'thealp'babetic series and lacld:ng nr,cek gr:a:ph~c prottorypes. 'me infiutJ'!;ce of some' other, (hie-Dy Oriental" graphic spe:chnens, may be hypothesi.ud. Thus, feu: exarnple~ the: Coptilc ebua.cter:s iij;%, gmga" and. b ,,~!i may be, ~,umed to have sened as prot-Otypes of 'we GlagoUdc leners W f, a,..i, and.·.J", X and the Hebrc:wl fi.de for th.e Gl:ligolidc " c. and so' on [Fortunatov 19130:19]. Tbe Inv,e:ntor of GbgOlitic discovered the pho:nerrlc equi'valents ,of Old
a deliberate modi:6c.:anon and. stJli:Latioo, of line o.rigi nat Grttk lC:ltter:spe-J:b~ps with, a view to concemg me dependence of me: newly created

m

j•

SWa:vksounds that we-[¢ ~nt in G[eek. in a :numbet of Oriental hngll'll;ges .wd aooordin.gly borrowed me chml.cte:[S ex~wng thes.c s.ottr.ids ·iom ·the, IeSfcxcive s.<:ripts.

The names of moe l~:c[eL'$of the: GbgQliti.c ~pllii;bet were in:vented ~nci1)dyon original grounds by' se\e:ecmg de6rute Slimcwon!s on m.e acrophonicpritlciple, i.. of w'Ocd.:s, whose il:'l!ilial. pho:n.cm.e coin.cided e., widl, 'me phonetic unitJ expressed bY' the oonespo.nding le:nets: ,az" bukJ~.
glagol,. dobra. etc. Such des~gnation o( the 1e~ ofa writing system coincid,cs wilh the principle cbarli'citedsd.c of IGe!llUlllC Runes and Gothic -..vriting ~cf. Schwyzer 1931: '198), aiS well as whh. we principle ,of desigpadng the gra:phic symbols of the writingSY5t.em hyp:o'mesizcd for the Old Semitic sJsr:e:m. (see above),. The second -v:mety of O~dSlavonic writing! kn.ow-n. 'Ilnd!erlhe n;am,eofCyri11i;r:" is clearc:rMt'h tCS,p«:t. to we outiru~;. Of the 43 lebl::en of this alphabet, 24, repeat tbe graphk symbols of 9'w:-10th c:e::ntmy Greek. w.ritin.g. witblheif ~sp~cti'V'e pboilletk V~ll!es, Confonnably to the Greek prototype. the cembinseien of th.e letters OY served illS tM. symbol for the vowd u. In oompmson W:!.Wthe Gf~ek prototypC1::,th.c: lig1tur:es i +- a .t::I. Ha]:. i + e;: Hie]. and i + G' = [j,u] c,onsti.'Wte gap-hie innoV::J:tions.

40

SCRlPTS OF T.HE CHIUSTIANEfOCH

e,c.

Seve~ tetters design~ting $;p~ifically Old Sbv'onh::sounds. i.e., ~ i, st,. ete., we[e :a:ppa:re;ntlyborrowed vrith. d.elinite graphic
from GilagQIJEic'Writin~ (I'roubca:koy 1954: 38

slmplifi.cariom

tI). [See of Old

T~bk9.] Wha:t is the rcelaticnsmp betwe:enthesetw'ovancocs SlavQnicwritil1l:g?
According
to

the mcU wid.esptead. view , Comtmline-<Cy.ril must Gbaolitic :l[phalbet as an ;J;bliQlll:~e:ly originil Slavic wriiting. on the b~s of the Greek.p:[I()tDtype. hQ!rrowi:ngi!t thesa:me time: a Dumber of l.encIS from various OclelfliM 5Cripts. The atemive philolcgi!Ca1. educatk){omd linguistic ewdilior.. of Comtm:tin.e.~C~ pbilcoopher and Ul:$ttea,Cnc:I' of the Sbvs'"'"""'.r,end.er understm.dib1ethe llinks disp~;iyed. by th~ Gb,g,olidcMth the Gr~k $"·ys~m,of writing: 3;fid 'Witn a

have 1nvernodlhr:

number of Qrie[lj~. scripts (cf. Dvomik 1970: 103). Tb~ grapbkally complex and intricattGlagolitic \mtling, lil.venred. by ComtMti:n~ ...cyril~ is second tome graphic1l1ymore perfect v:ari.ety Qf Old SlaVOnlC w.ritiing-lh.e so-called Cya11ic-witb :its g-eQme1ricilly !'dmple fot:m. of lenets bilSied on Greekund~. ootin:!!;, This secondvarl.ety of Old :Slavonk'llV:riil:i:ng. vri:w ce:win S.ysl:e.W mdgraphic m.odi'tlG;a:liio:ns (hain 1961: 307 II)., is reprtsent~din paxdcul.u: by 'me mod>em R:ussianalphabet.

41

SCRiPTS OF THE CHRISTIAN

EPOCH

TABLE 1.1
THE OLD SLAVIC SCRlPT

..
til

'

'0

0

:~ .,.
'Cia'

~

~ ~ iii ~

:II!

::I. ...,.

til,

...

...
,Ioi

oil

,.~
:::::l

t!' 'v
-

..

,2;

Ill'

iii!
1

a<i:
Q
l:1:,

... ..
"; .a.
,II'
U

~

Jj
u

..
8

~
c:

I

....

e

:1:jI U

2:

J i3i
OJ

i

i

.." ' ~...
~,

..
~
lilt

.. .-

2 S
6,

I '2
4,

II
'II

I,

4. S

r
,II, :t! ':!iI • I

3
5

g
If
~.

9 10

,S

7

,:

~

,.
1,(1'

.u.'
iii'

i

>

40
SO

310

!ilO

''1
II!:

8

w
,I'
QI

A

.11
.MI ;I i

60
iO
00

20 30
,lO

,i I'
III

If

10

~

9
rI

10

11

"

iii,

100

p

II

.' '.' I'.

e
IiIi

aeo
500

200

100

...
"i'
"

4'0

J-

..

'It' :
!••

'7,00
900

600
!


,( w

..
It!.

C:

2100

l!OO

80

I

P

" ,.
II

300
II!

,
~

I

,100 ,500

51J!O? 1000

91 600 BOO 000

I

,I

~
ii,I

,0.

IP
'I

4'P
I

.. • .'
CI.

BIX!?

-

.,.,
III
I

-If c I I
V
!O

I

,,.11


!9 HI

..
...

~
i

g

i""
jl
9(IIij

itt
f

"X


l-

'"

,"" .,.

"" !Ii
t
ii'

if
,110 '100
4,00

,
:E
\I'
!II

JP

42

Old Georgian Writing': ,Asomtavrwi"

4..

!l.t. A oom:ptnti.ve' .study 'of various ancient ru.phabetic ~yn~ms of w:ritiing teco:nstructll, the: typology of 'writi:ng. yie:lding a general picture >of
the invention ot ;alphaheclc scripts based on 3, simple writi:ng system that se:tved as a ,mode~.fur the newly created systems. The :fi,Di and prindpa] stage ,of 'this process is breakdown, of me phonetic side of;1 langua..~ loco separate :phonetic milts that should he expr,essed in writing by :o;p~ciil graphic s;ymbols, in essence the ,creation of .1. _ i1ipL._ _ _E. __ ",'. ':" _I" .L.. """"'D'no ~v'~"e:-_ 'T'L~. basic £MOe U\I. ~L _ _I" I.ne .l,lLUC Ut 'COi.l"en. U1,,, 115 ~',I~" .tn. ~ .[US ........ ~-g": 1.11,(:.

me

'~.;U

¥ •• ,.

.

cttarllon. ,of writing esse~:u:iaUycoosa'Wtes

language fQr which a writing is being created (d. Rosen 1'984; 226». This is co'nducied, onthe basis ofaco'IDparison of the: phonetic ~pect of the

:1 phonelit-:pbonernic

analy'S!llsof

'Wiln:gU¥ 'Ehe sound units represented in a definite s.equenc,e in writing system 'taken. as 31, model JS As a result. the written model induces; in the lmguage f:or'which the writing is being' invented a defin1Ee set of pboneticunit5. The :lgg:r,ega:t,reof th.e pho:nttic unirs fOrr:!lSme "plane of content"· of me newly cre;;!t-edwriting system. Theisolaticnand ordering of the phone:t:ic: units ,:of 3 1:l.Jl8U3igefar'

'mw

me

whiihdle 'Writing is bein,gcu:Jited pteSu.pposes ld1e s~muhan_,eoU!S invention ,of de6njt,e gt"3p:hk symbols by means of which 'these sounds. identifi~d by reference to 3, particu]a[ writing model; must be exprcssod.. Esse:nrh;dlythls is mttl'(3tion of w,e "pIDme of e:xp~'Wion°; ,of"w.ewri.1ing syst>em. These two pro,as~e iSQlatiQD and, mangement. of the phoneDc units ·of the lil!fi.guage in ii, definite sequence ~d invention. of gra.phic symbols to apre5o$ them.-.u:e ~n!iem:lated procedures.

me'

presupposing

each other .. The shaping: ,:of both,

the "~pbne of ,expression" of a writing syste:misa si'ngte creative processor ~ts,illV\enl~or;36 1.2:. Exact rep:roductiion of th.e outlines of oo:rrespondi.ng: gp:phic ~~y.mbols 'me Pl'0totype system, arrangpf in a. definite. :sequence:. would of be simplest and m.oot natural way of s:luping: ~;pbneof expression

'me "plane

of eeneent" :iln_d

of th"eneWI'y' created. 'writing system. ~'AddIDdooa1~,jletters;. exp:r("ss:in_g sounds spedfic tIO gjven language., :might be borrowed from other writingsoUt'ces possessing sounds phon,etically re~mblin.g 'these sped6c sounds, 0'[' be ereaeed by modi6jiiQg dein-~te letters O'f the gj:ve~ ~yS'tem.

me

'me

Ii

'me

43

OLD GEORG1ANWR[TING:

BASOMTA VRUU"

Archaic Gr,eek wrj,ting. wbieh essentially repeats the par.l.dligp1atics ~d the outlines of Old Semitic writing, may serve as an example of ehe .m.c'l:hodof cr:ea:ting ,the i'plane of expression" of a ne'~""s.eript. The "additicnal" l;,::;ttersof the Greek syS'tem 'VIIC[C developed lat-c::r through gr,a:phk m.odificati,on of the "principal" letters ,of the system Or through borrowing them from otherwriting systems. From. theviewpoine of [he "plane of exprusion" of a s.yst:em.the Copric and. 'Gothk: aswellas the .oliO Slavonic (Cyrillic) alphabets are of :analogous ehaeaceer, an being 'based on Greek writing not only 'Iovi,th respect to the 'inner struCLu:re but abo, I~othe fonnand shape of the cou:esponding leners of Greek uflci.al.wricing, 1..3. ~n the pro~;:,esli 'crealinga, script fora cemin im.guag,e L. 'of rhe phonedc unlts of this langu:ag'e are klendfied through their comparison 'with the sounds of the language L' ,tcpres-ented lD ,3, de:Einite sequence in the writi.ng system of.e. whi.ch is ad.o,pted asa model fOorthe n.ew'iy created writing. The phone:!:icilly ~imi.1J\Ji'sounds of the lmgulige L, id,enci6ed. by theme-mod Just described, :Ire anang;ed .u:;cCII':ding to the
patrem or the original alphabet of-the bnguage L', <lnd <l!n~ ven relevant ,gi graphic expeessien, In other words, phonetic correlations are ,estab1i~hed on the basis of the phonetic resemblance of the sounds of bngu:age 1. and L' ,tfie writing oftbe laner being taken as a model fbr the: nf'wlycrear:ed writing, ,As a result of the establishment or such pho'llecic correladons, the phonetic compo~iriOon, of ,the: prooot)'pe language L' and t,he sequence of the soundsil'lthe initial script aee oat1J..al!l,y "mapped" onto the corrcipol1'l.diinsphonetic series of ,the'language L rOI; which the wri,eng is being created. The ·'pan!i.dig~3tks·· of the 1:n:i:ti~writins of the langnage L' is thus reflecred :i n theparadigmarics of the ne\i\d.ycreated 'Writing. The latter is determined or induced by the "paradigmancs' ofuhe \v:ridng syste~m. ftthe hn.guage L' taken as a model .. o If in the' language L; for ,ilihidl <I. s.<;ri.pt, is bei.ng created, there happens to be meee phonetic UrilfS than in the language' .r.., whese scripe is being: taken <IS a model, alarger number of :g[aphic symbols must be introduced into the newl.yClc:u~d, writing in order to expresstbc "additional" sounds l<l!cking:n the pfomryp>c language (cf from this; poimt i of view the Coptic 011:'.A.mterlilan $ys.~(i:ms,'\.~tb teSpC)Ct to Greek, or Gr,eek to Old Semitic), Such BPphic symbolS, expTe!>!>ing sounds that ate

":lddition~'" 'from Itbe viewpoim of the pwoocype language. arc;added in a definite sequence to the: "principal" part of the' graph.cmesre£lecti ng the paradigmatics of the w.riting system t<lken.as, the medel (cf. the Coptic sy:s'tenl vv:i'~h're:sp'ec:t'wti1e Greek" andthe Grellik to Old Semitic). Such "additional" gnphk symbols :may be pla,ced :alb!:mativd.y \.'iri:th the

44

OLD GEORGIAN

WRITING:

~·ASOMT.AVRUU'·

symbols of the main part, re:swting in. .~ paradigma'tlcs of the initi.il writing: s¥S't~m 'being dis:tupted lntne newly created system (d. the Arm,eni;.m system mlh respect to Greek). In case of a reverse correlarien, i.e., when, the number of phoned" units, in che:language L' '. which is taken as a model; is greater, a

number of superfl:uO'lls symbob are left over. exp[':es&ing sounds '!hat are "redundanf" from 'the 'viewpoint of Ltngu.ag;e:.L. Cases :ae' practic:ill.y nee (perha.ps even not occurring (It iQ) when the set of SQunds of one langu,agc; fuUy coincildes phoneticaly witb the set of sounds of another language. Nomtally. in each of the :languages com:pal'ed. in addition to 'the set of phoneticallyslmikr sounds, a definite group 'Of sounds is id~n'l:ifiedthat 3rC specific to e3ch lwguage. When 'this is the case, in the newly created wli ting the phonetic 'Il'a1ues of the syst.c~'m
.

taken asthe model are replaced byphonetie

values specific

to

the given

language., while retaining in the alphabetic series the places inherited. from the :pmdi:gmarics otthe:p.{o[otype syst,~m (c[ in 'the Greek !lyslt'm. 'the
places of the let'l)en fOT the vowelsand the respective: places far luyngealp'haryngealcoruonai1:tSi in Old Semitic parndigmadcs~ ef ilia [he leiters in Gothic pa.radigmatics fOir the sounds ,q"' P' .b.'" in comparison with the Ga:eck system in whicb the respective places aretaken by the lettets fOl:

we consonants. f'. PS" ere.). Such substitution of ph.onetic values in. anewn,y' a,eatedwri.l;i:ng is motivated. by a eendencv te lieujn chepatadigma:tl.c;s of the p,rototype system in the new system and to 'the isomorphic reprQduction.theceby of the expression bV means of letters of the numerical values of 'the initial. writing.'~'7 '~t.Additioni[" letters in these s)l'Sitew are also created thrQ'ugh graphie modi6.catkm of the' "principal'" letters or thwugiJ borrowing S'cparue symbols fiem olher writing soU'rc'e In some cases these ;'additional" Ieners come from earlier wri.dng systems of the same Imguage~ cf:. the Demotic; letters in Coptic. Flunk letters in Gomic writing. arI,d Gbgolitic letters in Cyrillic. 1..1. An, absolutely different, Wily of shaping the "plane of cxp[~ion" of <I script lS presented by 'the case when the graphic symbols of the prototype system are trmsferr:ed te m,e newly c'rea.ted sysJCem not in.
me s:une gnp,hic fonn. but: with certain (possibly oonside:rable)grnp'bk modifications. This, m.e:wod a]t)ers-otten beyond, recogni:ti.o~the original shape of the initial letters of tb.c system (c.f. ihesbapes of ,the Gbgolit:ic leuers in juxtaposition 'With Greek minuscule 'vri.,ting).. Such graphic: modification o[ thelioVriti:ng system taken a :1" model may have: been effected co,nsciously., in ordee to cenceal the depe'.nd,enoe' and

OLD GEORGIaN

WRITING: "ASOMTAVRUL:l'''

c'O:rrne'Ctio:m of the newly createdscri:ptwith the s;ystem of the prototype: writing. The Classical A.n:neni~ -w:riting "E[k:a:tCagfor'" repN::!lle:n:ts an, extreme e::l'p.rw:ion ,o:ftltis leDden,cy., 'for in. it the '·plmeo:f~xp:[,essi,on'~ of the Greek prow'type system is fuHy replaced, The graphic symbols, of Erk.a:f~a:gir were largely' invented ~nd,ependendY' of' Greek, writing: asthe result of the origi,n:a1 c,reativity of its InY~ntof, making'!l'Se of ViliriOUll :oon-

Greek graphic specimens. In 'this res,petl Classical Armenian writing is, typologj.c-ally opposoo to' oU:I!:[' w;ci,ring sy~t:e!T!S based. on, Greek writing: Coptic, Gothic, and Old Slavonic. hl the rypcdogkal group of writing s,yu,ems based on the GIeek prototype ,the: synems. under discussion occupy extreme: poles, Be:tween them one lru:.)" p.emaps phl.c:e Old. Slavonic Glagolinc. It does not ,gnphicilly b{,eak completely with 'the Greek systtm but tep'lesen13 the respective letters cfthe prototype system 1S extre:m.dymodi.1ied :andgnphicaly styUz-edwririn~ symbok One mot-e '~cript-the Old Georgian A$1()mavruli writingshould be referred to the sa:r:netypological group of writing s}ffitems

deriving from; the: Gu~k.prototype. 2.

nu Pro,~ltmof Iii Prot"'trlt
Writing.

System/or the Old Gc(l,gia.tlA$'6ml~li 'Ib, Gr:e'tk B'if,dl of.tlt.e Old G~orgia",Script'.

,2.1. The cf(';ulon of Old Georgian alphabetic writing On the patile'm of ' Greek writing proto'typc::, Le .• its de:rivation6:omtbe Greek .system. of wtitin,g, em be eslub1ished 00 the: 'basis of 3, :nu:mber of inner

me

S'ln'lctural indices oCme Old Georgian 'writing .system. 2 .. ., Old Georgiw writi:ng was created for recordiing the' 2 Geor:gi;m bngu",ge~ of 3. d.efinite :period through e.xpJt.:ss~ng the :p.rinci'P:a1 phonetic 'Ilnii~ of the hngll:age 'by m.e.a:nsof.~p.ecia.lgraphic symbols. A nOUlbl.especificity, of the ph.cmetic system of m.e Geo'rgian langu~,e throughout h~ development js, an, 1.'Sil:ooishing phonenc: oonservatism of thc' sYM,em. The phonetic structure of dle Georgian. language: of the earliest 'period is :pIcscr:vcd to the pre-sent day "Wimout sigpific;ult phonetic changes. This largely accounts for the fa:.cr that Geo'[gim writing :fuUy preserves ene-te-cne cOl'T;espp,nd,encc bcr:wetlIl the phonedc unHs of the langu:age and tbe graphic. .symbols .of wci,nng bodt in :paradigmitits ~d s.yru:agmatics. This in general is one of me main cbaRCtecistics ofm alphabetic w.ritingS'ystem It lit'S crc'l'EioR and <ii: 'the
initial S't2ges of its developme.nt. 3fI As was noted above, preli minny segmentation of the phonetic:

.system of!l bnguage into sepat;1te soundtmiu;" wmc,h should be ~['essed

46

OLD GEORGI.AN

WRIT~NG:"'.ASOMTAVRUU"

by means of speclal gr,aphic .symbols, 1$ the fint and ool1ga.tory stage in the pmowof the '~t3:tion of writin:;. This is e-spe!cia.UyltUe of'an alph;i1!betic
'WrirlngSY$'t~:m. .& a,matter of [let, the charac;ter and deg[~:e Qffuncoo,na]

~d.eqtl.acy or the writing :s~~m to die sound oppositions to' be expressed. in vniting depend, on this p~1:im:in:uy analysjs of the :ph.onetic side of the
language. The more COl1S1srentm.d cernpreheasive i:s,lhe pIeLimiuary phon.eEic analysls of]angu;lige. the more perfe'Ct is the writing that ret1eets ilCS p.ho.netic cQm~clon, and die more it meers the aims of g~~phic recordin e;, oft!. language. Asw.dy from this point Qfvlew of the: Old GeQ.rgi.a:nA:roaU;;lV1'llli writing shows du:t: the Creator of the Georgi'lnalphibet re;nde~ the wlU:nd oP!?(.'Iys:ido:nso:f Ms contemporary GeQl~g1~ bng!ll;!,gewith amazing pIecisionandfUl:n.e~. Withexhaus'tive oOirnp]et.e,l'u:ss hetakies. lfil~oacoourrt [he sound (pho:ru::::miIc) inven~ory whose rend~ling in $icript i~ necessary

an <ldequa.teexpresMon of the GeQrgla:n language inwriti.ng. The G,eorgi.-.m sound hnrenooryfs refl.tt[Cd. so fuUy :and. adequ:a:tely in the Old. Georgj:an ,As'O:ltIfJvm1itilOlit .subsequendy Georgl3.!!l \V'fi,ti!ng dlJd not .suffer special snucnuil, altet:atioru.. The add:iti.on of letters fo:( m.e dc:signa:tion of foou:rld oppositiom left unexpI'C'SSed in the old system was not necessary. as W3S the case in hr~e Greek $~ems of writing
[01:'

as compa1:edt.o the ~chaic Greek: Sys.'tem" 2.3. Wha.t\'lfriting system. served asa model for the Cuatot ofth(: OM. Georgim alphsbet, Le., as thewriting:pOl:lItema,co(wng wwhi.ch the

and arranged. in. a definite sequ.ence fc£k.cting: the' :p.a:radigma:ti:cs of the P'W1:Clrjpe sy,t'll!:m.? This lS~s.$encti:illy the probLem of 'die origin ·oflh~: Old GeO'.rgia:n .Asomtn~~w.ri:ring,(edu.c;ed. 00 me s-O\iuti,o:nof a cencrete :t3Sk,vl:z.. the esobl'lsl:iment of lilicwriting system on which Old Georgi.m wli,ring rests 0l;S. ~ts. ~ting m.odel or
prO'liorype tl:ut determined hs SU1J.1CtuOO omd. par.adlgm.aci.cs" lngencnl, ewewriting sources in. the abov'e sense could be hypothesi:z:ed. .013 a prototype syst,¢m for Old. Gwrgian wd.ting; Old Senritic wdring (Ot other Semitic writing systems de:riving .fr.o.m.it, d. Javakhishvili 1949) or fbe Greek alp'hibe:tic writing {Ot adler alphabetic sy.s~ deriving from. It Kef. Gard:!:hausen 1879~ KekeJidze 1.929]. e:b:.). 2.4. Ine:ithe:r cast ft.e. > in. ~llmin,g we Semitic or Gre.dt writing pm~:otype). oflJetning 1$ dear in adv:m.cc: a. c:ompm~Oi.n ·ofthes:esystelJ.'1'S vt:kh sound ll:n:i~ Qftbe Ge{)ifgianlangu,age shows O'lat in Ge:o~gj:,m-

Ge:orgiill1 sound units. weroi,dcnd6ed

WDich is char.lc:teri.zed by richer conso:nantism-a whole group 'Of c~ml:S;O:.Il'I1l!tswould be ld.eruifi.e:d.,withom phon.etic equivalents in.th~ sy;St:ems j uxraposed, Such Gemgia;n COiI'!SoOatiU may be ccnsidered
"additional'~ sp,e:c:ific sounds &olm the
V:ltl'l..vpoint

me

oftlhe

souna

compcsiticn 'of the pmooty'l)e system ..

47

OLD GOORGIAN' "WRITING: ~'ASOMTAVRULl''' TABLE 1.2 OLD GEORGlANASOMT.AVRULIWRITfNG
-

._ .-

~

E

,

c ,tt
tJ

:J

,i

.I

t'

WI

.5
"tI
,It

.;Wi

f

I.

.. .a ~ ... ::
u

;:
CI

:I

Ilt!

..a

r:li

Q

, ... ..
E
iO
!!I

~
lQ

:a

.

4

..
:;
;0,

.. a .~
Ie
Q

!

411,

:I

!:
!oj

j

!!I
ill

,<

! (I

-I
I' t;j

+.!

-= i:Iii1

Ii ~I::i 0

"i Q rae
san for
wie

i

1,

,a ,.
~

,"
d'

a
b
d

aD
ban:
gO,R

cJI

LJ

r

59

e
,

b

dag.

e

eft

3U ej i
It'
I

ViR

Cf> Z
,

zen
he

ub
I

t

t n
<i
C

r

q

8
;S

wi 8 p"
CI
I.?

r

s

p",ar
k"'an,

t'"

I)

6'

I"0,n

1

m 'f'i
0
d
~

r"'an.
in

:J a h~
U d
I)

tt

.. .. C
C
~

q

;,

qo.,.
sin.
caR

8

cia

b'
,

,~an
las

dJ
~

JH

·ir

,

o,
LJ
~

o

Ii

8m 6n

man n.ar

rl
.,:1'

eU
car
;ran ql!ar
.....'

Jl.
('J

J
0

je on

,3,

p'

it

.. Z

"ar
,ian

'I A
'L
48

I:!

d: b
~

C

z
qPt.
~

it

Jan
hae

3

h

OLD GEORGI:Al'<iWRmNG:,

·'A:SOMTAVRUU'·

Thus, 'in,the course ,of dle ,crcaticm of Old GOOIgi:m 'writing. '!he jllXta,posltion o.f Geo~3fiI sounds with the wri1ling system. taken u :\, m.odel must bilVe: resulted in, ~e breakup of' the' el'llli[cset of Geo'rgJ,an round unh~ ill~Otwo pam. The first ~d biliSi.c roup of sounds would be g d~ned by the sound. units of th.e system compared: These sounds must hive b¢e:n distributed, co.nfotnl.3:bl.y to me :paradigmatics of the prototype system. Theotne:r gr.all:p of sounds must h:J:,\l'ein.cluded sound units., spe:dalfrom rthe vlJe:lNpoiru of the compared prototyp e system arid, henclC: '·additional.'· with ~p£lCt to the "principa]" group dellermined, 'by the clJar:acttl of 'thcinitiiUw:rl'ting: system., TIu:re(ote. theproble:m of 'th.e

origin cf Old Geor_gj:mwriclngis ,buacteri.~C1d by 'two basi,c aspe:c~ :first. the e:subfuhm.etU::of fh,e writing pratoty:p;! on the model of wbichtlhe ~Iprindpif'· pm oftbe Georgian. dphrl1:bet mmt 'have 'Ulen shape" and. second,jd&lrific:atiQnofEbo~ wri:ling sources and. principles on :lhe basis of 'which. the f'additi:on31" .part ,of me ;a1phab~ticsoquencc. suppiementing 'we "'principal" :pan to build a sin~e writing s:ymm, must have been form.(d. Thm. the problem ofth.c origin. of Old. Georgian Vlrriting. :n. thj~ stage of research, 3,cquireS! a wU more concrete CQurent and, is reduced to 'the idlf:m::i:fication of the pattern on which the basic p3.It of 'the Old Grorgia:n alphabet WM sh!l.~d. To be m.o!::t;proc~St. the quesdon :is w'hicn. writing prorotypc-S~:mitic, or GRek-detemrlned the inner stru,durc and makeup ·of respecti:v'ely ·the "principal" and me "3ddiitionalu p~ of !he Old Geofgi.a:n alph:abet..
Clearly enough, the :!Idopli.onof 'the Geeek Of Semitic writing syste,1n as the b015k writing patt.em. and pn)totype would. shape differently' ~~principil." ;w.dI~ilI.ddhional'" put:s. of the n.ew~1y CRated writing. A varied character would be imputed to these component parts, of a sin:gle ~:S'Eem from me!;riewpoint of their sound. com.position and paradigmatic

me

SWlCWirc.

2.5, A cODlp.uisonl1:om. 'tbis point of'riew of Se:m:hic:md Greek s),stc:nlS .of writing with Georgian 'INri.ting brings, oU.t 11,genetic teladJ(UlSmp of the latter: 'With. th.r: Gree:ks"Jstem.md rnle~ out its dm.va:tlon :fromthe Se;mitic.wriring system. In. the proc-s of ,['eating IUle Old Georgian alphabet, du: Greek: system of writing must have beenused as a model of writi'O:g~:tICGoaliin,g to which. the sound unim must have be:en.~dentifi,cd in Geo~~ and, arran,ged h~ alphabetic order, The mUM,prioR of th.e Gl:eek sys,t!em u the writing pl:ototype in the c~eacion of the Old Georglm alphabet render'S quite unde:ts.Wldablethe structure and. cha:rn.cte[ ,of the ·'principal.'" and ('addition:d:" pms. 'o.f the Old Gcmgiim amp.habetk 'se:q,u,ence. Only IDose sOlmdw:11i:l'S of 'th..e Ge'OIgian

'me

,49

OLD GEORGIAN

WRI7[NG.:

"ASOMTAVRUU"

language that have no phenetic correspondence in Grl!'ek.are fQu:ndin tbe '·additional" part.
[f~htl Se:m.iric system is: assumed as

wri:ring i.ts '·principod" and uadditiOlnal" parts would be characterized by an abroh.ltdy diifferentSU1JiChlre and mangemen't
Irsheuld be noted, however. thatall the cbaracteriseie structural

'rue

basis of Old GC(llrgi.an

pecu1iari:~es 'ilia~ differentl3tie the Greek wril1ing :system from Old Semitic
weieing, are fillliy reflected in the OId GeQrgian alphabet, These peculiarities Mose OIn a ptQpedy Greek basis when Gre~k wdtingwas

being ,created. .from. OJd Semitic or in process of its ~ub~.eCJ!liei1t development .All this. (:le.arly 'Poin~. 'to me origin of [be Old Georgian
alphabedcsystemfrom Gree:k writing father than directly from [he

me

Seruitic s.ystcerll 'of writing.
Juxu:posilion of the Old. Georgjmwriting with the Semitic and Greek $ys~ems brings to liglu. g,n arrangem.ent of Lhe O~d Gear~3l1 alphabetic sequence that differs fro,m Se:m:i.tic:.md ~ts O'I,·e:rlapping in the' mainw:i:tb Greek pm.digmartics d".!:lJt m:u.~t har.ve served as the writing model foe the creation ofih!! Old Georgian Mphabe;~.

50

OLD GEORGIAN WRIT~NG:··.ASOMTAVR.ULl··' T}J3,tE l~, JUXTAPOSIT[ON OF SE~U.TIC"GREEK. ,AND GiORGIAN SCR~PTS

$e:Jlliric:
M
:::II

Greek
A
(I

Georgi~.
'I

"

I 2 3
4

b

S, ,~

2 3 4

,
l
1'1' l

g d k
1;1:)

r

g

1:: ''1. 1.,

,)

a
2: 3
4,

3 ,b

S
'S

,
(I'

t. d
Ei

a,
~'

g'

0''1
'h

d
t
tl f

'5
6,

,ij)Jj

s
6 1 8 9
'I)I

r ,Z: 1 n h, I .!I
l'

Zz

1
:9

3
lillJ

'b

!I,

~(8j) !

~
j

91

Eli

II

" ''1
1:1
D
II

,t" 2Q
I 30

I 'i K I:

"",

'II'

,
~
J;,

....

e:,ej en .:J. 1'1 i
11:'

20
1I
olD

Al
M N
'm, ft,

II J 11 ~ ,E

20 30
40

~ 'n !iO

m
r

4Iil

.' , 60
pm

,I I

~ .b SO 'I) ,a' 'JU

-

m
80
'001 JIm

,9 m
I) n

ph

, "
Pc' 11,

,
~

,II

n
<. P
~ 'T l'

a.
"U

~

$I. i:"I

i
(,I

SO ElII
'j'Q

1"

;)

p'

,8Il

II 2100

q 100
T

.l'
,I'

'9
L

('II

8 300 lJ. 4fi111

MIl
Dr

t

I!
0::1

""

M, b

.,..
II

i.

00
100
:i!Dm
3jji~

,0 t'
'U

a.w

400

X .i' 61!11
il 0-

,. ",

p;; 500 700
800
i90J

n-. a

w4. J; '!W, i,litoo !5Illm 600'
I

f
Ii)

T
:J

,-

'1'

!S pit 1:& ~ ~r
til 'I'
"

7mI
,1001

a

900

51

OLD GEORGIAN

'WR.nING:

~'ASOMTAVRUl.r·

1. Juxtdposin:IJJi o!"hc Old ,Gto'gill!n ,A:fomtam;:U 'WritfrJ,g 'wilhGrlf'
"""d Semilk Sf$,fmu 3.1. The fi!'St te~tter of the Old Geoq~im alphabet;

phoncpc

vaIDue [a1! ~d. munecic,alv:alu.e

,.]"

Cior.responds to the first

c:

om, with the

rymbcil of the: Greek

alpbabe:tt A dll:Pu, (pl:i.oftetic vaill1e: [a], numerical

value "1". In. the Se:nlii.ti'syS[~m. its, e:q1lJ.ivOl.knt :f>~gnis notabl1y .R: '51el' m;at design~t:es I ~aryngea1 consonant [ .' ]. The second. letre... in IDe Gem,gian alph~bet is 'tLo ban, 'with
:phonetic,v:a1ue ~] and numerlcoalvalue"2 '" which isan equiv.alent of Greek B Pijm 'with shnib.r values. The thied le~er (phonetic value [g]. nemedeal value ~'3'') ref],ec.ts :fuU:y the values of third sym!bo] of Greek alphabet y6j.ijJ!u. The fourm letterof the Georgjanwrit:i:ng:S)T$t.cm ~ do~> 'With pnon.etic value I[d] and. nnmerieal value "4'" ,corr~$ponds eo the tbu.nh

,',san

me
r

'me:

me

,6iyu~.

v-aJut I[e]., numerical value "5" cerrespends ~Q the ,Gr>eekE ~,~1Mv thn denve-s from. (h.e Semitic consonantaill sign. n h~ (phonericvolmue [b». Greek lI'anSfonned the censenancsl sign inC'o the veealie symbol [e] and it is plfecl$ely inthis vocalic value ,that the corresponding leUer 1 is, used in en th.e Georgiansc:ript" , l.l. The sixth puce inthe Georgian syme.m is, occupied by the letter: '_, vin (phonetic vallue [v~. n.umerical vaiue '"6") whichrepeau precisely; the phonetic and numerical valil:le&of 'me u-chaWc Greek.F
I

letter Ii, w"w in 'W:i!: Greek. s,ysrem., The fifth k:tl:¢i!: of me airphabet '1 en (fho:n~tic

,4 i:yOJ.lPU in arCbaic Greek is used to denote one of 'me nansyllabh;: nri;mts 'Oftbe sonant I ~l (in pamculu. thernvathte [v} in eeaain phonede envi'rionmenfS: In intervocalic po~lion. ~n initialpositio:n befo:re i vowel. etc .• and a similar beh~vWQr is ch3l3c:te:ristic of GeoE'gjm [v]l. b~ing one of the: positional v.mOUlts, 'Of the sonant: 19,1. In Old Se:miO.c the

the

ccrresponding place iSl)cc;upied by dle ~ign, '1 W'iw d.enotilng lh.e sound [w]. A precise phoneti.c and fun.Gtional co~o:nden(:e of Geoqgjiill ']\I vir.! ID the Gr,eek F3i.yaJJl!m points to famili a:ri:ty of m.e inventor of the Geo:rgian script wim.me sysrem of archaic Greek w.riting. In lll:te:rvmeties of the Greek wriltiRg .sy.srem the :respecDve pb.c:e in. the sequ~.ncc is taken by 'the SiLgIl 'C Gd~a Ithat is devoid of ;my phonetic value (as a result efthe loss oCrue sound [vI in anumbe:r of Greek dialects).. and is contin.uin,g the uchaic .f &[:y~u only in. its num.erical value 'Of "6"· A specific fe~wre of the newly ereated Geo,rgim script

me

me

52.

OLD GBOR:G~

WR.ITING: ~jASOMTAVRUI.J""

seems to han been, the 'tendency of il!S!cribing to the elp-lsemaru; ,(i.e.,. symbolis: .baving only numeri'cal v;a1ue) of Ehe prorotype system certain spe,dfi.c 'phonedc v~UJes. Tb'us, ~o the 'Geo'rgtm t«tt~r ''It vin e'q1Uv;a1er.u:o t Greek 'e:;: rnll'Pu,in the CWsiicOi!lsystem was asc:ribeda. specifiephonetiic 'value [vl. app,aJ"eooy under ,th~ '~mfad of archiic G~elCkf dipmma used with the phonelliewlue [v] :mdnUlmenc:lil. vailue of ~!i6 I,'• A certain. &mi:Uarlcy by the Inv'entQ:r of the O:~d 'Georgian Kri.pt with me ~Ghaic G~ta1)phabC:E: and Ute: G['oek. phon,etic theory' is evidenoed aka by some other slWcmail fenures o( the: Old GeoLgian Y!l'ritiilll, system, (see below)., Tht seventh letter 'of the Georgian, alph3lbet"b zcn.'W:ith pao'n,etie value [:z] and :nUltleric~ 'value "7," cort:e1ponds to the Gredt. Z (phonetic: value [:z] m.o [w]. numericaJi, value ~j7"). :3.4,. The e:tgbth lett.t:r of the Old Georgian ~ph3bet f. ,be {p_hO_llemcv~.1!Je lei]]: numerical value ~j8" is_ ~quiv~.¢n:t 1;0. ,the Gre~k, Q'M that deslgP3lted In Gfe:ek ::i. long '\1o'W"C11 This vocalic phoocme m el an,ci'~nt G[eek, W3!,pronouniCed lppa;r,ently as a ~w 10,n8 [~] which shifted as a resuk ·of its wp'htih,ongizuion to, leI]. later to [i]. It is,predsdy in. Its diphrh'ongal villue [d] ,th~tthis :sign~n Geo[gia:n is 'used. Dkin:g its eighthplace as in the Greeksyst;em" in me' alphabelti.c .sequ.ence:. " The v,oc:dic---not conso:fI:mw--v:dtH~ of m.c lette:[ l" he in Ge:01rglm ref'e:Btne laner unambi;guol;l$ly to the C~~i:c::a],'G['~k S,ystem, but not Semitic. in. wbich h'lrhe re~peClPveplace we8nd the s.ymbo~ n' ,61'1 1iich the consonmd vallue of [I:!:]~han:gi:n:gn GItek to the vocaUc i
I' +

'~,fa
!I:

value

The ado-pili,onbyilhe Georgian alpb~t from. Greek ,of;} sign with the: diphthonp v~ue [eU miy be accounted, fOf by 'mer.endency eo preserve in the newly created ,script a fun sequence of signs -of 'me pmtotype:system. even 1f~ome signs in the '~gmatic seq'uence denote sounds not, specific and thus not nc:c~ .fOfthelleWly creilted wti:n;g. As a :matte.l: of fact. the dj,phtbongUva1u.e [[ell could have been expl\essed ill Old Geofgian bya lle;(JuenceofteUers e + i (as in_the cue of the diphth,on:g$ ~:ail~. a: ,+ i and [ou ~ ,0- + i)· A special sign ,he in the Old Geoqpan. scriP[ to, express, th.e diph.thong j[ei1 W:IS uicd in. the Old r=: • , _'I 7 U1:o!Cgul1.I .... Ai·gntatU::s as an equIVi;P.(nlt 0:,f 'H. ~'t(t • t'he Gree k ,F ~n par:adigma:lic sequence. 3..5. The :ninth ~etter of 'the OM Geofgiarna1ph::l.bec, () th,:m, with the phonetic value: [tlI] and num.e:rkaJI ''II'idue: u9',," is an req;ui,v:iilcpj ·0'£ 'dl.e ]ettet< '1.9 &i11:11 ,of tbe GlIeek system. (p-b.onedcvalu'e [th]" .nume:ri.ca1 y,alue;;9"). CbaDcteristi.c:dly ,enough! the ~QU,C$por;i.di_n.g pll-ce in Old Semitic wrioI18 hi, occupied by the letter a ~C~l elq)liessing;the emphatic

:~S].

t-

OLD GEORGIAN

WRITING:

"A;SOMTAVR'UU"

In Old Georgian, paradigmarics the nin,ih place is held by the cha(,a.c~~r ,(]O ~,an Vrith i~e p'bone:tic value of !the !llSpjIaea [tb] r:a:merthan the glottalized. [to]. This ,ought to have been expeceed owing eo ~e phonetic closeness of the glonrui2ed [t'] and. the emphatic [~] had O~d Semitic writing been used as a, prototype sysrem. At th.esime rlime. in 'me

1$]., This character eetees the: Q.[)eek s~~em as an, ,ilSpirared (th]" whe.n:as, the Semitic cb3irac.~u ,n ~.iwfo.rthe a.s:pir-xed [th] is borrowed into 'the ilied c eo des.igm:te the Greek non-aspirated [t] (vd. supra). In thhs~pect. too, th<: Old 'Georgian alphabet reO,ectslhe specificity of 'me G-:reek system :ta:the:rthan of its Old Semiitic prototype.
co:mOO3l'l,t,

(no:nasplwe:d)

Georgbtn system the glottllliized (non-aspirated) [r'] is, rendered by Idle t, ,'ar (numerical value "3(lO")~ de&ignatingme n.on-asph:ate:d G!ree:k [it] (unlike its Semitic :prototype .('iiw' exp.rmingtbe aspimed [th]). Analogously" in me p'oll'adi,gm_aricsof the Old GWfgian system, in places coreespaodiIlg to the Greek K .~ (nu:rn¢rical:.value <':20") and. n rti (nwneric~. vii:u.e' ~·SO"·).woe h~v'elihe s.Y.niboh II k';an omd,"U p'u (numerical v.UUI:5 "20'" and ~i80:' respectively).. These symbols, eXpI',ess the glowlizcd (no'n.-~irucd)co~sonants [k.'] and. [P']! white: the symbols , phar 3Jl.dt ,kl!an (:numerical values "500" and u600,,",es,pecti:vely). wbkh. expr'C$S,~in fun acco.rdw:ith the Gieekprotatype-:th,e aspirated consonants '[ph] and. (kh). serve as equivalents of the Greek chuacl:eJ;S ~ qli (llumericil v:lluc: "500." phCll.eticV.llue [Ph]) and X Xi (nu:m.ericaJ! v:ah:u::. 600 .... phonetic value [kb:]). . Had ancien,t: Semitic writing, been Uc~ed,in. creadng the O]d Georgian s.ystem of writing; one would n...rur311y expect :.m absolUliely ,d.it1i:rcntp~.dignu:tiics of ocdusiv~, One .coUld also expe'iCC ,~ ·dlffe~fn distribution of 'the ch.araccersfor glott:alized ,and aspi'ated consonants accoming to the PWdigp:i3riC~ ,oftheprowrype system. In particular. in that ~e" one sh.O'Uld. have expected Im.e dlismburian. af me GeOrg1iill aspirated /:ph til kill, phonetically eerrelatable with the Semitic aspLrnted
letter"

me

Th,e same refers also to the. Geo:rgi:mgrnO'fuli:2led Ie' t·;. p,h.o:neti.cdy ,dJ:lS!:l' 'to [he Semiti.c ,emp'hatic :t and ''1. They should 'haveoc,cupied not those places in the par~di:gPlatics thatar~l:«Grded, in. the his'Qrical system (the
nume,rlcal
values "30(1"" and

lph

:ih khl

~i'iplaces

con:esPQndingoo the iattcrEn the parndi,gmw.c series.

'"20,"

co~c'.Dding to the Semitic ~'and q. phoneme Ip" I. h:lvingno phonedc equivalent in Semitic, sl'lou!d have found its plaee ~omewhcre in the f!additionm,t pm aCme Fad1gma.tic
system.

~~pccti,vely).. but the: p]lOCS. The chWlcte:r fOol the gi,o'ruz:ed

The tenth letter of tb.e alphabet 1 in; 'IHi:lh the phonetic v3il;I1e {I] an.d "numerical wu,e "10," co:r:respo.nru to 'm~Greek Ii&m with, the

54

OLD G.EORGIAN WR1TING:

"ASOMTA VR.UU"

same values. In the Geo[gian system the 'Use of dtis sign in the 'vocalic value reflects its connection. wicb ch;erespecDve G~k, and flot the Semitl.c slgn. ~ joa exp:res:&i:ng oon-'S'yU:abic li]. The eleventh kiter Ii!! tOm (phculeti.c value [k'], ncmencal value "20") is an equivalent of tilt: Grt:ek K '1OOmm,. with respective phenetic

1Iif.Id;nume:rical values. The foUmvi'Ug mr,elfih, thirteenth, and. f:outtccntb. pboes in the Geo[gian. paradigmaties ;u:e taken by the sonoran:ts P]. [m], and [n],
e-.X!prc:ssedrespectively by we]eners 'b l:rs {numerical value "30").;J. m2a (numerical 'Vahle' "40" and,~ nM(numerical value "50"), these being equivalents, 'to the Greek letters for son.Or.LlltS A M:J4loo. M pij. N 'w, 'Mth corrcsponifing phonetic and. nume:r.k::a,lvalues. The reflectio:n, in the p3!:3!digm~ti:cs of Old. GeOfg1:m~mting m the changes occurring in. the tr:msfoml.3tion of ancient Semitic system into Greek, as weU as in the subs:equent developments of Greek wri.ting" b a ,deu proof of IDe dependence of Old Georglatl paradignurl,cs en Gr,eek 'w.riting. Gre'ek writing serv-ed as its prototype syulCm. a,ecording to which. the sound units Wert identified and distributed in. II definite onli.er in the newly' cresred s~tem. 3.6. The fifi:'eentb letter of zhe Old Georgi:a:n alphabet, iJ Je,. withlhe pbon.e'l:icvalue and .numericid value <'60:' in the :llphaJtll.~tic series boJdslhe place con~spooding to Gred;: letter' E ~iI: (phoneth: value [ks], numerical value <0;60"). It expresses a no'n-s,Uabic;: variant of the sonant Iii in the archaic syst'em of the Gtlorgjan langtlage. The syllabic variant [i] of the same phoneme was expressed by 01. special chancle'r. 1 in., which in 'the Geo:rgiom alphabet is at 'the place eorresponding to the '( Hilttt of the Greek s~em. tn the case of the symbol ;:. je we have a total discrepancy between the phoneticvalues of this eharacter of the Old Georgian sysrenl and its paradi.gmati.c equivalem, E ~1. lO the G[eek system. ~'t 'holds the :6.fi:oenth place in ili,e alph::ibetic Siequ,em:e (nlJIme:dcall 'value ~~60'·'). but expresses, the phonetic value [b] spedflic te Gree:k (un1ikcits. phonetie value [l] efthe corresponding s.y:mbol ofth.e Georgj~ system). in drawing the pandigmatics of the Old. Georgi.m "Wri:t:i ng system, 'the 'P1Ua.mgm;Lti,c eql.liivalcn'tof the Greek S ~i was ascribed the phonetic v:aJ:ue [i] when. repJa.cing the origi,n:u valne [ks] of the Greek prototype letter seen as "redundant" from. viewpolflt of Gemgjan, phenedcs, The Greek basis of the Old Gcorgian.alphahet is seen unequivocally in the :above f,ad, too. I.hhe .old Semitic: ~ystem. had been used as the protaqrpe for the Old Gemgi:w system, ;U; 'this place of ~phabetic sedes one sbouldexpec[ 3. cbsracter designating the whistling

me

m

me

I

me

me

55

OLD GEORGlM'J WR.ITING: "ASOMTA'V'RUU'" Sph"Ult lSI. Mnceatthe >correspondin.g :p]acie of m.e Old. Semltitsystem we h;aveme c:hiU:iI.Cler t! .mnekfi, express lng me h.issi.ng spbant. [s] 'm~t phoneti,caIly resil':'mbJ.eslh~ Ge(n'gjOU"l, h:issing spi[lmt [sJ. Ther,epLir;emen:t of thisvilue jnth~ Creek. SYSIliem by (b]., ac:cou:ntible far b~l the Peculiarici.e~ of • me de.vclopm.en.c of the Old Greek system of 'Wricino~ . e rer.u:k:fSund.efSEandable the substitution of the phonetic values l[ks.]~m whenwt Old Gemgi.m pilXadlgrna<lics ~ being drawn up a·nthe basis of w Greek. Total: fCmovai of lhis C:h:HaC~:rfro:m:. GeQrgi;m.~d±~tics W'Ould. have entaileda. :~hi1i:O'f ·lb.e .[1!um.e:rk:a] values of me: su,hsequent letters, and hence a violla:tioo of th__.e syst:e'.JlI.of nu;m;c:ricail values. of the Greek p:wtcnype systcoem .• To avoid this, me equi.vaJ:en~of m.e (}reek lettcoer W~ left :u, i~ wIRsponding p[ac.e. of Old >Ge~.m pMlId.i:!JIIacic SY5t-em, 'With acom:spon.di.ng llume:l:ical" bue g1.vel'l3. phaneitic value sp¢(;16.c ~Q the Georgi:m sySE~:m. :Suc:hrc::',pboement of thcpJ:m.ned:c valuesot' tbe prototype ~1Sl:em byphOfi.ecic va[ues cha:ract~risLi.c oCtilc: bngu~g¢ whose \VIi.ring -~ys~ernis being created oonscl.rutes: one of th-e devices ofpfeserv:lng the Sil:w:ClruiI!C

me

and p~.digmadcs of w.ridng ofthe:!iYSr:e:M tak~n ~ amode1 fot'the ]leW writi:ngsY$lem. Tbe :phO:neDC sub5dCUiI!iO.fi1l ei"eoted. in Ithe CQpti,c:~and espedalIy~ Gothic~ire:ms, ·of 'writing: in (;Ompal'lson. w:ith th.eir p:rorotype Greek 'Writing may serve as. aamp~~ of ~u.cTh1. apr"Occdllre:. 3.7. Tbesl:x;t.e!C':nm le:n:er of ~he Old. Georgian alphiloet, Q on,

vaJ;u:c;[0] and numen.cd value "70." co:ue-spon&.rowe of the Greek s.ystem. with the same va1u~,. Th.e symbol 1I c ;gjn,e~pll~iWng the Lary.ng.eal conson.mt r I in me Old S-emJ1Elc sysi.e:m. ~. ~fuJLl;l1e:d in Old Greek into i1 ",haracte[ forme dCj"lgnadon of d:le; vowel [0], s~es it! We Old. Geo~ans.yst--em....--$imil!ldyto G!fcICk'-40 e:x:pressp:redsely the vocalic phoneme [0]. Th.e gr;!!phic symbols t:3.Il. '1 en, 1 in. and a. on. <~::cp(CS5i.ng vowels in.lhe Old Georgi:an. w.l:i'!:i:ng s~'mem and occUlpyirntg in. tholl: p~digmatia; m.e s-.un.ep.laG~ as do the c01l!l:spanding c:hm.c:II!~:rsof me Greek system) cal:1$rirurean obv:ious proof of Ithe: link of th.e Old G~an ilpbabetwith Gu~k in terms. of Ithe 'use oftheI01ttei il511, pooto:typesysEem: for the icientifi£:;ItlOD. of the sound units of !ihe G·eowgi:an bngu3g~ and {Of their arrangem.ent in a de!.6:nhepa:r:adigrnati.c orner. It WOl:$ in the Gl:e.(:kla_nguOl:g~that special chara.c:r.e.rswere fi:w. created m expre:;s :propei[y vowdphiO.tlem~, whIch turned Gree;k wriri.ng-iuelf arlsi.ng .from the Old Semitk: con5'Qn.m1:2}>.iyll~bicwrid:n,~nroacQns~tentffiy .alpb.ilb-eUcwridn.g sy.stem,. The sev>f:'nleenl:h letter of me al:phab~llJ J?' 'ar {phone;b,cv:due [PO]. uumericaffi. v~bJ.e0<8'().u co~esPQnds to' the G[-e-cl:: Dta. witih the

o6

with.

me phonedc

.1,I.IlKpiV

56

om'

GEORG[AN'WRJTING;

"'.ASOM1'AVRULJ.'·

n:u:t;nexkalvalue of ~ISO'~ and phon.ctic VallHl lPl (',>,oicelt5Snon-aspirnt!!:d stop). 3.8. The dghr.eenm lcn:er of the Old. Georgian 3~pbabet, l<:m. with the p:honeticv;uue [1] andnumeric:al value ~<90," cccepies in the

'lI

parawgn:tatics of Old Georgian. "vriting the p]ac<e correspondingro me Greek. chuacter Cj ·lC6miW. lnurne,rical value ·'90"The eme~g'C:nc.e the phoneticvaIue: [1] in the pm of of Old Geo:rgjan. alphabc:t that corre-spon& to Greek paril.digm~ti.csmay at bm s-igb:tseem unexpectedia view of the absence in Oreek of phonemes of the typ~ of the voiced h\J~hil:lg:spitotnt[f]. This ph,onetic vil:u;ein tile Old Ge;orgian. alphabet becam .. . linked. to a symbol PIlI'~digmltkilly e cone~pOll1dingwwe GIe~:k C; lOOmro:,inasmud:li as~.. dedv:in:gfrom the Old. Senritic F gop, in a relatively late Grock. sYStem. was d.evoid. of a C;QllCI'Cte phontrlc v~uc 'and w~ used only to expre~ the numerical value "9{1" {see supra). The bonomng system aVOIi.dsrhe elimination frem the alpholbe-tic5cque:nce of thep:rototype system. ·of 3. concrete c:hnl!.cte:r, even though devoid ofa defin±te pi1cmecc va1.ue. in orderro preserve its. pandigm:a.ti es and not to upset we system of cotteSpoodencesof the n:u:mericalvalu.e:so:f the s!ubseqoent charactlers.«l It should be noted. that. the Semitic chuacttr ! ~:ad~. to·pped d rromth.c Greek ~phabe'tic s.equeru::e!"O'mins before i' qapb inehe' Old c Semitic parad!i.gmatks. fulls to be:rellected in EI1ISpm of ~h.e Old Georgian system. Thts o.missin[D oace aglln. points: to the compH~t:ion of

me

The point ;s. that in.the Old Greek syst:eIU the charac~teT deri viog '&om the Semitic '~tade was originally used to desi.gn3tf; the: s,pi~t lsI" L:l:ter,. this cbaractt':r feU out of the alphabetic series inasmuch as. the Gree:k spirant: (s] came to be d.esigrl:~t«'l by the cha,r;:lctc:;r rriYp1Irh<J( ~from .I: the Old Semillc W SIn, The Gre,ekalph.3:beric system became somelvhat (ondensed .3.) a result of the dropping of the dlmcteI equivalent to the Semitic X ~ide £Om the .system, Later, ~iidewas added to the Greek. paradigmaries as the last (21th) ch;uacter;...cpisem.onv;riih the numerical value of 0<9'00" (see supra). This is the only case jnthe Gretk system of a character falling: fm.rn. its relevmtplace in the; paradigm<1ltks (:ratbe:rthan. its :rete;nrio:n in the alphaberic!'icn~s through the I'eplace:ment of tbe original phonetic value or ·tnJ::ough. its use; as an. episemcn), & ;1 consequence, the n:umen.caJ vilnes ·of the Greek .system. ..t thi~ p1ace of chI: par<ldigm:adc $eque:.IlC~ happento he s.hi:fi:ed one step upwards as c!Om:paredto~he Old. Semitic system. Tbcnumerical val.I.lC! "90'" is ezptessed: in the Gr>eek.~yst~m lhsrOllgh C; 1OOna, while "100" 1$ e:xprC$S¢d~hrOll,gb its follOM:ng

Semitic sYfitem.

me

Old GeQrgian illph3bt:t on the basis of

me; Greek

r.a:therEhan

the Old

57

OLD GEORG~

WRITlNG:

uASOMTAVRUU"

cha.ractei:' P pl:i. wher~ in the Semitic system H90" is exp[~ed by ! !fide and its fdllQwingp qdP& W[{:Il.Q(ype of the Gret:k. C; Kdmm) expresses, ~!100.~j If wl!,t'Ooklhe ancient Se:mitic system. 35. the ~is ·of me Old, Georgian. ~,pbabe:[,md. Identified ·the· GeQrgj:m letter 11 .:ian (ph.on.etic value [7:] ,numerical V'a!:ue"'901"). then,th.e question woulda:ri:s.~ as to why the S.eoodc ch;an,c[Cr pqc#, (witbthe pno[l,t':ticv:uu,e [q] andnumeri-cal v.aue t, 100"), fo11o'Wing ~ ~ilde.&jIe.rl, to berefleeted In 'w..eOld. Georgian vaitin;g:.41, The; Old Se;m.itic; q,Qipt designated, 'me emph:uicvelar ~top [q}ph.one;tically elese co Georgiow. sounds requiring grapbic e:xpressio:n (e.g;. ~uiChas 'me glo[uliz~d. (k'] o[ ['I.])' '["he Silmie may be said. of the p.hon~nc val:u.e of me emphatic e'J(oPtessed by me Semitic ch:aucter ~jde" for which the phonetic. equiv.alenrs, ;may have: beeo found in me Gtorgl,an ph.onetic sy~e:m, (ruc:h as the .affij~[~$ c, d, t'J. This Semitic character
~!

c,

£ailed m be retlected at the respective p:hH:;e in Old. Georgi:a:n pmtdigmltl.CSWif simple: reasen that ~tW3S not rep:tesented at this place of t:h.epa:r:adigm~tics; the prototype system" imis again, leading: us ee .0'£ the Gree:k ~ph'ilbet. In conl:raSt to this, the GEietk C; 'IIOOmm., which. continues the Semitic symbolV' q6pD, ~ ~n:ed into the Gecrgi:m, system,. ",t the

me:

p~il« conespon.dingtD the Greek, w:i:Ehthe: n:umericalQuC1: "90. ,. 3.9. The 20th letter of me Old Ge'Ofgi.a:Jl! 3lphabe;t. L s.1N"wi;th the phonetic vaiU(; (s] and r:u,lmt:,rical n200," CQfi\cspo:nm, ~o the Greek'1:; allJ,W. which has the same vaIUe5; and. oocupies the 2:0[h pl:a.ce in Old. 'Greek plWldigmarics. The Gn:;.ek lecrer E, mlJ,lO., ex:p[essi.ns the vo:i:celw hi:ss.ing s:pi:ranil, l-s].!. s«:msiom th.,~ Semitic VI itn. .1:11 emid.c !in expressed the hushi:n,g S and) athis:sing":.b:ushing ~p:i;r.a:ntiH, Im~e:1d of expressing ,the: h:~]ng spitant 00. den. to G0ek~ the letter .E criypa was 'used in tile GEil:t:k, alph:ilOe:!lO d~sjgn:ne m.e only hissl:l'lIf3; spkmt ,[s] in Gr:cckb is in. ·thlii phonceticva1ue. i,e., co des<i:gn:llIt:e thr:hirmng; s~if:3J:1:tls]. 'lhatme ch~c:re:[ L SUi: is 'UiCd. in the Old Geo~;m alphabet, pa.n.digmaocaUy couespallding to :tlI.e: G[e>ek E ,Gl'Y1JIC Semitic I' Sin. In this C1Se.roo. and the~ Georgianil:ph:met rc:Oeot; the ,c:hangesthat liook place in theG.~k s.ystem as com~ed It) 'me Old. Semltic,tms pointing ~othedirect link of the Old GCOrglm sysrem Gr"e>ek, cmitth"B the Old Se,mi.tic.[n ~urniog tbe use of Semitic writing as dteprooorype system fOf Georgian the loUom:ng&ct would. remainunacoo:untedf'o:r: The Sc:rn:U:kchZlC~re[ 11'lin w~ for solmer.eason used in, me Geo'tgian sysrem. to e:xp[es.srne hissingsp1:r-.mt [s] lnstead of We hushing I:S] whic.h is pan: of the Ge'OIrglm

wimme

58

OLD GEORGIAl'.,J 'W'RITING: ~~ SOMTAVR,UU" A

phonetic :system.md which th.eufo:r:c bad.ro be expres.:sed j,n writing by means of I defi.nite graphic symbol 'value [t'] and num,eo,cal 'value ",300" corresponds to m,e letter T tU,v of the Greck system, expmsilli8 the non-asPlrated, pboneme It!" This as the; oth.er signs designating in the o.ld Geotgi:a:n alphabet non-aspirated (g.to'ttaliud) :sto~ follow in all dewlS the Guek system and retlec:tthose Il'3.nsfomttdonslh:i.t eccuered in Greek l!l the pmtess of adapting Semiticwriti:n;g synem tome Greekla.ngu,age (vd. SUP£"aJ).
Thetwenty-fi.m: letter of [be alphabet

e

c'2l,

"vi'm

the phonetic

me:

3,.10. The tlNe:O'ty-sc'Cond lene'r of the Georgian alphoiliet,'1

'Me

(nume.ri,c;i1, "li.J.ue U400''') ~ $Crves~n, the Old, Ge:O:fgian wri.ring sys.:tc:m as :1. guphic symbol whose phonetic, and numerical v~lues are funy determined. by the Grel(:k. p:ro'~otype Y I) Wtld,v. The Greek system dec,ermines both the pl~.ce of tim. chilncter in the alp.habetic series and its nmcconal v,;uu.e in the Old Georgian Ylriting syst.em., The phonetic value of 'this Greek ,ban.ctet: [\i], ailien 'to the Georgian. :pholll!etllC sys.'~em! was tr3n~r:e:rr,!d. to th~ corre..spo:ndlng ch~ter of the Georg1311system as the: segment (),!!1. phonerically related 'to the pilatali:red vowel [il] (ef the frequent ine,etchange of 'the ~segmei:lts [u] [fi] in h:u:l!i,v;dum bmgua8,eS).
APo(hej\ more archaic" phonetic valu,e of 'the Gmek character Y 'was the ,expr:ession of the non-syRabic segment lI+]l in dipht'ho.n;gs of AY

EY i[e}!,] typc::. An anaI.ogous use' of the Old. GeargliW qMe In .segmen.ts .0£ [alrl] [e~] type: must berefle(:.t:i,ve of pte:cisely 'this ~pc\,j6dtY' of the Greek ch~j1.c'tc::r. The same character ~ .we, i:na,gtOlphic combination with, IDe: chaeaeter Q."on. is used. in the Old Georgian 'Writing system to express the vowel phoneme [u], The aesigtla.tioll ·of the vowel [u] in Old, Gc:ol'g1,m 'l.vri:dng by the digraph Qt [o!!!l was dictated whony by the rul~s of Greek onhoguphy (cf. in this respe<::tan ,analogous means of expressing the vowe11.u] in the Classical l\rmeru3Ililind 01d Slawnic writing systems). The syntag,matic combhudon ofthe characters OY, ell!Cpressing ,the: diphthong [~] in Old Greek, tumed at a fai:rly ,ea:rly period into a digraph to expresslhe: long vowel [uJthat resulted from the :monop,bth,o'n:gizadon of the diphthong [o~l. At the tunsitiQ!:lJ in 'these dialects of the ori.g1nal 'vowd [u]~p~ed by Y U \lnl6v--:i:nto a. p:alatalized variety of [ii], rJu: combination of OY became the only graphic means of rendering the nonpabtali:z:ed vowel ['0]1(vd.. supra). It is this :gnphic rnetbod of deS'ignaa:n:g the vowel [u]-rdkcting the natural
J

['lJ:"d.

phonc;ltic

chmgesin

me

Greek syst:em.~tha.t S9

underlies

the

graph.ic:

OLD GEORGIANWRlTING:

"ASOMTAVRUU'!

the ,ch~.ct:ers 0.1

lJeodeTin,g o;fthc vowel [u] by m.e.am o:fthe sy.l:litlgntatd.c >combi.nation of [O}iJ in the Old Georglan alphabet (as, well ~ in omer

systems oo.se,d,o.n the G[eek wridng prototype). It. should be noted that twecnty-thh:d. chata,Cte[ Y ~ qr!li;.tiiv in. the ald Greeksfuem. is a.dcliti!OJl:u in. clO\mpariSQ.n to lb.e Old SenntllC syste;m ·of 22: graphic symbols mttoduced into the Old. Greek.s.~em.to e::xP[essthe vowel [0] (~wen as the noruy'llbbic sepeJlt I'l)• .In me case: of

me

~,~-

'Ii wit. the Old Georgjan alpbabet rep~a.c:tly and in. ~Cl:iil!s-th,e . peculia.r.iti.es ofmls specifically G[eek addidooal ch:u:acler,.attesting to mtectlinks in the .ove sense be:t'IWcenthe Greek .d Old Georgian system.'l. ofwrlting.

l.ll.. The twe:nty,.:third. ".rPMi!nd twenty.i(Qutth ,khan le!ttefS of the Old Georgim alphOlibet~Mth phonetic v ..lu~ [ph]arnd [kh] omd n':spec'live numcncill values ·'.sOO" and "bOn," coincide ph.on.(lti,~y md functi.on.dly 'Mthmt G:re~k symbols G!pi and X xI,me blterlWO

t

bck:ing graphic: p:rototyp¢$ in. 'the: Old S'emitic :&ysltc:'Ol. These chaucu.~~ OOMtttut() f!additional·} graphic symbols wH:h. respect OJ<me Old Sel1'linc
system. 'They Vife[tcI>eated later on a properly Greek basis to desi.gnau: the aspir.ned seunds [ph] and. ,[kI1] that h~dr:emain.ed.ll1I:I.explessed by special ,b(l!['ac:te:rsn the ODd Greek. system of 'writi:n:g~ili its 23 gti.phic i sy;mbols based directly on. me Chn'ilctefli of the Old. Semitic writing

The las!: Iwre;egraphic symbolls of 'me Old Georgian alphabet n r:m. q q·u.and a Iin).,W'ith phonetic v:~u~ [1]. [q']. and [i] and ~ - •. ". ·d·"'9··.'. ur, respective 'l y" e:rnerg<: .I.n ·!.ue: O' ,'. .' .• ~L nume:l]'~ ~1_~:. YiliUes 0:f· "'7.'0 !.'.•• "O.flO· .. I'l Q~ ..:an sys![¢m as. p:wdi~al:iic eqm.vatents Qf me Gr~ek ch~ct~ 'I¥ ,,1: lPs:]! Q ~ .rey~ [0] ~ and ~. cmp:m:, completing th~ G[eelt alphabetic se!qu.ence,with the .num.ericalv3l:ues of ~~700!""800 :" a;f!ld~!900" respecti:vely. To, these
O fie .,. ..,..'

s~~em.

Georgian phone;tiic.V';ll~e$ [il. [q~], and [S]-ibsent in Greek-:i:nplace of me Greek phonetic v~ll·es [ps]md [51,.specific to Glied, md.cxpressed. byp:roroqrpk Greek: cbanc:te:rs, but :redundant: :&om theviewp oin.t of tbe pho<n~dc towfmirlon of the Geo.Egm:.mlanguage. In the case of these thr,ee g~a.phic symbols, com.pleti:ng the alp.b;:ahedc ~equenc:eof the Greek. prototype system, one should. a:s&1:.lmiC a sirni.1.u su.bsti~U!lion of me ph.onetirc viilles in :me comse of th.c oompilabon of the. Old Georgian
alphabet
char:acteilJ

~pmcs:ymbols

in the Old. GelOlrgj.UlJ system weIe i,lScrib:ed

me .spl:,';clficiDy

as well .asln.g:ivin.g

shape

'to Slomeomcr

above-d:iscum.:d

o:fthep;ar.amgm.atiC$,

3.t2:.. The twellty~Even. gr.aph~c sy.mbok of the Old Geo£8im alphibe,t.. cQnside~ed in me fcIegolng ;md.l~ae:ctillg me p:aradigm.atks of G~~k. writing,. an:. distributed .in.lihe system in :full. a(co[·d 'With. the Greek. pooC:Otype in three groups of nine c.h:a:rncters in e;acn., eiXpres.slDS dlgiliS.

OLD GEORGIANWR.lTING:.
tens, and.lumdl'e&>re$p'~ctlvdy. Similarly

·'ASOM1'AV'R.DLr' to the 9 x 3 = 27 graphic

symbols ofdle Greek system express]ng coollecu'ti.vely digiu, ~.ns. 3f:Id ,bundre&,.the61'S!t. 9 x :3 ,:;: 27ch:m.ctcfS of th.e Old, Georgian. aI:phabe't. orig1r:taong onthe.pattern of 'the Gre'Ck sys,;em, des&gn:lle digits, tt:ns, and. hundr~, IleSpectivi[y~~:2
TABLE 14

Greek
,d

Georgian i

Greek f k l :m
Q

Georg1:m. 20 00
410 50 60 70 801

G[ttt,
T

GeO[glm 200 300 50U 600 800

,d

b g

2
3 if

,a b

~O i
k,'

g
d
t:

l

t

s

100 " 400

s
,p [tit

m
Ii

e
(v)

5
6, 1 ,8 9

z
i
~Ih

" z
ej
.tll

b .._,....
,0

i
0;

i pit kh'
ps
",_...

fJ'I
k1I

100 i '9001

" (q)

p'
,i;

U

ri

90

·f.l. The Mellty-s.eventh character. lit Sin., expressing the phonetic value [J]an.d num,ericalvaluc!~900:" completes rh«[ pm of the Old Georgian alphabetic sequenc~~wmcb wa:s ordered oathe pattern of Greek writing syste,m. Those Georgian phonetic UlU[S wen: distrlbutd in. a d~f.il'llitt:!'ieque:n(;~ and. 'W~!l''e ap:pmpriilitely expressed. by gm:phic symbols in this pm of the p:a:rndigmaItic syste:m of Old Geotgi.otn wri:Eing {>Of which phonetic;a]ly close (omlAtcs were found in Greek, as \Ve,ll as some :s.pedficaUy Georgian seunds which. in the idphaberic sequence, occupied the plaoes of Greek sy.moolswith sp~d5caU'l Gr<:ek phcn~elic vilu:es (oy the pLaces of ch.itrn.cte:rsexpreui.ngo.nlynum.erical vr.llues ;0 w.e G~e~k system)" Since 'Eh~system of the Georgian language is d131'3.crerlud, by a [ug;er number of SO!Jnd un:its-conson:ants. in pmicul.u:'----thmlhc Greek, foUoYli.ng me establishment 'Of sound correlations and me distributIo:n of a de6mt~ S!1:t. ofsollnds. an the p.ruem. elf the GIe~ekaJ:phab~tic sedes, in

me

rome mo:rc' sounds that had no Such Geo[gian. sounds make: up it :specific grOtl,p' ofphcnl~ticuflits, attached .:IS an "addid:ona1" pm (.0 the Geo[gl;mtnere;

:must ha~e remained

oomspo.uding correlates in GRek.

4:1

61

OLD GEORGIANWRET1NG:

'·'ASOMTAVR.UU·'

·'·principal" pan of the alphabetic S'V5tem milt was .arranged coo:t7onnibly ro 'the pmdigmatics of the Greek prototype system .. Tbis "princip:al'" partoftbc Georgiail alphabetic sequence, corresp;Ondi:ng to the G[\~ek s:yst-em. is f'O~d of asc:qu.enc.e of lClt(;I'$. from t: m {numericil. vdue ul" to 8 lin (numerical ",due "900").
j

whereas, beginning wirh [he fOllo~ng,.Menty-eigbth. let'te:r h tin (phonetic wlt:te i[C],. :numerical value ..tODO"),we Old Geo.rigj~ ilphabet features "specrficaUy;' Georgim--differlngfrom Greek-oaddi·tional"

sounds and the: graphic ~ymbo1s exp:ressi ng tbem, 4..2. Inilim'llclJ. as the sound system of the Old Georglan langti,~ge possessed meee than 9 x 3 = 27 sound uni:rs, itp:roved feasible to create a. mere perfe:<:t. '!h.v.. Greek s.yst:em.of e~xpressing Ilum.erll;;al v.al.ues;, bY' mew .0£ aZpha.beuc writing. Tbis Wi!!> iu:::co:m.:plished by adding ·to tl:U!: system of 9 x 3 = 27 Ittcets :IS adm.tional ~phic symbols to designate tbonS\uu$. To express III complete senes of ·~thousands" it: W3S necessaz:y and sufficie.n,t to :introduc:e an. :addidonal .. wne· gr<Iphic s-ymboH: in order: that the total number of letters in tbeilphabetic system make up 9 x 4 = 36 uniU. 'P.:ecisdy s.u.chniue graphic symbols., expuS'Siing ~!s.pecjfidlly" Geotgi3:ll. s'Ound uni~.tfcri:r:lg from GFet:k~wete added. to the b~ic :part of the Old GeorgiUl. alphabet that was arranged on the Gr~oek p~tt~m. This ~owcd. the designation. in writin.g of all po5Si:blesollnd cIiHe[e.nces of the Georgian language, and creat{'!cl.a complete system of numerical values expressed by special gnphi .. s!fmbob for digits. f¢D£, c hundreds •.mdtbousand's. W This ~!ad.ditional·'· part: of the Old Georgian aIphilbet is. given In the fo:Uowin.g sequeoce of gr7phic symbols. \v]:rh the phonetic a..nd
numerieal values exp~ed by Lhem:

'fABLE.

ts
Design~ti!on ,in"
am.

Numencal value 1..000

2.000
3.0'00

4.000
5.000 6.000

;il

."it

7'.000

xan

8.000
9.000

tan
hQ2,

qh(jJ"

62

OLD GEORGlAN

'\V'R:['!'[NG: "ASOMTAVRUU"

Thus'l the ~~<l:ddicional.~'pm of the Old. GeOIglan alphabe~ cot!:C;UD$ ~pbic sy.mbols and t:h.e sound tlliirs (tX.p:rmed by them. th:a:thiilve no pnon.etic eeeeelates intbe Gre;ek s~te'm :md which~fro'm this pohu o:fview-prove ED be ·'speci.fl.c.illy··Georgian scmnds. no:tchm.cteristic of the Greek Lm:gll;ag~.S 4 4·.. .. It is e~yto pcrcc:ivetha:t 3 the c:h:u;<lder: and composition. of the uprindpai" and '·additional" pam of' th.~ ilphabedc. series depend entirely Oil c.il:llrnC tel' oflhe:prO[()~e sy:s:tcmtakc;n as 3. model. The conCreie pn.on.etic chat;[ctetisrics of the "printi.pru" and. "3ddiO.on.d'· pam of the OLd Georgian alphabe;tic sequence are ruily motivilitecl by th.e phonetic cha:r~cl:~ristics of the Greek p~.gmOl:tic :system. The souad units re.p~nted in th~ con.dll.ding part ,O'f the Old Georgian a]phabet are ~'spt;ci6cMly" Ge.crgi.an. Dcc:uJ!SJc they M'erldt ch~teristic of the Greek phonetic ~.uem. The s.am.e sounds might h:lpp'@:n~o bephon.etically similar (and. in thb sense not ".s.peciflc,ill.y·· G!!:Orgl.m.) to the sounds of some odt·er sy~t~m. adQP~.ed as the writing prot.(!'typc, and. hence find their way int:o dte'~prindpi!:l" put o£the ~lphabe~ricseries. Thus, Co:re'.xample, in. the C3Se of us.inglhe Semitic system as the writing model in. shaping Old Ge>o·tg1anwriting such Gtor~an. phonemes as [5].. [c'l. [q']., and the gtaphicsymbols d.esignatinglhem,whose ph.onetic correlates are found. In SIlm.:iti.Clanguages (as the sounds expressed by the lett:ers ~ .$ih,X~ade, j? qoph) sbould n3.ve been plaeed drnong the graphic symbols of the !<p:rim::i:pal"pan-'Withltl th.e first twenty-two letters :ref1oc!tin~.m.c:: s'1l'st~m of Old. Sermrnc\\Titing. 4..4.. In re;rlity the Old Semici.c writing (probably its AramaIc variety) may have beenused in the CQUISe of c:reati:ng the Old. Georgian

me

al.phabc[-mainiy in idenrtirp.ng j·spec:i6.ce:a]ly'· Georgian soun& 00, ['1'].. [6], [c']~ [~l,.etc.,l'e:maining unidenci:ti.ed 0'1'1 the basis of the G[eek

....... .:1«, _j..l.=-' ·'1" f'h O···ld s.ystem, mUlfe:Lemng ",I.em to·.L '!..l~e~ :.!i!.I.W:tlon1lip.m:. ate '. .... d· Ge>otgi~ a[:ph.ib~t Sucbsounds "mig:hc nav:e been distinilUished in Georgian and a:ppmpdaldy expressed by means of gr.a:phic symbols tb:rou;gh their id!l!::ntitl ation 'With phQnedcally ~'milar Se:m:lric sounds[S]. c [q], (~l, [xJ. ~'n tb.c C~e oflhe Georgian letters ~ q~d:r {ph,QiOCti.( vdue lea']i) and C ~iV' (ph.o<n.eci.cv~l1e I[c']) eV~n the gr.aphic in:nlu~nce of the Semitic symbols i' qoJtan.d.! ~ad~ may be h'fpoth.e$il~d intne; eV'Qlve:me:n:t ·of Ccu.u:sponditl;g' Georgi.an letrets(cf. Tse:l1etleJi '1949). However, . . natwi.mst3ndingttacie~ of such ~grn;phic influence of Semitic writ:ing. de:tclCubl.e in individual gr;llphic :symboh of the Uaddidon.al"pm of 'the; Old Gco:rgim alphabetic seque:!l:ce ;:u,:u;l he sound unitsexpteS'Sled t by

p

.

them, this part of Old Gec!I::gi:an. writing: ~iidendy did not evolveen:t1.re:ly on thepatttm of some shilille wririiagp.rmotype"

63

OlD

GEORGlAN"WRITtNG:

!·.ASOMT.AVRUU"

....S.. The dhtri.bmio:o. of the gtOlIphic sy.nibQls and the spedfidlly

Georgian. sounds th.ey exp:re~ in this paIt of Old Ge~I!ianw.rltl.ngfoUows a d·efmit.ephonetic principle {rh.evoiced afliicate [5} in the cemee of gmup. the voiceless affilcaE:es [c c] befotethisp:ho:nem,.e~ and {voke:leS's) glottalized affricates [c' c']foBo\V'i.IIg it).. Then come the post:~velar conSQn~a [x] :md [q~],C(lifi'elating Mm. th.e conseaanrs "{. q' ., s. that comph~'~eth.e "principsl" 'p:ut. of me a1pbabetic series. Thi'5 entire grou.p of CQnson.an~ is cornp]~ted by the d£ric:!t'e (3] :md thegrn.phic symbol:r San expr~ssing it. fallowed in. the 31phabe~ricsc:ries y the SYlnbo:l '"L halt:which b

me

o.rigj.n:illy must have .served as the: ch.ara.ctc~r-episem.o[l '9.000," ~ ccacrere phone;pc v~u!e. TABLE 16 . OF ··SP.ECi.F[Ct\LLY'~ GEORGIAN

laddng a

Pl\R.ADIGMATlCS

SOillIDS

Such phonetically ccncepr:uali:z,ed distribution of the sound units tn the ·'addi.con:a1.·' part of the Old Georgian alpha.~t-th:1lit did. not .ha.ve a defini:t:ewnci:ng PIQOO~pe---'PO]n,t:s to the fmu.liarity of tbe inventer of Old GeQ[glI:m.ViI'ri.ring ,vim d.efinite principles of the phoneti,c
classifica.tio.n of sounds.

In pmicuLu" the distribution of aflik:ates in the sequence [~c: ;'5 c.' ,e'] [JW:iw [be voiced affiica:te n~]n them:ldcl1e and Upi~Olit'ed and I g1ottalizecl. Cn.on-asplro.te:d) affi:ic3ces 0111 either side] .may reflect ehe pholl.etk principle of dmific~tion of sounds by Dlony.siuSiThrax. into oooca. ~~wkk.'~ aspimed~ Iat ~p~"nlue;,,·e il; \l'1l.O:"bm, ""'shnple:'" b.c,,~ f'. .. ..• .... ·d' 'r ~._ c '. ~ '\ . .•.. "d·. ..,1'1 . ~:1"·' \l .. ,.• F'UR .. e n.o:p~,~:ur:a:~e _.;Lid!t, re..nues: 'J'!C.. 'tK:], .an·d·_ p6a '" on, Ule.,.,'''.. mewou. (i.e., YOked; L1t .m~di~c.:~, a 1)!, chancteri:zed :;1$ ~mv 'V~ jt&v OOGo·u:.pa. '!fi)·v 3t oo~(;i)v\l'1Mtepa '~lhicker thm pure (consonants:) and.
,:iI:

pU1cr

than

thIck

(i.e..

a.sp.hatedj

ecnsonants. " It is pr.eclse]y

SilU::h

chmcteristics that sre mmifesred by thevoiced a.ffijc:~te[3'] in Georgian. with respect (!o the ~pirued. affi:h:;ate~ [~ c], on tbe one hand,Uld to the

64

OLD GEORGIAN

\VR.tT.ING: ·'ASOMTAVRUU··

non-aspirated (glotuli:zed) dliicates [t e"], on dle o'lbe:r. The voiced af'fiicate: lSI. being a "middle" or "medial" ,ccnUQfi~'t {w ~ov). was iliccotdingly placed in the CeJl.ter of ,this group, of MBic-:n:es (eL Boedee

1975).,

It is interesting to note' that in. "principal" part of the Old. Georgian alph3be~ we Gcmgjotn voi!;ed stops [b d g] al'e i.dent:ifilCd-~ indicated abcn.. -Vlim the Greek, voiced P 5. "I (i.e., "medial," ~), e the G.e;O'rgian .tSpH:at.(.'!d (Ph iii kb} ~ equated with the Greek aspirated 'IP' 91 (i,. e., "dri,ck," &10011).. while the Georgian gJ,ottJized sounds, being phonetically non-aspirated eonsonants, are j uxuposed with, the Greek pure (i.e." non-espirated; Wl1i.u)conwnants: " l' 'K_

me

5.1. The designations of me len:erso:f'Ehe Old Ge~'Igian alpbabe:E: do not re;,pc3:tthe names of the corresponding ,c'harncrers of the Greek P['otot;ype: sy'Stem. (or' of any' other 'writing S,S1:e:m). and app:uen:dy weee cn~atedartificially itSce.lUin conventional desiguOltio:ns of grnphic: sym.bols. 5,.:2. The designati,ons of the Char:aCt:eIS for the vowels were composed by adding the element -n to therespet:rive vowel: 2ll, en, in, on. un.
The deslgna:l:i.onsoftbe: charactenexpl'cmng consonants were words wirh various vowels md,the final -0; .ban; 'PI, dan, vin. zen, th3ll!,k'~, n:lm,sm.Ji:h:l'n. ,iin" Cin. cm,xw, :Jan. The monosyllabic desigpations of seven letters 3.R chuacrerized, by 'weun4U. ,-1: :n.1r. p. • f "M, ,p~, e ~aT. q ~,ar. Ii,af. .'L t=. -~ . . ~ ~, The designations of 'Me Ch3I2.cters nilve tb~ sonorous] 3 the final.element: 311. ~"if.only eee designatiun baslhe :finaI s: ,las. The design::nio.osnlc and .hac fo~ 3. peculiar disylbbic structure. The design~tions he.je, and wie ak'O endwith the vowel C.46 S.3. The d.esignations: of the lc;ttetS in. the alphabetic series are distributed in. such a way as to give the impression of arbymed se:que:n.ce. This doubtless W'aS a mnemotechn.1c:al means facilitating a better shaped
3S .rnonosyUabi.c

u.

:r.m.

me'morization ·ofthe alpha.betlc series. It is inU:usting to nO'Ce:mattn.e d.es1@Patioru of 'me leners ofEhe Old Geotghm i1ph.ibet contain lb.e sonorous c;Ocns.onants -0, -1', ~l (ill. one case the spirant-t) as the :6,n3i! elements" and it lS these cO:Ocsommtsthatplay a spedall'ole in the rhyming
elausule of the Georgian verse, belng the mo:sll: frequent conSOllanw dements in it. (c£ Tsereeeli t 973:76-77).

65

OLD GEORGH\N

'WllITING;

uASOMTAVRUU"

6. L .A. g,:aphic maJ.ysi~ of the:len:eOi of Old. Georgian writing and, comparison 'W'im me co~ndi:nB s,ymbok of Greek writing show their utter graphic incongruity and :i,[!;compadb:il!ity,. the crwion of Old In Georgian w,riting" Ithe: Greckwritiug SYlrem WiS evidently tmn. iIS a model ;lI'c:co['ding which the Geo:r~;m SQund,un~ts were identified :lnd :£0

mert'

distributed,

and expre~d

subsequ~ndy

by special gtaphic

symbols.

However, the gaphic sy,m:boisaftbe: Old. GeQl:gian 3l:phihet de not :re:peattbe sbapes, of the coru!Sponding chanClE'e1:'S ef their: contemporary Gretk wli'nng. as is the: case in 'the CO:Pdc or Gothic ,alphabe:ts. 0:1.' the
Slavonic Cyrillic,. On. the' othCf ]unjl, iii, number of c:hmcter& of Old G~an wriring;manifust: somegrc;l,phi,c f(;Ut!:res that hringthem, close to the 'oudil'J:e,of me ppmc sy:mbo~o:f.Classk:d Greek writing (o'~riap:Fing in prind.ple with the: gIllpbics of Phoenician scripts). Tbe Old Georg13l1 chuj!Jcrm 1 .hom:(d mbak Greek. Il1TmJ. '1. pn (eL uchai,c Greek yGpJUJl~ ''1' ,en (cf~ :atcllah:: Gr'e;ld.; & 1pa6v)~ 'tw' vin {d. archaic Greek ; Sfr«~, etc.-;dl f'adng le:&---tnay be considered ·as :such c:hmc~elS c,('

=j

8

1

Old Geo,rs:ian writing thaJt COme dose to an:haic ou:wncs of CotI~po:n.din,g gnpbic symbols of dle Gl;e~ik system. HQwC'V'er.EThle majority of'lhe chmcrea of Old Georgian wri.'til'1g do not show any tra1.ts of resemblance with the shapes of the corresponding chaeaetees of the Greek writing SYSf('HI,. . 6.2. How shou1d one ac.count in: the graphic differmc:e of the ~ori:ty' of me characters. ,of Old GeOl::gian.writing and '!he pmdi,gmatically co:rr:espo:nding t.hu:ac:ters of Greekwrilin,g. while were: is :rcsemblance of some ch;;r~cc;e:rs \Vim, thdr arehaie Greek OO'Ul'literpartsr .Is sach :a gra:phic diJIerenee 'between these :sysEtW, 'me result of natural d.evdopment and gr:apruc evolution orlh.: Old Georgian system, in [he course of which it m.ust have considerably diverged &omthe o:udines of the ,thuxC([S of tile archaic Greek pIototype s.ystem that served as the basis ·of Geo[gian writing! Under' such an zsumptiion we should da'~ me f'O:mlilition of Old Georglanollpha:be:t 'on the Grc~k.pattern to avery eadype:rioo, when the archaic Greek sYitem Qfwritillg prevaile~['e'Cted £rom right: [0 left, with ]eiEte~ si2n;tingi.emv':ttd, 2nd. 'wiilia. :numb.e[' of uch:ric graphic and pboneti.c :pcculiariti.es. BV'tn. if wel.ea.ve aside difficulties o(cultural.-hisrorical ord.e~~ arising with the assu.m.pdon of such an ,early ,hro:nol~ ,of 'the origin of the Old Gw~an ,AsomtawuJi47 systtmof wrldng. the fact of ehe re:OecbO'Jlin the Old GemgianWIiting s1SIem of a number of F~pbic and

me

me:

me:

OLD GEORGIAN phenetic

WRITING:

·'ASOMTAVR.uu·'

spec:ilic:atioM that: emerged in Greek writing muc'h b:te:r4& tenders such an 3SSumptiOiJl unlikely .. Cpnseq_u.ently i:t should. be assum.edlh~t in 'C1"e:!ring Old Georgim. writing the archaic Greek alphabet was rued ·as the model of wrhing, \-'!Iim account of the graphic and phoned.:: changes .arlsingin the 'Greek system in the subsequent period. All this 'warwlts the assumption ofm artificial. cr:cati,o:n of the Old Gwrgian al.phibet" as 01. :result. of conscious uchai.zing ad gra.phi.c.sqrlh::II:icn. of Ole CliSSju::al Greek ~h.ic
I

system taken. as a

model.

The Inventor of Old Georgian writing took as his writing prototype 'his oontemporary monument~l Greekwriti.ng. effecting its s.tyliz~. arcbaizalicn ,exp~s:sed in thetuming of S,Qm.e pphic symbols teo the left md in t:heh: gnpme uansfonnlltio-n. At the same time. awhn.te number of origi.nal graphic: s;ymbol\s were created. not repeating the outlines of the c-i01l'esponding letters of the Greek pwtotype s~m. In this w~y.m outwu:d1y independent MO;Il'llmenLal wdling with letters of wboUy ·original outlin.e was c.r<:3lied,whose ,co·n.n,ecno:nvrith the Greek wri:ting prototype that determined Its para.digmaticgmd i:lU'ler Stni.cwre could h1ve been established anly ihrougha special s.ystemic an:dysis. ti.3. It appem feasible to anaJ.yz.e the graphemes of the Old Georgian monumental /lmmtavruli writing as fOITn.oo of a llmit:cd number od:gin:al graphic elements, .A. strnigbt Ji:nell1.d. ... semJcircle. may be taken <'is such gl:31pbic elemeets, Jill tn.C': gt3:(lhlc symbols of the Old Gr:c.rgim Nomt:1vroli may be dr.Iw:n. by mesns ofvari.ouscombinatiom of such .;j, <Oitnightlin·c" 311d ;:1 "semicircle" within a ~uar~escrlbed. by de:lInh:e rules of combination. (cf: :Soeder 1975; Ma.cha'lI'aria:ni .E.1970. 1971; 1982). The chm.c:t.m ·the .&Qmtil:tr.m1i wn.dng ·constitu·te d.efi.nite

'me

or

geometricod.6.gul.'¢$ of the same height,

or

w..,Wll

by means. of

comp.;w:~

and

a nder within a certain in.vi~ble squ:If'e. The iniuM elements. of these figpt:es-sruight line: and semic:ir:d.e-cQm.bining with each ·o'tl'let.fiU we Pdio1e square or its b;J[ The stt2igh~ fines arc arnngerl exch:nsively along the perpendicuhr median of the: :square aad ;dong lts hm:izol£lt.u ;mdJOJ::

vertical carheti, funning right mgles (see Table 1.7)..Herein lies one of the
cardinal :graphic differences of Old Georgian. monumenW writing from the geornet.ricfigures of Greek monumental YJridng:lhe latter canalso be viewed. as, co;rnbinati.Q.Ils of a "stcdght line' and a. li<semidrckn 'within :iii geometrical ~qU3tt. p!::nnitting. however. an .i.nc.line-d. posinon ofm.e ~·sEtaight.lines," i.e., a position ;dong 'the diagonals ·of the square (eE HardeE:' 1942): cf the geometric structure of the foUQwing Gred:: grilpheIDes. as different·from the Georgian A$amlavruli writing:

67

OLD GEORGIAN

'WR1TING; "MOMTAVRUU"

A&A,XZ

KM

N',EY'"

6.;4. The In,Yentor of th~ O]d Georgian aJphmet creat:ed an ,original. :natian:.d wriling_According 'ttl ~ci,ent notions. such awri.'b,ng sh.ould. be encirelyori,gjinal and itidepe'nde~t of an.y othe:r.c:nllu; known 'wrl'ling system. The simplest :and m,os~natmal wa:y of !lttainillg such outw.a1id independence of the sJlJt~ oons~sttd in a delibe[3te gr...phic tr.Ins6:lI:mation of the ch~ctet:S of the PFot'Otypc system. and :in cICating, a numbes ef'eases af quite new an.d. aci.gjnal graphic symbols ~o cxpr~ om.d. mange in a defini~ alpbabelic sequence the sounds of the 'bn~a:ge. identUl.ed on the' basis of and. clOltlfomtably to me sys.tem of the: writing p:t:ot:otype~

App~:endy anal~ous m.cnive5 undcda,y theereation by Mesrop of 'the ,ari,ginai characters of Classical .Armenian, writing) U'tUning:th.e ove:taJl monumen:bl nsmee of Gteek, writing but cot3lly ditrering, in. ouiline from the gnphlc symbols: of the Gre.ek, wri:ting :p:lO'tocype. Obviol:liS.ly' it 'W'i!Sfor the s:am,c re3.S.on tha'ttb.e chRll~ of Greek. min:rn;clllcwri~ngundtrvl'ent stylization inlhe Old Sb.vomc
Mashtots Gl.a:soliti,c •.altering beyond ,recognition il:he~ett:ersoflhc G:reek proiCQtypc. This, is dene in order to asse:rtthe .n~nonil uniq;u.en~, of we newly created writillg and to' delJl,ollStrat:c its tndepende:n;cefi1o:m oth.erwriring

tenderu::.y led the Inventor of the Cbssica1!. Anneni:a.n alphabe[ 10 the !l:reati<>n. f absolut~ly new and. ori.gioal letrers, The o hwent'Or of ~he Old Geargi.an aJphibct ch.(lse a somewhat diJfcre.nt p;;th; he did not break completel.y wim che"plane of expr-essio:n" of th.e writing tiktn.3Sa model. Le., with thesh~p'es of 'the letters of the GEieek pI:OEocype sl'stem, bu,t, effected only 3.graphic ;ucbaiizmo.n and stylization ,of 'the characters of du~ prot.Q'type syst.em by receerse toeaneus gt'tphk te..chniq,u.es. As .a result a new ~d original writing SYiS1:em w~ CR3fed. resembling the prototype .s:yste.m in, the audine of certain graphemes, as wen as by' the, ov,enill. monumentUn,ess of wriring and. the geometric ch:mcter of the graphic symbols. Th<: IO'll'mror of the Old, Slavonic. Gbgotiti( a:cced in an analogous w"y. ddibentely l>tylizi.ng the guphics of the Gmt'}'; .minuscule liVIiting. 'taken as m.e basis. 49 Su;cn
3.

sys,tew.

68

'had, one PIl!lp~1t of Cn:ati:fig :liD: original national 'Miling;,however. mtainl 'W'iS .[(a~b«lin these syst~ by divtfSC gnp.!; tecihnlql!1cs. 6.,5. The (rea:tiion of modgjnd nadonal'l,vriting Wti dicta~edhy the oonun(m 'tendency futl.o:wing: 'the Chmtimiution cd':'a CiOlmtty :in, me :&stell'll. Chrlsdm world liOeWV!eJm5 localcultw:e on ith~' b.asU<of

TbL!l :authms

of

mese' mdeot a1P~ts

me
the

':pmcWlutio:fi of .cbrislianity as cht Qtlci~n::6gton or a oounttym. the EiUWn ChWtian .ea implied attbe smlC time a wid:e: d.eveloptn.e!lit of tfa.lUlaUQn3i ktiv:itY md, the ~p~d of Cbristi,m litefitme in the vem~ by .meiIiRSof ill, n.ew V!!riling &p~lialy CIei1l:'l:4. fOl th.e pUIpose (d Jakobron 19:45).50 This was,EIlie case with 'EDe,aeation of the Coptic, Gothic, 'CbsslealAml.enian., and, Ofd Cb,UlCb, Slavomc writms; :sysr~. ,AmJ.ogous .f3ctorsmust ha:v'e l~d.totbe~ntiQll ('If th-e Old Georgian
nfj.W;;'1U.{U
_.: __ ~,

:national .language.. De

CcODV~OO,

of

Ithe popularionomd

WIlting
._.

r

~'0!mU
& .

A

-

~.

_ '.

69

OLD GEORGlANWRITING:

"ASOMTAVRUU'··

T1\BLE 17 A GRAPHIC DERIVATION OF THE ASQM.TAVRULI LETTERS

E8=E8=E8 q_ EE~ffi~~~~ '1 EE~EE=EE=:>EE o EE]=EE=EB 'I EE=EE=EE

71)

OLD GEORmAN

WRITING: "'ASOMTA:vRUU."

'0-

1

b
'b

EB -m-a Efl:~rn E8~EE~~~OO

a-

EB~~._~=~~na fi, EE=~._rn=rn :> E8=5B a EB=B3=E8
71

E8~rn._rn._rn~rn

OLD GEORGJANWIUTlNG:

"ASOMTAVRUU"

EB=~~BS=~ q E8~~=EE=~ J' EB~~iEl=nE=~=~ L rn=~=~ e m =~ =rn q m=Ij=1j q> tE=~=~=t!j=~ t m=m
11
c;,~
72

OLD GEORGIAN

WRITING:

uA.SOM.TA:vR:ULr'

73

OLD GEORGIAN 'NRJTING: (~ASOMTAVRUU"

EE~EB=EE~EB
'L

rn~EB=tE~EE EE~~~~~~=BH

74

OlD GEORGlAN

"trRJTING:

"ASOMTAVRUU"

'1'.11l)p'D'lOllul Com:ptllris,I.'I'n: '~f Ot4 GeoailiJ:7' A$~mlliUtmElwitlt CDftit~ Go~hl(:i' CI(lI$i.~1Annmf1l'!1I1J' ~n.f Old 8"i1~'WnU:ng' Syntms 7.1. The acc~pWlce of the Old Georgian &oJ7;u:olrm:rli writing as

an ,esseniti,illy Chrisrian script and the da:!ing of its invention 'to th.e tinu: of eenversion and Christiani~O:Il of GeQrgia (fourth century' A,.n:) render undmbnMle a number of formal and structural s,pecifications ,o:f AsomtanWi writing \JiI'ilh. :respect 'to the other scripts Dfthe early Christian
and .old Sla'lloniC. All these writing syste:ms constitute a singLe ,typologi,c:al group 'of scripts, based on a commonwridng prot:otyp:e-the Greek writingsyst:em-and ate chwcterizcd, by a number' at comm.on stnu;turnI and.typo'ogicM femrn. "'.2. The Copti,c and Gawie 'writing sY,!lte:ms haVle~n commo:n with the Old. GeoIgi:an, scrip't the principle of pa[adigmati c dependence on, 'the Greek prototype system,.. In thisf'espelCt these writing s:ystems diverge from, Classical Arm.col.an writing. where such fl. dependenceis COTlSiClously disrupted. Th.e entire pa:rn.digmatic series of the Greeksys[em is fully refl.ecced in the Old. Georgim at.:phabet. M weU as, in Copric and Gothic; all m.e 9 x ], -= 27 letters of the Greek prototype. chmu:::terixed. by d.eJin:ite phonetic. ~dnwneridl \!,:ilhj:~.s on1y by' the b,n:er in the: em of {or the symba'h (;: <H1Y,I..la. ~ lOO'm'Ul,~ '~Il1tt), ba,w:; been take.n aver into these alphdibetsin the same sequ.ence. with co.rresponding p.ho:netic:md numancal values.. G:reelt epise:l1lQ1l$are 'transferred in the same function (i .e, only .as; $ymb¢1s exp~ng definite n.ume:ricaJ values; ,(the Coptic letters with the values, "6" and "900:' and Gothic ]c:tt'el'Swith the :oum,encai values "90" and '"900"),. ClIthey acquire in the new systems specific phonetic values characteristic of the given lmgulge (c[ 'the: letter q, iij in Copti<;-phtnle'bc value [fj. nuruerlc:a111alue "90"; 'the letter U in. Gotbkw:ith phonetic value [q""']and numerical value "6"; tb.e letters
cufwral wo:dd: Coptic, Gothic" CIanical ilnnenian,

~

via.'q'

1m:l.

and. ;" lin in Geo~gia:ll:-phon.etic va'luc-s [v]t [f]. [S]:

'respectively. and numerica1:--'''6:' ~~9'O:·(l;nd 1<900:' ,utd,otbers). Greek le:'tters 'with phonetic vilues (such as [ks], (PS], [0]" etc;.')spe:dfic from. the viewpoim of the-se systc:ms-cnter the newly created writing systems with rtew pbonc~tic values, specific already to the: sound ~stem of the given languages. '["e'eaini.ng~ ho'w'e'v'Ct.me num.er.i.cil values of we prototype system. (d. the Gamic d1a.t3Cters 'with (he 'numerical .~1 '.... _. 'I'd' ··h·,,· -" ViUues U" ;IJ:' v;uues "9'· ·'60" .. td "·-00" :rcspeco'vel}'. an :p eneac ._'1. • r\,:) [;1 »: ., an, 7--. and [hW); Old. Georgian characters j je, II ran. and.q q"iu-.\l\Iith uurnerical value $ "60,''' "'700,n and '<800:" and. respective phonetic values m, [1].. and [q"]).
'J
c

7.5

OLD GEOR.GIAN WRITlNG~ uASOMTAVR.:UU'· The pmdiWWltics ofth.e iDiti~ wriJti.ng system" uken as, th,e 'Writing modd is ~cn:lially pr~r\rcd through S1.lCh t;lphonelic subs:lihlllioD" and, JlCtiC:n-tio.nat :fele·v3liitp.lace$ in the iJphllx:tic seri,i:S of !lbe :newly created wri,ring of an 'the Flphic $cy:rribo~ We p:tototype: sysmn. o( The pm.digmatics ,of '!he prototype system u therth",)"mapped, as it 'wetet ,onto tbe atpbabeEic series of £hen.ewly developed. wriling. I:n Godde, such !~mappling" ofd:le pmdi~dC$ of the G~ek prototype sys'~m onto the alphabet!ic s,eries 'was e:&efed without the need Qr adding to, it ~ number of cnmc:t'CtS with specifically GQd:lic phonetic v3il:ues..S.ucl1 ,~pecificaUy Gothic phonetic v~u!es found. l'oom, fully in,the p~gmati'li' of tht Greel!;,proOOt'ype as 2. [~utt of de:ctin8: c~, pbonebc, substittuiom. .Henc:etbe GoiWe: alphabet oonuim the 'Smie number (9 x 3 c 27) of ,grapbi,c; sy:m.bot :8 the Greek prototype. Of tbesclhe filSt nine symbols in tbt aJphabedc sequence exp:lIcss digits, the

next :nine. k'1U',. and the nlne gtapbic ~ymbo1s completing the alphabetic series.. .bunmNs . .In Cop'uc and. Old Geo.rgi.afl.!foUomn,g;lhc mappin,g o:f the paradigmatic! of the Greek prototype s;YJtemon:ro the alphabetic frerie$.of

the newly ,created system wdlthe effecting of definite phonelic 5ub$Utupg,ns.,th.er!e still .remained, 3" «ruin n.umbeT ,of specific seuad u.nj.ts .:L . ..~. _ ,_.. .. -.c;,. .:I. _._.:1 _L_. u:lat h-.l to L_ expre:s.sw m wrtnng. 'I'"L __ . f! 5pC>CIHC roun~;UN ,ii,u, DC &. nese graphic'S'ymbolls d.esign·a:lingthem were ':lidded !lome 'I~principd!\l pate of the ip'habetic series, by 'way of comp'!eting it, reflecting dlC puadigrn1tiCS ,of the illitialproootype system wi:dl. 9 x 3, == 27 graphic symbols. Such ··additional'· characters pemlitccilthe aprcssioJil of num.ericalvalua of ~~m.O'Wandsn also in the Old Goorgi.m alphabet., The CJai.caJ: Amu:nim alphalbet is, bMed on. an 'es5e-.nddy di:tfe.[e:nt:pandigmatic principle. Itypol~cilly opposing it to the Cop'be. Gothic" and. Old Geo'rglm writin,S sysrems. In dta:wiiog up the: Classical Arm.em:m alpbabetic series all the epbemOlDs. {i.e.• chamctt:rs exprmng in Greek a.nly numerical 'va]uc:i: C ~, C; ~ ~ a6p.m) w~removed in ~vance no.mtbe puadigmuks of the Greek prototype: system, ~~n as al1w;e gtapbic symbOls designating sounds spe:..cioc to Greek. but no.o,..chat:teteristic of Armeniw: a ~1 (phonetic value PcsD .. 'f"1p'i (phooedc\!Jlue [PS])., and. D Jj. Jd;ra, W·hcm=ti.c value [0:]). ,I't appc3fi mat in dta,\Ving uu: C~cid A:rm,enim 'aJ.phabc:t it ',","as not a substiNnoo of: p:[o:pc[iy ,Armc'nhm rounds rol:'the specifi.cally Greck phonelli,e vaIu~tb.a wu clrected. (as 'Waili the case in, cre~8: me Coptic" Gothic, and. Old ,Gwrgian scrip~). but a r:oduction O'f m<e Greek: alphabetic: seri.es, ro a sequ.ence containing only ,oo:n::e-htal of Aml.eman sound 'unla that had '001 be ,exPl7CSS.ed by special tettcl'S. The Gted;:. pandigmalic sequence: originating :in this way (i 'C'1
UK;

7'6

DID GEOR.GIAN WRITmG;'~.ASOMTAVRlJU'· illowingthil!: !!:~tion. of pbonca, values specitic mom the viewpoint of Annenim in the alpbi1lDetiic scri~. Qr Ute ·Gr~~·k P:f,otoIJPC: system) sefY!ed as lbe~n~tial nuc:t.e,m,of Ihe ph:emetie v.dU.e5 o:nthlC!b~$ of which enmsyum of the Clmic::d ..Amtenhm ampihabeltwas, sb.ed.r.hmugh addins: spedfi.catly .Amlenian soundu:niiu ~d by spt,dalgnpmc: symbols. Ho:wcver~th.~esped&cdy .ARnenbn.vllues do not co:nmrutt a OO:tliD:~~moo.hll.'the :a1,hab.etiiC~MOft!h.e : t1~pril1icipa:r.'~part. tiefiecl:iingtb.¢ GmekpWldj~Jj.cs. ,a:]!:b.ou:gb redcced.m :II. specll;dway.~ but are s;vm in :a1Kmardo.n'W'ithic. The :symbols, of di;e;"addldo.r:W'" .p,art .;m:: :r.15erKd. ;It dlff'erenit places bet"1.1V>eenme gqphit ~ls ·ofthc '·plinci.pal·'pm.Ehus ups.e~nB tb.e(ni:ginal paradigma.tics mcti.v:ned by theGrc¢kpt'Ototype~ md~a:oirdinglythe system.of numerical values .chua(teri'nic of·the initial. Greek:.mode1 The principle of p~ng:thc .nmnerialwlues of the writing pJ:otQ~:in the:, newly qcattd.wrl.ti:ng ~t:em--strialy ohsuv~d.iJl th.c: Coptic. Glth!]e.and Old Georgian raIp:~u-is coullylejeaed by the Inventor of Clas.icai. /ttmenimwri:ting who uses Ore~k writins .only as,a metenoe fOlthe identilicm.o:n of eotm.ponWng .&m.eman. $ouod umts.. ThBmdendy ako·acc.oW1tsfofth.eElitt th.n,.inunn,g Greek writitlj8: as a mode:l~ilie mvenw of Ihe Cbssic:al Atrrieruan ~bet dees not bke in:l::O, :aC:cOmlt t.l:i.egaphie :symbols. i:n~t that express specifical1yG'reie1:. sounds. !l~per.flu,o,ustamdi.e .A.mlem.mpoint of view. or tba:l::;a;.ctets-episemom, devoid of :an.yphoneci!c V:~Uie WMI$QeNet.FOi' this. rca.s<an, the n.ude,u's, of the GMek ~hwe~ undedyi.ng the Classical .Amten:i:ansystmn" u. madel:!!p of a .S(qucnce of symbols mm. A ~ (!urn. J. ,;Ifb') co X Ii (Ann...:p. .~E)" oQeptingcftWn ,charac[iem 'With spedica:ny Gfieek wmes wl!thi;n this se~:Ulen(e. Betw"D. these exnem.e chm<:rers. of Cl&!coU Aml.cman alph.iobet arcillrWligehit dliB'(n:nltp~c:s and al:tcm:a:tely with the. pap:hemes of Ehej~pdncip:i'.'~ pm:......anthe addldonat. symbols!, fawng. jojndy Yritbme gtaphemes. of me ~Iprindpll.~' part, an abs.Qlu~J.y newpmdigmabcs of Classical Annerri;n 'writin:g~ dJi.6"'.e:ring.iom me systeDl:. of me: Greek proto~ 51 .At. :1. result. the ,eiOtrreSpon.d.e:ni:C (omflete~ b~aks, dOWl1l.btMeen ,~.e Gtieltk. \Vrl.dngprototyp:e ad. the CbisilCaJi. mmenim aJ,bibet mdl ~t lQequ!5l:~g with ,con:elabble gt1phk: symbols. rcs.pecti:ve 1'I!u:m~t:k:d.·valillJe£. TbH is why CWsiCil Afmenim. writing cb.rtidly dil'en: koilfi m.e Coptic... Gothic., and O~d ·Ge.orgian 'Writing sy~enu. which in this sense :aD.fOml :a single typologi,c~ cl:ass. 7 .S. B~d~ the oo:mmonpr.inciple of the p.at:adigmatic dependence on. me Greek. pmtotype system" the dted.writi:ng s~\!erns

me

we:

me

OlD GEORGIAN WRtTlNG:
come dli:lSf!: to o,ne anoth.er by cnaracteristics" ss well,
3.

j'IASOMT,AVRUU'"

number' of other wu<:tutal typologkal

Thus. Old Geo~m and Co,ptic s:criptseome togetlu~t nol amy under 'the ,oo.J:l'U:llo:nprinci.p1e of p~e:rvi:n,g the p.u:adigm:ati:es Qf 'the
'pmtO't:ype sysllCm. ,th~ou8hphonericmbmtu:lion of spoclfic sound v:du~ of the initial s:ysterQ, but in, OB.e ease mo by me ooi.ncidence: of the

phone'hl;; v:due of such subsntultes. In the Gothi, :a1p.babe[--1Swell as in Old Geolgi;m-me Greek letter S ~i (phonetic value [ks]. numencal valae <1<'60")is replaced by corrts,p01lwng graphic symbols havingEhe s:Iffi.e phonetic VAlue oJ (n,umerica1 ~!"alue'·60") mdexhibiting at the s.un.e time sOm.e: graphic similarity with ea;ch.o[ih,cr: ef Goth. G [ij ~160. and Old Georgian :J t. [jJ. '~60". It should be aored dt:lt the replacement of tbe Greek [ks] pl;ecisdy by [i]in bcl'th these s.y,stems C3RPot be justified on purely phonetic grounds. for the sound segments (ks] and [iJ diifer: too much poonc:ncaJily.
. I,

Suc'h coindd.en(;t: jn the phoneti.c 'val-Ile Qftbe S1ilbsbtut~ of the Greek [b] in. 'bo<tb writing: systems 'nu:y :I:treSt mdter to the 'p~nce of

deftnitehisroric31li:nks between them. The Inveneor' of thc:'Old Geoqjan alphabet was dQubt1¢S1.1 familiu' with hls c:ontem,po.E:i1I:f writing, syste~" in.dllding possibly the Gothic :alpbabe·t_ the w:b o:f which he might haw 't::itk.en1n't.o seeeuat 'in inventing the new wriling:. ~.2. [n Idle. light. of this" it is pe;rh~ps, nOI: accidental tha:t the deSignOllCO'm, of certain. leeers of the Old Geot:gi;m, alphabet co~ncide w:i:th
mcna:mes, of meco~ponmng cb~t«s of Go'r,hlc wridng~ Thus, .£'0[' e:xample"thre desip~tion of the .old Georgian, letteT 11< lis.• with 'the phone-ticvaJ.ue p.] :U\d I1iumedcal:.valuc "'30." being phonetic.illy is.obited

wi:tb. respect, to th.e ethel' design:lltiom. resembles very much 'the name kaz· of the Gothic:teflc:r J\,,, vrith, me phm:t«i,cvaiuc' [1] and ..numerial value '·30":; d': Usa the names of the gtapb.emes of Georg. [vl cWD and Goth. [w] uuinne; Georg. [m] ~ (numerical ,,:dUll: ",40·') and Goth. (m],
,DWm.:ll

(numerical v:d,ue ~i401~),.

1A. From the "rJ,C:'WpOint the, bismric31 interrebtiam. of the of :uphabea: ·ofthc Cbristi211 pericd-e-based OIn system ofG1:cek writing-oo'JUjd.e(r:uiol1l alID should, be ,givlCnto' 'we; Old. Slavonic Glagolhic and CyriJli.c Stdpts whicb belong to, 'the: sametypologieal grou:p of old writing systems. 'The O~d :8llvon.U.; Gbgotitic wriling is essentially based on the sa:meprindple of' thr::par:adigmatic d~p:endence of the :newly created. writing: on the GUIe:k. PU)ootyp:e sy'Stem <IS in !:be Coptic, Gothic, and Old. G<eorgim alipbibeu.

me

78

OID GEORGIAN WRITING:

uASOMTAVR.ULI'~

The basic :pan: of Gbgolitic-.....,correspo:n,ding to' the Gr;ed:: system:--i$ ordC'fed on the pattern of·the Gteek alphabet;,wirb ·definit,e: phonetic sllbstirubons. The sp~ci6.c sound units-diJkri:ng from the Gtee·k-. 2ft ~~d inth.e ~cm <1.5. an n:tddi:tiO'na1!.'~ pm, completing: tbealphabetic $l':ries .and el<pE'em'l18' the numesical values of d:!ow~ds. To single out mch specificlilly SLavi.csounds. and auange them as the 1'~addilionaJ:i~ put ofth.e alph1~ttheh:ivenmr of Glagolitic. had to OO:l1sider:the datil. of other contemponrywriting sySt~11lS. Old Georgim writi:ng also mliY hav~~en consulted by him, 5.3 Traces of this, em be

me

me

~ve:d i.nme disaibuti.on of rome lettetS e~ng thaol»2lJ~ in. the "Hdirional·'·pm. The ":l.dditicna).·' 'pm of the Glagolitic. oomisting of nin.!: symbOb e:q;rrcssing rlJ!OU.f.lr.im., begins 'with ;t gpphem.e "With ·the phonetic value: [~]and numerical value "1000,," just as in the Old Geotgim :a1p,hibe:; W:bet't me "addhionil" :pm or the sysllem begins ?ii:th the grapheme!. 'With, the :phonetit value [ij and numerical ·ftl:ue of u1000." The sixth pi:liC\':in. this, group of gQphemes in the Gbgolith: is, occupied. by ~.symoo] 'with, the p'hone:tic value [x1'l and .numerical value "6000,,'· sbnilady to the Old Geotgi211. 21ph;abe:t: In which 'the ;[:es:pective place in the ,alpbabetic series we hav'e 2. symbOl with. the phonetic vilul:

(xl and :!lU1'l'l.ericd v:du~ ·'6000." N. S. Tmb«zkJoy considered i't posslbll!: to assume sueh a historical rebdoruhip bet\ve,enthe Old Georgian. alphabet 3l1.d.the Old Stavonic Gligoii:tic (cf Tmbe:ukQY' 195,4: 23) .. In. this S!l:1I'IS.e. in. 'the Glagolitic tbe gequence of the symbols Ot,/. c ~'900" - • cUt 000" -W I 1<2000" (expr~d :ilio,in the Cyrillic: asEbe seque:ru:eQ c - q l ...ll 1.) i is chmotemtk. being the :re\i'er:se of dJe Sleql:lJence:of the re:SpecDv:e 5Ylil:bOOin the Old Georgian writing .system; ~ I A900" ,_ h l u'l OOOI~ ... 'C' c 1<2000. ,. 7.5. Besides the resemb~mce of me :piradigr.na.tic Struicru:l'>e" Old. Georgian .As·Qmtavndiwriting mddle Old Slavonic GlacoUlie share the <;ommonprin.cipk oftbe disuncing of the grl.pmcsof the newly created writing :&em th.u;. of the plOtotypc: s,yst~. T,ms W.lI5 acoomplisb.edm OIM-l' du.t the c:me-.rsent system be charac~w by ill :lhe :fea;turcs of an "independent .national wriring"with no outwatd resembhmc:1t: to oib.er ront:emp«arywrlling s.ystems. Cla;s1cal A.rtnenian writing, 1Nl'm :its :Fp.hics totally differing :&om 'the Greek :P~otOtype, cre~ted by Mesrop Masbmts. proved an t:xtMm.e; ~testltio·n of this principle. Funy bilSi:n,ghimself on the Gleek writing s.yltem in inventins Classical Armenian writing. Mashto·ts tady changed ·thegta;phics of th.e :pratotype !}1lltem, resorting to diff'ere:n:t gr_phi, tcclmiqUes in sbaping co:mesp'O'nmng cbaracters of we nt:w'

19

om

GEORGIAN
W'1.Y

WRITING:

'''ASOMTAVRULr' the Gr~ek prQt'Otypc: are

wn:ting. In. ,this

sll external link:s.with

severed and. a se;ruhlanoe of the CCII:np1.e[~ :i,ndepe:ndence and, origi:naticy of the neWly created writing is created. The Inventoi' ,of the Old Georgi.an A.sanu:a.vrnli alphabet deliberately mod:i'fi,es-wi:m the same purpose-the G:r,eek prototy:pc system: in the newly ,created system he does not 'break, with the Gre-tk grarphi.(s" but n'Jie;r:ely~sfO:rm.s, h, by' a delibeatc 3I'chaizattQn ofLhe graphics, of Ithe prot.Qtype ~y:st:e:m and graphi.cal mQrufic:llJ.on of correspon.ding chmcte;rs. By this, the Creator ofthe Old. 'Geor;gi.an alphabet ;;II,chieves esse.nti;ill.y tbe same :result in ioventing;m original national w.riti'Dg 01S MaibtotS did. by cn:ati:ng ;m o:ri.ginaJ Classical .Anneni,arJjnational wriring on a graphic b3Sis abs.ohuely di:lfering from. the Greek, prototype. Such liend.encies in the Eastern, CbrisoaJD Cultural Wot,Jddictated by poii.tic;:,iland religious c;onsid,cra.tions--led to 'ilie creation of
seveeal oU'ho'l!.ttdly diifcringwric'Il.E\ systems" wring on Gredt. w,riling 'but ex:hibh::ing O'l1twarQ. gtlphk ind.epende:n.ce vrith respect rothe Greek

pr'Ot:otypcsystem..

from t.his point of view 'me Old Georgiom ko.mavmli wri.ting, ETkat'agic;, and Old Sla.vQ'nic Glagolilic &n Jnto a common typo.logi:cal ,cl..ss-~pposed to Coptic and. Gothic' ~(.:ri.p~ as 'WcU as to the; Cyrillic" whose graphic expression rdle,,~ th.e srnphi:cs, of their

the Classical Arme:nim

comemporaqr Greek writing s,ystem.

At the same time. however, Old Georgian 'writing (as well as Old Slavonic Glagolhk) drastically difft~ :from the Classkal: Armenian llphabetwith :res:pect 1.0 imernal; :p\lndligmatic strucEUU of w.riting. From the viewpoint of paradigmatic dependence: olluhe sys,tem ofthl; Greek prototype Old Goorgi;m writing (as well ~rh£ Old Slavorrie GbgoUdc) Is C!iropologically dose!: to the oldest s:pecim,ens of Chriseisn

me

rut;

sc:ri.pts: Coptic and Gothic 'writing sy.sre:ms. "'1.6. The estOliblishmcnt of the OLd Ge:O:~g1an capit-'l1 ,Moall::n1ruli as the: writing of'the Chrisdm period. compiled Q'R the basis of the Greek alphabet. natuWly rah~ the question. as to the i.dentity of its Inventor:
'Who was the p'.crsonthat created-on the basis, of his co:n:te:m.:porary Greek alpbabetic writing-w'.l :absolu:tely new and original writing of

mon.llmcn;Eil sty]e: as the result of a deliberate ;u'Chaiiz:anon and modification of the graphics of' \1;'fiting of [be Greekprotcrspe s.ys[!;m? Hiroory has: presr;rvedthe names of the great. In.ventoD of Chris'UOir.! seripts.: Gothic, Cl:liSSicil Armenian. and Old Slavo:nk al:ph:abets. These were oUES'~ndi n;g men 'of letters of mei,1: tim.e:UMilas, Mest:op MOOItO'lS. and CcmsunOne:-CyrU. However, we do, nQt know fOr certain the Identity of the m~ who created the Old, Georgim monumeetal

so.

Awmra:wuliwri.Qng. nor is the name ofth.e Inventor of Ithe Christian. 'Copatwndng known .• Th.c &:mcnian biaorlw w.di:d:on Unbthe mmon.of Old. ~m W'rit:il'l!l ~ as We 'Writing 'of Caucasian Allii!Irl.ms} to the work. of Mesmp .Mashtol!l. On.th.e other handt on. the bais "of the evidence on:he same l1istorical tradition it may be coru::lwied. that Mesrop M.ahtQB WiD Got fimili.u with Geof8j~" which. mall,. rules. aide !be po$SibW.ty ofhis i~ng the Geor:gian sa;j,:pt.

wc'n

&. noted

;lDoVC

j

the

eVQl¥cment

'of:l :nc;w wri'ling does, not imply

only 'the inv~aon. ~d!. compilati·on of definite gqphit symbols of wrlti:n;g; It primarilY. presupposes a profound. linguistic analrsis 'of the phoncblC side of language,. and isohtion of its indh,idu:U. sound uni~ts ,th~t have robe le:xpmscd in writing: by appropriae: graphic ~oJ.s .•Logially' th t!. d . _...1.. . . f"' . .: UiWil· 1.5 ..,e·unt an. . mam '. 111ene proC'e5$ o' c.reaung a new w:nang 011 which ismclIItiially based. the entire subsequent pma:dm:e of Ihe gr:aphie exprSonofb:uiiiYldlHf. munds .d thei( awngement in, a ddinitt .soqu.cnc:e d.e'plCnding on. the :alphabetic senle5. of ibe prototype ~em.. A.D. this :re.nde.tS im-llouibtctDe clClliion. of I wtitingfur a.defi:nitc bn~ by iI pason Who has :not DliS'tetcd ·this· lmguage tbo:ro...~y and. hence :is mcapabl·e of c~8 out .w. detailed. p'honCilic :malysis.. Nertberis there my objective pound to c,o:.wder M=op' MlshWI:S an. "butn1ttor1' or "coruulWli'" in the clieath;)JlI ·of Old. Gea.tgian. writing. who !ltimpJrted his expericn.cc: and. F..ner.i prin.ciplcs. 'to, the inventor of chen.ew WfiIIDg'" (d. P'e:tildianyan 1966: 1.32; Geppin 1981). The Old Georgim ;upb~ as ~ bee:n snoWllaooYe.is based.o:n strulcwral principles: difCetin:s; &om Cl:assia:iI Annoenian. Both the pm;gwtia or the Old. Gm9m systf:m ;and ·the ~pbie eh'IRICtcmcs of me le-ttm Dl!miftst-rega:r4mg :E!il,elepende:nce on. the Gqe.k prototype d ~m:-a piame suhswItiaDy dilfering :iom the C~c;al Arm·enian system. which rUles out die pamcip;a.ri:on ,of the :fnvenwt' ,of c:twi:cal Armenian. 'writing in 'the (omPfiation or Old. Ge~wrlting even in ·the role ,0Ca uoom\dWlt" (.C£ GWbeJi~e 1981). It is mtunJ]. to as5U'Q1)etbep1'~sence of defini:E:e hismric:d rcJatiCIJlS I and mutual infl:uencC51 bctwcc:nthc Christian Old G~an. md. Chssicu .Arme-m;n ~r.i:.pu of lhe same period., wmth .miJgJu be attested by a [I!~r of'similar feat'lJre!;.,detectable in: ,these systems: cf the 8D:phics of "'1"I1'O L::' n.:j]I~ .. .'"-,- .•• l~, f;.L ~ -,ii ft..']..-L: -.~~- G.eorg ,~~ ,. IP.Iii.-:] .......'.' ;(};I"UL ,'" r...d ]1 .,'--_ r'r'.:' ,,;ood ...:...... .. W ~~ G III It... , ~.ru:m... "'I '~- - _Georg. ~b] and Arm. f.: [k.hJ. Dtilect:ing the graphics of ·the corteSpondit1!Fl letters of cheGlI~ekproto'type: d the n'lme5 oflettcrs: Georg. i'm. - .Ann. ,ken; GeO.fS" .bm - A:nn. ben~ Geotg. in - Ann. in. and. omen .. However • .ne direction. ofsuC'hinftuenccs .may be deter:min.ed
&L! _.' !I;,..'''''''''i~'.

,+

'I'

81

(lnly'Wlth the e~t3:b'I!i$hme[1t aCme preclse date of inv~nti.on of Old. Gt;orgi.m and. Cl.ic:ll1 .l!umeni.m.systems o:fwriting, In any 'COlISe, epautei:nwnces s of such possible mutual l\eJatl.ommp:s do notobit;eratc the fimdamcl:'d:al .$tnlctUf'.a1.-typologicaJ ,differen·ca eod~ting be;twee:nme aid Goo\!:'g1,mmd C.lassic.u Armeni;w systicnu. wmch tum them, not'W"ithstaniling cerWl:1 sjm.ibriti,es, intheif monllmenw,-style gt:;lIprucs.Obv:i,()iWily modvared bylb:e graphi.c nature of the Greek writing proroqpe., itltopolar sync:ll'IS, \\.rithil1 :iii singk typo:logi.cal group The Georgian hiswrical.tnd:irion. reia:t'eSthe emergence of Georgian, 'Writing 'to the activity of Kill!!! Pamav:az (third. ce'nrury B,.C). who !'intmducM Ge~~gim IJr.eracy,'· Akhou,gh the credibility ,of this e;vidence o:ftbe eleventh-century Gemgian hJi~oorian ,:Lr:o:ntf Mrovdi is questioned by so.meschoW;s. the -cnri:re culwrnl and. hisrorical .s![ualion. of [he period does not wle Out In prlIldple ;i,possible exi~tenc~jn, ancient theria of aSFechl ld:nd. of "p:re-aIph~e'ric'; Geolrgim wri.ci.ng. Such "ruch'lic Georgian Wfi.ti:ng" ma.y have been ,employed in Ime ~.e

me

me

ChriSbat1 Gwrgj,anstlte

in recording

Il.exts ofv.ari,ed.chlU'~ter",MWith

the

comlt:rsio[l of Iberia. and. me'procLamation of Cbrifitianity as the o:ffidal rdlgioo of the 'OWlay ii; newalpbabetic wrhing w;as CRilI!tf:d. on the basis of th~: Greek systern~ ih~ might h;);v\C:sup'pLa;n,'!:edthe nArchaic Ge~ilgian writing" of the pre-Ch:risllim pericd, be~oml.ng the d.om:lnant writing :wim.m oflidalsure and reli.gious Smru!i. in Ghrisdan. .~berla. ThetJrs,t ttansbtions of me books. of th.e S.c;ript1Jres in O!llorglall. were .w3dew:ith me aid. of [his nC'W. specially created national .AJio<m!2wWi vtriting, .followed. by orlginalliterny wo.rks inm.e hagio'gn:phi!Z genre. 55

82

Notes
1. C{ CudolU. 1981. Suchm approach to writing '~l siSU ot semiotic system: is ,obseNilible ;ir,eady \\lith de Sia:u.ssute,,1,S eviden.ced by notes from his ~cotds pu'bUsbe-d in 19:7'2,(Salllssure 1972:to-ll). . 2. The phylogenetic de'Vel~pmenl: (or phylogeny) of wril:ing rt:re'n;.to 'dIe ,evolution. of writing~n general, with. ,account ofElie consecurtive :stlges ofil3 devdopment"bcgi;nning 'With S'ltnlloguph.yup to the dpbabeti.c Sf;a;ge (If pho:noFp.hy. The ont<>;ge'R'c:tic development (or: ontogeny) of writing islhe origin 2nd development of the consecutive stages, of an individ:lUl vn:itin.c SlYstem, beginning wilh its ~:re3ti,on and oontinuing up to '!he dmeofits study. 3. Blementt, of ideograph:y are :p:[¢se:ntin many anci,e:nt and modem 'wliting systems (cl: :fu~ eJI:.ampl¢~the numerical designadO\ll$ in r.n05twriti:ng: sysle:m5" s,yrooo:}s oftb,e type of Bt" e'.g.. cf. in English. the ,system of :tn2tbenwlcd sip. and so ,ool·. Unintemlp'eed ideographic wri,ti:ng s,ystems .arc chmc:teristic:, of an,dent St2ges of the; phylogenetic development of writing.

me

4. Elements of idwgpphy

rna.y be pI'l:Sc.nt in my alphabooiC

wri'dtl8. He'Jl ..ce, o,n,e can s,peik only ~ebdvely' about 'm~grcat(r 'E?erfectiJon, of the alphabeti,c systli:m. of wrj,tingin compariSlonwith id.eograph)' (eL
Mo:tpurgo Davies. 1986). The: "perfection" of alphabetic writing should betU;.e:n~D me Se:~e 'til;!!t. it is ch[onologi.cally a fmther stage 'In the

pbylogeneric development of writing.cof.lSec,\l.tively pwing the q:tS of ideopphy, lQ~aphy. and syUabography, up to the eme~en"e of the <lilphabelic: 's~m proper! ahhough in t:he d!evelopment of dpbabe:tic. writing eases rn.ay be observable of a.reversien 'to pnncl:pleso:f id.eogrnph:y and the emergence of seP(!![\1Ite ideographic scripts (c£ e. g. m,e e.e:men.ts of ide,ograph.y in modem English wrlting). 5. l:nthis sense. tt1.ditlon:al pale,opph,y e.metges as a paniculax discipline of gumma.eologytba.'t studiesp,rimariiy the "plane ef expression."' of a: writing :syste:m. Le., the specificity of the grapb~, apression. of sped:a1 roeaningll 'MID the aid. of defi:nhe: gr<I,phi,e sigps. md, the: questions of the: graphic; lI'ansfonna.don of Ihese signs, in time. It is not, accidental dta't in ,tackling such pl'Qblt:ms as historical ool't'ei;:tions be'twc:en MOW scripts, tndidml.u pal~ogrnp'by:-l~l~ oon,ceme4 with ,tbe: "plane of expr:~iCl!n" of i writing, sys(~m-based i~, oondwions munly on. rhc el«emal 3Specrs of gaphi.c resemblance between 'the signs of the~ s;ystelll5~m:thout d'Uca,cil,;Qun:t of d:'.leJl' 'inner struCtIilr3:!l peculiari.ties

NOTES

detem:rill,ed by me inten:elation of the ·"plane of content" and. the "plme of e::;::plessicn" of [he system. 6. Such a linear order of gr:~ph.k s:igns in a system. detemIini:nghs paradigmatic: m:uCWi['t! may be mODv;a:ted by vari.ousfacrors. A special place atIlQ!l:'Igthem. is held by roe factor of gra:phic [es.emblanc.e of thil! s;y,m.holsandtbe phonetic. 1iken~ of the sounds e:xp:ress.edbyt:h.esI.e signs. The par;adigm_atics of me Old Semitic system of 'Wri:ring is largely del!emlJJ:led ~ll::tcls,ely byrhese (ilcrors (ct: Drivel' 1948; 182££.; T;r.ylor 1899~ 190-191.).. In :many derlv.ulve 'writing s~t(ms;. boUOWed.6:Q01 delinit(; wrinen source-s: and created on tb.e pattern of ll:te la~er,. m,(1 p~gm~;ti.cs of me graphic: symbols-unmotivated from. the viewpoin:t of the given syste:rru;,--omay[e£l.ed: the order of ,the ,harac;ters of the prototype s~em (cf. 'the p;uadi:grrunics o(the Greek syste:mMth respect co Old Semitic). ' h1.U~L'n .••.• 1.f _ • . n .r . oernc,u:n ..... .Cio.rtSonlUlY-l.~S,'1a{i.ulC W'llELng tue qUC:S.tI:o'n 0:. 11I. 1·[···T>'h··.·.··
c:o:rresponden~betwe.en the: gra:phem.D and ofmc l'U1.g!..lagc: isco:mplica:mo 'by the :natlJn: of the s:ymbol [111]: doe"$.thl$ ~.g.n render 'the vok:!!!:less hushingsibil311J: phoneme 1. Ofi~ itused also to deslgn.tte the h:issing-hushlng ~i.bibnt 5, as in. Hebrew, in, whichm.es:e rounds are differen:ti:md. by meam of m.u:::rirical. warbo:n thepriridpal symbol? In [hjs cMe,me pres,erviilcio.n. ~f the phon.emic ditfel:e-n:tiarion. of 1'- § shQuld. be assumed in the class of sibi.bnt phonemes mutual. cne-te-one consQnant3lp.hon~l;ne~s

in. Phoe;nid~n. as weD as in Hebf~w, inherit~dfiom.common Se'.mitic. .But In this COl$(;::' how is one to acCOUrlIt for the use of a $ln.gL:!:lpphi.c
symbol. m reedee the .t'INO phenemes j md J in Phoenician :IS well ·as in the other syStems of Old Semiticwrl.ting. whereas al tbe ether co:mo.nantal .phonC1lles 'w\Cteexpt:essoo by spedal g[:iI.pm"" symbols? This givC$ ground to. assume the occu:rr:ence-p:riOl[ to rl!cording of IDe Imguage----of al'm~1:ge[ of thesibilm'l: phonem.es .i 3tld f huoa. co;mmon phoneme: iIi in. Ph.oe:nici~. as wen .~ in :tRibe other l:m~JU3ge:~ of me Western Semitic group (MQS\C:,ul. e~~ 1969: 33 tIl. The cpposl:tio:n of j ~l - i may hav'e been preserved only in Je:rus.i1.em. diale,,~ of Hebrew, pt!!.SSingfmm. ere ir:u:o13.t~rHebl\ew {Hmis 1939: §4). E1.u:a trace of such h phonemic di:ffe:renci..:tioQ could be seen inPhoenlci<Ul itself in mec:ase of the spelling of th.e type of '~rj·ten..·' re:Uecring 1:00mel\the hjssing-hllshi.ng sfbibm: § and no[ tbehusbing j (Friedrich 1951: 20)..

me

me

8. This ~peci.fi.dty of "c:onocm;mul-£ylb,bk"

'writing p.resents, the

principal difficulty in :r>eadi:nga Semitic text. The eh:mem of deciphering, attending the leading of >I. text[ecotd!~d In 'OnSOO;l:rrt~-&yIlabic cwriting (c[ Diikonott 1. 974: 1.01J,Ii,es 'in. detc:rminingll:u:' concrete V'oW'el ·wtw

which

d:i:fficulEies acemmlly

me consonant

occurs in the gi.VC'D syof.3gl:mtic co:mbination. Such aInen!: in properly "sylbbi.c" writing sys~el't'l5 wim. a 84

NOTES

Wible ",banc:[..~r ofvow,elis W'iith rcorrespcllilding conronm13 'both. 'in thJe ,SYJlImgmatics and 'me paradiigmati.cs, of the: wridi.l8 syscem. 9. The 'CJiuestion ·Qf'the origin of men:m1es, of we: s:i~ of' om.d Semitic writin_g cannot be considered b) have b~n6nruIysolved at plrescm. The designations, 'of the sigm of Old Semide writingconstitud.n.g the ·'plane of e>tplcssioo'; ,ofEhe systern=mq express wolds whose object d~notaJt1. re txpl'essed, by [ckv3Ilt signs. Tbw.llhe sign~, a caned "Ile~en.oting ~ ~IQ!X" in Semicic.......-(lriginaHyrepiresentedthe head o( an ox" IDe' letter 9 b~/i "house," W,;tS a dn"mng of a .liioU$e~he t letter is d:lle,F' "deer," was :Ii, drtvring of a. dOlo'r.md so on. It ,is n,Ot ,tU1~d, Ql!t. hQ'W'(;v'e~dlhb appears, raoee probabru.e-that S'l1dl,
1

designations of the signs of ancient Scrnidcwriting originated as conv'e.ntionai: wor& whO$C inil:i:d ,conson~t5, coincide ~di. consonants expressed byco:r:responding graphic symbols. The sign 'exp~ng the eoescnsnt • came to be caIDled 'li'epD. for tb.e '~tatter:word b;s 311. imJtlai!. COflSoni!;nt ", Th.e sign , 9, ~xpres.sing the consonant b was ,aHed b~,rh (b,uJt it, could ha\1lebeen givenr:be name 0:( any ,other wora.wilth we irti:tiallbn

4

du,e 'to 'the preseace of·~ initial bin this SC:lnitic::word, and. so on (,,(an analogc;;msa.crophorric: principle with the design3tio!m ofltbe letters efthe Old. Slavic alphabet: a ....U "'I," b .... un "letter,' v ....vedi <ikn,owledg~.·' b g -,g1agol·~wow:'etc.)'. Ie,. b;t:cr. in 'the andc:n't $emidt;.sys~n1ltbere arose: a special graphic means of de$~gn3!tingthe long vowels 1 and ,ij by the respective 'rigns for y and w wbich[niti~y d,enoted. ,only 'the con~onara;W. pb.on,emes Ijl and Iw! (or synbigmaci.c-s:ylllabic sequences with 1iheinitialj or w): c£ we :spelling 'bj in Phoe:nic~3n which" along with memcient r,eading "gbya ··ofmy fa:me:r.'" presuppr»es also therc:ading'abl i"my &met"; cf alsoEhe spelling sW'r in King' MeSh,.ls i:niCriptio,[l on, [ib,c Moabite StollJe along ~th the m.uall 'it 'to desi;gnate thena:rne 'Mal" C!&syria'· (cr.. Friedricb 1951: 39 ·IL). Full speWllg of words (S'cdp!tiopl~). with the ddignation. of liongvowe1s by defin~te consonantal signs. wbkh gained cuaency in. .b:tevari,cties of Old S,errtiitk w:ri:ting; is, opposed to '~incompleJt,e 'writi:ng" '(scn'priQ defecrivi) whid'l ie6ects the an.den:t. stat,!: of consonanW-sylbbic Se:mirmc: writing which was, cl:lmct:eriz.edby 'absence of speciaJ. $lgns, fOf 'v,owel pho.nemes. 'Vowel phonemes are implic:i.tly assumed in such a syst~ moo, esch ,consonmt grnJ)hic:.illY' def:iot~d. bYii,C,QnC[t:t.e sign. and occ.umng in a sY:rl!~al:ic cornbination witho'd1fr consonants to build de6ni,ue: word:"'forms. 1t. SpC(~31signs for: long vowe~,o ,oppOS'e them [0 Shon: o,n~ppeHed~l1iter'. in. ~p~l:e lecal vanelies of GI,';~t. writinG, '~'n parti.ctiJit: the :u,h~c Greek, H (hetl, Semitic ,~e Which o:dgirlany rM. ,ex:pr:essed me' asplrati,on .11(spidws asper)., later came to ex.pre.ss,liong e in. ,cU,alec:ts that had 'Lostaspi[3ti.on (e.g .. in Ionic). In, 'me SiII1,e W;i.:y,.: as 3,r~ult

me

85

NOI'ES

of :i gnphic modification. of We iymbol whkh in me atcl:J:aic S<~.tem ex:p:res.s,e,d " and t:I VOWl!Js, leners ® orlginilited in Ind:i.vidu2I v;ariedi~ of the ~m G[l:Jek wril:ing fin: me: s~daJI d.csignadon. of me lOllg vowel 0 (i ~), In. oo:n:Enit tome ;w;haics.ymbal e whkb began to beus:ed in :such. sy$te.lt'lS. s.pedaHy to ~~~ we shott 0 (o !11i'K~~.

nand

12. Th.earc:hllk Gree,kdi.pbth(}llgse~

Q;l,.

:and.

01)

were subjec~ed

lro n:tQnophth.on:gizati.o!ll alre:lidy at me e2l'lyperiod. of development of Gfeek dialects,. The .£itand 00 dip.h.thongs c:hinged l!t:S<pooti.vdyrotb.e narrow vowels. ~ and 9'. which were latert:ram(Qrntled into. 'i .and. t1 The diphthongs Ul and oluml~rwenl: anodogous. alte[3tioru, yielwng e and. ii >- irespccllivdy (,£ Hin .1902; 65i Meil!let 1913; 32,..;33~SrChwy.~r 1939; :11.91 As, a result of s.u.ch phonetic changes, the spellings of.El Ol~ AI. IE). and OY in. 3Jl.c:le[u Greek d:i.a1eC!3 m:idy did. nOt T.elect. diphmoogal
pmnuncia.tlon. Of these. the di:~~lhih.ong Pt chmglng tn the vowel ft, O suff.en:dEh~ C,lII:'liies[ onopb:tbonginti.o:n. m Owing ro mis, []le digaph. OY came co a:p~gup.hicallythe v'(Jwt:l u in gc:neraJ.. Atllle same tbne,. :lbc: initialvuwd. Ju./in. Greek. d:i;alecQ, exp~ed earlier by the lettier "'I, chOllfl{ged the .pal.auI. vowel Ii. Th:us Y, occupying in.tbe.n:ibac to Greek paradipa.tic Sy$El!im. th~ last:, t\V~n:ty·-drin;l..place> appean iIS a polyfuncti.o:nal symbol elCprt'.$ing both the sylbbic and non-sylbbic v~u~s of the SlQJ:Iilntphoneme luI.
I3. In :~ n.umber of Gmek dJa1e'Cts ·rhe round £v] was iostvay eail,Y (iP.th.e lome-Attic dialiects aheady b~fof:e the pericd of ~he\oVritten recording (ff mcbngu.ag(:, Le., prior to ·the 6dl UJI&Lny B.C.).hl.othet dii31ec:tsit w.IS 'p:r:ese:[Ved longer and exp:reSSltd in ·writin.g respecri'lltly by ched(~ (il1 Crece ·upto the 2nd c:-enrury .B.C..): d dtespellin@;S of
.fEt.EIa.

.pavc(,

.F~,

and. :lto:lomfo;.

etc. .A:pp:mx:im.ate:ly

fro:nt. the 4th

oentury B.C. the VQwel [v] began. to dit~ppear~n variQUS Gree4: dialectsfirst in the .m.edi.a1p~tiQI1Ia:nd.me:n acme beginning ofmt word. (do Th1.U'nb 1899). TnaclCotdau,c:e \Vim such pho.nerlG development 1:0 Greek di.aI.!:~ctli. G.~kdi~ the lost :~CD!O:I;1 of d.eslgtlai~g th.e ~ound (vJ. Nevertheless it re~nod irs :r·ehtiv(; sixm puce in the; p~digtn~tic:s of vroti:ng,mdwas used.m. the late Greek system. as an q:liS'~on,. i.e., a

me

lett:er devoid ofph.oneticva.Jue andlBed. only in 'i numerical viiiue &ccmdned by lm origj.naJ.place in the pandi.~natks, of writing.

14. On 3.'S;p:~[3l:e:d co:ns(}u:mi:S III Greek. See Allen. 1987: lSff.
J p~ land I it! th:rou:gb :repre:SlencngEhem. ss me .rounds pplus b, kplus. h points m the fine lingm'Siik :flair of the Cr~nl[ of the G:r1'::ek:MpllabC:E:, who., ~being aWaIt; of th,e 'iOmp~cx'haxactuof asplm~d SW.~, broke them u.p '~nmoomp!Onenit:pam (m.c cu:clucsi:ve comp.acnent plus a<ipin:rion). 15. Su.ch graphic e:xp:re51sioll of the Gr,cek. aspiriJted phonemes.

me

S6

NOTES t6, The Sem.iticsign. Ii' gnp ,which in Se:rrudc exprmtd the e:m:ph3ci.c velar ~op q.~was ,adoptedi,ntQ ehe Greock system. to designa.te the same vok:;e]w {non-a:spilrillt;ed)bllck stap I[k]"whicb in. me; Grc~ksyst'Cm b ,e%p~e:d by the leller 'K lCumHI,r.eHc;eting th.e Old, Semitic J:.haph. The ~m.ploY!iDel1!t ofrn,e ]euelS K. 't!lo.Muand ~~mw> in the archaic Gre,d;: $}"$tem. to design3i~e; one and, samephoeeme It! ]s apbified. by the

me

p~ese!1,e 'of two phQneric:dl:y difFering posU:io'nail var1.mts of[be~phone:rlle

!lei in. aoc:b:~k G[eek The vmmt [k] :appears befo~ethe vowels iii. e.i, exp[\es&ed, by the lener IKdnna:. 3rIt:1.tbe variant l.q] {possibly velarized) before: b:1lck vowth o. u"wh~ch. was expressed by lette:!: C;; 1OOd:a.. Such opposition of MO PQS.i:d.QR:d vHi,ants of the phonem.e jtl is lost in later G[l!:ekdJaJlects. As a ~esult! tbe ph.oneme: Ikl in jlPOSltions comes to be e:~:ressed by We ,only letter K,xl1.!"hfu]ethe no ~onge(u~ed lem:r C; now exp:re~es, in thep:u:adigrnad'cs 'of the writimg~y~l~m. only the numerieal V:1l~ueof "90," being deveid of ill phone·tic vah.u:,. ,ru a role,

me

me

' 17. Cb;H:tl.ct:e:risticall.y enough, in borrowing WOl,ros from. Semiti,c langtt~e,s ll"Jit'OGreek (or vice v\C':f;S'a) Semitic asp.ir;ilJted. ph .rJl· 1::.11 arc, :M the a rule, :renderediH Gre:ek:. through the correspo.rl!dJ:ngaspirnt!C:d '*' ~eX, while the Sem.it'ic: emphatic; ? qa;r,e retleclfid in 'Greek by the pure {non.3S\pirnttd} S1:4OipS and K. T

$;lIlcbphonetic umsfomt'3tions al'C!ctthe ··p1ane of ecntent" syst-em, while irsj'pbn.e of expreS$j,cm" .~~preserved.

of awriiliiog

18-. The names of theseleteers 3Eech311ged cQrr~spondi['Jjg:]y. In place ·of SemlllJc aspirated .sound; in 'the canespondin.g GIeek narme$ pure
voi.cdesll sounds, appear: Ttl. 'Ul:U,I<:Oil'il:i1ill_

name of this letter, o:'iy~a. W3:S perh:ilps tio:rm..cd un.deJ'me in:o.uenc'e of We Se:mici.c name .sJmek" (se,lJl.kh) {Noldeke1904: ~34].Th~ Semitictl $i:miekh imlf; wm<;hln the Greek. 3l!photbet ceeupies its old p]<loe----'~~d b~(:k to Sc:n.ticic pru::adigmacic~ and expressing the m;un~ucal v~l1!e'~60":---il"Ji on.f: gKl'tlP of EaStem Gl\eek writing assumes the phonetic value b om:d. is caled ~&i. later J;J (Luf.eld 191,4: 217) .. The emp),oymen:lII; of a. spedalletlier 1;0 .e:xp:ressthe .b:complexis accouneed fO:l by irs rd.ative:tIe1q!llenc,y in Ol'c::eK (Sch''!~'Zer 1939:32 9).. One ofilie phone:ric:al:yfi:oe grn.phic: symbols 'Of the Greek a]pba.bel, which preserved its originalp'I:.tC¢ in the pMJimgJn;ltlics and r:especti.vely itspanicullll: numerical vallle, was used in :I.l'tl1mJber of bf.e[ G.roeek sysillew. of writing to express a s.peci6cally Greoek: complex of consonants, [nthe olnginal 3tch;rl,c Grte:k system. this symbol. oc:cupying ill reL-ev'Ult place in the paradign'llatics ,of the syU'em, had. only a numerical value, whilelhe phOrJieltic 'value b w~e:X!pressed by the !iieque:nce O[ ]ene:1'3 .k +- $. The ~phic symbol 'qI'Vi eXpire~ng the sequence tbe cQ~o:nmm ps and 1',epri!:s.en.td ina n1!Jrnber of groups of Greek writing, is of an1l1ogous characte;r. In the ~bd!k Greek sy:stem lhis, c;omp].ex: 1:5

19. The Greek

or

87

NOTES

desigpued by tbe stql.OOnoe of leners p + s. The special graphic symbol ill" which has ne prototype in ·the Old Semitic system, is p13c~d..n.tbe alphabetic sequence after the addi.nonat lenees (Ii, md. X ll. created. in. iat:er's),:s[emsan properly Greek gt'ound. 20. Wi;m the exception. of the single case ·of the dropping ou.t. of the Greek system of 1he:lett:er reflecting Semiti.c 3: ~:Me and i[3.

l'

pJa,cemmt b,te:r a~the end of the alph1ilbetic series as <'I. symbol compledng: we sequence an.d c:my:ingthe numerical vaJu"ieofu900. n 21. In such, a syste.m, l!1thou$~ds'" are d·esignated by means ·of certain additiiohal diac:ritk:al signs to principal symbols. In the Greek system "thousands" are expressed by placing a prime before m.e tetters ,st:m.dlng for 'the "i:ntege-!S"; jA "" 1000, wr :;; 3000. 'H = 8000, and so on (Larteld 1.914: 300). 22, Tbt additional pm of the Gred~ ~pha.bet. inpmic:Ula:r the letters • 'P,i, X Xi, and T 'J1i must have come into being raidy carly, presumably t:owards the ello.of the 8th 'C>t!:rltIUY B.C., soon del' the creation, oCtile llIihaiic: G.reek alphabet (d l.arleld 1914: 241). The origh:il of the s:ynem. of :nWlerlC~ viluesin Gr-ec'lewriting should be dated to ap~dy the sam~pcrtod. 23. C( ZeUer ~. oit_p.m which. is a: graphic modification: of Echaic (fav" hs ,nmne:ricai valae being jj900:t 24.. Thelenee q 41 is usually placed. amongspeci1ic:al1y Coptic '"additional" symbols Oensen 1969: 478). However, the d.esfgn. of this,

me

me

me

letter and its numerical value "'90·' explidtJ.Y'poblt to its origillllrom the Gn:ek prototype ~~. Theref:o:re. this letter mould OCCU,PiY in the

CO,PPt 3l:phibetic Slcqllcnce Wf: pllc~ CD'mespo:nd1n.gtopJ;operi·~l Greek:
paradigm;:ti.cs. The phonetic vilu.e of this let'tel [q in Coptic and itsname qj.u:e explainible byEhe graphk. re!iem.:b13llce of this symbol to. the d,emotic ~ign h:avi.ngtbe :phonetic value [fj. The graphic: simiWiry of'Ehesc symbols :must nave .sc:rved as 'me basis for the :ascription to. the CQplic lttter fiI}. stemming fi:omEhe Gu:ek prototype and having the numenc;a1 v.uue: OIf '"90, ot a. speci6.c:ill.y Copticwue [f]md foE:'~ts respective designation. 25. C[ in this CQmle:<:tion..me Coptic letter: i2j, equivalent in Co:p:tic: paradigtlU'Ei.c:s '[0 this, Gothlc l,ettt:[" but which 1:[1, optic ;!i.ogm:res 3, C

'y

t.

fipe.ci6.c pho:ne:lit value. 26. In A.tm.e:nim,tbe to'Rowing seque:n,e is, identifi'cd. ,as such

i.~. . ~.~.j. Y
+

:SQundS, ad.d:i:tional·fromthe
'V.

viewpoint

of ·the Gredt system: ,~ ~. I. x~ c~h,

,c,. ~.

27 A. 'substmtid systemic di:ffe.rence of the: Armeni:m aliphabe:t nom the Coptic or GOThic:s<:ripu .~Q'iS akooo lie in, the facttba.t the Armem::l:l:1. wrltin.gis based not on the entire Greek pacu:iigm2tics of 27

NOTES

of We Greek system. w'bQsephone,tic: values cOIreS:pcnd to ,Arm.eni1Ul,~ounds. lUI the ,epifoemons or grnphic symbQls
lett~rs, but onlyontha.lput

expressing o,nly :numerical ''falues, are e;!i:d.udedftom the G[eeik basis of the Arm,e:tl1an aJ:phab~t '<1'ttYiJ.<Il. C; ll!mtntl, and ~ Og,!1'ltl as w~nas the Ietrers designating the pho.ncticun:i:ts; E la .. 'If ps. and 0 0, which axe.:ilie:n EO
Aml.e:nlan. 28. Thus the "pri:m.ary care" that $ystem. reduced in a phonetic values have Gr~ek basis of the Ann¢nian ~Jphabet Ie:prese:nbl its is rotI~druted of tbe pal'a.djg~~ticsof m.e G[e~k sense [0 ehe sequence af those letters on.ly, whcl>e ciOlI>espoodttlces III phQ.n~id.c units: efthe Anneni,art
ou:~

la:nguage. 29. The only exceptions and. pO$$ibly b [e], d. Gr .. s.

t

[ph]. cf.. G~., "41; .~ [kh], cf. Gr ...X;,

30" Classical A1:m.enlar'l!writingevince~pmi,cuJ;uly dQ:5.~ links 'Wiili Ethiopkscri:p:t (Sevak 1962; OlderogB~ 1974). The gp,p.h:ic prindpl.e ofvoc;wt.mo1:l in Ethiopic, expressed in the ;u:icliQg to the p'rindp:a1k;[f~( of a ~took( Qr drcle. must h;l}II'(; been employed by' Mesrop Mash:tCits in creating a whole g.t:QUP .of gr.apbic symbols expressing ibsoliu:ely differe:r:l.tphonetic v.uUiC:S: cf.. the values des:igp3cing 0, i; and (i!!o ,til;. U ssnd If m: ,. d and. ""1, etc. Accordi.ng to D. Olde:rogg.e. 22 or 23 gn:phk symools. i.e, one mira of the entire Cl1l$Si.c;31Armenhm graphic system. we're obt:aincd. by this m.dhod. (For ;,I differing view on the gtapbk principles und.cdying Classi.cal l!u:menian, 'writing, see we Mu:rn:vyov1980.) At m.<I! :s.am..e time,. ::li.nurnhcr or l~tt.e:rs of A..nnenian display ;)I special gr,aphic closeness to One mower. Sud), are, .fu.r ex:unple,tbe letters, designating I. j, ,I j;1 t. etc. The~phic closeness ofrhe:s.e letters IS

n n-

>

obvi.ollsly mori.v.u:ed. by 'eke phonetic closenef>!; of ·the sounds cxp:r~sscd by them. The creator of A:mt.c:Illan wri,tingwasno doubt well ;iw;ue of the phonetic relationship of the atmca:t1:vcsounds de:sigltiiced by rhese Ieuers. 31. Rega:rcling the t'en;n "Old. Chu(·cn Sb.v~n.k language" see:

TSielt1in 1997 ..
32. It is norruled out tha;t the Old SIa:vshad local varieties of speci.a1-t:ype writi:ng priorte the creation by Constantine-Cyril of roe a1p.ha.beticwridng; system. on the Gre'Ck pattern (cf. Llkha.chev' 1951; Gcorgl.ev 1.9.52)., 33. The roundstha:t had no phone<oc corrt$pondence-s in GL1C:ek were placed at ,the e:n.d of '[he alphabc:t~after the part cQUcsponding wt:he: Greek system, Thi$ "additieeal" p<lirt of the wp.habet cont-ains :mch ~p:i.,ally S'bvit sounds ;JS I!'. i. b. ''b, etc. • which are absent in Gteecl;;.•

x,.

However,
W'Io:rt:

:i:nsert:<:d after celUin le;tters inEbe: sequence

individual letters, e:!{pl'ess.jn~ Slavic sounds prope:r. of the ~·princi:p.ar' .p.m

NOTES

corresponding to th.e Greek. This was apparently due to the phonetic closeness of such sounds to th<i®ie h:tduded. in the: basic pm of the GlagoJidc: alph!l.bet. Sucb phonericilly close gttlu.ps of sounds are fonned, e.g; by the labial ecdusive b and. the: l;d)ial spirmt. v~ m-esibilant pho:tle:mes l, 5. Zj, the vowels it and 12, etc... aromged. one after another in
the sequ,en.cc of letters or the: Old Slavun.h: alphabet. 34._ The graphic peculiarity of G13golj.ccwriting gave g.::ound fOr ·tb.e emergence: of most diverse points of view :r:eg:uding ·the origin of this syslem ofwri:ting.. By the cutliae of individual letters and by their

resemblancem 2e:tt'I:nof various scripts. Old Slavonic' Glag:oli:Eic has been linked to Gennanic Ru:nes" Phoeaician, Hebrew, and Samaritansc:ri.plS, te :Et1Uopic '~dng @XlId ·the; Latin alphabet, and soen, (Fo[ an mOllys,is t·o
of the various points ofv:iew regarding ·the origin of the Old Slavonic Gb:golitic and Cyrillic writing Systems sec bmn. 1961: 258 fr.; Jensen 1969: 481.) Here. too.tt1e origin of a definite writing syS!tte-m can of

course not be solvoo, only on the basis oflhe graphicrcscmb:J.:mccs and dim,er.u;;(S of indivi.duai]enel::S of the sy:s«m from '!he letters of other
scripts. without comidetacQIIl and aniUysis of 'the Inner cha:u.cteris.ti,cs of 'the system. i.e., only on the basis onts uplancof !!lxp~on!' 35. Inasmuch. .as eve:ty wrldn,g system., and especiUly the ;lphaberi.c system, of writing, implicitly P[~U,PP,~ 3, preliminary phonetic-'phonemic ;malys~ of the language: by 'its: compiler, e:v(:ry

r-cs:pcclive wri:ling syste'm represents the oldest specimen of 3. linguistic; study of the given lafl!gu~e. 36. Behind each writing sy!item-· wh.eth.e~ Old Semitic. archaic
Greek, Cepric, C]~c.u Armenian" Gothic. Old Slavonic. etc.-is its concrete inventor who gives shape IDa neW writing for his !mgmg:c on. the basis of a. definite wD'ti.ng pwc,orype. working a.ccor;ding 'to a plan outlined in. ad,vance. The process oitbe inv·enti,on of writio@; should not be conc:eptuali,z:cd 35 a collective creativity, i.e., as. if a certain :p.erson in.ven.U at some time :a certain numhee oflett,C!1'S., tben oomeoD.e else .:idds

some mor<:; letters, then some more "rppe:..a:r. so on, until a grap.hic and syst:em adequue ee lender me basic phonetic unl[S or the language comes
into being. A ~'Cript (if it. exists). fE'om the very mOment of its ereaticn, re:presents a fairly' complete S:~i'S"u~.m, an ad«.l;uate number of gapbic 'With

sy.mbols needed to exp.fess me bask s.i)und oppositions charactmstic of the gi.ven language. Subsequ,endy. in 'the course of eVQluti.on of a writing
sysrem thus created (i..e.. :is iII,result of the single creative act ofi.u lnven:tOt) it :m:ay undergo de6:nrt:e $Y$1:e:l:til.<; and, gnphic, uansfo.nn.tions aimed at its pe:nection and a mJler:md more: adequate expression of 'the sound oppositions (cf. the creation of additional characters to express

vocalic length. as well as fof the aspirated
90

rP and

1:h in Greek writing) or

NOTES

reflect in writing the phonetic changes of th.e bnguage, The possible grap'bk changes of writing au: expfCSSied.in, the ,e:hanges in time of 'the outlines, o:ftbe letters and. in the ov,tl'ill graphic appe~e of 'the script
I!Q

due

to

the' changing mannee ofwriti.ng~ In this sense, the following

question may be aSked, reg¥ding m.y writins :syst.em.: Do we know IDe ,given script in [be :thr.m. it carne out oftheh:m& of'its in.vt:ntOlr" or does ,tbe wrl:ting thatba come down to IllS represent :am~rer variety ch:i't took shape as a result: of systerrUcmd graphilcmnsfO:n:n:a.tion of the odginal
sy~tem? 37. In cerorln eases, in
:I.

n~wiy

ere-a'ted w:ci;ting system. '[etten

expressing: no other values ,apart from, lUllIite:ncal axe utUned 'With the: same purp>OSe •. Su,cb lellen-episemom are chmcteristic of th.e G['eek system itself; and o£writing syStems based on Groek. (c( the le'lters , (l'!f{wu = u6," ,q '~. ~ j~90," in the bwc Greek system; th~ Gorme ,~ .. '-d . , ,'.:I...IL '_' ._'1, ~£' ,"0'" and ••6,;'. - ,.' _. 1I;:tt.ea '1' ,m. "U- WIw 'me numcn<::;;u, V;;u.ues ,01 .. 9 " ':I respectively) , 38.. :in :mmy OI:i,gin:diy alphibeth: writing systems. created for an :adequate ~on of the pbO:f'h'!l:ic side of a bngu;3®e, the spelling of the: words no longer re.fk.c(;$ fullytbci. acw.al: pronum:id:lio.n" owi:n;g ro more
cr Iess significatlit 'transfQnnad,ons of 'the phonetic s:yst~m. The sound 'ynU;~cs of the. langu:~ becom~ ever MOree remQved from. the gtaphh:: syntagl:llaucs that rdlected ~.e pho!l1etic~ul? 'of :r,espoctive WOldt! at the creadon of the alp.habetic wriling system :and at the early stages of irs development whiletbe ancien!;, phonetic makeup of words 'W:a,S still. preserved (cl.PUlgram 1976: 7; Ge'lb 1980; 11)., In such later' alph.abc<tic systems the. grnphic: sttuctur't individual wot:ill; esse'J:td2Ily repr~senJts a conventional. sign for exp.ressin:g th,e pbonetic side, In such. systtmS"indi.lrldual grapmc sy.mbok may emerge,. in. :S'yn_tagIruilits, not as represe.n:t1DVeii of sounds and phonemes bu.t, 3i graphlc elements, of a ,emin, sy,uugmatiG :ii,ggregatc:' expressing me phonetic ~ptct of iii. 'Whole wQ!r-d{d" for ituWI.ce, the spellings, of i:ndhr.idual words in modem. EngJish or :&encb) , .A logicll sequel t.Q such a disparity :inlhe develcpment of the

or

re:~c:

phoneti.c ~t

of a.language and. the ancient s;yntagmatics of writi.ng may

be the transfonnation, of a writing; of alphabetic origjn, into a qn:asil0g0~phic sy$t~. 'Wi.th '~ndi'vidwl lettc~ Ol' syntagmatic groups of letters exp.ressi:n;s: hole words (at a toW disparity between w phonetic VMtlltS of these letters and sounds that fonn melie wotds) , The writing 'bIea.ks~as it were. all links with the pbonetic side of the bn_guage. tuming into a syat~m~ndependent ,af language'. 'Mth a definite number of graphk 1. L'! '':1.. '" . It sym bOJ1:i an d. ~C:liU '_1_.1_. :te:uectln,g me aru::~erilt'h' I~ ponenc syntagrnibCS. r' is only in this S-eMe that ,one can speak of the: autonomic character of a

me

91

NOTES 'writing system w:ith respect to a. phonel'k lan,gna~e (cf.Uldan1966~ Vac:he:k 1(66). 39. In the course of phonetic idennfi.C.ltl.on of the sounds ofthe Georgian language with tbe sound units of the prototype $~em the: glou:a1il:ed. COnsonants 1ft' k' J , phorlcH.cally chuact'Criud by the absence of aspiration, were ~pp:rrendy likened [0 dl~ Greek non-aspirated 1ft 1 Ki. whereas the Georgian aspirated Iph tn khl were naruuUy Gompa:r:edwith the correspondinganci ent GrecK voiceless aspirated stops I<p tI'''J.i.

40.. Clu.ract.et:istically enough.. fnthe fl!:Specti,ve place of the GothIc alphabetic series We find 01, gr1l:pbiG symbol deriving 'from th,1Z G~t:ek GKiirn:w.. vrlmoUJt. a de6nt~ phonetic value but \Vim. m,enumeri.cal value "90." i\n, analogous si[uarion may be hYI?()ches.i7te:dfor the: early state of the Old GeQrgian alphabet, In the Old GeQJgian w.rIting S'ys[ern'J' this cnan.ctc',(, StemJll.ing ttcu:n 'the Greek GKilmw., was prob-.ably d.evoid 3t lhe beginning of a concrete phonetic valae, be:in,g used .merely as an
episemcewitbthe numerical value: "90."· The cencrete phonetic value [1] was ascdbc.d tQ this characlJetonly lat~lC.>\tthc lime of the; adventDbviollslyliom a" foreign soueee=-cf the phoneme (11 into the phonetic system of the Old Ge,orgiJ:n Imguage. 41._ The let~er q 141'l(numerical value "90 ") in tbe O:ld Geotgl311 il:phabeticsc:qucnce is foUa!Jl'eod.by jlrne. with thephon:eri.c value [1'] and numerical v..we'; 1. 00:' wh.ich eX::H::dyreflt:lc~ !:he Greek p<rr.ldiglllati.cs ·of C; lOOrnlU "90" - r P:(fJ il1 "100:' 42. It is interesting to tlO'tcmOlittne rigc.1inw sy~tcm of counting in Georgian is expressed In 'wri tins by the dccimm syst~m..,poind ns: to a cerrain dispwtj' berween the ~y~tem of .counting .(ZMJl~pr.1che) ;mdl'lS written expresruon (Zib1$c!bri.(ij, c[ Menninger 1957; 64. The decimal principle of numerical vilh.les~not:mal fot Grcek and,c~pn.:ssi.[}gthe decimal sySlem of coo:nt:i.ng in. Greek, was berrowed huo Georgian whic h, however, is cha:racre.rized. by ,the. vjg~sinW sy~r.cm of counting., 43. These "specifically" Gcorgi.ans..nund units muM have bC:~,11 left over even alierthe distribution. of sueh sounds in that part of~he Georgi~n :l:lpbabed.c series which cerrespceded tctee Greek' ~y:stem.

scm ng as Stlbscl.Lut'CS of sped.fl.c.aI1y G[e~k sounds. 44. Orlginilly. in th.e Old Geargiansyst:e;m of wri.ting the leIter 'L hac w~ obvi.ottsly an. e:plsemon, i.e., a symbol. expressil'l.g only the
numerical value ~'9.. 00," confon:mibly 'to tIll; thlrty-.~ixth.place held by it 0 in the aipn:l:betic series (c:f. an analogpm function efthe letters C; KOUlJ and .~ oo!l1t~ in the classical Gretk sysccm. iI:S well asthe letter q wiEh the numeric al value of ~!90"in Gothic). At the time of the creation. of the Old. Georgian. alphabe;~ the SQuna [h] obviouslyrud nOt cons;n.mtc a 92

NOTES

phonetic unit of thela:nguage. 3ppemn'B to. Geo[glan.b,t:«:r .:IS ,a :result of de6nite positi.onu ~rrna.tiom ofth.e vcbr spirant, [x:] (in ill. prObability. not eu1ier than in the 6th..:7tb c.entury A.D.). With the eme~en,ce or ime 'Phon.eme [hl in Geo'~gian this phonc'hcva1ue was
ascribed to ;a, character-.::ptstlllOn, '{, th<lt had hitheetn lacked. phonetic value (d: abov'i:, an analogous wumpdoD. regardi'ng the letter -'l{ 1'..m). 4.5. :I~is in,teresting to note tba't the uadditional" 'part, otthe Co'pti.c alph:ah.et bappens to contain apploxlmMdy the same sounds as in. the concluding pm, ofthe .old Georgian alphabetic series: ~ ,x~t. and ,f. 46. I,t is :no:t ntJed ont, that some ofthes.e decsignatio:rns Were creat.e:dunder the inilu,encc; of con:esponding: d.esigp:uion:s of characters from orner writing systems. ThUs., e.g'.,; me &wDC lIn .may ha:ve SC'I"IIcd as ,the pr,:ototype of the Geoq~i,an Mn. 'wbile design;;!.uo:n tin may 'have been p~ttemed on. im;, ct: alsotae Georgjan .zen. with the Sem,hic ~in;; Georgian san with [be GICCk (Doric) 'GUV; Georgian he vrith Greek ijm. CICC. (eL StbWY2;e";i' 19:,n ': 197). As. fu~ 'the resemblance of tbeGeorgim d~gnation in [0 ,designatiOIl in forme vowel [j.l in the Armenim., heee we are dealing

me

me

:a:pparently with ~ acdd.enul

c-cinddence of detignations [,a:mer man ''With

tn.e ifiluen.ce of one sy~t'em on the alber. If one mA.lSt irui~'!:, o·nthc: bolTowing of'this dcs,igmtionfiom one: system into modler (see Peri.khmyan 1966! 1.32). 'then one should r.tther assume bo~:ltg from the Old Geo[glaD in'ta .Atmenjm, md notw.cc-'!iI'e.rs,a. In Ge'O:tgian 'Wis design:alionreflee-u :lI spe:d:dprindple of fCilll11ng the designanons ,af the vowels (vowel +.0: d. Georg. an. cn, Oll', un), whu.eas in Annenioo .ini:s me only desi,gnati,QIQ. f such a Sl:.!Il:Icrurt among tnt:: DmLeS of th.e o vowels (c:( .Ann. in, liyb., ee:, 0). 41. The earliese specimens of .old Georgi.311 ibomtavnUiwri:ti.ng da.ce front the fiilt hiJf ofllle 5th century A.. . U 48. In ~cu.lar. such feaWtes of the Greek ~stem-reflected in '!he Old, Geol:glaH :d.phabet-that. OU"O!le 'the establishmen't: of writing :dkt' lett to right. iIS 'the disap:pearancefrom the sys:~e;1ll the letter ~e'mming:fromtbe: Sem:itic !I ~de, and the emeJ'g,mcc of additional symbols Ch3Rcterisd,c. of Greek; tbetraruitioll ,of [ u Iinto Its pabtdze-d varicty Iii I. the e;xprc:ssionof the vowel [,u] dttough :I, comb:in3DO'D of

m,

mom

or

OY. m,d se on.. 49. Sincelbe lemcIS of the syst~msunder c:onsidwtion arelhe product of ,their [U'lJlt:nto:rs' :fi:ee c:re31ivi:ty" our assumptions z:egatding the concrete guphic ~apins ,of these lette:!:'S will always, remain highly lten:tadve and hypothetical. Indeed" it is impossible to ascer:fJaln precisely whatlcl.nd of graphic associations might arise in th~ mind. of the Inv:enoor
of a w.riting in the ceurse of cr~atin8 this or that grap,hic symbol ,My

NOTES
[(;S,C<U'(ih~f'S< in.€ez:e.nClesin this< respect refl!,ecttamer his or her subjective imprressionsrnther than. the obje<:ti.ve proceosses of the cl."eatiot! of [he gnphl<C symbo.ls efan ancient writing system. We can. only s.imluat)! the: :s.y:n.cnronic~phk in!terd.epende:llct of s.~pm:tc symbols of iI. pamcuw writing (see above on mec.o;lfip~lation of

all the graphic symbols of Old Goor~:1In 'Writing om of;l $ttaight line M'I.d. :I.. semicircle). HCI'\"<evet.,mis does not m.e;UI. the .recc:rultm.cti.0n of th.e pkture of the gr:a:phicpfocedlUt ftiUo·wed. by :the .il1:vet:lror ·of the given

writing lHSh4.Pi:O:g: individual. g~phicflymbols. Noris ~t methodologicaly Justified to dtaw conclusions on the origin and ways of creation. of a p~ctl!iarVlliting on th¢ basis.·of such gtaphic :an:aJys1~" In this respect highly ch.ar:acret1&tic isooemetb.cd of analysis ·of C:a:uca:sl:anscripts (Clwical A:rme:nia:n, Old Georgian. Mbm.im).. wed. by S. .N. MW::U"YiOV in bis numerous p3pm (sec references in Mu:rn:vy'Ov 1982). Camidelir.tg a number of cbaeacrers of Old, Georgi,m vni:dn:g (in particular, [bose for vCIW~k}to ha:vt been cf(';artcd wt-ough hgrapbic dmatiol),n from COI'lC'sponding .iUmeniomvl(}wels, me aumor: ~~pmdal1llSn al:l. iliis b;lSi~ me: C!OlrtdUSlon that Old Georgian w.[:iting Wl,S.ereated :&om Classical Amte:n:im. On :the basis of ~.analogou~ gr:_phk method ofatr.lalysi~, of indi.v:i:dllilsymbols lof Classical Annem.<U:1Iand Old Georgian sc:dpts (!n this <COllSC, the; cha:rac~elS, fOir the ~~n:sonan~). R,. P:a.rwidzc (1972}---mu;ch
e.ulie:r than Munvyov--a:rri.ved. at a di3ll1etrically 0p.l?c~ed oondlJ!iiio:n on. meinterreblionsl:ii.p .of ehese f'W'O ocri:plS,. viz. on the d~riva:d6i1l. of

Cbssic:al Am1.em,an from Old. GeiO:rgjilnwridng.

All this ~hows !dearly how subjecltive
conclusions On fh.e origlr:lS oflhis
o[lhat

and nbltr:iry' are the
when d:u:::yace mai:nly

writing

based

OIl

a graphic anaJ!ysis

One,tle:tS.

50. (0. [hl~l;e$pe:ct, thee E~tem Gu:ek Christhm:ity diffe:~sba:tply from the RO!n'Hl!RChu[<:h roM p[Qpagared ChriSti;Ul.lty lOW este:mE~rope on th.e basis O!f won. language and Uons.cript. de.nying ime~ local peoples the right to tta:nsl~te the books of the Holy Scriptu:reinto their own

~ang,u~ge~ and to ciondu.ct divincS(;Mc,e in m.dl: native oongue (d. MaI\iua.rt 1917~ 1 :11:;. M(lyend.onf 1982:.7 fr:). 51. The letter [S] in the Clmicru Ann.enim alphabetic series (num.eric:iiilvalue "'.500") dots not OC(f:u'pY tlIt pbc~ of the GreekS ~l> exp~eSJi:pg the .specific:illy GlCeek pbonetic. val:ue I~] •. ~:m,umed in
P.erir.nmyan. 1966:119, bur repirese:n~a. symbol of the <'addido:m1~i p~

oClCUipytng :in the s.equ.ence: ·of th.e lnirldnuc:::l.e:us. place, bet"<Wee.n ·dle l.ette:rs·" (n.] and n [o~. c¢rre~pon.ding to m.<t GrO!!:kN '~md 0 a .1l~K'p6v.

me

Th.e same re:fers ro th.e ,h~c,teI I [1] (num.eri.cil. vOlilll.e"'900") which, in m,e C:WsiG~ .Armenian (l]pn..abetic~eri,es does :no·t occu.py the· p~~Ci(!of th.e , 94

NOTES Greek ~ '1Wmm 'but in the original, sequ.enceho'Jds the :pb.ce Det\Vee.n, ~ [p1 and. n. ![fl. oormponding 10 the Greek symbols n11&1 P pm. and 52. 'The West, Goth&--the eastern banih oflEhe Ge~c people of me Godls, mac adopted. Christianity, :in dte ,4da1 'oentury--populatcd the northern ,BbCk Sea littofill at time (d. VasiUev 19,36: 3 fr.). Hence" the new 'Gothic: Wfiring ac:ated, bylJl!fih:& on 'fhe Greek basis may have bc=e:n blown to' peoples of .n.ei~borltig COmltri,es"pilftiieu1arly co the Inventor of Old Georgian wriring. 53" The &m1limty of Cormmdin.e--Cyril. Inventor' oftbe Old,

me:

1,.... ...• _1 'I..'I...~ "~L $'L4I::vomc ilJp,n:llucC" WJlw

n:,. '('OC']d" £uman'..

",

G·.··. '\." . ,·'l:orgl,"m., wnllng:maYut

me

11.

·'writing in mother bn,guaF·~)I. h~vin,g beeeme 'wiides:pl~ in a :n1iltllher' tiC CQ1.Ul~ of me: ~cieru Near Em"in. puti,cular in Ithe :rrani:aIl wodd. Unda the system of aD.oglo«ognpby'. me: text or c:orrumuUcation, dictated, in. on.t bnguagct le.g." Old Peaian, \V,;S I«o.roed. :in. i. Ilm.:gillage wilh.l s.ped:d writing. ~n 'the pteSe:nt case. Bbmitf:, ~d was read by the addr~ (ot to the addrmee by a petsO'n bmiliaIC with EWrd.te or the Ela:m:i:tt sys.tc:m of wriling) :not in E:1amite. in whid, tbe 'te:M blS be;en :u::oorded,. but in the odemal l!m~e of commumauo.n--in this ease Old, pman. It wa onlybter tha.t the Old p·eman, Ctlr.II~1ronn ptoper was invented. for dim<;c ~l'ie:co!ding:ofOid,P¢manwa. fiortbe Middt,e P.mian.perlod. it was not Elilmi:tt ·that. 5i':"a\ as the medhto.t language 'but Anmaic with comonanw~~lbbic wr.id:~g th-at had beeeme 'Widespread ili.t the d.me. Ehmogbphy" chmll.oleriKic: of the ti't.ency' ·of the: Old.Persi·a:n 'peri~ changed in the ,Middlepeman. period to Arameograpihy" leadins s,ubseq,llcndy 'totbe hetcropphy and ideogr:aphy of me Middl:e ,Iwtian, period. According to a ~~phk comparison made by Gershoeviltch. tbe described mcmod ,of [ecotdin,g an 'oc.;1 ten in and.qu~ty is,cornpanble to' the modem n:corwng of speech on a upt:-u;cord,eJ". The scribe. recotdling the o~ P'e-wan text with, it! aU!omaic tf:a:IlSb'liof.l b:rro:ebmit-e 0.1: Aramaic; :md m;1de~ of 'this recmded wet. 'wmlating it baCk bUe Persian while reading il;,is Ukened m a mod~reGording deviee, In W:ml::e'l" case: meEJ.amjtc' (IOf Anrnaic) 'bng1U¥' ~d vm'ting emerge as the: 'I~mcchanism·' ,of S'uch 31. devIce. and :in. me latte--f,rlle cllectric :a:ppantus. The medLod of allbgtottognphy was mdentlywiddy~d in ,the Near East, Whicb a.o~ fo;[' the partic.tlIar $plead iitvmow, times of iruividual bn,guages (E.1attrite. Atmuic) throughout the regian.

c{):ndud.ed, alro On the b~ of Cyril's Lie, in, vimch. COnirmtine-Cyrll :menlions Gemgim a:mong me ,original alphabets known. to b~m. {cf. Dvomil:l.9'70: i,2,9}. ,54. The ~lii"lUloduction, of' 'Georgian U~tRCY'" ascribed :in cb..e GOOrglPJ histodca1 Ib:idition to King 'Pam:av:az may I;cflect the type Qf .,. . , .•. ' •• '1... I G-_·u.·_, " 'I.. '(197',n\d"" QO'I~ '1._ ~n_,.... r... . .... 1.. (.r.e .• wntlDg!;Jlat _. .'. C"U.u.c::V1tCn., . 7./ • iiSOI.IW;sI""ttoFJU'lY

me

me:

95

NOTES

It is n.at ruled. ow: dta:t the puval~:Ilce Oif Anmaic in inscriptions, particularly those done in a.sp~~~aI .A:rm:wan. script., in pre-Christian Ttamca:uc;asla ndlect:S,m,ealloglo&Eography ~E. was wid.etyp[a~titcd. in this region. (primarily in :mcie:nt Annema md Iberia) in rccOTdiflgt~ in me tl)Calbngu,ag~ Tru$. is :prooihly how one showdinteqr.et ilie chro:ni,}.c;r's evidence to the eff'.ec[chin in. me time o:fKlng Pamoa:vu ~jof:lly
r>_ ~Qrglm• .•.. .. L __. ]n~ was SP0M:J1. •.••• V" __
':. • .• ~ ~\.c .• 3n.U,UI.at., '" ne ",

.~.11 ·G· ···Ii···, ." Cl:e1.!W·. c:01'gJ.arI _tcra.cy.·

i.e., "Georgian ali:oglou.ograph.y'·:-rlJamrally

ontht

b(!$lsof Aramalic. the

most wi.desptecad lmgqage arthe time (lrd. century B. C .. ~ i.e., a writing ) thtt. su:bsequendy deve~o.pcd in T~auc:w:a iltoo a special v~e·£y,n2ml.ed
Annwmde[ Ac:ildern:k:imGe~e V. Ts>e:l\ctd(194 t l.

55 . lit should. be 3iSSumed. that such written. 'u::mshtio:m into GeOl:gian. ·of th.e booh of SC,riptlU($. made afierthe inv~:tldo:n of me Old. Georgi.m .&omcHwJ1i'Wricing,. lagely :r:efI.e<::ced 'mose; o~ ttms1:Miol:'lS of c:anom<;al. reIigio'W tCXlJ,tbOll, in. the early Cbristian 'limes could nali"!:: been made by Christim :missionmes in.lhe aUoglottoepic wWf. i.e .• ~~l'~<l.di.f.I;g pIO'nouncingthe: original in. :a, different lu.gul;e;e.'~ Such a or roethod of(uai rendering in the national ].mguag~· of :foretgn-~angtlag(; religious 'texts wiliIe pre~hing-pre:Valllng: i:nancient: Ar.m.e:fi1Oi.and. lberla---musthave oontdbu:tedl:argely tome tenninological and. lexieal penecdon and de'felopme,fu: of O!1!t!On~. bng!l~ge in its malCom!, (etC the $m.dy of J Kh. S~y.an (1980). who cds such a method. of '~forelgp-Ianguage: team.ng:" he![eroep:y.

me

l

me

96

Bi,bUograp,by
ALLEN" W. S. 1987. Vox Grnca: Tnt! Pronunciation of Cl3S$icaJGn:ck~ 3d ed,
Ca:rnbridge UnivcnityP:re~.

ARNTZ. Ii.

1944.

Hatldbuch

dcr Runenkunde"

2d.

ed,

H'ille/Saale;

Niem.eyer. BOEDER, Winrned.

1975. ;"Zur Anilyse dt:s alt:georg:1:s.d:..e:l1I. Alph.'1be:ts in. Forscnung und Uhre: ,nstgm.B joh'. :Sch1ijpkr. 1914 .. Hanibu:rg: Slavi:sch.es
j,'·

1981. Ana-opolo.gia ddla 5c:ri~P1ii'. TQ.ri:n.o;Loesdle'l'" DIAKONOFF, ~gQtM. 1974.;'.Anci.e:ntWriti:ng :lnd, .Andent: 'Wrin:en Language: Pitf.alli, andPccul.i:ari.tJeslrl th.e Study of Sumerian," in SumemlQgiciJ Srudics in HOllar of Thodd1d J.aJcC!\bs~r.l His Serv:entielh O:l:I Bh:tbday. Cbi,cago 3:!ldLondon: Uni:vc;w!:]' of Chiciil;8t'! Pl:esi!i. pp.
99-12.1.

Seminar, pp. 17-34. CARDONA, George n,

DRIVER, G. R.
1941:1.SemiticWdtillg;' 'DVORN~K, f. From P'icrcgrnp.b..
tD

Alphabet. London:

Oxford Unlv'ersily Pre:JS. 1970. Br~tine MissiDm 2m~ the SJ,a:vs; $£. CO:J1SfiUUine-Cym .lt~dM~thQd'irn,.New Brunswick, NJ.: Ru.tgers U(!ivetsicyP~,. FASlvlER, M_ l 914. Srudies ill' Field of Greek .Phonetlcs. Moscow. [In Ruuim.] FQRTUNA'fOV, F. F. FRIEDRICH" Joh-rn:nes.

me

t 913. On the Ori.gin .of Gla!;ol:iti,c; Writing. St. Pete:rs'bu[g:. Gramm;ltik. "in Analec.t:l O:dexuMj:J., 32. Rome: Panti,fh::hlM l.nstitutum .8iblicum.
t 951. "Phooilb.ch-Punlsche

GA.MKR.EUDZE. Thomas V. t 981. uA Reply to Joh.n G.reppin." In B.u.rnavep: Re:'VLIe: d'Erudes A1:menieM~~, vel. cn:xix~no. 3-4" Elp.·451-459 ..

97

nmUOGRAPHY GARDTHAUSEN." V.
1876..

"iJh~r

d~n. Srieihls.cha.

U~nmg

m;r anu.enischen

S,chri~·'in. Gesdlrc~

,ZCirs-dtrm:' der Dev~di:en. Moq-:~disdloo vol JOCX"pp ..74-80.
~,eo.P'lPhie. ldpzig:H. G..Teubner.

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..ungu~e,
a.

1879. Gdedmdre

1974.'·Records"

Wrldn:g

md. De<:~phemle~t...

in

Visible

GEOR'GmY, E.

1952.. Sb:vicWridng POO:r to Cyril .itnd .Mc:dlodiP5. Sofia.. [In Russian.] GREPP.IN~ John A. C. . 1981. <!Some Comment'; on. m.e Origin oflhe Gc.o:rgj.;m, Alphabet:,·· Jill ~v:cp: .ReVIle d'~nrdes km6ni:em:.C$', Vt;I~. ~, no. 3-4. pp. 449...;056. aUfENBRUNNER. S. 1950.. ~r: den U~n8, des. ~ben .A1phabl!C'!<j~~n &iaifgc i
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n. no.

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1939. Devdopmenr
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zanrs.

of.rbeCar.:wnite

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~

Gnec:bi;c:ben.

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«om

JUNKER ..H. F. J.

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l\11EllLET', ANTOINE. 1913. ApleTfU d'uJl(: hiswire de 1a langue gc:cquc:'. Paris: ubnirie Hacbette: er eli:. 1936. Esqui:ss.e d'uae ~am.maire cQm:~e de rannenien classique, 2d. ed ..Vienna: I:mprimerie des, pp. mekhitms~es..
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t

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no.

DAVIES, ANNA.

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j ..

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