AMSO TLI using IMFD 5 Launch AMSO Apollo 11 into earth orbit, then it is time to prepare for TLI

. Open IMFD in both left and right MFDs. Left MFD Select Menu – Course – Target Intercept - TGT – ‘Moon’ Use ‘Prev’ and ‘Next’ buttons to select the ‘Realtime’ item and change this to ‘Off-Axis’ using the ’+’ button. Press the ‘MOD’ button until you reach the ‘offset’ screen. Navigate to the ‘offset disabled’ item and change it to ‘velocity frame’. Select the ‘Rad’ item and set this to 8M (capital ‘M’). This has now configured a free return trajectory to the Moon and we will view this in the IMFD Map. Right MFD Select Menu PG – Id = 0 to share information with the course program in the left MFD Then select – Map – TGT – ‘Moon’ Press ‘MOD’ until you reach the configuration list. Navigate to the ‘Time Limit’ and set this to 600k. Press ‘Mod’ again to return to the map. Disable autozoom (‘azo’), and activate ‘DSP’, ‘INT’, ‘Plan’. Select reference ‘moon – weak’, and centre on the moon by entering ‘r-moon’ after pushing the ‘CNT’ button. You should now see your free return trajectory in blue on the map. Now we go back to the left MFD to adjust our course. This course will get us to the moon as it is currently set – but there is a problem. Change page in the left MFD and check the burn vector (‘BV’). This will probably give a main engine burn of about 350 secs. The problem is that the total available burn time of the Saturn V third stage is 337 secs, which obviously means that we will run out of fuel before establishing our trajectory. So now we need to reduce the required Dv to within our fuel parameters. This will, of course, change our trajectory, but with this method we do not need to worry about this as the MCC will adjust it later. To reduce our burn time we need to change the ejection time ‘TeJ’ – in fact we are going to reduce it using the ‘+’ ,‘-‘, and ‘ADJ’ buttons, with the latter allowing us to change the rate of adjustment – I usually use the x10 option. So navigate to ‘TeJ’ until it is highlighted in white and begin to reduce it. You will notice that the required Dv below it also reduces. But it is the burn time we are concerned with, and to check that you will have to change pages to ‘BV’ and

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Navigate back to the Menu in the left MFD and select ‘Base Approach’. and the second MCC will put us more precisely on course. this will be around the time you leave earth’s SOI. The select the ‘RAD’ parameter and begin to adjust it (usually reduce it) until the PeA in the Map MFD shows around 75K. and you should see the target already set as ‘tranquillity’. by which time you are probably already inside the moon’s SOI. Once you have done that simply hit the autoburn (‘AB’) and let IMFD do its job. Presumably. The next parameter to set is the lunar orbit altitude. get as close to. change the ‘off-axis’ parameter back to ‘real time’. First MCC In the Map MFD press ‘MOD’ until you see the lunar PeA – the page shows the base as ‘tranquillity’. Now select the ‘BV’ in the left MFD and simply wait until the burn time reduces to a minimum. If not. When the burn is complete dock and extract the LM. as the correction will not be likely to occur until you are almost leaving the earth’s SOI. So once you are en route to the moon with the CSM stack re-open the two IMFD screens and prepare for the MCC.back as trial and error seems to be the only way. which in Apollo was 110k. Try not to drop much below that total time as it will increase the burn needed for MCC later – in other words. To complete the MCC you follow the same procedure as before – monitor the burn time and hit ‘AB’ as soon as it reaches a minimum. as IMFD will retain your original settings when you eventually reopen them. and hopefully should only be a burn of 2 seconds or so. 2 . 337secs. set that manually. Not a problem. Usually. Continue to reduce Tej until your BT drops below 337 secs. you will change your MFDs to docking and attitude whilst doing this. but I currently set the altitude to 300k. When the burn time reaches its minimum simply hit ‘AB’ to complete the MCC. You have plenty of time to do this. There is room for further experimentation here. Reference ‘moon’. It does not need to be exact as the course will change as time goes by anyway. In the left MFD (IMFD Course program). but not equal or above. as I do. Second MCC Now we need to set the course program for the second MCC. Now I have found that if you set that in the IMFD base approach screen it actually brings you in a bit on the low side. as mentioned above.

I monitor PeA and stop my insertion burn when it is close to the required parking orbit of 110k. The burn time required for LOI is roughly 340 secs. You will find that your PeA will reduce as the burn progresses.Now. as mentioned above. which I find is very ‘fuel friendly’. so you still have 5-7% of fuel to undertake any orbital operations if needed. Manual LOI As you approach the insertion give yourself plenty of time to orient retrograde. You will need 30% of this to get home. Hopefully you will now be safely in a 110k lunar orbit with around 35-37% of fuel remaining. but again there is room for further experimentation. As with the real Apollo. so you could carry out an additional MCC to adjust it. you will not get a perfect LOI. 3 . but I prefer to do the burn manually – if the situation becomes wasteful on fuel it is then easy to bail out and circularise more accurately later. LOI You can complete your LOI automatically using the IMFD ‘orbit insert’ program. which is why I like to start with a PeA of about 124k. but I find this method accurate enough. Once you have completed your LOI adjust the parking orbit either manually or using the AMSO ‘parking orbit circularisation’ autopilot. so I start my burn 170 secs before PeT. which I find is about optimum for lunar orbit insertion. as this takes a while with the CSM/LM stack. IMFD tends to bring you in with a low PeA. I have also tried a manual burn to raise my PeA to about 124k. You could use BTC to manage the burn if you like.

Feel free to experiment! Longitude. and re-entry angle changed for every Apollo flight.3 Alt = 120k (re-entry interface altitude) ReA = 6.htm 4 . Approach for – ‘Reentry’. and ‘Prograde’. of course. otherwise you are going to be very short of fuel for getting home! Open IMFD in both left and right MFDs. Switch pages.TEI If you wish to use a ready made scenario to try out this tutorial.48 (re-entry angle in degrees) Ant = 20 (angle between re-entry interface and splashdown zone) Notes: Negative signs do not show up in the MFD when you have entered them. but you MUST include them when you type in the co-ordinates. then change to those settings manually. then use the ‘PPrev’ and ‘Next’ buttons to navigate to the corordinates of your target. the Apollo 11 splashdown zone.15 Lat = 13. Historically these were: Lon = -169. Left MFD Select Menu .PG – SRC – ‘Moon’.nasa.gov/SP-4029/Apollo_18-40_Entry_Splashdown_and_Recovery. Information for each can be obtained here: http://history. I believe that ‘Ant’ equals 20 for all flights for the purposes of this method. which is.Base Approach . Don’t forgot to separate the LM Ascent Module before you start. If not. select the ‘Apollo 11 Step 22’ scenario in the AMSO pack. ‘Alt’ should always be 120k for all flights as far as I can tell. Latitude. This should give you default settings of REF – ‘Earth’. Similarly.

The green dashed radius line in the display shows the ejection point when we will start the TEI burn. You will also see a blue line. This first solution will be way too high – you have nowhere near enough fuel to generate this oV. Select . Left MFD Navigate to the ‘lat’ line in the MFD. Almost certainly you will be well out of plane – it is probably showing 10 degrees or so.Now navigate to the ‘hint’ line of the program. and copy the value from the right MFD there. A value somewhere around this magnitude is fine.Menu PG – Id = 0 to share information with the base approach program in the left MFD. Left MFD Navigate to the ‘Tej’ line in the left MFD. Navigate to the ‘Higher Orbit’ line and change it to ‘Base Approach’. Make a note of the ‘Tej’ in the left corner of the MFD. By doing this you have now told the left MFD when to make the TEI burn. and a more practical oV will soon appear. A small negative value is also ok. After some time a TEI solution will appear on screen – ‘escape vector’ shows in the bottom left of the MFD.284. If you go too far the right MFD will give you an error message. Adjust it (usually reduce it) until the ‘Ein’ in the right MFD is as close to zero as possible. I usually use an adjustment rate of 10x initially. Right MFD Check the ‘EIn’ line on the right MFD. which is aligned over the green dashed one. Check the ‘TEj’ to see what your time of ejection is. Increase it using the ‘+’ button. then increase the ‘TEj’ value using the ‘+’ button to add as many extra orbits as you like until the blue line aligns with the green dashed line again. It does not matter if you are a few seconds out. which is not going to get us home. typically around 1. If for any reason you wanted more time. Continue to increase the ‘hint’. so just leave it as it stands. However we are not quite ready yet. To adjust this plane error we need to alter the splashdown target latitude in the Base Approach program. Usually you will have plenty of time to the burn. No 5 .Menu – ‘Orbit Eject’. Right MFD Select .

Things should have improved considerably. so drop to real time before then. Press the ‘MOD’ button a couple of times until the screen changes to ‘re-entry display’. or you may have to get out and push. Zoom in to the Earth. To gain a picture of our situation lets open the map program.problem. Now we should be safely on our way home – but our work is not yet complete. leaving you with about 6% of fuel. and the re-entry information will have disappeared off the MFD screen. Mid-Course Corrections On the return journey you are going to require at least two MCCs. and you will see that the burn has been far from perfect – re-entry angle is probably about 33 degrees . However the available fuel is strictly limited – typically you will only have about 8% left after the TEI burn. and ‘DSP’. Set Ref – ‘Earth’. Cnt . probably more. but remember that IMFD starts ship orientation at 180 seconds from the burn itself. enable ‘SOI’. We finally have our solution for TEI. Typically your flight path will have now become a free-return trajectory. This sets the flight computer to the Apollo vessel. The principles and techniques are the same for each. so be careful. Engage autoburn to make the correction. but are not perfect yet. Obviously you can use time compression. When it reaches a minimum. Simply hit the ‘autoburn’ in the left MFD and wait. 6 . Left MFD Select the ‘Src’ button and enter ‘x’ in the dialogue box. Right MFD Navigate back to Menu – Map. Right MFD Examine the results of the MCC burn in the Map MFD – zoom in to the Earth if necessary.‘Earth’ if the map is not already showing that. You can move to the ‘BV’ page to monitor the burn time if you wish.looks like a pretty hard landing just right of centre smack into the home planet! Mid-course corrections will definitely be required. At this stage the burn time will probably be 10-15 seconds or so. Monitor the dV in the MFD – it will be reducing. Disable autozoom. simply increase the value for latitude again until the message disappears. typically around 100.

and you are ready for re-entry. then try to keep your pitch at 0 degrees through reentry. It does not really matter in AMSO. Simply repeat the above procedures. Welcome home! Note: AMSO does allow for aerodynamic lift. around 6. roll ‘heads down’. you can carry out as many MCCs as you like. So if you wish to replicate their manoeuvres.Clearly a further MCC will be required. In the actual Apollo the CM did not stay in retrograde. 7 . The second MCC might be around a four-second burn. but the real Apollo separated the SM at about 1. Left MFD Essentially follow the same procedure as above for the next MCC. Once the flames stop. as a near-earth fly-by is the last thing we need. Files for all the splashdown zones have been included in this tutorial pack.000k out. which means that you can try to hit the drop area on the nose. and any others you opt to make.5 degrees you will see your wife and children again – if the chutes open… Re-entry As you approach the Earth open Orbit MFD and monitor the PeT.5 degrees. Hopefully. I usually wait until the Apollo is well inside earth’s SOI (Monitor this on the Map MFD). but the ReA will still not be where you want – often around 3 degrees. Instructions can be found in the AMSO manual on Page 17. disengage retrograde autopilot at about 150km altitude. Engage retrograde autopilot so that the heatshield protects you. It is probably better to monitor your actual burn time rather than dV itself – fuel is tight! Right MFD Again. as with the historical Apollo. i. you will now have a reentry solution again. Personally. The most important thing is your ReA – as long as you are around 6. observe the results in Map MFD. until your re-entry angle is close to the historical Apollo. Things start to get very warm around 80Km altitude. pitch to 90 degrees ready for chute deployment.e. further MCCs.cfg. around 30km. but any burn time of less than a half a second or so is probably not worth doing. so that you can attempt to change your landing point if you wish. If fuel permits. adding these zones as bases in the AMSO earth.