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1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . 3 Chemistry in the Laboratory Worksheets 3. . . . . . .1 The Scientific Method .1 2. . . Lesson 2. . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . .1 Measurements in Chemistry . . . . . . Lesson 2. . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Using Measurements . .1 Early Development of a Theory iii www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 2. . .A Physical Science Worksheets 2. . . . . . .4 How Scientists Use Data . . .3 Using Mathematics in Chemistry . 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 5 5 12 15 20 21 21 21 21 21 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Chemistry in History .3 Using Data . . . . . . . . . Lesson 1. 4 The Atomic Theory Worksheets 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Chemistry is a Science of Materials Lesson 1. . . . . . . . 23 Lesson 1.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Making Measurements . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Exponential Notation Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 The Science of Chemistry Worksheets 1. .4 1.5 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Making Observations . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Matter Lesson 1. . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 4. . . . . Lesson 2. .5 Lesson 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3. 2 Chemistry . . . Lesson 3. . . .ck12. . . . .4 Using Algebra in Chemistry . .1 3. .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Quantum Numbers . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 6. . .org iv .2 8. . . . . .2 The Dual Nature of Light . . Lesson 9. . . . . .4 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . Lesson 9.3 Aufbau Principle . . . . Lesson 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . 35 36 36 36 39 39 39 39 43 43 43 46 . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . .3 Light and the Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 8.1 The Wave Form of Light . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 8. . Lesson 5. . . . . . 5 The Bohr Model of the Atom Worksheets 5. . . . . . .3 Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . .2 Pauli Exclusion . . . . . . . . . Lesson 6.3 Atomic Terminology . . . . . .3 Lesson 4. . . . .2 Schrodinger’s Wave Functions Lesson 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Quantum Mechanics Model of the Atom Worksheets 6. . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . .3 6.4 6. . . . . .1 5.2 9. . . . . . . .ck12. . . . . . . . . 8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Worksheets 8. . . . . . . 23 23 25 25 25 25 25 27 27 27 27 27 27 35 Lesson 4. . . . www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Wave-Particle Duality . Lesson 6.2 Orbital Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Families on the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electron Configurations . . . . . . .5 Lesson 6. . . . . . .4 Writing Electron Configurations . . . .1 Electron Configurations of Main Group Elements . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 5. .5 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals 7 Electron Configurations for Atoms Worksheets 7. . . . . Lesson 7. . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .1 The Electron Spin Quantum Number Lesson 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 9. . . . . Lesson 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Further Understanding of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . .3 The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations 9 Relationships Between the Elements Worksheets 9. . . .3 Heisenberg’s Contribution . . .3 Lesson 8. . . .

. . .1 Types of Bonds that Form Between Atoms .6 Lanthanide and Actinide Series .2 Lesson 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Lesson 9. . . .4 Electronic and Molecular Geometry . . . . .2 Ionization Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 9. . . . . . . . . . . .org . . . 12. 11 Ions and the Compounds They Form Worksheets 11. . . . . . . . .1 The Formation of Ions . . 10. . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 14. 12 Writing and Naming Ionic Formulas Worksheets 12. . .4 Chemical Family Members Have Similar Properties . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 14. . . . .2 Lesson 11. . .2 The Covalent Molecules of Family 2A-8A . .ck12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 49 49 51 52 53 53 54 55 55 55 55 57 57 57 57 57 57 67 10 Trends on the Periodic Table Worksheets 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 14. . . . . . . . .1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inorganic Nomenclature . . . 11. . . . . . .2 Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 11. . . . .3 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . .1 Lesson 11. . .2 Lesson 12. . .1 Lesson 13. . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 14.3 Lesson 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. 14. . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Covalent Bond . . . . . . . .5 Molecular Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . .5 9. .2 Atoms that Form Covalent Bonds . . . . . .1 Lesson 12. . . . . . . .3 Lesson 14. . . . . . . . . . 14.1 Atomic Size . . . . . . . . .5 Transition Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 9. . . . . . . 13. . . .3 Lesson 13. . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 13. 14 Molecular Architecture Worksheets 14. . . . . . . 13 Covalent Bonding Worksheets 13.4 9. . . . . . .3 Resonance . . . . . . . . .3 Electron Affinity . . .1 Lesson 10. . .9. . . . . .3 Naming Covalent Compounds . . . . 15 The Mathematics of Compounds Worksheets v www.

. . . 15. . . . 18. .1 The Properties of Liquids 19. . . . . .3 Lesson 18. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Stoichiometry Involving Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 15. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas 16 Chemical Reactions Worksheets 16.4 Lesson 19. . . . . . 101 . . . . . . .2 Gases . . . . .1 The Mole Concept and Equations . . . . .3 Lesson 17. . .ck12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Mole . . . . 101 19. . .1 Lesson 19. .4 Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gases and Pressure . . .1 Lesson 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Energy Calculations . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 16. . .3 Lesson 19. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces of Attraction . 18. . 16. . . 15. . 19 The Liquid State Worksheets 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Chemical Equations .4 Lesson 15. .1 Determining Formula and Molecular Mass . . . . . . 101 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheets 18. 18. .4 Percent Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . .org vi . 17. . . . .2 Lesson 18. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 17. .1 Lesson 16. . . . . .3 Limiting Reactant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mathematics and Chemical Equations Worksheets 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Types of Reactions . . .2 Lesson 15. . . .2 Mass-Mass Calculations 17. . 67 68 70 71 77 77 77 78 83 83 83 86 88 89 91 91 91 91 93 95 98 99 101 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Percent Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Universal Gas Law . . .3 Lesson 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 18. . .1 The Three States of Matter . . .6 Molar Volume . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 18. . . . .4 Gas Laws . . . . . . . . . . .3 Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . .2 Balancing Equations . .6 Lesson 18. . . . . . .2 Lesson 19. . . . . . . 101 www. . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . .4 Lesson 17. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 18. . . .

. . . . . .1 Lesson 21.1 The Solution Process . 127 .6 Lesson 21. . . . .8 Lesson 21. . . . .3 Types of Forces of Attraction for Solids 20. . . . . .4 Lesson 23. . . . . . .1 Lesson 20. . . . .2 Melting . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 23. . .5 Reaction Mechanism . . . . . . .5 Heat of Vaporization . . . . . 129 23. . 103 20. . . . . 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reactions Between Ions in Solutions 23 Chemical Kinetics Worksheets 23. .5 Lesson 19. . . .3 Potential Energy Diagrams 23. . . . . . . .3 Lesson 22. . . . . . . . . 123 21. . . .9 Separating Mixtures 22 Ions in Solution Worksheets . . 125 127 . . . . . . . . . .2 Collision Theory . . . . . . . .3 Solution Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lesson 21. . . . . . . . . . . . 112 113 21 The Solution Process Worksheets 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rate of Reactions 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 20. . . . . .3 Lesson 21. . . . . . . .7 Colligative Properties . . . 127 23. . . . .4 Lesson 20. . . . .2 Why Solutions Occur 21. . . 113 21.1 Lesson 23. . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 21. . . 117 21. . .1 Ions in Solution . . .3 Lesson 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 21. .6 Factors Affecting Solubility 21. . . . . . .ck12. . . . . . . . 129 vii www.org . . . .5 Lesson 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 20 The Solid State Worksheets-HSC 103 20.5 Solubility Graphs . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 21. . . . .1 The Molecular Arrangement in Solids Controls Solid Characteristics . 113 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Measuring Concentration 21. . . . . .4 Phase Diagrams . 123 125 22. . 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 22. .8 Colloids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Covalent Compounds in Solution . . . .4 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates . . . . . . 113 . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 23. . . . . 112 20. . . . . . . .1 Lesson 22. . . . . .3 Lesson 20. 125 22. . . . . . .19. . . . . . . . . . .

.6 Weak Acid/Base Equilibria 25. . . . . . .1 Water Ionizes .1 Introduction to Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 151 27 Thermodynamics Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 24. .3 Lesson 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 26. . . . . . .3 Spontaneous Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 24. . . . . . . . . 146 25.6 Lesson 25. 142 25 Acids and Bases Worksheets 25. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Arrhenius Acids 143 . . .1 Lesson 24. . . .8 Lewis Acids and Bases . . . . 144 25. .4 Lesson 24. . . . . . 144 25.3 Lesson 26.2 Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HS Chemistry 27. . . . . 143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Slightly Soluble Salts . . .4 Lesson 24. . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 25. . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 27. pH and Titration Worksheets 149 26. . . . . . . .org viii .1 Origin of the Term Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Equilibrium Constant . .ck12. . . . . . .4 Lesson 27. 155 27. . . . . . . . . .3 Titrations . .2 Strong and Weak Acids 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Indicators . . . . . . . 144 25. 156 27. . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 27. . . . . . .7 Bronsted Lowry Acids-Bases . . . . . . . . 131 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 25. . . . . . .3 Lesson 27. .3 Arrhenius Bases . . . . . . . . .4 Entropy . . . . . . . . . 131 24. . . . . . . . . . . . 149 26. . . 151 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 26 Water. . . . . . .2 Lesson 26. . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 25.2 Lesson 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 25.1 Energy Change in Reactions . 145 . . . .8 Lesson 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 pH . 157 28 Electrochemistry Worksheets 163 28. . . . . . . . . . 149 26. . . . . . . . . . .3 The Effect of Applying Stress to Reactions at Equilibrium .1 Lesson 26. . . . . . .5 Gibb’s Free Energy . . . . . . . . . 143 25. . . . . . . . . . . 151 27. . . . . . . . . . . . 163 www. . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 26.24 Chemical Equilibrium Worksheets 131 24. . . .

. . . . . .2 Lesson 29. . 185 30. . . . .3 Nuclear Force . . . . . .4 Electrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Biochemical Molecules . . . . . . . .7 Applications of Nuclear Energy . .2 Lesson 30. . . . . . .4 Lesson 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Discovery of Radioactivity . . . 166 28. . . . . . 171 29. . 181 30 Organic Chemistry Worksheets 30. . . . . . . . . . 183 30. . 174 29. . . . . .1 Lesson 29. . . . 166 171 29 Nuclear Chemistry Worksheets 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 30. . . . . A Unique Element 183 . .2 Nuclear Notation . . .5 Lesson 30. . 183 30.28. . . . . .3 Lesson 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Lesson 29. 163 28. . . . . . . . . . .4 Functional Groups . . . . . . . . 171 29. . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 28. . .1 Lesson 30. . . .ck12. . . . . . . . 185 ix www. . . . . .3 Lesson 30. . . . . . . . . . . . .org . . . . . . . .2 Oxidation-Reduction . . . . . . . . .5 Galvanic Cells . . . . .3 Balancing Redox Equations Using the Oxidation Number Method 163 28. 174 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Radiation Around Us 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . .4 Nuclear Disintegration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Nuclear Equations . . .3 Lesson 29. . . . . . . . .3 Aromatics .5 Lesson 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 28. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 30. . . . . . . . . . .1 Carbon. . . . . . . . 174 29. . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 28. . 177 29. . . . .

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Chapter 1 The Science of Chemistry Worksheets 1. For example. We call this force of attraction.3 Chemistry is a Science of Materials There are no worksheets for this lesson.org . 1. moving a brick to the moon does not cause any matter in it to disappear or be removed. 1. The weight of an object is the force of attraction between the object and the earth (or whatever large body it is resting on).ck12. the force of gravity.3 Lesson 1.1 Lesson 1.2 Lesson 1.1 The Scientific Method There are no worksheets for this lesson. The mass (amount of matter) of an object remains the same regardless of where the object is placed. The gravitational pull on the object varies depending on where the object is with respect to the 1 www.4 Matter Mass Versus Weight Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name___________________________ Date_________ The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter in it.2 Chemistry in History There are no worksheets for this lesson. 1.4 Lesson 1.

If we take our balance and known masses to the moon. There would be gravitational pull on him at all.4 1. N on the surface of the earth. would be different on the moon. his weight would be zero. We measure mass with a balance.80 N 2 .4 N ) Example: If an object weighs 200. On. For example. which is a spring that compresses when a weight is placed on it. the earth. or near the surface of. 4.0 kg mass on the surface of the earth? (gravitational force = (3.earth or other gravity producing object.00 kg)(9. On or near the surface of the earth.80 N ewtons (the standard unit of force in the SI system). N ) Exercises 1. We measure weight with a scale. a man who weighs 180 pounds on earth would weigh only 45 pounds if he were in a stationary position. the conversion factor between mass and weight is: 1. This same man would weigh only 30 pounds on the moon because the moon’s gravity is only one-sixth that of earth. The mass of this man. would be the same in all those situations because the amount of matter in him is constant. of course. 000 miles above the earth’s surface. the spring compresses less and the scale shows less weight. If an object weighs 400. If this man were in outer space with no planet or moon nearby. what is its mass? ( mass = (200. however.00 kg of mass will have a weight of 9. N on the earth. Example: What is the weight in Newtons of a 3. A balance compares the unknown mass to known masses by balancing them on a lever. the force of gravity is constant and so we can determine either the mass or the weight of an object if we know one of those two.00 kg 9. an object will have the same measured mass that it had on the earth. how much mass does it contain? www. If the gravitational pull is less. The weight.org ) = 20.80 N /kg) = 29.ck12.

how much mass is contained in a 600. 3. 5. N weight? If an object weighs 1200 N on the earth. what is its mass on the moon? 1. What is the weight.org .ck12.5 Lesson 1. 4.2. 3 www. how much will it weigh on the moon? If an object has a mass of 120 kg on the earth. in Newtons.5 Energy There are no worksheets for this lesson. of a 50 kg mass on the surface of the earth? On the surface of the earth.

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ck12. we can read our measuring instruments only to a limited number of subdivisions. In the case of measurements.000001 rounded to 2.00000000.org . with an infinite number of zeros . do not involve numbers. there are some differences between the numbers you use in math and the numbers you use in science. We are limited by our ability to see smaller and smaller subdivisions.999 rounded to 2 nor does it mean 2. require numbers. When you are given the number 2 in a math problem. In math class.2 Lesson 2. Some observations in science are qualitative and therefore.2 Using Measurements Significant Figures Worksheet Name___________________________ Date_________ Working in the field of science almost always involves working with numbers.A Physical Science Worksheets 2. The numbers you use in math class are considered to be exact numbers. That is. 5 www. most observations are quantitative and so. 2. not by measurement. and these two numbers are perfect numbers. the number 2 means exactly 2. You have been working with numbers for many years in your math classes thus numbers are not new to you.1 Measurements in Chemistry There are no worksheets for this lesson. but in chemistry.1 Lesson 2. we can define 1 f oot to contain exactly 12 inches. it does not mean 1... Unfortunately. but we cannot measure an object to be exactly 12 inches long.Chapter 2 Chemistry .a perfect 2! Such numbers are produced only by definition.

Even using powerful microscopes to construct and read our measuring devices. Therefore.37899 22. we cannot prove it to be so. It is very important to recognize and report the limitations of measurements along with the magnitude and unit of the measurement. In this system. becomes visible. the written number must indicate the limit of the measurement. the correct measurement is greater than 1.1: Two Sets of Observations Observations List A 22.39414 m m m m Observations List B 22. and when you perform mathematical operations on measurements.37 inches. including measurements of zero and you must NOT write down any digit not measured.ck12. we eventually reach a limit.33.3 inches but less than 1. it is difficult to perceive a regularity in List A. Table 2. To record a measurement.4 inches. the regularity. the analysis of the measurements made in a science experiment is simply the search for regularity in the observations. It is proper to estimate one place beyond the calibrations of the measuring instrument. and therefore. www.42333 22. Measurements do not produce perfect numbers and since science is greatly involved with measuring. If the numbers reported show the limits of the measurements. the final answer must also indicate the limit of the original measurements. science does not produce perfect numbers (except in defined numbers such as conversion factors). even though the actual measurement of an object may be a perfect number of inches. this measurement should be reported as either 1. or 1. In the case shown above.4 22. One of the methods used to keep track of the limit of a measurement is called Significant Figures.34.and we are limited by our ability to construct smaller and smaller subdivisions. Many times. 1.36. the regularity becomes apparent. 1. 1. you must write down all the digits actually measured. but when the numbers are reported showing the limits of the measurements as in List B.35. or lack there of. when you record a measurement.4 22. The only real problem that occurs with this system is that zeros are sometimes used as measured numbers and are sometimes used simply to locate the decimal point and ARE NOT measured numbers.4 m m m m In the lists of observations above.org 6 .41359 22.4 22.

ck12. exactly at 1 inch.14. These readings indicate that the measuring instrument had subdivisions down to the tenths place and the hundredths place is estimated. It is vital that you include the zeros in your measurement report because these are measured places. 3. All zeros between non-zero digits are significant.16 inches. 1. it is apparent that the object is.00 inch. There is some uncertainty about the last and only the last digit. 2. Examples of the Rules 1. we must distinguish between measured zeros and place-holding zeros. 4. This is read 1.50 inches. the measurement should be reported as 1. 7 www. 1.In this second case.13. All beginning zeros are NOT significant. In our system of writing significant figures. as nearly as we can read. 543 has 3 significant figures. Ending zeros are significant if the decimal point is actually written in but not significant if the decimal point is an understood decimal. RULES FOR DETERMINING THE NUMBER OF SIGNIFICANT FIGURES 1. All non-zero digits are significant.org . or 1. All non-zero digits are significant. Here are the rules for determining the number of significant figures in a measurement.15. Since we know the tenths place is zero and can estimate the hundredths place to be zero. This is read as 1.

1. 33. 000. 8. 4.437 has 5 significant figures.0000075 has 2 significant figures. 050. has 6 significant figures.2 lbs _____ 2. 0. Exercises How many significant figures are given in each of the following measurements? 1. 050 has 3 significant figures. 000. 1.3937 L _____ 0. 2. 7. 00013.ck12. 1.205 lbs _____ 0. 6. 1.3002 has 6 significant figures. 3. 4. 000 has 1 significant figure.70 has 3 significant figures. 3.321754 has 7 significant figures. 10.22. 1. 103.000002 has 1 significant figure. has 4 significant figures. 2. Ending zeros are significant if the decimal point is actually written in but not significant if the decimal point is an understood decimal. 004 has 4 significant figures. 454 g _____ 2.0353 L _____ 1. All zeros between non-zero digits are significant. has 7 significant figures. 0. 000. 000.300 has 5 significant figures.org 8 . 302. 302.00800 g _____ 500 g _____ 480 f t _____ www. 37. 7.25 has 4 significant figures. 5. 1. All beginning zeros are NOT significant.0406 has 7 significant figures. 000 has 3 significant figures.00000 has 7 significant figures.

18. 24.4540 mm _____ 3.ck12. There are two rules for determining the number of significant figures after a mathematical operation. 000. 060 m _____ 500. 10. 700 g _____ 125. 030. Example: 9 www.00300 km _____ 303. 21. so always double check that you are using the correct rule for the mathematical operation involved. 0.org . cm _____ 1. Significant Figure Rule for Addition and Subtraction The answer for an addition or subtraction problem must have digits no further to the right than the shortest addend.0350 kg _____ 100. 13. 27.625 L _____ 63. 25. 14. 20.002 m _____ 0. (Most of the errors that occur in this area result from using the wrong rule. The results of mathematical operations with measurements must include an indication of the number of significant figures in the original measurements. 28. One rule is for addition and subtraction. 16. g _____ 14. 000 m _____ 12. 15. 19. and the other rule is for multiplication and division. 29.0 mL _____ 1030 g ______ 9.100 kg _____ 0. m _____ Maintaining Significant Figures Through Mathematical Operations In addition to using significant figures to report measurements. 11. 23. we also use them to report the results of computations made with measurements.0 g _____ 250 g _____ 1. 17.0000000030 cm _____ 0.7210 g _____ 0.9. 30.025 m/s _____ 0. 000 m _____ 0.00 L _____ 0. 22. 12. 26.0300 cm _____ 1.

however. Therefore. www. you cannot substitute any numbers into the blank spaces and you cannot claim to know. In science.00045 m 12. the answer is still 12. the 12 has no numbers beyond the decimal and therefore. these blank spaces are NOT zeros but are unknown numbers. In elementary math lasses.13. the only columns for which you are sure of the sum are the columns that have a known number in each space in the column. when you add these three columns of numbers.012 cm + 3.0 cm 112. you must round off all those columns that contain an unknown number (a blank space).6163 cm = 17. the correct answer for this addition is 17. You can know the sum of adding (or subtracting) any column of numbers that contains an unknown number. Therefore.1885 cm = 112. all those columns must be rounded off and we have the seemingly odd result that after adding a number to 12.30 cm + 47. you were taught that these blank spaces can be filled in with zeros.8885 cm 8. Since they are unknown numbers.62 cm and has four significant figures.6163 cm.org 10 .22 cm 17. When you have finished adding these three numbers in the normal mathematical process. forsure. Example: 12 m + 0. Example: 56.62 cm Note that the vertical column farthest to the right has a 3 in the top number but that this column has blank spaces in the next two numbers in the column.00045 m = 12 m In this case. and in such a case.3843 cm 1.2 cm This answer must be rounded back to the tenths place because that is the last place where all the added numbers have a recorded digit. the answer would be 17. This is a common occurrence in science and is absolutely correct.ck12. the result of adding that column.

the factor 22 cm has two significant figures and therefore. The mathematical answer is rounded back to two significant figures. In order for this answer to have three significant figures.2 kg 4.24 f t + 16.556 cm)(2. we place an actual decimal after the second zero to indicate three significant figures. Example: (20.624 f t 0. In order to keep the decimal in the correct position. multiply.ck12. 5. Example: (3. Exercises Add. the answer must have two significant figures.5 cm2 In this case. the factor 2. 18. a non-significant zero is used. the answer must have three significant figures.66 g 2.7 m + 0. Example: (5.org .4 cm) = 8. The mathematical answer is rounded back to two significant figures.768 cm2 = 120 cm2 In this example. the factor 20. the answer must have two significant figures.0000 cm) = 100 cm2 = 100.8 f t 3. subtract.Significant Figure Rule for Multiplication and Division The answer for a multiplication or division operation must have the same number of significant figures as the factor with the least number of significant figures.444 cm)(22 cm) = 119.009 m 11 www.0 cm has three significant figures and therefore. 1. 34 kg − 0. cm2 In this example.0 cm)(5.5344 cm2 = 8.4 has two significant figures and therefore. or divide as indicated and report your answer with the proper number of significant figures. 703 g 7 g + 0.

21 0.002 cm)(84 cm) 8. This is called the “exponent” This is called the “coefficient”. very large and very small numbers are expressed as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and some power of 10.0 × 10−9 9.21 cm. 000 kg. 2. 000. 000. In a similar manner.5. can be written as the product of 9 times 1.32 cm by 600 cm and then divide the product by 8. 000. is 300. 6. This more convenient system is called Exponential Notation by mathematicians and Scientific Notation by scientists.2: Examples Decimal Notation 95. and 10 cm. Add 65. 000.ck12. 000.−→ 6. 10. for example. Multiply 0. Therefore. 2.4 cm by 0. The speed of light.00000000000975 www. 000.75 × 10−12 12 . Multiply 2. The number 9. 340 100 7. 000.4 × 10−2 8.0000082 cm.00000004 can be 1 written as 4 times 108 or 4 × 10−8 .3 cm. and the mass of an electron is 0. 0.3 Exponential Notation Worksheet Name___________________________ Date_________ Work in science frequently involves very large and very small numbers.0000000080 0. for example. Imagine trying to divide the mass of the earth by the mass of an electron! Scientists and mathematicians have designed an easier method for dealing with such numbers. 000. Multiply: (107. Divide 72.21 × 100 1. It is very inconvenient to write such numbers and even more inconvenient to attempt to carry out mathematical operations with them. 000.23 cm.014 0. 000. 000. 000. 000 and 1. 672 8.666 cm.21 cm and 0.5672 × 104 8.060 cm) 9. 000 meters/second. 000. Multiply: (2. 000 can be written as 9 × 106 . In scientific notation. the mass of the earth is 6.org Scientific Notation 9.888 cm)(0.0000000000000000000000000000009 kg. 9.5 × 10 4←− Table 2. 7. 000 can be written as 106 .34 × 103 1 × 102 7.

000 + 15. 4.org .012567 0. 000. 14. 15. 000. 000 − 53. 12.3 435. 1000 150. 000) 8.8 × 104 (43. If you are moving the decimal to the left. the coefficients are added and the exponent remains the same.3 × 104 + 1.3 + 1. 1.As you can see from the examples above. 5. to convert a number from decimal to exponential form. Exercises Express the following decimal numbers in exponential form.000 243 9. 000 = 58.000200 186.3107 = (8. 4. 000. One and only one non-zero digit exists to the left of the decimal and ALL significant figures are maintained. 6.000.6 × 107 − 5.000.0035 0. and if you are moving the decimal to the right. 13. 13 www. 000) If the exponents of the numbers to be added or subtracted are not the same.0000000000100 0.3) × 107 = 3. 000 = 33. you count the spaces that you need to move the decimal and that number becomes the exponent of 10. If the exponents are the same.000 105 77.000 502.000.ck12. 11. 10. 2.000 9. 8. the exponent is positive.000. the exponents must be the same.000000000000467 0.5) × 104 = 5. 7.3 × 107 (86.6 − 5. The exponential form should have exactly one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal and you must carry all significant figures. 3.5 × 104 = (4. the exponent is negative. then one of the numbers must be changed so that the two numbers have the same exponent.000 Carrying Out Mathematical Operations with Exponential Numbers When numbers in exponential notation are added or subtracted.000. Consider the following example. 9.000 0. The value of using exponential notation occurs when there are many non-significant zeros.

30 × 105 .30 × 105 = 8.0 × 104 = 8.93 × 10−1 ) − (1. 7.34 × 1015 ) + (1. In this case. 4.38 × 105 ) + (1.6 × 105 + 0.88 × 103 ) − (1. To multiply exponential numbers. cannot be added because they do not have the same exponent. 8.22 × 105 ) = (4. 5. we could have changed the first number to a lower exponent. When we convert the answer to proper exponential form.6 × 105 → 86 × 104 Now. the numbers do not have to have the same exponents.org 14 .2 × 104 ) = (8.2 × 10−2 ) = (1. 3.66 × 10−5 ) + (6. Exercises Add or subtract the following exponential numbers as indicated. The two numbers can now be added. Instead of changing the second number to a higher exponent. we choose to change 3. 89 × 104 → 8.9 × 105 We also could have chosen to alter the other number.2 × 1016 ) = (6. 6. we can add the numbers. in their present form.0 × 104 to 0.ck12. in this case.34 × 105 ) − (1. multiply the coefficients and add the exponents. 1. This change is made by moving the decimal one place to the left and increasing the exponent by 1.2 × 101 ) = Multiplying or Dividing with Numbers in Exponential Form When multiplying or dividing numbers in scientific notation. (8. 8.22 × 103 ) = (5. 86 × 104 + 3.6 × 10−4 ) + (1.Examples The two numbers given below. it is exactly the same answer as before.2 × 10−4 ) = (6.9 × 105 . 9. divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents.34 × 10−5 ) + (1.34 × 105 ) + (1. www. 10.2 × 10−6 ) = (4.4 × 10−6 ) = (6. is not in proper exponential form because it has two non-zero digits to the left of the decimal. 2. 8.34 × 1015 ) − (1.0 × 104 = 89 × 104 The answer.6 × 105 + 3.2 × 104 ) = (8. We will change one of the numbers so that it has the same exponent as the other number. To divide exponential numbers.

33 × 10−13 .0×105 = 2.2 × 10−4 ) = (8.0 × 107 ) = Multiply: (5.2 × 10−2 ) = Multiply: (4 × 10−11 )(5 × 102 ) = Multiply: (1.0×10 −5 Divide: 8.0 × 107 )(2. 9. 5.2 × 10−9 )(8.Examples of Multiplying Exponential Numbers Multiply: (4.00 × 10−22 ) = 5 Divide: 4. so we must round to two significant figures.0 × 107 2. the answer must have two significant figures and therefore. the zero in the tenths place is carried. 3.4 Lesson 2. Examples of Dividing Exponential Numbers ( ) 7 Divide: 8×104 = 8 (107−4 ) = 4 × 103 2×10 2 ( 8 ) ( (−7)−(−4) ) 8×10−7 = 4 × 10−3 Divide: 2×10−4 = 2 10 ( )( ) 4. Multiply: (2. 3.2 × 106 The coefficient of the answer comes out to be 9.3 × 10−12 .2 × 2. Multiply: (2 × 109 )(4 × 1014 ) = (2 × 4)(109+14 ) = 8 × 1023 Multiply: (2 × 10−9 )(4 × 104 ) = (2 × 4)(10−9+4 ) = 8 × 10−5 Multiply: (2 × 10−5 )(4 × 10−4 ) = (2 × 4)(10−5−4 ) = 8 × 10−9 ( ) Multiply: (8.24 but since we can only carry two significant figures in the answer.53 × 103 )(4.200 × 105 ) = Multiply: (2 × 10−13 )(3. Exercises 1.3 In the final example.6×10 3 = 3.ck12. 10. and then move the decimal and correct the exponent. 6.2 × 104 )(2.8 × 10−13 The product in the last example has too many significant figures and is not in proper exponential form. 7.1×10−11 = 2. since the original coefficients had two significant figures.0 × 107 )(4. 2.2)(104+2 ) = 9. it has been rounded to 9.3×10−4 = 4.0 × 107 ) = Multiply: (4. 4.2 × 8.1×10 8.0×10 15 Divide: 6.6×10−5 Divide: 3.2 .org .2×10 5 = 2. 8.6 10(3)−(−4) = 2.3 Using Mathematics in Chemistry Measurements Worksheet Name___________________________ Date_________ 15 www.6×103 Divide: 2.2) 10(−9)+(−4) = 32.2 × 102 ) = (4.0 × 10−3 )(1.

and time. the standard for length (one meter) was a platinum bar which was marked and stored at constant temperature in a vault. temperature. For example.ck12. such as cm3 . mass. some length is chosen to be the standard and copies of this object can then be used by everyone making measurements. With a standard system of measurement. mass. In a standard system of measurement.Measurement makes it possible to obtain more exact observations about the properties of matter such as the size. Volume is expressed in terms of the length standard.458 second and the standard second is based on the vibrations of a cesium −133 atom. www. volume = length × length × length. Measurements were orginally made by comparing the object being measured to some familiar object. As people’s needs increased for more consistent measurements. elbow to fingertip. all measurements must include a unit term. Systems of measurement have several standards such as length. the standard meter is the distance light travels in a 1 vacuum in 299. shape. It was stored at constant temperature so that it did not expand or contract.org 16 . Length was compared to the length of one’s foot. STANDARD systems of measurement were devised. Other measures were handspans. and are based on physical objects such as platinum bars or vibrating atoms. All the other standards are expressed in terms of these objectbased standards. It allows us to make more exact quantitative observations. For example. For any system of measurements. Standard masses are also stored in airtight containers to insure no change due to oxidation.792. length and time are object-based standards and velocity (meters/second) and acceleration (m/s2 ) are expressed in terms of length and time. a word following the number that indicates the standard the measurement is based on. Standards based on physical objects are called undefined units. the balance makes it possible to determine the mass of an object more accurately than we could by lifting the object and a clock gives a better measure of time than we could determine by observing the sun’s position in the sky. Presently. and so on. or composition. two people measuring the same distance will get the same measurement. For a time.

The one commonly used by the public (pounds.54 N ewtons (= 454 grams on earth) Units and Sub-Divisions for the SI System Basic unit for length = meter Basic unit for mass = gram Basic unit for time = second Unit for volume = liter (lee-ter) 1000 millimeters = 1 meter 100 centimeters = 1 meter 1000 meters = 1 kilometer 10 centimeters = 1 millimeter 1000 milligrams = 1 gram 1000 grams = 1 kilogram 1000 milliliters = 1 liter 1 milliliters = 1 cubic centimeter = 1 cm3 All the relationships between units are defined numbers and therefore. and second.00 quart = 0. Conversion Factors. have an infinite number of significant figures. The undefined units in the SI system are the meter.00 inch = 2. the unit terms as well as the numbers obey the algebraic laws of exponents and cancellation. gram. All the sub-divisions in the SI system are in decimal form.00 pound = 4.946 liter 1.ck12. In performing mathematical operations on measurements. The system used for scientific work is called the Metric System in its short form and is called the International System (SI) in its complete form. the significant figures of the answer are based on the significant figures of the measurement.There are two major systems of standards used in the United States.54 centimeters 1. When converting units. not on the conversion factors. The unit terms for measurements are an integral part of the measurement expression and must be carried through every mathematical operation that the numbers go through. Examples: 17 www. meters). feet) and the system used for all scientific and technical work (kilograms. English to Metric 1.org .

This process is quite simple if you follow a standard procedure called unit analysis. ( (4. inches to f eet. Example: Convert 6. If we have a measurement in inches and we ( f oot ) wish to convert the measurement to feet. For example.45 dats 1 dat 10 whees Sometimes. it is necessary to insert a series of conversion factors.4 nobs) ) = 32 hics 5 hics 1 nob Example: Convert 4. it is necessary to convert units measuring the same quantity from one form to another.7 f eet Unit Term Operations 6 mL + 2 mL = 8 mL (5 cm)(3 cm) = 15 cm2 9 cm3 = 3 cm2 3 cm 21 grams = 7 grams 3 cm3 cm3 1 f oot 12 inches We design the conversion factor specifically for this problem so that the unit term “inches” will cancel out and the final answer will have the unit “feet”. we know that there are 12 inches in 1 f oot.4 nobs to hics given the conversion factor. ( (500.3: Unit Terms Follow the Rules of Algebra Math Operations 6x + 2x = 8x (5x)(3x) = 15x2 9x3 = 3x2 3x 21x = 7( x ) 3a a Converting Units Frequently. This procedure involves creating a conversion factor from equivalencies between various units. inches) ) = 41. we would generate a conversion factor 121 inches and multiply the measurement by this conversion factor. Example: Convert 500.ck12.org 18 . it may be necessary to convert a length measurement in meters to millimeters. www. 5 hics = 1 nob. ( (6. the conversion factor between inches and feet is 12 inches = 1 f oot. For example.5 whees to dats given the conversion factor. This is how we know to put the unit term “inches” in the denominator and the unit term “foot” in the numerator.5 whees) ) = 0. 10 whees = 1 dat. Therefore.Table 2.

00 pix 1 hat 10 wags 2 pix 1 hat 10 mm 1 cm 2.964 is rounded to two significant figures.2 lbs/f t3 340.00 inches) )( ) = 127 mm ) = 12. 4. When 29. mg/cm3 to lbs/f t3 .Example: Convert 5. and 1 hat = 2 pix.ck12. pounds (force) can be converted to grams (mass) with the conversion factor 454 g = 1 lb. ( (5. 10 wags = 1 hat. Convert 5. kg 454 g 1 lb 1 kg 1000 g The mathematical answer for this conversion comes out to be 29.22 cm to mm.22 cm) 2. Convert 66 lbs to kg. As long as the object is at the surface of the earth. the final answer is 30.org . it requires a written in decimal after the zero to make the zero significant. Convert 1.964 but must be rounded off to two significant figures since the original measurement has only two significant figures.54 cm 1 inch 10 mm 1 cm 3.39 cm3 1 in3 17. kg.28 in3 1 f t3 You should examine the units yourself to make sure they cancel and leave the correct units for the answer.00 wags) Solved Conversion Problems 1.2 mm )( ) = 1. ( (5. Convert 340. Therefore. Exercises 19 www. ( (1.00 wags to pix given the conversion factors. ( (66 lbs) )( ) = 30. mg 1 cm3 1g 1000 mg 1 lb 454 g 16.00 inches to mm. ( )( )( )( )( ) = 21.

mm to cm.1. Express 3.69 m in cm. 4. 10 rats = 1 gob and 10 gobs = 1 ute.0 lbs/qt to g/mL.0 curs to nibbles given the conversion factor. (Be aware that such a conversion between weight and mass is only reasonable on the surface of the earth. Convert 32. 10. cots to togs given the conversion factor. 5 gags = 1 bobo.ck12. 10 cots = 1 tog. Convert 100. www.0 rat to utes given the conversion factors. 2. gags to bobos given the conversion factor. 6.org 20 . Convert 1. Express 140 mm in cm.4 Using Algebra in Chemistry There are no worksheets for this lesson.) Express 690 mm in m. 11.0 grams in pounds. 3. Convert 14. 1 cur = 10 nibbles. 5.5 Lesson 2. 9. 7. Convert 40. Convert 15 inches to mm. 8. 000 mm to m. 2. Convert 240. Express 32. Convert 8. 12.

Chapter 3 Chemistry in the Laboratory Worksheets
3.1 Lesson 3.1 Making Observations

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3.2

Lesson 3.2 Making Measurements

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3.3

Lesson 3.3 Using Data

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3.4

Lesson 3.4 How Scientists Use Data

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Chapter 4 The Atomic Theory Worksheets
4.1 Lesson 4.1 Early Development of a Theory

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4.2

Lesson 4.2 Further Understanding of the Atom

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4.3

Lesson 4.3 Atomic Terminology

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3 Light and the Atomic Spectra There are no worksheets for this lesson. 25 www.ck12.4 The Bohr Model There are no worksheets for this lesson. 5.Chapter 5 The Bohr Model of the Atom Worksheets 5.2 Lesson 5.1 Lesson 5.2 The Dual Nature of Light There are no worksheets for this lesson. 5.org .1 The Wave Form of Light There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 5. 5.4 Lesson 5.

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2 Schrodinger’s Wave Functions There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Lesson 6.3 Heisenberg’s Contribution There are no worksheets for this lesson.5 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals Quantum Numbers and Orbital Shapes Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry .4 Quantum Numbers There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 6.1 The Wave-Particle Duality There are no worksheets for this lesson.org . 6.Chapter 6 Quantum Mechanics Model of the Atom Worksheets 6. .ck12. Name___________ Date_____ 27 www. 6. . 6.3 Lesson 6.5 Lesson 6.1 Lesson 6. . 6.

energy level 5 would have a fifth sub-level named g. This pattern would continue through all the larger energy levels. l = 0 n = 6. we have no atoms that contain enough electrons to use the 5g. l = 5 Mathematically. The known atoms never use any www. l = 0 n = 2. l = 0 n = 2. l = 3 n = 6. Similarly. however. It would have 9 orbitals and hold a maximum of 18 electrons.ck12. l = 4 n = 6.Table 6. l = 2 n = 4. l = 0 n = 2. l = 0 n = 5.1: Energy Level Sub-Level Number of Sub-Level Orbitals Maximum Number of Electrons in Sub-Energy Level 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18 2 6 10 14 18 22 Quantum Numbers for this SubLevel 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 s s p s p d s p d f s p d f g s p d f g h 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 11 n = 1. 7h sub-levels. 6g. l = 1 n = 3. l = 0 n = 4.org 28 . l = 3 n = 5. from Schrodinger’s Equation. energy level 6 would have this g sub-level and another sub-level named h. l = 1 n = 5. l = 4 n = 6. l = 1 n = 1. 6h. l = 1 n = 1. 7g. l = 2 n = 4. l = 1 n = 6. Sub-level h would have 11 orbitals and would hold a maximum of 22 electrons. l = 2 n = 6. l = 3 n = 5. In terms of usefulness. l = 2 n = 5.

ck12. 29 www.2 The five d orbitals in energy levels 3 − 7 are sometimes referred to a butterfly shaped. and 7 will look exactly like energy level 4. Therefore. with only s.energy sub-levels beyond 5f. p. Figure 6.org . The probability patterns for these sub-levels are shown below. The s orbitals in every energy level are spherical. in most listings of energy levels and sub-levels.1 The three p orbitals in energy levels 2 − 7 are dumbbell shaped. 6f . energy levels 5. The seven f orbitals in energy levels 4 − 7 are too complex to describe. 6. and f sub-levels listed. d. Figure 6. and 7f .

True B. 2 A. ml = 3. How many sub-energy levels may be present if the principal quantum number is 3? A. regardless of the principal energy level quantum number will have dumbbell shape. False 2. 4 www.Figure 6. 2 C.3 Figure 6. All sub-energy levels with ℓ = 1. Theoretically.ck12. False Multiple Choice 4. ℓ = 2.org 30 . True B. 1 B. False 3. It is impossible for an electron in an atom to have the quantum numbers n = 3. A. it is possible for a principal energy level to have n2 sub-energy levels. ms = + 1 . True B. A. 3 D.4 Exercises True/False 1.

3 C. None of these. How many atomic orbitals are present in the subshell for which n = 3 and ℓ = 2? A. 3 C.ck12.E. 7 E. 9 6. How many electrons can be accommodated in the energy level for which n = 3? A. 9 9. 5. 10 E. 9 8. 18 7. 1 B. How many possible orbitals are there when n = 3? A. butterfly or clover shaped 31 www. 5 D. 1 B. 1 B. 5 D. 6 C. 2 B. How many orbitals are present in the subshell for which n = 5 and ℓ = 4? A. What is the shape of an orbital in the subshell for which n = 3 and ℓ = 0? A. 3 C. 4 D. 8 D. 5 E. 7 E. spherical B.org . dumbbell C.

D. Could be any of these. E. None of these. 10. What is the shape of an orbital in the subshell for which n = 7 and ℓ = 0? A. spherical B. dumbbell C. butterfly or clover shaped D. Could be any of these. E. None of these. 11. Which type of orbital is described by the quantum numbers n = 2, ℓ = 1? A. 2s B. 2p C. 2d D. 2f E. None of these. 12. If the principal quantum number of an atomic orbital is 4, what are the possible values of ℓ? A. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 1, 2, 3, 4 C. 0, 1, 2, 3 D. 0, 1, 2 E. None of these. Use the image below to answers questions 13, 14, and 15. 13. Identify the image above as an s−orbital, p−orbital, d−orbital, f −orbital or none of these. A. s B. p C. d D. f E. None of these.

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Figure 6.5 14. What is the ℓ value for the type of orbital pictured above? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 15. Will an orbital of the shape pictured above be found in the n = 2 energy level? A. Yes B. No

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5.1 The Electron Spin Quantum Number Quantum Numbers Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. 2. 7. 9. 3. s = 1 . What is the basic tenet of the quantum theory? 16. 6.ck12. 10.Chapter 7 Electron Configurations for Atoms Worksheets 7. 14. 13. 8. Why are the quantum numbers n = 2. not an acceptable set of 2 quantum numbers for an electron? 35 www.1 Lesson 7. 4. What are the mℓ quantum numbers for each of these three electrons? 15. 11. 12. mℓ = 2. Which quantum number indicates the electron’s energy level? Which quantum number indicates the electron’s sub-energy level? Which quantum number indicates the electron’s orbital within the sub-energy level? Which quantum number indicates the electron’s spin? What is the lowest energy level that has a d sub-level? What is the total number of electrons that can exist in the 3rd energy level? Which sub-energy level is indicated by ℓ = 1? which sub-energy level is indicated by ℓ = 2? What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held in an f sub-energy level? What does it mean for an electron to be “excited”? What are the n and ℓ quantum numbers for the last electron in bromine? What are the n and ℓ quantum numbers for the last electron in iron? What are the n and ℓ quantum numbers for the electron in hydrogen? The three electrons in the 2p sub-energy level of nitrogen have the n and ℓ quantum numbers. ℓ = 2.org .

3 Lesson 7. 19.4 Writing Electron Configurations Orbital Configuration Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry . 7. ℓ = 3? 7.3 Aufbau Principle There are no worksheets for this lesson. Give the full set of quantum numbers for each of the electrons in a helium atom.2 Lesson 7. ℓ = 1? 20. What maximum number of electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 2. Name_________ Date_____ Table 7. What maximum number of electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 3. Sketch a picture of the 2s sub-energy level showing any nodes present.17.4 Lesson 7.1: Draw the Orbital Configuration for these Atoms Symbol Mg Orbital Diagram www.ck12.org 36 . . .2 Pauli Exclusion There are no worksheets for this lesson. . 18. 7.

Table 7.ck12.1: (continued) Symbol P Orbital Diagram Ge Kr O 37 www.org .

org 38 .Table 7.1: (continued) Symbol F Orbital Diagram Pb Table 7.2: Write the Electron Configuration Code for these Atoms Atom V Mg P Ge Kr O F Pb Electron Configuration Code 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 Image Sources www.ck12.

That is. Rb. 8.2 Lesson 8.1 Electron Configurations of Main Group Elements There are no worksheets for this lesson. Essentially. he placed the elements in vertical columns according to their chemical behavior. Cs) react with water to produce heat.3 Lesson 8.2 Orbital Configurations There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations The Periodic Table and Electron Configuration Worksheet When Mendeleev organized the periodic table.Chapter 8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Worksheets 8. The vertical columns of elements are frequently referred to chemical “families” because of their similar chemical characteristics. hydrogen gas. the only difference in the reactions is that the larger alkali metals react faster than the smaller ones. N a.ck12. 8. K. When quantum theory generated electron configurations which demonstrated that the ele- 39 www.1 Lesson 8. All the alkali metals (Li. and the metal hydroxide in solution. elements were placed in the same vertical columns because they behaved similarly in chemical reactions.org .

or a noble gas? ____________ (c) how many valence electrons does it have? ____________ 4. it was clear that elements that behaved similarly should have similar electron configuration.1: The Electron Configuration of Family 1A Elements Element Li Na K Rb Cs Electron Configuration 1s2 2s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s1 Table 8. metalloid. or a noble gas? ____________ (c) how many valence electrons does it have? ____________ 2.2: The Electron Configuration of Family 7A Elements Element F Cl Br I Exercises 1. The electron configuration of an element is [Ar]4s2 3d3 . Since chemical behavior is determined by outer energy level electron configuration. or a noble gas? ____________ (c) how many valence electrons does it have? ____________ 3. non-metal. If the outermost energy level electron configuration of an atom is ns2 np4 . (a) to which family does it belong? ____________ (b) is the atom a metal.ments in the same family have the same outer energy level electron configuration. non-metal.org Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p5 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p5 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p5 40 . non-metal.ck12. Table 8. the reason these elements behaved similarly became clear. (a) to which family does it belong?____________ (b) is the atom a metal. (a) to which family does it belong? ____________ (b) is the atom a metal. If the outermost energy level electron configuration of an atom is ns2 np6 . metalloid. If the outermost energy level electron configuration of an atom is ns2 np1 . (a) What is the identity of the element? ____________ www. metalloid.

ck12.org . or an actinide? ____________ 5. Write the electron configuration of only the outermost energy level for an element that is in family 8A of the third period of the periodic table. ____________ 6. a transition element.(b) In what period does the element belong? ____________ (c) In what group does the element belong? ____________ (d) Is the element a main group element. a lanthanide. Write the electron configuration of only the outermost energy level for an element that is in family 5A of the fifth period of the periodic table. ____________ 41 www.

org 42 .ck12.www.

org .2 Electron Configurations Electron Configuration Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.1 Families on the Periodic Table There are no worksheets for this lesson. 9.1 Lesson 9.2 Lesson 9.Chapter 9 Relationships Between the Elements Worksheets 9. 43 www.ck12. Fill in the orbital electron representation for phosphorus.

www. 4. Fill in the electron orbital configuration for bromine. Draw the orbital representation for the electron configuration of calcium.org 44 . Fill in the electron orbital configuration for cobalt. 3.ck12.2.

How many valence electrons does calcium have? 13. How many valence electrons does phosphorus have? 7.5. 10. How many valence electrons does cobalt have? 9. Write the electron configuration code for calcium.org . 12.ck12. What will be the outer energy level electron configuration for element #118? 15. 6. Write the electron configuration code for bromine. How many valence electrons does bromine have? 11. How many valence electrons does tellurium have? 14. Draw the orbital representation of the electron configuration for silicon. Write the electron configuration code for cobalt. 45 www. 8. Write the electron configuration code for phosphorus.

9. How many valence electrons does silicon have? 9. 2. Image Sources www. Draw the electron-dot formula for cobalt. 9.5 Transition Elements There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams Electron Dot Formulas Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. Draw the electron-dot formula for calcium.6 Lesson 9. 4.4 Lesson 9.4 Chemical Family Members Have Similar Properties There are no worksheets for this lesson. Draw the electron-dot formula for bromine.16.org 46 . Draw the electron-dot formula for phosphorus. 9. 3. 5. Draw the electron-dot formula for silicon. Draw the electron-dot formula for element #118.6 Lanthanide and Actinide Series There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 9.5 Lesson 9. 6.ck12.

2 Ionization Energy There are no worksheets for this lesson. 10. 2.org .Chapter 10 Trends on the Periodic Table Worksheets 10. by volume. Which atom is larger. 8. Which atom has the greatest electron affinity? What is the most stable number of electrons for an atom’s outermost energy level? Which is larger in volume. 3. hydrogen or helium? What is the smallest atom.3 Lesson 10. oxygen or sulfur? 47 www. 10.3 Electron Affinity Trends in the Periodic Table Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. by volume.1 Lesson 10. in the third period? Describe the relationship between atomic volume and ionization energy. 6. potassium or cesium? Which is chemically more reactive.1 Atomic Size There are no worksheets for this lesson. 4. 7. oxygen or sulfur? Which is chemically more reactive.ck12.2 Lesson 10. 5.

www. even though it is larger than neon. 14. Which atom in period 3 has the greatest electron affinity? Which atom in period 3 has the largest volume? Which atom has greater ionization energy. potassium or calcium? What is the outer energy level electron configuration of a noble gas? Which atom in period 3 has the lowest ionization energy? Explain why fluorine.org 48 . 13. aluminum or gallium? Which atom has greater second ionization energy. 15. 11. has a greater electron affinity.ck12.9. 10. 12.

Is element X more likely to be a metal or a non-metal? 2. How many electrons is element X most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? 4. What is the most likely charge for an ion of element X? Questions 5 . 49 www. 000 21.Chapter 11 Ions and the Compounds They Form Worksheets 11. Which family of elements does element X belong to? 3.8 relate to element Y whose first six ionization energies are shown in the table below.1 Lesson 11.1: The First Six Ionization Energies of Element Number of Ionization Energy 1 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th st Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 800 1.1 The Formation of Ions Ion Formation Worksheet Questions 1 . Table 11. Element Y is a representative element. 400 15. 000 25. 000 18.4 relate to element X whose first six ionization energies are shown in the table below. 000 1. Element X is a representative element.org .ck12.

2: The First Six Ionization Energies of Element Number of Ionization Energy 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 500 4. 800 4. Is element Y more likely to be a metal or a non-metal? 6. 000 8. 800 6. How many electrons is element M most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? 12. 000 27.3: The First Eight Ionization Energies of Element Number of Ionization Energy 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 1.org 50 . 100 1.ck12. Which family of elements does element M belong to? 11. 000 15. Which family of elements does element Y belong to? 7. What is the most likely charge for an ion of element M ? The table below gives the electron affinities for period 3 of the periodic table. 000 36. Table 11. 000 13. What is the most likely charge for an ion of element Y ? Questions 9 . 000 5. Is element M more likely to be a metal or a non-metal? 10.Table 11. How many electrons is element Y most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? 8. 800 2.12 relate to element M whose first eight ionization energies are shown in the table below. 800 9. www. 000 9.Element M is a representative element. 000 6.

If all the elements in a family have an electron affinity of 0 kJ/mol.2 Lesson 11.org .2 Ionic Bonding 51 There are no worksheets for this lesson. www. A.5: The Electron Affinities of Elements in Period Four Family 1A 2A 2 3A 29 4A 119 5A 78 6A 195 7A 325 8A 0 Electron 48 Affinity (kJ/mol) While family 5A is somewhat anomalous.ck12. how many electrons is it most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? D. what is the most likely charge on an ion of this element? 11. and 420. K.4: The Electron Affinities of Elements in Period Three Family 1A 2A 0 3A 42 4A 134 5A 72 6A 200 7A 349 8A 0 Electron 52 Affinity (kJ/mol) The table below gives the electron affinities for period 4 of the periodic table. and Cs in random order are 370.Table 11. 520. what family is it most likely to be? 15. Given the electron configuration of the outermost energy level of an atom to be s2 p4 : A. Rb. is it most likely to gain or lose electrons? C. What knowledge about chemical families did you use to make those choices? 16. is the element a metal or non-metal? B. 500. 400. Table 11. would you expect it to be a metal or a non-metal? 14. the general trend is apparent in this data. Which first ionization energy do you think belongs to Li? B. The first ionization energies (in kJ/mol) of Li. If a representative element has an electron affinity greater than 150 kJ/mol. N a. 13. Which first ionization energy do you think belongs to Cs? C.

org 52 .ck12.11.3 Lesson 11.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds There are no worksheets for this lesson. www.

ck12.1: Formula Writing Practice bromine potassium calcium aluminum ammonium iron(III) lead(II) acetate sulfate phosphate hydroxide sulfur 53 www.1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds Formula Writing Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Fill in the squares with the appropriate formula for the compound formed by the combination of the atoms or ions that intersect. Table 12.org .1 Lesson 12.Chapter 12 Writing and Naming Ionic Formulas Worksheets 12.

2. 6.2: Name the Following Compounds Number 1. 3. 10. 10.2 Inorganic Nomenclature Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Table 12.org 54 . 9. 5. 5. 7. 9. 2.2 Lesson 12. 3. Formula LiF N a3 P O4 Al(OH)3 Cl2 O7 P bO F e 2 S3 T eO2 CuSO4 Ca3 (P O4 )2 HN O3 Name _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Table 12. 8. 6. 4. 7. 4.3: Write Formulas for the Following Compounds Number 1.12. Name copper(I) sulfide boron trichloride potassium carbonate sulfur hexafluoride chlorine monofluoride dinitrogen tetraoxide tin(IV) oxide silver acetate diphosphorus pentoxide lithium nitrate Formula _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ www.ck12. 8.

2 Atoms that Form Covalent Bonds There are no worksheets for this lesson.ck12.org .3 Naming Covalent Compounds There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 13. 55 www.1 Lesson 13.Chapter 13 Covalent Bonding Worksheets 13.2 Lesson 13. 13.1 The Covalent Bond There are no worksheets for this lesson. 13.

org 56 .ck12.www.

5 Lesson 14.2 The Covalent Molecules of Family 2A8A There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 14.4 Lesson 14.3 Resonance There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Lesson 14.ck12.3 Lesson 14.4 Electronic and Molecular Geometry There are no worksheets for this lesson.5 Molecular Polarity Molecular Geometry Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry 57 www.1 Types of Bonds that Form Between Atoms There are no worksheets for this lesson. 14. 14.org . 14. 14.Chapter 14 Molecular Architecture Worksheets 14.

To use VSEPR theory. Pi bond electrons are excluded because the electrons are not placed between bonding atoms and therefore. and the electronic geometry of that molecule. we must first be able to determine the number of valence shell electron pairs around the central atom. (sigma bonds plus non-shared pairs) around the central atom of a molecule. surround a given atom on a flat page. the two pairs can avoid each other best if they are 180◦ apart. imagine them situated on the surface of a sphere with the central atom at the center. The idea that allows us to predict the electronic geometry is that each pair of electrons (shared or unshared) repels all the other electron pairs. and unshared pairs of electrons. the arrangement is linear. The molecules are actually three dimensional which is not shown by Lewis structures. These pairs consist of all sigma bond pairs and all unshared pairs of electrons. This is the essence of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory for predicting molecular shapes.1: Visualizing Electron Pairs Electron Pairs To visualize the electron pairs that contribute to electronic geometry. The electron pairs move as far apart as possible. www. Table 14. but since they are all tied to the central atom.org 58 . do not contribute to electronic geometry.ck12. Image If there are only two pairs of electrons in the valence shell of the central atom. This means that the two pairs and the central atom are in a straight line. we use “ball and stick” models.Name______________________ Date_________ Lewis structures only show how many bonding pairs of electrons. they can only orient themselves in such a way that they make the angles between them as large as possible. There is a correlation between the number of electron pairs. To convey a sense of three dimensionality.

the tetrahedron.1: (continued) Electron Pairs If a third pair of electrons is added. The angles between electron pairs would be 120◦ and we call the shape trigonal planar. All angles in this shape are 90◦ . the sixth pair of electrons produces the octahedral shape shown at right.5◦ . the three pairs push around to the shape shown at right.ck12. Once the number of electron pairs surrounding the central atom is determined. A fifth pair of electrons produces the shape known as trigonal bipyramidal.org . The angles in this shape are 109. the elec- 59 www.Table 14. The three pairs of electrons and the central atom are all in a single plane. The angles between the three pairs of electrons around the center is 120◦ and the angles between the pairs around the center and the pairs on the ends is 90◦ . Finally. Image A fourth pair of electrons causes the electrons to push around into the shape shown at right.

ck12. The angles between the electron pairs will be approximately 109. www. we must recognize which pairs of electrons have an atom attached and which are lone pairs. Consider the following four molecules: hydrogen chloride. Table 14. the electronic geometry is tetrahedral but only one of the molecules will have tetrahedral molecular geometry. We will look at an example that shows the difference between electronic and molecular geometry. According to VSEPR theory. The four pairs will point to the corners of the geometrical shape known as a tetrahedron. not all the electron pairs are shared.org Molecular Geometry 60 . and methane. water. H2 O. Table 14. In all four cases. In order to determine molecular geometry. The overall shape of the molecule is determined by how many pairs of electrons are around the central atom.2: The Relationship Between Number of Electron Pairs and Electronic Geometry Electron Pairs Around the Central Atom 1 2 3 4 5 6 pair pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs Electronic Geometry Linear Linear Trigonal Planar Tetrahedral Trigonal Bipyramidal Octahedral The molecular geometry may be different from the electronic geometry because many times. It is sometimes difficult for students to recognize the difference between the orientation of electron pairs (called electronic geometry) and the overall shape of the molecule (called molecular geometry). CH4 .5◦ . these four pairs will be oriented in three-dimensional space to be as far away from each other as possible.3: The Relationship Between Shared Pairs and Molecular Geometry Shared Pairs The central atom of each of these molecules is surrounded by four pairs of electrons.tronic geometry is known. N H3 . and how many of these have atoms attached. HCl. An unshared electron pair will not have an atom in that position of the electronic geometry. ammonia.

In the water molecule. even though there are four pairs of electrons around the chlorine atom. the molecular geometry will be linear. So while the electronic geometry is tetrahedral. aka V-shaped). This results in a molecular shape called pyramidal. the molecular geometry is bent (aka angular. two electron pairs are shared and two are unshared. and so not only is the electronic geometry tetrahedral but the molecular geometry is also tetrahedral. one pair of electrons is unshared and the other three are shared.4: Table of Molecular Geometries Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 2 3 Linear Trigonal Planar Bonding Pairs 2 1 Molecular Geometry Linear Linear Sketch 61 www.ck12. all four pairs of electrons are shared. These spaces are empty. three of them are not shared. Since there are only two atoms joined by a bond.Table 14. In the ammonia molecule.org . Table 14. Molecular Geometry In the methane molecule.3: (continued) Shared Pairs In the case of HCl. There is no atom attached to them.

ck12.Table 14.4: (continued) Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 3 Trigonal Planar Bonding Pairs 2 Molecular Geometry Bent Sketch 3 Trigonal Planar 3 Trigonal Planar 4 Tetrahedral 1 Linear 4 Tetrahedral 2 Bent 4 Tetrahedral 3 Pyramidal 4 Tetrahedral 4 Tetrahedral 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 1 Linear 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 2 Linear www.org 62 .

ck12.Table 14.org .4: (continued) Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal Bonding Pairs 3 Molecular Geometry T-shape Sketch 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 4 Distorted Tetrahedron 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 6 Octahedral 1 Linear 6 Octahedral 2 Linear 6 Octahedral 3 T-shape 63 www.

the electronic geometry is trigonal planar and since all three pairs www. and those electron pairs do not contribute to electronic geometry.Table 14. The Lewis structure for the carbonate ion.ck12. But these fours pairs of electrons are involved in two sigma bonds and two pi bonds. shown at right. shows the central atom is carbon and it is surrounded by 4 electron pairs. the molecular geometry will also be linear. One of those pairs. and will be linear. Thus.4: (continued) Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 6 Octahedral Bonding Pairs 4 Molecular Geometry Square Planar Sketch 6 Octahedral 5 Square Pyramidal 6 Octahedral 6 Octahedral In order to choose the correct molecular geometry. it is clear that the central atom is carbon. In the Lewis structure for the carbon dioxide molecule (shown at right). and the carbon atom is surrounded by 4 pairs of electrons. is a pi bond. Therefore. Pi bonds are not directed bonds.org 64 . you must keep in mind that only electron pairs involved in sigma bonds and unshared pairs contribute to electronic geometry. and therefore the electronic geometry of the carbonate ion is based on 3 pairs of electrons around the central atom. the electronic geometry of carbon dioxide is based on two pairs of electrons around the central atom. however. Since both pairs of electrons are shared.

are shared, the molecular geometry is also trigon planar.

Polarity Bonds between atoms that are of the same element are non-polar bonds. Molecules composed of all the same atom such as Cl2 , O2 , H2 , S8 , P4 , have no polar bonds and therefore do not have dipoles. That is, the molecules will be non-polar. A molecule that does have polar bonds can still be non-polar. If the polar bonds are symmetrically distributed, the bond dipoles cancel and do not produce a molecular dipole. Table 14.5: Symmetrical and Non-Symmetrical Molecular Shapes Molecular Shape Linear Bent Trigonal Planar Pyramidal Tetrahedral T-shaped Distorted Tetrahedron Trigonal Bipyramidal Square Planar Square Pyramidal Octahdral Exercises Fill in the table with electronic geometry, molecular geometry, and indicate whether the molecular will be polar or non-polar. Table 14.6: Polarity Table Formula AsH3 Electronic Geometry Molecular Geometry Polarity Symmetry Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical

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Table 14.6: (continued) Formula BCl3 IF3 SiBr4 SeH4 XeI4 OF2 KrF2 ICl5 CCl2 F2 Electronic Geometry Molecular Geometry Polarity

Image Sources

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Chapter 15 The Mathematics of Compounds Worksheets
15.1 Lesson 15.1 Determining Formula and Molecular Mass

Calculating Molar Masses Worksheet
CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The relative masses of atoms, in units called Daltons, are listed in the periodic table. The relative masses of molecules, in the same units, can be determined by adding up the masses of all the atoms that make up the molecule. For example, the periodic table lists the relative mass of a hydrogen atom as 1.01 Dalton and relative mass of the an oxygen atom to be 16.00 Daltons. Therefore, on this same scale, the relative mass of a water molecule, H2 O, would be the sum of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, 1.01 + 1.01 + 16.00 = 18.02 Daltons. When an Avogadro’s number, 6.02 × 1023 , of atoms or molecules are taken, the mass of the group will be the same number as the relative mass, but the units will be grams. That is, the mass in grams, of 6.02 × 1023 water molecules is 18.02 grams. An Avogadro’s number of particles is called one mole and the mass of that group of particles is called the molar mass (or mass of one mole) of that substance. Example: Find the molar mass of calcium phosphate, Ca3 (P O4 )2 .

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02 × 1023 particles) is the relative molecular mass in grams.0 = 128.Table 15.2 The Mole Moles Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ An Avogadro’s number of particles of a substance is called one mole of that substance.3 grams/mole. 5. the mass of the group will be the same number as the relative molecular mass. Exercises Find the molar masses of the following compounds. of atoms or molecules are taken. 9. 3. N aOH N aBr P bSO4 Ca(OH)2 AgF C6 H12 O6 Ba(C2 H3 O2 )2 ZnCl2 (N H4 )2 SO4 (N H4 )3 P O4 15. 7.1: Adding Up a Molar Mass Atoms of Element 3 Ca atoms = 2 P atoms = 8 O atoms = Atoms x Atomic Mass 3 × 40.0 _____ 310. The mass of one mole of a substance (6. 10.0 8 × 16. 6.ck12. but the units will be grams.3 Therefore. (Do not fail to include units in your answers.2 Lesson 15. When an Avogadro’s number.1 2 × 31.) 1.org 68 . 4. 2.3 = 62. the molar mass of calcium phosphate is 310. The relationship between the moles and mass of a substance is given by: www.02 × 1023 .0 Total = 120. 6. 8.

20 moles of Ca(N O3 )2 ? Solution: The molar mass of Ca(N O3 )2 is 164.0 g/mol Example 2: What is the mass.1 Example 1: How many moles are present in 10. N aOH? Solution: The molar mass of N aOH is 40.250 moles of the substance has a mass of 52.org .6 grams? Solution: molar mass = 56.0 grams of sodium hydroxide. grams molar mass grams moles grams = (moles)(molar mass) moles = molar mass = Some students find the triangle below to be a useful crutch.1 g/mol) = 689 grams Example 3: What is the molar mass of an unknown substance is 0.20 mol)(164.250 moles molar mass 40. grams = (moles)(molar mass) = (4. (“mol” is the abbreviation of mole. You put your thumb over the quantity you are solving for and the part of the triangle not covered shows the correct formula.0 g/mol.2 g grams = = 225 g/mol moles 0. of 4. in grams.1 g/mol.ck12.) moles = grams 10.0 g = = 0.250 mol 69 www. Figure 15.grams = (moles)(molar mass) This relationship can be solved for any one of the three variables in the expression.

00 mol ) = 8.org 70 . Example: The composition of a compound is determined in the laboratory to be 5. 8.00 grams of N aOH? How many grams are present in 2. and then multiplying the moles by the molar mass.ck12.748 grams of sodium and 8.336 moles of it has a mass of 70. How many molecules are present in 1. What is the percent composition of the compound? Solution: The total mass of this sample of the compound is 14. the mass of each individual element is divided by the total mass of the compound and then multiplied by 100 (to get its percentage).00 grams of CH4 to moles. 5.50 grams Exercises 1. To calculate the percent composition.01 × 10 23 molecules) 1.468 moles of C6 H12 O6 ? How many moles are present in 1.3 Lesson 15. 6. Convert 4. www. 4. 2.00 moles of CH4 to grams. 9. N H3 ? Solution: This problem involves converting the number of molecules to moles (divide by Avogadro’s number).3 Percent Composition Percent Composition Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The percent composition (or percentage composition) of a compound is a measure of the percentage of each different element present in the compound. in grams.0 g 1.61 grams.0 grams? Convert 4.50 moles of N H3 ? How many moles are present in 100.01 × 1023 molecules of ammonia. ( mass = (3. g of Ca(N O3 )2 ? What is the mass of 0. 7.00 g of Al(C2 H3 O2 )2 15. 10. 3.Example 4: What is the mass of 3.00 × 1024 molecules of water? What is the mass.02 × 1023 molecules )( 17. How many moles are present in 5.862 grams of chlorine. of one molecule of water? What is the molar mass of a substance if 0. The percent composition of a compound can be calculated either from the known masses of the elements in the compound (determined in the lab) or from the formula of the compound.00 mol 6.

12 149.org .00 = 64. Solution: 3 N atoms = 3 × 14.862 % chlorine = 14. 3. Ca(C2 H3 O2 )2 .03 12 H atoms = 12 × 1.01%.97 × 100 = 28. rounding may cause the last digit of the total to be off by 1.1% due to several individual percentages all being rounded up or all being rounded down. The extra 0.92% %H= 149.13% % O = × 100 = 42. 4.12 × 100 = 8.97 = 30.01% is due to the fact that all four of these percentages were rounded up.12 1 P atom = 1 × 30.00 Formula weight for (N H4 )3 P O4 = 149.9% or 100.66% g When you add up all the percentages of elements.01 = 42.ck12.61 8.61 % sodium = g × 100 = 39.34% g g × 100 = 60.12 42.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas Empirical Formulas Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry 71 www. AlCl3 . That is.5.4 Lesson 15. the total is 100.03 30. you should get 100%. 15. N aOH. 5.12 %N= When the four percentages are added in this case.748 14. Exercises 1.12 149. 2. Determine Determine Determine Determine Determine the the the the the percent percent percent percent percent composition composition composition composition composition of of of of of N a2 SO4 .01 = 12. you get a total of 99.97 4 O atoms = 4 × 16.77% 149. Example: Calculate the percent composition of all the elements in (N H4 )3 P O4 .12 64.00 12.19% %P = × 100 = 20. although on many occasions. C6 H12 O6 . on occasion.

00 0. Step 2: The ratio of moles that we determined in step 1 is the correct ratio for the compound.77% nitrogen. the empirical formula is exactly the same as the actual molecular formula.00 0. moles F e = 0.org 72 .000240 mol 55. and 22. This is often accomplished by dividing each of the moles by the smallest of them.0134 grams of iron. the molecular formula is some multiple of the empirical formula. In other cases such as benzene. whose empirical formula is CH.78% carbon. Example 1: What is the empirical formula of a compound that contains 0.000719 moles O = = 3.439% hydrogen. such as CO2 .0115 g = 0.00769 grams of sulfur. and 0. the empirical formula for this compound is F eSO3 .00769 g moles S = = 0.0115 grams of oxygen? Step 1: Convert each of the masses into moles of atoms of that element.Name______________________ Date_________ Empirical formulas represent the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms that make up a compound. C6 H6 . This is accomplished by dividing the grams of each element by the atomic mass of the element.000240 0.1 g/mol 0.02% oxygen. Before we can write the formula. to write a formula in the form. We are not allowed.000240 O0.0134 g = 0.000719 mol moles O = 16. www. we must get the ratio into a simplest whole number ratio.000240 mol 32.000240 = 1. moles F e = 0. Empirical formulas can be determined either from the masses of the elements making up the compound or from the percent composition.00 moles S = 0. 2.000719 . In some cases.0 g/mol It is important to note that we are determining the number of moles of each atom that exists in the compound and therefore.8 g/mol 0. 26. however.000240 = 1. we use the atomic mass of a single atom of the element (not the diatomic molar mass).000240 Therefore. for the diatomic gases. 0. Example 2: Find the empirical formula of a compound that contains 48.000230 S0.000240 0. F e0.ck12.

625 2. take each percentage of the 100. This is usually an integer between 2 and 5 but could possible be a larger integer. grams H = 2. we then choose a multiplier with which to multiply each of the final numbers such that we do get a simple whole number ratio. grams to get grams for each element.02 g.00 Step 3: In a case. gram sample.02 g moles O = = 1.01 g/mol moles C = Step 2: Divide each of the moles by the smallest. moles H = 3. grams C = 48.01 g/mol 26.625 1.Solution: When the empirical formula is to be determined from percent composition.439 g grams O = 26. Exercises 73 www. moles N = 2 Therefore. it is easiest to assume a 100.77 g Step 1: 48. In this case. Using this technique.77 g moles N = = 1.626 moles O = 1.00 = 1.439 g moles H = = 2.org . grams N = 22. each of the percentages in the problem becomes the mass of the element in grams.062 1. such as this one.625 moles C = = 2.415 mols 1.ck12. moles O = 2.50 = 1.626 mols 16.625 1.00 g/mol 22.062 mols 12. and then proceed as in Example 1. 4. where step 2 does NOT produce a simple whole number ratio.78 g = 4. the empirical formula for this compound is C5 H3 O2 N2 .49 = 1.415 moles H = 1.625 moles N = 1.01 g/mol 2.78 g.625 mols 14. the multiplier is 2. moles C = 5.

A sample of a compound was found to contain 48. we get the multiplier 4. C4 H8 . C3 H6 .27586 g of oxygen.62069 g of carbon. CH2 × 4 = C4 H8 . Find the empirical formula for a compound that is 67. A sample of a compound was found to contain 0. Find the empirical formula for a compound that is 32.11% hydrogen. into the molar mass. we can determine the molecular formula by dividing the formula mass of CH2 into the molar mass to find the multiplier. Molecular formulas show the actual number of atoms of each element that make up the compound.org 74 . A compound has the empirical formula C2 OH4 and a molar mass of 88 g/mol.ck12.7 g/mol. The molecules C2 H4 . Therefore. 3. which would be CH. A compound has the empirical formula CF BrO and a molar mass of 254.24% oxygen. the multiplier is 6. If we have the empirical formula CH2 and the molar mass of 56 g/mol for a compound. the molecular formula for this compound is 4 times the empirical formula. A compound has the empirical formula C4 H4 O and a molar mass of 136 g/mol. The formula mass of CH2 is 14 g/mol. namely CH2 . 8. What is its molecular formula? www. g/mol? Solution: The formula mass of HCO2 is 45 g/mol.0% carbon and 25.65% carbon. Exercises 1.10345 g of hydrogen. we also need the molar mass of the compound. In the case of benzene.0% hydrogen. 0. 4.8% chromium and 67. and C5 H10 all have the same empirical formula. The empirical formula can be determined from either the masses of the elements in a compound or from percent composition.2% chlorine. The molecular formula will always be some whole number multiple of the empirical formula.1% zinc and the rest oxygen. and 43. Therefore. Find the empirical formula for a compound that is 75. g/mol yields a multiplier of 2. The molecular formula for benzene is C6 H6 but the empirical formula for benzene would be the simplest whole number ratio for these atoms. 2. Dividing 45 g/mol into 90. What is its molecular formula? 3. In order to determine the molecular formula. What is its molecular formula? 2.1. 14 g/mol. When we divide the formula mass. 56 g/mol. the molecular formula for this compound is 2 × CHO2 = H2 C2 O4 . What is the empirical formula? 5. Example: What is the molecular formula for a compound with the empirical formula HCO2 and a molar mass of 90. and 0. What is its empirical formula? Molecular Formulas Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Empirical formulas show the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of the elements that make up a compound.

75 www. 14. and 38.2 g/mol.5% oxygen.5% carbon. . CCBYSA.4. A compound is 47. Its molar mass is 166.308% carbon. What is its molecular formula? Image Sources (1) Richard Parsons.org . What is its molecular formula? 5.0% potassium. A compound is 7. Its molar mass is 104 g/mol.ck12.692% hydrogen and 93.

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ck12. 0)15 CO2 + (1. (1. 0)15 H2 O + (1.Chapter 16 Chemical Reactions Worksheets 16. 0)15 K3 P O4 + (1. 0)15 N2 O3 → (1. 0)15 CuCl + (1. 0)15 F e + (1. (1.1 Chemical Equations There are no worksheets for this lesson. 0)15 C2 H6 + (1. 0)15 N aOH + (1. 0)15 H2 S → (1. 0)15 C2 H5 OH + (1. (1. 0)15 O2 → (1. 0)15 HN O2 6. 0)15 H2 O 10. 0)15 KOH + (1. 0)15 H2 O 9.2 Balancing Equations Balancing Equations Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Balance the following equations by inserting the smallest whole number coefficients. (1. 0)15 N a + (1. (1. (1. 0)15 H2 3.1 Lesson 16. 0)15 O2 → (1. 0)15 Al(N O3 )3 + (1. 0)15 H3 P O4 → (1. 0)15 M gO 4. 0)15 HCl 2. Fe + H2 O → F e3 O4 + H2 7. 0)15 Cu2 S + (1. 0)15 P b 8. 0)15 F e2 O3 5.2 Lesson 16. 0)15 H2 O → (1. (1. 0)15 O2 → (1. 0)15 CO2 + (1. 0)15 P b(N O3 )2 → (1. 1.org . 16. (1. 0)15 Al + (1. 0)15 H2 O 77 www. 0)15 O2 → (1. 0)15 M g + (1. (1.

Types of Chemical Reactions 1. 0)15 SbCl3 + (1.11. there must be millions of different chemical reactions to form these compounds. Iron + oxygen yields iron (III) oxide. 0)15 Al(OH)3 + (1. Lead (II) nitrate + hydrogen sulfide yields lead (II) sulfide + nitric acid (HN O3 ). 0)15 CaCl2 + (1.org 78 .3 Types of Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions Worksheet There are millions of different compounds and therefore. 18. 0)15 Ca(OH)2 → (1. (1. 16. 0)15 N H4 Cl + (1. Some of the categories have different names in different books and you should become familiar with all the names. (1. Antimony + chlorine yields antimony (III) chloride. www. 20. 0)15 HCl 14. 0)15 H2 O Convert the following word equations into formula equations and then balance them. 0)15 O2 → (1. One popular system of classification for chemical reactions places them in five major categories. 0)15 H2 O 15. 0)15 CO2 + (1. Synthesis (also called Direct Combination) A synthesis reaction occurs when two or more substances combine to make a single. 0)15 H2 S → (1. 0)15 Al2 (SO4 )3 + (1. 0)15 H2 O 13. 16. (1.ck12. Aluminum + sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) yields aluminum sulfate + hydrogen gas. Sodium chlorate (N aClO3 ) yields sodium chloride + oxygen. The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as: A + B → AB Some examples of synthesis reactions are shown below. 0)15 N2 + (1. more complex substance. 19. (1. 0)15 N H3 12.3 Lesson 16. 0)15 C5 H12 + (1. 17. The reactants may be elements or compounds but the product will always be a compound. 0)15 H2 → (1. 0)15 N H3 + (1. (1. 0)15 H2 SO4 → (1. they tend to classify them into groups in order to make them easier to study and discuss. 0)15 Al2 S3 + (1. When chemists are confronted with an overwhelming number of things.

org . there are two or more substances in the reactants and only one substance as the product. 79 www.2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) CaO(s) + H2 O(L) → Ca(OH)2(s) You should note in each case above. This type of reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction. as shown by the general formula below: AB → A + B Some examples of decomposition reactions are shown below. C12 H22 O11(s) → 12 C(s) + 11 H2 O(g) P b(OH)2(s) → P bO(s) + H2 O(g) 2 Ag2 O(s) → 4 Ag(s) + O2(g) 3. Decomposition (also called Analysis) A decomposition reaction occurs when one substance is broken down into two or more simpler substances.ck12. The general form of this equation can be written as: A + BC → B + AC (positive ion replaced) Or A + BC → C + BA (negative ion replaced) In either case. a neutral element becomes as ion as it replaces another ion in a compound. 2. the equation is element + compound → element + compound. Some examples of single displacement reactions are shown below. Single Displacement (also called Single Replacement) In this type of reaction.

The basic form of the combustion reaction is shown below. AB + CD → CB + AD The reaction is Compound + Compound → Compound + Compound Some examples of double displacement reactions are shown below. Combustion When organic compounds are burned. 1. Double Displacement (also called Double Replacement and Metathesis) In this reaction type. CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) + CO2(g) 2 C2 H6(g) + 7 O2(g) → 6 H2 O(g) + 4 CO2(g) C3 H8(g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 H2 O(g) + 3 CO2(g) Exercises Fill in the reaction type on the line following the balanced equation.ck12. pairs of ionic compounds exchange partners. they react with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide and water. The basic form for this type of reaction is shown below.org 80 . AgN O3(aq) + N aCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + N aN O3(aq) ZnBr2(aq) + 2 AgN O3(aq) → Zn(N O3 )2(aq) + 2 AgBr(s) H2 SO4(aq) + 2 N aOH(aq) → N a2 SO4(aq) + 2 H2 O(L) 5. 3 N aBr + H3 P O4 → N a3 P O4 + 3 HBr _________________________ www.Zn(s) + H2 SO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) 2 Al(s) + 3 CuCl2(aq) → 2 AlCl2(aq) + 3 Cu(s) Cl2(g) + KBr(aq) → KCl(aq) + Br2(L) 4. hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water Some examples of combustion reactions are shown below.

4 C5 H9 O + 27 O2 → 20 CO2 + 18 H2 O _________________________ 10. H2 O + SO3 → H2 SO4 _________________________ 8.org . Li3 N + 3 N H4 N O3 → 3 LiN O3 + (N H4 )3 N _________________________ 81 www. 3 Ca(OH)2 + Al2 (SO4 )3 → 3 CaSO4 + 2 Al(OH)3 _________________________ 3. 2 P bSO4 → 2 P bSO3 + O2 _________________________ 6. 2 N H3 + H2 SO4 → (N H4 )2 SO4 _________________________ 9. 3 M g + F e2 O3 → 2 F e + 3 M gO _________________________ 4.ck12. 2 N H3 + 3 I2 → N2 I6 + 3 H2 _________________________ 7. C2 H4 + 3O2 → 2 CO2 + 2 H2 O _________________________ 5.2.

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0.1 The Mole Concept and Equations There are no worksheets for this lesson. According to the following balanced equation.Chapter 17 Mathematics and Chemical Equations Worksheets 17.2 Mass-Mass Calculations Stoichiometry Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. None of these. 0.263 moles D.org . 0. 0.0 moles of potassium chlorate. 2. How many moles are present in 58.1 Lesson 17. KClO3 ? 83 www.158 moles C. 17.ck12.6 grams of lead (II) oxide? A. how many moles of oxygen can be produced by the complete reaction of 10.113 moles B.300 moles E.2 Lesson 17.

4. 5. grams of KClO3 ? A.816 moles D. 0)15 H2 + (1.0 moles D. If hydrogen is completely reacted with oxygen and produces 180.67 moles C. 0. 3. Using the balanced equation.ck12. 0)15 H2 O A. None of these. 0)15 O2 → (1.00 moles E.22 moles E.544 moles C.600 moles E. Balance the following equation and determine how many moles of water will be produced by the complete reaction of 0. 4.80 moles B. 15. how many moles of O2 can be produced by the complete reaction of 100. 1. 0)15 Al2 (SO4 )3 + (1.org 84 . None of these. 0. 2. (1. 0)15 H2 SO4 → (1.2 KClO3 → 2 KCl + 3 O2 A. how many grams of hydrogen was consumed? The following equation for the reaction is not yet balanced. 0. 0. 0. 10.02 g www. 0)15 Al(OH)3 + (1. 2 KClO3 → 2 KCl + 3 O2 .0 moles D.600 moles of aluminum hydroxide? (1. grams of water.200 moles C. 1.0 moles B. 6. 0)15 H2 O A. None of these. 20.326 moles B.

B. 180. 6. 8. 121 g C. 3.35 grams of calcium oxide. iron (III) oxide and carbon solid reacted to produce iron metal and carbon monoxide.70 g B. as yet unbalanced.1 g D. when burned in oxygen gas are required to produce 272 grams of carbon dioxide? The other product is water. g D. 0)15 Ca + (1. How many grams of calcium can be produced by the complete reaction of 9. 88.org . according to following.34 g C. How many grams of bromine gas would be liberated when 25. grams of carbon monoxide? A. 7. 136 g B. equation? (1. How many grams of iron (III) oxide are required to produce 150. 480. 94. 0)15 C → (1.4 g D. 10. 160. 20.19 g E. g B. In a particular reaction. 0)15 CO2 A. A. 0)15 CaO + (1.2 g 9. How many grams of octane. None of these. g 6. 12. 286 g D.0 g E.ck12. 90.6 g E. 7.0 grams of gallium bromide were heated and decomposed to form gallium metal and bromine gas? 85 www.2 g C. 222 g C. None of these. 100. g E. C8 H18 .

21. 16. copper (II) nitrate D. How many grams of calcium hydroxide will be formed in the following reaction when 4. 0)15 Ag A. what is the limiting reactant? (The equation is not yet balanced. 1240 g B.) www. 17.77 g of water are available to react? (The equation is not yet balanced. None of these. 0)15 AgN O3 → (1.5 moles of copper and 5.) (1.1 g E.4 g B.3 Limiting Reactant Limiting Reactant Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.ck12. 27.44 g of calcium oxide and 7.5 moles of silver nitrate are available to react in the following equation. 10.8 g D. 0)15 Cu(N O3 )2 + (1. 0)15 Cu + (1. copper B. 2. How many grams of barium carbonate will be formed? A. If 2.A.4 g C. g of potassium carbonate react completely with barium phosphate to produce potassium phosphate and barium carbonate.org 86 . 19. None of these. 1680 g C.3 Lesson 17. None of these. 2000. 2860 g E. silver nitrate C. silver E. 2220 g D.

5. 0.540 g D. 12. 0. 16. A.00 grams of nitric acid. 15.695 g B. 7.77 g C.00 grams of magnesium with 18. 4.183 g B. 11.11 g E.86 g D.ck12. 4. None of these. 0. 0. None of these.30 g of S and 10. Write the balance equation for the reaction and determine how many grams of hydrogen gas will be formed from the reaction of 3. 0)15 CaO + (1. 3.7 g C. None of these.9 g E.org . 0.(1. 0)15 Ca(OH)2 A. 13.0500 gram comes into contact with 0. Some of the acid in acid rain is produced from the following reaction: 3 N O2 + H2 O → N O + 2 HN O3 A falling raindrop with a mass of 0. A.2 g B.250 g 87 www. What mass of HN O3 can be produced? A.0 g of O2 are available for reaction.2 g D. Magnesium undergoes a single replacement reaction with nitric acid. HN O3 .3 g B.572 g C. 0. Write the balanced equation for the reaction and determine how many grams of sulfur trioxide will be produced when 6.492 g E. 0)15 H2 O → (1. 5. Sulfur reacts with oxygen gas to produce sulfur trioxide.200 gram of N O2 .

3 Si + 2 N2 → Si3 N4 www. what is the percent yield? 2.146 g E. 0.0 g of Al is combined with 401 g of HBr.ck12. None of these. 12.0388 g C.4 Percent Yield Percent Yield Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. None of these. 2 H2 + CO → CH3 OH Assume CO is the limiting reactant and 2. Consider the following reaction: 2 Al + 6 HBr → 2 AlBr3 + 3 H2 .4 g E. In problem #5. 17. how many grams of H2 are formed? A.00 mols of CO are used in the reaction. 7.01 g C.0415 g B.780 mols of CH3 OH are produced by the reaction. Methanol.350 g D.4 Lesson 17. 6. how many grams of the excess reactant remains after the reaction? A.89 g B.0239 g E.11 g D.C. When 87. None of these. 0. 3. 0. 0.org 88 . CH3 OH can be produced by the following reaction. If 0. 0. 7.0264 g D. 0. Consider the following reaction. 5.

What is the theoretical yield of H2 SO4 if 100. If the actual yield of SO2 is 25. g of H2 SO4 . If 20. How many moles of SO2 are formed? C. Part of the SO2 that is introduced into the atmosphere by the combustion of sulfur containing compounds ends up being converted to sulfuric acid. 2 SO2 + O2 + 2 H2 O → 2 H2 SO4 A. what is the limiting reactant? B.org . what is the percent yield? 17.92 mols of Si3 N4 are actually produced. what is the percent yield? 3. 89 www.0 moles of F eS2 react with 60. Consider the reaction: 4 F eS2 + 11 O2 → 2 F e2 O3 + 8 SO2 A.A. How many moles of the reactant in excess will be left over at the end of the reaction? D.5 Energy Calculations There are no worksheets for this lesson. If the actual yield from the reaction in A is 100. H2 SO4 by the following reaction. what is the percent yield? 4.5 Lesson 17. g of SO2 is completely consumed? B.0 moles of O2 .ck12.0 moles. If 5.45 mols of Si are reacted with excess N2 ? B. What is the theoretical yield of Si3 N4 from this reaction when 21.

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Molecules of different substances move at different velocities when they are the same temperature. _______ 3.2 Lesson 18. 18. Molecules of the same substance move at the same velocity when they are 91 www.3 Lesson 18. _______ 4.org . _______ 2.3 Gases and Pressure Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ True or False _______ 1. The volume of a gas is the sum of the volumes of the individual molecules. The mass of a gas is the sum of the masses of the individual molecules.ck12.1 Lesson 18.Chapter 18 The Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheets 18. 18.1 The Three States of Matter There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Gases There are no worksheets for this lesson.

Molecules are in motion at all temperatures above absolute zero. A liquid has its own shape and volume regardless of the container. In which of the following gas samples will the molecules be moving the fastest? A. CO2 www. Smaller mass molecules move with greater velocity than larger mass molecules at the same temperature. All molecules at the same temperature have the same velocity. CO2 D. _______ 7. _______ 5. H2 C.ck12. 14. _______ 6. _______ 11. Multiple Choice 13. O2 B. Molecules of liquid water and molecules of solid water (ice) at the same temperature have the same velocity. All molecules at the temperature has the same average kinetic energy. For the same situation as in problem 13. at the same temperature. _______ 9. N2 E. _______ 12. H2 C. in which of the gas samples will the molecules be moving the slowest? A.org 92 . _______ 8. exert different amounts of force when they collide with the walls of their container. Gases are more compressible than solids and liquids because they have more space between the molecules. _______10.at the same temperature. Molecules of different substances (different mass). O2 B. all at the same temperature. Four different flasks of the same size contain four different gases. They will all have the same velocity.

In which flask will the pressure be the highest? A. Flask 4 E. If the volume is doubled at constant pressure. N2 E. Flask 3 D.D. If the temperature is increased to 4T. Flask 2 C. unable to determine without more information 2. what change will occur in the temperature? A. the temperature will be doubled D. An ideal gas is sealed in a container at constant volume. The pressure will be the same in all the flasks. what would happen to the pressure? 93 www. They will all have the same velocity. An ideal gas is contained in a volume V at temperature T. Each of the flasks shown below contain the same number of molecules at the same temperature. the temperature will be unchanged B.ck12.4 Gas Laws Combined Gas Laws Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1. 15.4 Lesson 18. 18.org . the temperature will be halved C. Flask 1 B.

it increases by a factor of 16 4. 83. 27 K B. 116 mL C. mL B.0o C.00 atm. it increases by a factor of 8 E. mm of Hg pressure and 27. 6.org 94 . 300. 100.ck12. what change occurs in the kinetic energy of the gas? A. E. it remains constant B.A. None of these. K C. it increases by a factor of 4 D. What volume will this sample occupy under standard conditions? A. If the temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 300 K to 1200 K.00 atm? A. unchanged B. it increases by a factor of 2 C. 100. K D. increased to 4P C. mL at 1520 T orr and 323 K.0 L www. None of these. A sample of gas occupies 100. K. mm of Hg pressure? A.0o C and 380. 833 L D.3 L C. cannot be determined from this data 5. decreased to ¼ P D. 232 mL D.0 liters of oxygen gas is held at 3800. A sample of gas is held at constant volume. unable to determine without more information 3. 8. 50. When the temperature of the gas is 100. the pressure is 1.33 L B. What volume will this gas occupy if it is at −23. What must the temperature become in order for the pressure to become 3. 169 mL E. 10.

ck12. what is the final temperature? 18.0 L and a pressure of 2660 torr is reached.00 L of hydrogen. what would the pressure become if the amount of gas is doubled. What must the temperature be if the volume is to be 1400. the volume decreased to half.0 atm D.00 atm at 27.0 mL of nitrogen gas at STP is heated to 80.0 liter container to 5. What is the new temperature? 9. 8.5o C and 1825 mm of Hg.0o C and the volume increases to 4. What is the new pressure? 10. None of these.00 atm as the volume of the container is increased from 85. The pressure of a gas is reduced from 1. How many moles of gas are required to fill a 1. originally at 25. If the original temperature was 363 K.0 atm B.0 atm E.0 mL to 350.5 Universal Gas Law Universal Gas Law Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1. and the absolute temperature quadrupled? A. Given a sample of gas at 1. 682 K C.5 Lesson 18. 16 atm 3. Determine the temperature at which the gas will occupy 4.0 atm C. 955 K D. 0 K E. 1. 7.250 mol of methane gas.53 L. 2.25 liters at 24. 73. mL. 8.25 liters at 1140 mm of Hg.E. 409 K B. 4.0o C? 95 www. mL? A. 10.0 atm of pressure is applied to 0. torr are heated until a volume of 20.0 atm pressure.0o C and 750. None of these.org . 2. 2. A gas sample occupies 3.50 atm to 1.

the temperature must be doubled C. If 2. 714 g E. g D.2 g/mol D. 357 g C.0 more moles of gas are added to the cylinder. the temperature must halved D. g/mol E.0o C and 0.38 mols E. insufficient data to determine 5. 164 g/mol 7. 61.2 g/mol E. 80. 22.o C? A.13 mols B. 0.org 96 . what must happen to the temperature? A.00 atm and 100. 0.ck12. 77.A.0 moles of an ideal gas is held at constant volume and constant temperature. What is the molar mass of this gas? A.0 g/mol B. 32.29 mols D.15 atm has a mass of 10. 0.20 mols C.0 g/mol C. 560. 0. L of Br2 gas under standard conditions? A.500 g of it occupies 0. g/mol D. What is the molar mass of a gas if 0. 4.0 liters of a gas at 27. 100. insufficient data to determine www. g/mol C. 10. What is the mass of 100. the temperature will be unchanged B.4 g B.250 L at 1. 40. A cylinder with 2. None of these.0 g. 44. 120. g/mol B. 104 g/mol 6.

Each of the flasks shown above contains the same number of gas molecules at the same temperature. In which flask would the pressure be lowest? A.8. Flask 4 E. Flask 2 C. Flask 3 D. Flask 1 B. All four flasks would have the same pressure.ck12. 9. Each of the flasks shown above contains the same number of gas molecules.org . Flask 4 E. Flask 2 C. All four flasks would have the same pressure. In which flask would the pressure be lowest? A. 10. 97 www. Flask 3 D. Flask 1 B.

Flask 3 D. How many moles of oxygen gas are in the cylinder? 3. Flask 1 B.ck12. 18.50 L at STP.6 Molar Volume Molar Volume and Partial Pressure Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ Molar Volume 1.6 Lesson 18.org 98 . The total pressure in the flask is 1. Calculate the number of moles contained in 6. If the gas were released from the cylinder at STP. A cylinder contains 15. What is the partial pressure of the nitrogen gas? www. Flask 4 E.85 moles of N2 gas at STP.40 mol of oxygen gas. at the same temperature. A flask contains only 0. The molecular velocity would be the same in all flasks. Flask 2 C. and contain the same number of molecules. What is the volume of the cylinder in liters? 4.35 mols of Cl2 are compressed in a cylinder at 5. What volume would a 200.00 atm. 2. gram sample of hydrogen sulfide gas occupy at STP? Partial Pressure 1.00 atm.If all the flasks above are the same size.50 L of sulfur dioxide at STP. 12. in which flask will the molecules be moving slowest? A. what volume would the gas occupy? 5.10 mol of nitrogen gas and 0. A cylinder of O2 gas contains a volume of 60.

50 liters of carbon dioxide? 2.84 atm. What is the partial pressure of the H2 gas? 3.6 kP a.2.7 Lesson 18.00 atm pressure and 0o C to form carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. C2 H4(g) + 3 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2 O(g) How many liters of water vapor can be formed if 1. how many liters of chlorine are needed to produce 75.00 g of H2 gas is placed in a flask with 1. and 88. Ethene burns in oxygen at 1.7 Stoichiometry Involving Gases Stoichiometry Involving Gases Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1. 1. g of O2 . The pressure of the hydrogen and water vapor mixture is 78. What volume of oxygen gas would react with 35. torr.1. What is the partial pressure of the dry hydrogen gas? 5. 1. The total pressure in the flask is 500. When chlorine is added ethyne. The total pressure in the flask is 900.2. K to form carbon dioxide and water. What is the partial pressure of each gas in the flask? 18. What is the partial pressure of the argon? 4.0 g of CO2 . A 500.ck12. A mixture of neon and argon gases exert a total pressure of 2.org . A flask contains 320. according to the equation below? 99 www. C2 H2(g) + 2 Cl2(g) → C2 H2 Cl4(L) If this reaction occurs at 2.0 mL of hydrogen gas at STP. 320. g of N2 .25 L of ethane are consumed? 3.39 atm. The partial pressure of the neon alone is 1. CaCO3(s) → CO2(g) + CaO(s) How many grams of calcium carbonate is needed to produce 3.00 g of He gas.o C. Calcium carbonate decomposes at 1.2-tetrachloroethane is formed.00 atm and 500. kP a. mL sample of hydrogen gas is collected over water at 27o C.5 kP a and the vapor pressure of water at 27o C is 3.00 atm pressure and 100.0 g of C2 H2 Cl4 ? 4.

When 5. how many liters of ammonia can be formed from 15. K and a pressure of 1.00 L of propane gas is completely combusted to from carbon dioxide and water vapor at a temperature of 600.5 L of sulfur trioxide. according to the equation below. If all gases are measured under the same conditions. will undergo complete combustion with 34.20 atm.org 100 . N2 + 3 H2 → 2 N H3 Ammonia is formed by the synthesis of hydrogen and nitrogen as shown in the equation above. if both gases are measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure? 7. forming carbon dioxide and water. What volume of oxygen is needed to react with solid sulfur to form 2. C3 H8 .0 L of hydrogen gas? www. if all gases are measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. what mass of water vapor will be formed? 8.ck12.2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) 5. 2 S(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 SO3(g) 6. How many liters of propane gas.0 L of oxygen gas.

2 Lesson 19.2 Forces of Attraction There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 19.3 Vapor Pressure There are no worksheets for this lesson. 19.5 Lesson 19.5 Heat of Vaporization There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Boiling Point There are no worksheets for this lesson. 101 www. 19.ck12.1 The Properties of Liquids There are no worksheets for this lesson.Chapter 19 The Liquid State Worksheets 19.org . 19. 19.4 Lesson 19.3 Lesson 19.

ck12.org 102 .www.

but light and electricity are also possible. gas). this energy gain or loss occurs in the form of heat.00◦ C. A sample of matter will contain kinetic energy due to the motion of its molecules. It requires 4. When two objects come into contact with each other.2 Melting Heat Transfer Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Temperature is defined as the average kinetic energy of all the molecules in a body. it may increase the temperature of the object.org .1 Lesson 20.Chapter 20 The Solid State Worksheets-HSC 20. which means it increases 103 www.18 Joules of energy to raise the temperature of 1. 20. 2. In most cases. it produces one or both of the following effects: 1.1 The Molecular Arrangement in Solids Controls Solid Characteristics There are no worksheets for this lesson.ck12. which means it increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules or. while heat is defined as the total kinetic energy of all the molecules in a body. heat always flows from the one with higher temperature to the one with lower temperature.2 Lesson 20. Every chemical change and many physical changes involve the gain or loss of energy. liquid. When heat energy is added to a substance. Heat gains and losses are measured in units called Joules. This transfer of KE is accomplished by the collision of molecules and continues until the two objects are at the same temperature. it may cause a phase change in that substance. and it also contains potential energy due to its phase (solid.00 gram of water by 1.

ck12.40 J/g ·◦ C 2.18 J/g ·◦ C. Cu Gold. the average distance between the molecules changes and this requires an input or output of potential energy.18 J/g ·◦ C Energy is also absorbed or given off by substances when they undergo a phase change. 320 J/g 841 J/g 104 . The quantity of heat 1. the energy that must be absorbed is called heat of melting. H2 O Specific Heat 0. Like specific heat.the potential energy of the substance. Al Copper. Table 20.00 gram of the substance must absorb to raise its temperature by 1. Heat of Vaporization. gas condensing to liquid. This means that 1. Au Silver. When a substance changes from solid to liquid. Different substances have a different amount of increase in temperature when they absorb the same amount of energy. gives off exactly the same amount of energy but for this phase change.00 gram of water requires 4. C2 H5 OH www. the amount of energy is known as the heat of fusion. gives off the same amount of potential energy but it is called the heat of condensation.900 J/g ·◦ C 0. Ag Ethanol. The phase change from liquid to gas requires an input of the heat of vaporization.org Specific Heat 0. The specific heat of water is 4. The energy gained or lost during a phase change is potential energy. This energy gain or loss does not change the temperature of the substance. The reverse process.5 J/g 111 J/g 109 J/g Fusion. 900 J/g 5. is often used for specific heat. Table 20. Cu Gold. 069 J/g 1. The specific heats of most substances are considerably less than that of water. C.126 J/g ·◦ C 0. 578 J/g 2. J/g 205 J/g 64. ∆Hvap 10. each substance has its own heat of melting and heat of vaporization.235 J/g ·◦ C 2. When substances undergo a phase change.2: Thermodynamic Data of Various Substances Substance Aluminum. The symbol. C2 H5 OH Butane. C4 H10 Water.386 J/g ·◦ C 0.00◦ C is called the specific heat of the substance. The reverse process. When heat is absorbed by a substance as kinetic energy.386 J/g ·◦ C 0. Au Silver.18 J of heat to raise its temperature by 1.1: Specific Heat of Various Substances Substance Aluminum.235 J/g ·◦ C 2.40 J/g ·◦ C Heat of ∆Hf usion 400. Al Copper.34 J/g ·◦ C 4.126 J/g ·◦ C 0. the temperature of the substance increases because temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance. changing from liquid to solid. Ag Ethanol.900 J/g ·◦ C 0.00◦ C.

5 g)(4. the temperature of the liquid water will be raised to the boiling point. 260 J/g The energy absorbed or given off by a substance during a temperature change (with no phase change) can be calculated with the equation. Q = mC∆t. the temperature of the ice will be raised to the melting point. 3. the solid water will go through five processes. Example: If 4490 J of heat are added to 50.0◦ C. 3.Table 20.2◦ C? Solution: Q = mC∆t = (52.ck12.34 J/g ·◦ C 4. where Q is the amount of heat in Joules. 2. Heat of Vaporization. m is the mass in grams. J/g) = 7080 J When heat is added to a substance such that the substance undergoes both a temperature change and a phase change. m is the mass of the substance in grams.0 g)(0.18 J/g ·◦ C)(44. For example. C is the specific heat. ∆Hvap 385 J/g 2. and ∆t is the temperature change. the temperature of the gaseous water will be raised to the final temperature.5 g of water cools from 67.7 grams of solid aluminum at its normal melting point with no temperature change? Solution: Q = m∆Hf usion = (17. 105 www.7 g)(400.5◦ C to 23. To do calculations for this entire process. the problem is solved separately for each process.3◦ C) = 9720 J The specific heat is taken from the table above and the units cancel appropriately to yield Joules.0 g of solid silver at 25. if sufficient heat is added to solid water (ice) at −20◦ C to raise the temperature and cause the necessary phase changes.18 J/g ·◦ C Heat of ∆Hf usion 80.235 J/g ·◦ C) Final temperature = initial temperature + ∆t = 25◦ C + 382◦ C = 407◦ C The energy absorbed or given off by a substance during a phase change (with no temperature change) can be calculated with the equations. the liquid will be vaporized. what would the final temperature be? Solution: Q = mC∆t so ∆t = Q mC ∆t = Q 4490 J = = 382◦ C mC (50. and ∆Hf usion or ∆Hvap is the heat of fusion or vaporization. where Q is the amount of heat in Joules. the solid water will be melted.1 J/g 334 J/g Fusion. Example: How many Joules are given off when 52. and 5. Q = m∆Hf usion or Q = m∆Hvap .org .2: (continued) Substance Butane. many bits of thermodynamic data will be required. Example: How many Joules are required to melt 17. H2 O Specific Heat 2. 1. C4 H10 Water.

Q = mC∆t = (100. specific heat of liquid iron = 0. The necessary thermodynamic data are: melting point of iron = 1540.00 g of ice at −50. g)(0. g of iron at 25. specific heat of solid iron = 0. 000 J + 35. the heat of vaporization.◦ C) to the final temperature (2000. 000 J Step 3: Heat the liquid iron from the melting point (1540. the specific heat of liquid water.◦ C.01 J/g ·◦ C Melting Point = 0◦ C Boiling Point = 100. Solution: Step 1: Heat the solid iron from 25. 600 J = 131.0◦ C to liquid iron at 2000. the heat of fusion for water. 200 J Step 2: Melt the solid iron to liquid. g)(0. 400 J Step 4: Add up the heat added for each step to get the total. heat of fusion of iron = 280. 400 J = 131.450 J/g ·◦ C.770 J/g ·◦ C.18 J/g ·◦ C Cwater vapor = 2.6 kJ = 132 kJ Example: Calculate the heat necessary to raise 40. and the specific heat of gaseous water.0◦ C to its melting point at 1540.◦ C (∆t = 1515◦ C). Necessary Thermodynamic Data • • • • • Cice = 2.0◦ C.09 J/g ·◦ C Cwater = 4. Q = mC∆t = (100.770 J/g ·◦ C)(460◦ C) = 35.◦ C.◦ C. J/g) = 28.450 J/g ·◦ C)(1515◦ C) = 68.◦ C) ∆t = 460.org 106 .◦ C www. 200 J + 28. Q = m∆Hf usion = (100.We would need to know the specific heat of solid water (not the same as liquid water).ck12. g)(280. J/g.0◦ C to water vapor at 180. QT OT AL = 68. Example: Calculate the heat necessary to raise 100.

00 g)(2260 J/g) = 90.• ∆Hf usion = 334 J/g • ∆Hvap = 2260 J/g Solution: Step 1: Raise the temperature of the ice from −50.0◦ C to the melting point 0◦ C.org . 400 J Step 5: Raise the temperature of the gaseous water from the b.00 g)(4. 720 J Step 4: Vaporize the liquid water. to the final temperature (∆t = 100.00◦ C) = 4.p. to the b.◦ C).ck12. Q = m(∆H)f usion = (40. Q = mC∆t = (40.◦ C) = 16. Q = mC∆t = (40.p.◦ C).00 g)(334 J/g) = 13.p. (∆t = 100. 180 J Step 2: Melt the ice to liquid water. Q = m∆Hvap = (40. 107 www.◦ C) = 6. Q = mC∆t = (40. 000 J = 131 kJ Questions and Exercises The thermodynamic data necessary for these problems can be found in the preceding pages.18 J/g ·◦ C)(100. QT OT AL = 4180 + 13360 + 16720 + 90400 + 6400 = 131. 400 J Step 6: Add up the results of each step.00 g)(2.00 g)(2.09 J/g ·◦ C)(50. 360 J Step 3: Raise the temperature of the liquid water from the m.01 J/g ·◦ C)(80.

ck12.1.0◦ C Boiling Point = 690. what will its final temperature be? 5. What does the temperature of an object actually measure? 6.0◦ C is warmed to liquid water at 42. a quantity of water to absorb from or give up to the heat from the reaction. At what temperature do molecules have zero kinetic energy? 7.0◦ C to 880. Describe a situation where heat can enter a body without causing an increase in temperature? 8.8 g of solid gold are cooled from 80. 000. J of heat.167 J/g ·◦ C Melting Point = 29. g of water at 25. Calculate the amount of heat necessary to raise 45. How many Joules of heat must be added to 5000. What happens when two objects at different temperatures are brought into contact? 3. Assuming no phase change occurs. it is likely that the water touching the vessel would be warmer or colder than the remainder of the water. a thermometer to accurately measure the temperature of the water.5◦ C? 11. Since the heat will come out of or go into the reaction vessel. The calorimeter has an insulated container to eliminate heat exchange with the outside.◦ C? 4.0◦ C ∆Hf usion = 16. what happens to the temperature of a substance when it absorbs heat? 2. The www.◦ C to 80.org 108 .0 g of cesium metal from 24. How much heat is needed to melt 25. g of water to change its temperature from 20. and a stirring rod to assure that all the water is the same temperature. The basic idea of a calorimeter is sketched below.5 g of ice at −10.251 J/g ·◦ C Cliquid Cs = 0.3 J/g ∆Hvap = 669 J/g Calorimetry Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The laboratory process for measuring the amount of heat gained or during a chemical reaction or other energy exchange involves the use of an instrument called a calorimeter. Use the data given below.0◦ C. Necessary Thermodynamic Data • • • • • • • Csolid Cs = 0. If 500.0 g of silver at its normal melting point? 10.209 J/g ·◦ C Cgaseous Cs = 0.◦ C loses 10. How much heat is absorbed when 24. a reaction vessel where the reaction to be measured will occur. How much heat is released when 44.◦ C to 62◦ C? 9.

calorie. and measures the maximum or minimum temperature the water reaches after the reaction. For a less precise calorimeter. measures the temperature of the water before the reaction begins. ignoring the small amount of absorbed by other components. and that is the heat input or output by the reaction. the scientist assumes all the heat added to the calorimeter is absorbed by the water. The old unit calorie is equal to 4. To use a calorimeter of the less precise type. the scientist can then calculate the amount of heat that the water absorbed or gave off. and the inside walls of the calorimeter. Even though chemists don’t use the calorie unit anymore. When scientists decided to use the same units in all branches of science. Example: How much heat was absorbed by 1000.ck12. knowing the amount of water and the temperature change of the water. chemists changed their unit for heat (and all other forms of energy) from calories to Joules. The equation used to calculate the change in heat content of the water is the same one used before. the scientist can determine exactly how much heat is required to raise the temperature of the calorimeter by 1.18 Joules.org . the words calorimeter and calorimetry remain with us. Extremely accurate calorimeters are calibrated before each use. Since it is assumed that all the heat absorbed or given off by the reaction went into the water. The words calorimeter (the name of the instrument) and calorimetry (the name of the process) came from the unit. This allows the scientist to measure not only the heat absorbed by the water in the calorimeter but also the heat absorbed by the reaction vessel. At an earlier time.00◦ C. namely Q = mC∆t. g of water in a calorimeter if the temper- 109 www. the scientist measures the amount of water inside very carefully. A precisely known amount of heat is added to the calorimeter and the temperature change is noted. the stirrer.Figure 20. the thermometer. the unit chemists used to measure heat was the calorie. In this way.1 stirring rod is used to keep the water circulating and thus all the water will be the same temperature.

org 110 .8◦ C? Solution: Q = mC∆t = (1000 . g)(4. Therefore. 000 J = 89 kJ Example: How much heat was absorbed by 500. g of water in a calorimeter if the water temperature changed from 25. mwater Cwater ∆twater = −mbrass Cbrass ∆tbrass The negative sign on the brass side of the equation is present because the heat is being gained by the water and lost by the brass.18 J/g ·◦ C)(−7.0◦ C and into it we place a 100. so the reaction was endothermic. the final temperature of the water and the piece of brass are 27. the ∆t for the water will be positive but the ∆t for the brass will be negative.3◦ C) = 89.2◦ C? Solution: Q = mC∆t = mC(t2 − t1 ) = (500.) The amount of heat lost by the brass will equal the amount of heat gained by the water.18 J/g ·◦ C)(17.2◦ C − 25. The heat calculated on the two sides of the equation can only be equal if we change the sign of one of them.0◦ C. When a trainload of coal is delivered. When coal is purchased by users from producers.0◦ C to 17. We use a calorimeter containing 250. g)(4.8◦ C) = −16. 300 J = −16.18 J/g ·◦ C)(27. g piece of brass whose temperature we have raised to 91. When the heat transfer is complete. g of water at 25. such as finding the specific heat of substances.0◦ C) Q = (500.0◦ C) = −(100.ck12. g)(x J/g ·◦ C)(27.3◦ C. Physicists use calorimeters to determine the specific heat of substances.0◦ C).18 J/g ·◦ C)(21.g)(4. the heat value of fuels. g)(4. www. (Since they are in contact. We can use the following equation to find the specific heat of the brass.ature of the water was raised from 23.5◦ C to 44.3◦ C − 91. there is a scientist on hand to take samples of the coal and burn them in a calorimeter to determine the average Joules/gram of heat produced by that particular load of coal and the price is adjusted accordingly. Coal mined in different areas is of different quality. Substituting from the problem yields (250. the price paid is based not only on the mass of coal purchased but also on the amount of heat produced by burning a unit quantity of the coal. they must eventually reach the same temperature. Suppose we wished to determine the specific heat of brass.3 kJ The negative sign of this result indicates the water in the calorimeter lost heat to the reaction. Calorimeters are used by scientists to measure many types of heat exchanges.3◦ C − 25. and the heat of chemical reactions.

. We use 4. Solution: We can calculate the heat absorbed by the water in the calorimeter in the usual way. we know this is an exothermic reaction and therefore.ck12. Since the temperature of the water in the calorimeter increased. HCl + N aOH → N aCl + H2 O. required by the definition of ∆H.27 kJ We can then calculate the ∆H for the reaction by dividing the heat transferred to the water in the calorimeter by the moles of water produced during the reaction.0◦ C) = 6. For the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. −∆Q −6. We can use the following equation. ∆H. It is also standard to express the ∆H for an endothermic reaction as a positive number (the reaction is gaining energy) and the ∆H for an exothermic reaction as a negative number (the reaction is losing energy).100 mole of H2 O. That means the N aOH will be the limiting reactant. the amount of materials necessary to produce one mole of water would be too large for the calorimeter. g of water in the calorimeter and the temperature change during the reaction is from 22.100 mol ∆H = Exercises 1.00 g of N aOH is 0.18 J/g ·◦ C)(6. What is the heat content of this coal in J/g? 111 www. for a chemical reaction is commonly expressed in J/mole or kJ/mole of product.377 J/g ·◦ C The heat of reaction. Calculate the the heat of reaction for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.0◦ C to 22. 2.00 g of water when its temperature changes from 20. Therefore. g)(4. 270J = 6.7 kJ/mol moles product 0. Q = (250.4◦ C to 28. we use a fraction of a mole and calculate what the heat transfer would have been for an entire mole. g of water in calorimeter form 22. That is. We use 250.org .00 g of N aOH with excess HCl solution. Example: Suppose we carry out the above reaction in a calorimeter. .0◦ C to 68.38 g sample of coal is burned in a calorimeter and raises the temperature of 1000. x = 0. What was the heat transfer if 800.Solving for x yields. we provide for making the ∆H a negative value .8◦ C. g of water in a calorimeter underwent a temperature change from 25.27 kJ = = −62. The 4.100 mole and will produce 0. A 7. How much heat is absorbed by 1.0◦ C to 25. we can’t actually use molar quantities of these materials.0◦ C? 3.4◦ C.0◦ C.

suppose you had carried out exactly this same reaction except that you had used a calorimeter than container 250.3 Types of Forces of Attraction for Solids There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 20.4.ck12. The calorimeter contained 800. g of water.org 112 .4 Phase Diagrams There are no worksheets for this lesson. www. was carried out in a calorimeter. .6◦ C. What would the temperature change have been? Give a reason that this reaction wouldn’t be carried out with 250.0 g of magnesium oxide. 20. A reaction that formed 10. g of water instead of 800. Using the ∆H you found in problem #4. What was the ∆H for this reaction in kJ/mol? 5. M gO.3 Lesson 20. g of water. 20. CCBYSA. Image Sources (1) Richard Parsons. g of water and the temperature of the water increased 44.

3 Solution Terminology There are no worksheets for this lesson. 21.1 The Solution Process There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 21.org .4 Lesson 21. percent by mass = mass of solute × 100 mass of solution 113 www.2 Why Solutions Occur There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Lesson 21.1 Lesson 21.ck12. 21.Chapter 21 The Solution Process Worksheets 21. 21.4 Measuring Concentration Concentration by Percent Mass Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The definition of percent mass concentration is the ratio of the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the solution and multiplied by 100 to convert to a percentage.

926 g/mL. How many grams of M gF2 are present in 100. www.Example: What is the percent concentration by mass of a solution formed by dissolving 100. The density of pure water is 1. A 35. The density of the solution is 0.10)(119 grams) = 11. How many grams of phosphoric acid are present in 300.0 grams of AgN O3 are dissolved in 275 grams of water.0 grams of N aOH in 750.0 grams of water. mL)(1.0 g of a 20.9 grams Exercises 1.19 g/mL.4% solution of H3 P O4 in water has a density of 1. A solution is prepared by dissolving 66.0% Example: If the density of a 10. C2 H5 OH.0% of the mass of the solution to get the mass of the potassium nitrate.0% by mass solution of N aOH in water is 1.20 g/mL. in 146. C3 H6 O. What is the percent concentration of acetone by mass? 7.ck12. in 100. mL of water? 6. grams of solution = (100.0 grams of acetone.0% M gF2 in water solution? 3. mL of solution and then take 10. how many grams of KN O3 are present in 100. grams of ethanol. g × 100 = 50. mL of this solution? Mole Fraction and Molality Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Mole Fraction The definition of mole fraction is the ratio of the moles of solute divided by the total moles of the solution. mL of the solution? Solution: We can multiply the volume times the density to the mass of the 100. mL of this solution? 5. How many grams of water are present in the solution in question #2? 4. g 200.0% by mass KN O3 solution in water is 1. What is the concentration gy percent mass of a solution prepared by dissolving 85.00 g/mL.33 g/mL. The density of a 30. grams of water? Solution: percent by mass = mass of solute mass of solution × 100 = 100. what is the concentration of the silver nitrate by mass percent? 2. If 30.org 114 .19 g/mL) = 119 grams grams of KN O3 = (0. How many grams of N aOH are required to prepare 500.

org .0 g/mol 2. g of water? 100. molality = moles of solute kilograms of solvent Example: What is the molality of a solution prepared by dissolving 100. g = 2. g = 2. C2 H5 OH. 115 www. in 100.20 g/mL. g moles water = = 5.281 7.00 L sample.56 moles 18.100 kg moles ethanol = Example: A 35.mole f raction = moles of solute moles of solution Example: What is the mole fraction of ethanol in a solution prepared by dissolving 100. g of ethanol.0 g/mol 100. g of ethanol. What is the mole fraction of H3 P O4 in this solution and what is the molality? Solution: We can choose a sample volume of this solution and get the mass of it by multiplying the volume times the density. g of water? Solution: 100.17 moles 46. in 100.73 mols moles ethanol = Molality The definition of molality is the ratio of the moles of solute divided by the kilograms of solvent.17 mols = 21.17 mols mole f raction of ethanol = = 0.ck12.7 m molality of ethanol = 0.4% solution of H3 P O4 in water has a density of 1.0 g/mol 2. C2 H5 OH.17 moles 46. Suppose we choose a 1.

0 g of water.500 m solution? 7.0 g/mol 4. What is the molality of the solution in problem 3? 5.00 g of N aCl in 100.20 g/mL) = 1200.0 grams of water? 2.org 116 .ck12. What is the mole fraction of N aOH in this solution? 4.34 mol molality = = 5. grams mass of H3 P O4 in the solution = (0.0 g of acetone. moles of solute liters of solution molarity = www.354)(1200. A solution is prepared by dissolving 66.0 g of M gF2 dissolved in 80.33 g/mL.1 moles 18.4 mol 4. C3 H6 O. grams) = 425 grams mass of H2 O = 1200. What is the molality of the solution in question 1? 3. grams − 425 grams = 775 grams 425 g moles H3 P O4 = = 4. g of water? 6.mass of solution = (1000.34 moles 98. in 146.0 g/mol 775 g moles H2 O = = 43.0916 47.34 mol mole fraction of H3 P O4 = = 0. The density of a 30. What is the molality of this solution? 9. What would be the mole fraction of BeCl2 in the solution in problem 6? 8.926 g/mL.775 kg Exercises 1. What is the mole fraction of acetone in the solution in problem 8? Molarity Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The definition of molarity is the ratio of the mols of solute divided by the volume of the solution.60 m 0. What is the mole fraction of M gF2 in a solution that has 20. How many grams of beryllium chloride would you need to add to 125 g of water to make a 0. mL)(1. The density of the solution is 0.0% by mass solution of N aOH in water is 1. What is the molality of a solution prepared by dissolving 4.

ck12. How many grams of glycerine.00 M CaCO3 solution.333 L M 0.100 M solution? 3.5 Solubility Graphs There are no worksheets for this lesson.0 L of 0. How many liters of 0. How many grams of ammonia.6 Lesson 21.750 M N aOH solution will contain 10. are needed to make 100.0 gram of N aOH? 10.5 Lesson 21. N H3 are present in 5.0 g of CaF2 ? 5. mL of 0.00 grams of N aOH? 4.00 L moles N aOH = Example: What volume of 0. mL of 2.200 M N aOH solution is necessary to contain 6. What mass of ammonium phosphate is needed to make 100.750 mol/L moles N aOH = Exercises 1.0 g = 0. What is the molarity of a solution in which 4.250 mol volume = = = 0.6 Factors Affecting Solubility 117 There are no worksheets for this lesson. How many milliliters of 0.250 moles 40.0 g/mol mol 0.50 moles 40. What is the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 198 g of BaBr2 in 2.750 M molarity = 2. www.0 mL of 3.0 g = 1.00 liters of solution? 7.00 liters of solution? Solution: 60.60 M solution? 8.Example: What is the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 60.50 mol = 0.500 M CaF2 solution is required to contain 78.500 M (N H4 )3 P O4 solution? 6.org . C3 H8 O3 .50 g of N aN O3 is dissolved in 265 mL of solution? 2. How many grams of calcium carbonate are in the tube? 21.0 grams of N aOH in sufficient water to produce 2. A test tube contains 10. 21.0 g/mol 1.

molsi = molsf and Mi × Vi = Mf × Vf . For a solution whose concentration is expressed in molarity.00 M ) Exercises www. it also contains 0. the amount of solute never changes.7 Lesson 21. The amount of solvent.20 M N aOH solution? Solution: (Mi )(Vi ) = (Mf )(Vf ) (Mf )(Vf ) (1.20 M )(0. mL graduated cylinder and adding water until the solution reached the 100. mL of 0.250 M HCl solution by placing the solution in a 100.0 mL (Mi ) (6.300 L) Vi = = = 0.7 Colligative Properties Dilution Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The process of dilution involves increasing the amount of solvent in a solution without changing the amount of solute. the total volume of the solution. For example.ck12. The original solution contained 0.0600 L = 60. In the dilution problems you will be given. mL line in the graduate.org 118 . the moles in the final solution can be calculated with molsf = Mf × Vf . molesinitial = molarityinitial × litersinitial or molsi = Mi × Vi . for the most part. moles solute = (molarity)(liters) For the moles of solute in the original solution. Example: How many milliliters of 6. you could dilute 50.00 M N aOH solution are necessary to prepare 300. mL of 1. the moles of solute can be calculated by multiplying the volume in liters times the molarity. and the concentration change but the amount of solute remains the same. After the solution has been diluted.21.0125 moles of HCl after the dilution. Since the mols do not change during dilution. three of the four variables or ways to find three of the four variables and you will asked to calculate the fourth variable. In the process of dilution.0125 moles of HCl before it was diluted and therefore.

mL. mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was diluted to 1. and glucose.ck12. but the colligative properties of a 1.00 M N aOH is needed to prepare 250.00 M solution.1. C6 H12 O6 . Vapor Pressure Lowering The vapor pressure of a solution can be calculated from the individual vapor pressures of the components (solute and solvent) and the mole fractions of each component. mL. boiling point elevation.00 M H2 SO4 to produce a solution that is 1. What volume of 6. To what volume must you dilute 10. The changes in these properties are dependent entirely on the concentration of particles of solute in the solution. C3 H6 O. Solution B is prepared by diluting solution A to a new volume of 100.0 of acetone. and not on the chemistry nor the mass of the particles.00 mL of solution B and diluting it to 100.0 mL of 16. what is the final concentration? 5.0 g of water is 2.20 liters of 1. and changes in osmotic pressure. 200. mL. Solution A is 5. Therefore.86 moles and 50. What is the molarity of solution C? Colligative Properties: Solution Vapor Pressure Worksheet Colligative properties are those properties of a solution that depend on the number of particles of solute present in the solution. are very different. Raoult’s Law is an expression of the relationship. If 25.600 M N aOH? 4. at 25◦ C. mL of 0.0 grams of water? The vapor pressure of pure acetone at 25◦ C is 230. mm of Hg and the vapor pressure of pure water at 25◦ C is 23.764 water. That is. the mole fractions in this solution are 0. It must be noted that ionic solutes dissociate when dissolved in water and therefore.0 g of acetone is 0. Vapor Pressuresolution = (Xmol fraction solvent )(Vapor Pressuresolvent ) + (Xmol fraction solute )(Vapor Pressuresolute ) Example: What is the vapor pressure.00 M N aCl solution is diluted to a final volume of 500. 100.org . freezing point depression.0 M HN O3 is diluted to 500.00 M H2 SO4 ? 6. the chemical behavior and the molar masses of urea. Solution: 50.236 acetone and 0.78 moles.0 mL of 6.7 mm of Hg. add more particles to the solution than a substance that does not dissociate in water. What was the concentration of the original concentrated solution? 3.0 M HCl. mL. in 50. Solution C is produced by taking 5. 119 www.0 M solution of urea will be exactly the same as the colligative properties of a 1. of a solution produced by dissolving 50.00 mL of 12. (N H2 )2 CO. What is the concentration of the final solution? 2.0 M solution of glucose. The colligative properties of solutions include vapor pressure lowering. mL of 3.

V PSOLUTION = (0.764)(23.7 mm of Hg) + (0.236)(230. mm of Hg) = 18.1 mm of Hg + 54.3 mm of Hg = 72.4 mm of Hg In this case, the vapor pressure of the solution is higher than the vapor pressure of the solvent. That is due to the fact that acetone is a volatile (weak intermolecular forces of attraction) and therefore, evaporates readily. When we refer to vapor pressure lowering, we are referring to solutions in which the solute is non-volatile. When the solute is a solid, it can be generally be assumed that the solute is non-volatile. Suppose we are making a solution of glucose in water. Glucose is a non-volatile, solid solute whose vapor pressure at room conditions is so small that it is negligible compared to the vapor pressure of water. When we substitute the values for a glucose solution into Raoult’s Law, the second term (the one for the solute) is essentially zero because the vapor pressure of the pure solute is essentially zero.

Vapor PressureSolution = (XMol fraction solvent )(Vapor PressureSolvent ) + (XMol fraction solute )(Vapor PressureSolute ) If the second term in this equation, (XMol fraction solute )(Vapor PressureSolute ), becomes zero, then for a solution with a non-volatile solute, Raoult’s Law becomes:

Vapor PressureSolution = (XMol fraction solvent )(Vapor PressureSolvent ) This is Raoult’s Law for solutions whose solute is a non-volatile.

VPSolution = (XSolvent )(VPSolvent ) Example: What is the vapor pressure, at 25o C, of a solution produced by dissolving 50.0 of glucose, 25◦ C, in 50.0 grams of water? Glucose is non-volatile and the vapor pressure of pure water at 25◦ C is 23.7 mm of Hg. Solution: 50.0 g of water is 2.78 moles and 50.0 g of glucose is 0.278 moles. Therefore, the mole fraction of water in this solution is 0.909. We do not need to calculate the mole fraction of glucose because it isn’t needed in Raoult’s Law for non-volatile solutes. www.ck12.org

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VPSolution = (XSolvent )(VPSolvent = (0.909)(23.7 mm of Hg) = 21.5 mm of Hg In this case, and in all cases of non-volatile solutes, the vapor pressure of the solution is less than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent. Exercises 1. If 25.0 grams of sodium chloride is added to 500. grams of water at 25◦ C, what will be the vapor pressure of the resulting solution in kPa? The vapor pressure of pure water at 25◦ C is 3.17 kP a. 2. 125 g of the non-volatile solute glucose, C6 H12 O6 , is dissolved in 125 g of water at 25◦ C. IF the vapor pressure of water at 25◦ C is 23.7 T orr, what is the vapor pressure of the solution? 3. Glycerin, C3 H8 O3 , is a non-volatile, non-electrolyte solute. If 53.6 g of glycerin is dissolved in 133.7 g of ethanol at 40.◦ C, C2 H5 OH, what is the vapor pressure of the solution? The vapor pressure of pure ethanol is 113 T orr at 40.◦ C. 4. The vapor pressure of hexane, C6 H14 , at 60.0◦ C is 573 T orr. The vapor pressure of benzene at the same temperature is 391 T orr. What will be the vapor pressure of a solution of 58.9 g of hexane with 44.0 g of benzene?

Colligative Properties: B.P. Elevation and M.P. Depression Worksheet
When a non-volatile, solid solute is added to a solvent, the boiling point of the solution will be higher than the boiling point of the solvent, and the melting point of the solution will be lower than the melting point of the solvent. The size of the boiling point elevation and the melting point depression are colligative properties, that is, they are dependent not on the chemistry of the solute but only on the number of solute particles present in the solution. The formula used to calculate boiling point elevation is ∆Tb = imKb , where ∆Tb is the increase in the boiling point, m is the molality of the solute, Kb is the boiling point elevation constant, and i is the van’t Hoff factor. The boiling point elevation constant, Kb , is an experimentally determined constant for the solvent. Each solvent will have its own Kb and these values are determined in the laboratory and listed in reference tables. For example, the boiling point elevation constant for water is 0.512◦ C/m. As the molality of the solution increases, the boiling point of the solution increases by 0.512◦ C for each increase of 1.00 in the molality. The van’t Hoff factor is the ratio between the actual concentration of particles produced when the substance is dissolved, and the concentration of the molecules dissolved. For most non-electrolytes dissolved in water, the van’t Hoff factor is essentially 1. For most ionic

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compounds dissolved in water, the van’t Hoff factor is equal to the number of discrete ions in a formula unit of the substance. For example, a glucose solution that is 1.00 molal will have a particle concentration that is also 1.00 molal because glucose molecules do not dissociate. A 1.00 molal sodium chloride solution, on the other hand, since it dissociates into two ions will have a particle molality of 2.00 m. The van’t Hoff factor, i, is the number of ions that the molecule will dissociate into when dissolved. Sometimes, in concentrated solutions, an ionic substance does not dissociate 100% and therefore, the value of i will not be exactly equal to the apparent number of ions produced. In such cases, the value of i must also be determined experimentally. If you are not given an actual value for i in the problem, assume that i is the number of ions apparently produced per molecule. This is true in most dilute solutions. The formula used to calculate melting point depression is ∆Tf = imKf , where ∆Tf is the decrease in the melting point, m is the molality of the solute, Kf is the melting point depression constant, and i is the van’t Hoff factor. The melting point depression constant, Kf , is an experimentally determined constant for the solvent. Each solvent will have its own Kf and these values are determined in the laboratory and listed in reference tables. For example, the freezing point depression constant for water is 1.86◦ C/m. As the molality of the solution increases, the melting point of the solution decreases by 1.86◦ C for each increase of 1.00 in the molality. Example: What is the boiling point of a 5.00 m glucose solution in water? Glucose is a non-volatile, non-electrolyte solute. Kb for water = 0.512◦ C/m. Solution: ∆Tb = imKb = (1)(5.00 m)(0.512◦ C/m) = 2.56◦ C Since the boiling point of the pure solvent was 100.00◦ C, the b.p. of the solution is 100.00◦ C+ 2.56◦ C = 102.56◦ C Example: What is the melting point of a 5.00 m N aCl solution in water? Sodium chloride is a non-volatile solute that dissociates 100% in water. Kf for water = 1.86◦ C/m. Solution: ∆Tf = imKf = (2)(5.00 m)(1.86◦ C/m) = 18.6◦ C (Since N aCl produces two ions in solution, i = 2.) Since the melting point of the pure solvent was 0.00◦ C, the m.p. of the solution is 0.00◦ C − 18.6◦ C = −18.6◦ C Exercises 1. What is the melting point of a solution produced by dissolving 45.0 g of N aCl in 500. g of water. Kf for water = 1.86◦ C/m. 2. What is the boiling point of a solution produced by dissolving 45.0 g of N aCl in 500. g of water. Kb for water = 0.512◦ C/m. 3. Which solution will have higher boiling point: a solution containing 105 g of C12 H22 O11 in 500. g of water or a solution containing 35.0 g of N aCl in 500. g of water? www.ck12.org

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what is the boiling point of a solution of 200.30 g of C12 H25 OH (a non-electrolyte) in 250. How many grams of C2 H6 O2 (anti-freeze.50◦ C. 123 www. When 25. a non-electrolyte) must be added to 4. g of benzene? 7.4.8 Lesson 21. What is the melting point of a solution of 9. Assuming 100% dissociation. grams of water to reduce the melting point to −40. 21. 000. The normal melting point of benzene is 5.0 g of an unknown.9 Separating Mixtures There are no worksheets for this lesson.8 Colloids There are no worksheets for this lesson.◦ C? 6.5◦ C. the boiling point of the solution is 102. What is the molar mass of the unknown? 5. g of AlF3 in 500.org .9 Lesson 21. non-electrolyte is dissolved in 130. The melting point constant for benzene is 4. g of water.ck12. g of water? 21.90◦ C/m. non-volatile.

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ck12.2 Covalent Compounds in Solution There are no worksheets for this lesson. 1.3 Reactions Between Ions in Solutions Reactions Between Ions in Solution Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ For the following five reactions (all reactants are in water solution): • Write and balance the molecular equation indicating the state of each reactant and product.org .2 Lesson 22.3 Lesson 22. 22. • Identify the precipitate. • Write the net ionic equation. iron (III) chloride + sodium hydroxide 125 www. • Write the total ionic equation.1 Ions in Solution There are no worksheets for this lesson. • Identify the spectator ions.1 Lesson 22.Chapter 22 Ions in Solution Worksheets 22. 22.

org 126 . magnesium sulfate + potassium phosphate Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 4.ck12. barium chloride + silver nitrate Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 3. copper (II) nitrate + calcium hydroxide Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 5. sodium chromate + strontium nitrate Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ www.Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 2.

What is the ∆H for the reverse reaction? _____________ 6.ck12. What is the activation energy for the forward reaction? _____________ 3.2 Collision Theory There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 23.12. What is the enthalpy change for (∆H) for the forward reaction? ________________ 5. 23. 23.Chapter 23 Chemical Kinetics Worksheets 23.org . 1.3 Potential Energy Diagrams Potential Energy Diagrams Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Use the following Potential Energy Diagram to answer questions 1 . Is the reverse reaction exothermic or endothermic? _____________ 127 www.2 Lesson 23. What is the activation energy for the reverse reaction? _____________ 4. Is the overall reaction as shown exothermic or endothermic? _____________ 2.1 Rate of Reactions There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 23.

decreases.ck12.Figure 23. Which species or group of species has the strongest bonds? _____________ 11. stays the same). Which do you think would be faster at that the same temperature. In general. as reactant particles begin a collision. What is the threshold energy for the forward reaction? _____________ 13. the potential energy _____________ (increases. Describe what happens to two reactant particles that collide with less than the activation energy? Use the following Potential Energy Diagram to answer questions 15 . Figure 23.2 www. the forward or reverse reaction? _____________ 12. stays the same) and the kinetic energy _____________(increases. decreases. Which species or group of species has the highest potential energy? _____________ 9. Which species is the activated complex? __________________ 8. Which species or group of species has the weakest bonds? _____________ 10.org 128 . 14.1 7.22.

Give a reason for your answer in question 21.15.4 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates There are no worksheets for this lesson. A − B or B − C? _____________ 22.ck12. What is the activation energy for the reverse reaction? _____________ 17. Is the forward reaction exothermic or endothermic? ______________ 20. What is the ∆H for the forward reaction? _____________ 18.5 Reaction Mechanism There are no worksheets for this lesson. What is the ∆H for the reverse reaction? _____________ 19. 23. 129 www. Which bond is stronger. What is the activation energy for the forward reaction? _____________ 16.org . 23.4 Lesson 23.5 Lesson 23. What is the threshold energy for the forward reaction? ______________ 21.

org 130 .ck12.www.

P(s) + 2 O2(g) P O4(g) ∆H = −794 kJ/mol 1. No change.1 Lesson 24.2 Lesson 24. 24. B.2 Equilibrium Constant Equilibrium Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Questions 1 . Increase. Increase. 2. C. Decrease.20 relate to the following reaction at equilibrium in a closed container.ck12. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding some oxygen gas with no change in pressure? A.1 Introduction to Equilibrium There are no worksheets for this lesson.Chapter 24 Chemical Equilibrium Worksheets 24. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding some solid phosphorus with no change in surface area? A. 131 www.org .

www. Decrease. 5. Increase.ck12. B. 3. B. Increase. C. C. Decrease. B. No change. C. C. Decrease. Decrease.org 132 . Increase. B. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding some solid phosphorus with no change in surface area? A. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding a catalyst? A. No change. No change. B.B. No change. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding some oxygen gas with no change in pressure? A. 7. Decrease. No change. Increase. 8. No change. Increase. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of increasing the pressure by reducing the volume? A. Increase. B. Decrease. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of increasing the temperature? A. C. C. Decrease. 6. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding some P O4 gas with no change in pressure? A. 4.

No shift. 12. Forward. Decrease. 14. Reverse. B. No change. Increase. No change. No change. Decrease. Decrease.C. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of increasing the pressure by reducing the volume? A. C. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when solid phosphorus is added with no change in surface area? A. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding a catalyst? A. B. B. 9. No change. Increase.ck12. B. 10. No change. Forward. 13. Decrease. Increase. B. 11. B. 133 www. C.org . C. Reverse. Increase. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when oxygen gas is added with no change in pressure? A. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of increasing the temperature? A. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding some P O4 gas with no change in pressure? A. C. No shift. C. C.

Forward. V. C. III. II. and IV. 18.org 134 . and V. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when a catalyst is added? A. V only. IV. Which of the following changes to the sytem at equilibrium will change the value of the equilibrium constant? I. No shift. Adding some solid phosphorus. No shift. B. B. C. C. D. B. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when gaseous P O4 is added with no change in pressure? A. No shift. 17. I. 16. B. C. No shift. Increasing the temperature. Reverse. II. Adding a catalyst. Reverse. www. E. Adding some oxygen gas. 19. A. III. Increasing the pressure by reducing the volume. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when the pressure is increased by reducing the volume? A.ck12. Reverse.15. IV only. C. IV. IV and V. Forward. Forward. Forward. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when the temperature is increased? A. B. Reverse.

lower C. 1. the same 21.0 M ? A. the equilibrium constant is 1. D.00 and that the reaction begins with 60.org . Find the equilibrium concentration of N O2 if the beginning concentration of N2 and O2 are both 2. how will the concentration of oxygen gas in the new equilibrium compare to the original concentration of oxygen gas before the stress was applied? A. Solid sulfur reacts with oxygen gas to form SO2(g) according to the following equation. A.0 M sulfur and 3. calculate the equilibrium concentration of SO2 .ck12. the equilibrium will shift forward until a new equilibrium is established.50 M D.20.0 × 10−6 .55 M C. B.0 M B. For the reaction. If oxygen gas is added to the system at equilibrium. higher B. C. N2(g) + O2(g) 2 N O2(g) . 0. None of these.25 M E. 2. Equation AB(aq) CD(aq) EF(aq) GH(aq) − A+ + B(aq) (aq) + − C(aq) + D(aq) + − E(aq) + F(aq) − G+ + H(aq) (aq) Equilibrium Constant Ke Ke Ke Ke = 2 × 10−2 = 3 × 10−2 = 3 × 10−3 = 6 × 10−3 22. S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Given that the equilibrium constant for the reaction is 5.0 × 10−6 M 135 www. 23. 2.00 M O2 . 5. 15. Here are four equations with their equilibrium constant values.1: Equilibrium Constants for Various Equations Choice A.0020 M B. Which of these reactions will have the greatest proportion of material in the form of products? Table 24. When the new equilibrium is established.

0 × 10−6 M D. 1. the concentration of CO is found to be 0. If all four species begin at 1. Le Chatelier’s Principle does NOT explain why the system changes. H2(g) + CO2(g) H2 O(g) + CO(g) .67 M C.org 136 .0 M E. what will be the equilibrium concentration of H2 ? A. Ke = 4.020 M E.0 M and at equilibrium.ck12. 1. 25. There are three common ways a stress may be applied to a chemical system at equilibrium: www.80 M . 16 E. None of these. For the reaction.3 Lesson 24. The explanation for why the system changes can be found in your textbook.3 M D. the two reactants begin the reaction at 1. 24.33 M B. H2(g) + CO2(g) H2 O(g) + CO(g) . 4. 0.0 D. None of these. 24. and is not an acceptable explanation for the change. 2. None of these.C. 0.00 M .0 C.00 for the reaction. 4. 1.7 B. 0.3 The Effect of Applying Stress to Reactions at Equilibrium Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Le Chatelier’s Principle is useful in predicting how a system at equilibrium will respond when certain changes are imposed. What is the equilibrium constant value? A. It merely allows you to determine quickly how the system will change when a disturbance is imposed.

but it increases the endothermic reaction more that the exothermic. hence the equilibrium will shift forward producing more heat. Changes in Temperature Increasing the temperature of a system at equilibrium increases both forward and reverse reaction rate. The amount of solid can increase or decrease but the concentration does not change. all the same logic is involved except that the forward reaction is endothermic and the reverse reaction is exothermic. the shift tends to “undo” the disturbance. thus producing more of the removed reactant or using up some of the added product. Therefore.ck12. the equilibrium shifts so as to partially undo (counteract) the effect of the disturbance. • changing the volume of the container (which changes partial pressure of all gases in the reaction).org . however. the equilibrium will shift backward.• changing the concentration (or partial pressure) of a reactant or product. heating an endothermic 137 www. Similarly. Ke is not changed by the addition or removal of reactants or products. consuming heat. and thus partially countering the disturbance. Therefore. the equilibrium shift partially counteracts the disturbance. Cooling an exothermic reaction slows both reactions but it slows the reverse more than the forward. Once again. • changing the temperature. It should be noted that when the disturbance is an increase or decrease of concentration of reactant or product. the equilibrium shift tends to partially return the concentration to its former value but it never gets all the way back to the former value. the amount of the solid present most certainly does change. Since the concentration of solids are constant. and the equilibrium will shift backwards. in an exothermic reaction. thus partially undoing the stress. the reverse reaction is endothermic and so increasing the temperature will increase the reverse reaction more than the forward reaction. Le Chatelier’s Principle states when a system at equilibrium is disturbed. thus using up some of the added reactant or producing more of the removed product. they do not appear in the equilibrium constant expression and their concentrations do not change when disturbances cause equilibrium shifts. Changes in Concentration or Partial Pressure If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by adding a reactant or removing a product. the equilibrium will shift backward. Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that the equilibrium will shift forward. You should be aware that adding a gaseous substance that is not involved in the reaction changes the total pressure in the system but does not change the partial pressure of any of the reactants or products and therefore does not affect the equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that when heat is added. For an endothermic reaction. if the disturbance is the removal of a reactant or the addition of a product. Since the forward reaction produces heat and the reverse reaction consumes heat. In this way. The equilibrium constant value.

Toward the reactants. Therefore. Exercises Consider the following reaction. Thus.reaction causes the equilibrium to shift forward. Increase Temperature K increases K decreases Decrease Temperature K decreases K increases 5 CO(g) + I2 O5(s) I2(g) + 5 CO2(g) ∆H ◦ = −1175 kJ 1. C. In the case of a catalyst. thus increasing pressure and partially counteracting the change. Toward the products. The partial pressure of all gases will decrease. If some CO2(g) is added to this sytem at equilibrium.org 138 . 2. and the total pressure will decrease. that is. and cooling an endothermic reaction causes the equilibrium to shift backward. B. decreasing the volume will cause the equilibrium to shift toward the side with fewer moles of gaseous substances. Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to counteract the disturbance. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. When an equilibrium shifts due to a temperature change all the substances on one side of the equation move in the same direction. the partial pressure (and concentration) of all gases in the container increase. how will the concentration www. they all increase or they all decrease.ck12. Therefore. the equilibrium will shift to produce fewer moles of gaseous substances so that the pressure will decrease. both reaction rates are increased by the same amount and therefore there will be no equilibrium shift. so the equilibrium shift will be toward the side that contains more moles of gas. The Addition of a Catalyst The addition of a catalyst will increase both forward and reverse reaction rates. Table 24. the equilibrium constant value will also change when the temperature is changed.2: Summary of Reaction Type Endothermic (∆H > 0) Exothermic (∆H < 0) Changes in Volume When the volume of a reaction vessel is decreased. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. The total pressure in the vessel will also increase. The reverse is true if the volume of the vessel is increased. No shift.

When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. Decreased. how will the concentration of I2(g) compare to the original concentration? 139 www.org . C. No change. 8. C. how will the concentration of I2 O5 compare to the original concentration? A. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. B. B. Toward the reactants. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. Increased. how will the concentration of CO2(g) compare to the original concentration? A. B. Increased. Increased. Decreased. 7.ck12. B. 6. C. B.of I2(g) compare to the original concentration? A. When equilibrium is re-established after the I2(g) is removed. B. how will the amount of I2 O5 compare to the original amount? A. C. Higher. 4. No change. C. No shift. Lower. If some I2(g) is removed from this sytem at equilibrium. Decreased. No change. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. C. Decreased. 3. 5. No change. When equilibrium is re-established after the I2(g) is removed. Increased. No change. Toward the products.

When equilibrium is re-established after the I2(g) is removed. If the volume of the reaction vessel for this system at equilibrium is decreased. Increased. Higher. B. Lower. Higher. 14. When equilibrium is re-established after the volume was decreased. B. 13. Decreased. B. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. www. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was lowered. Increased. B. C. 9. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. C.org 140 . how will the concentration of CO(g) compare to its original concentration? A. No change. No change. No shift. how will the concentration of CO(g) compare to its original concentration? A. C. Toward the reactants. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. 11. B. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was lowered.A. Decreased. C. Higher. 5. Toward the reactants.ck12. Toward the products. No change. 10. C. B. No change. Lower. Toward the products. No shift. 12. If the temperature of this system at equilibrium is lowered. C.

C. Decreased.org . how will the concentration of N O(g) compare to its original concentration? A. When equilibrium is re-established after the N O(g) is added. 17. B. 18. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. If the temperature of this system at equilibrium is raised.ck12. Increased. No change. B. When equilibrium is re-established after the volume was decreased. No shift. C. Consider the following reaction. C. 15. Toward the reactants. No change. B. how will the concentration of N H3(g) compare to the original concentration? A. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. B.B. Toward the reactants. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was raised. No shift. Lower. If some N O(g) is added to this sytem at equilibrium. Toward the products. C. B. 4 N O(g) + 6 H2 O(g) 4 N H3(g) + 5 O2(g) ∆H = +1532 kJ 16. No change. 141 www. Lower. Decreased. No change. 19. Toward the products. C. Increased. C. Higher. which way will the equilibrium shift? A.

Copper (II) sulfate and potassium carbonate. C. write “no reaction”.0 × 10−4 M P b2+ ions and 2.ck12. B. Use this information to calculate the Ksp for SrCrO4 . www. Use the solubility table in your textbook if you need it. Lower.0 × 10−3 M Sr2+ ions.0100 M P b3 (P O4 )2 is mixed with 550. What is the solubility of AgI in grams/liter given the Ksp = 8. Ammonium sulfide and cobalt (II) bromide. A solution contains 1. What is the Ksp for P bCl2 ? 3. Lead (II) chloride has a Ksp value of 1. it is found that 6. Higher.6 × 10−2 mol/L.0 mL of 0. will P bSO4 . how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. If no reaction occurs. 8.083 g/L at 25◦ C.4 Slightly Soluble Salts Solubility and Solubility Product Constant Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. Write balanced net ionic equations for the precipitation reactions that occur when the following pairs of solutions are mixed.3 × 10−17 ? 6. Silver nitrate and lithium hydroxide.0 × 10−6 ? 7. The solubility of Ag2 Cr2 O7 is 0.0550 M N aCl? 9. What is the Ksp for silver acetate at this temperature? 4.20.7×10−5 . (Ksp = 3. (Ksp = 1. 24. 2.4 × 10−7 ) precipitate first? Calculate the concentration of SO4 ions that will begin to precipitate each cation. If a source 2− of SO4 ions is very slowly added to this solution. Will a precipitate form when 140.4 Lesson 24. The solubility of AgC2 H3 O2 is 11.00 × 10−3 moles dissolve per liter of solution. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was raised. No change. What is the solubility of Ca(OH)2 in grams/liter given the Ksp = 6. What is the Ksp for silver dichromate at this temperature? 5.0 mL of 0. When excess solid SrCrO4 is shaken with water at 25◦ C. The solubility of P bCl2 is 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Lead nitrate and hydrochloric acid. Barium nitrate and copper (II) sulfate.11 g/L at 25◦ C.8 × 10−8 ) or 2− SrSO4 .org 142 .

100 M potassium hydroxide are required to neutralize 75. mL of 1. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 7? 9. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ]? 143 www. 700.org . What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ]? 8.400 grams of N aOH in enough water to make 2. what is the hydroxide ion concentration? 2. What volume of 6.00 M HCl would be necessary to neutralize 400. If 50.00 × 10−4 M H2 SO4 is mixed with 300.00 × 10−3 M Ba(OH)2 .500 M HN O3 ? 5. what is the molarity of the H2 SO4 ? 6.200 M LiOH. What is the hydroxide ion concentration in a solution whose pH is 11? 3. mL of 1. 25. What is the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution prepared by dissolving 0.0150 M N aOH is mixed with 300.0 mL of 0. mL of 0.1 Arrhenius Acids There are no worksheets for this lesson. If the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is 1.Chapter 25 Acids and Bases Worksheets 25. mL of 0.00 liters of solution? 4. mL of 3.2 Lesson 25. mL of 0.2 Strong and Weak Acids Strong Acids and Bases Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. 200.00 M Ba(OH)2 ? 7.00 × 10−4 M .00100 M HCl. How many mL of 0.0 mL of H2 SO4 are neutralized by 100.ck12.1 Lesson 25.

0 liter solution has a pH = 2. you will get the pH = 12.0000990 M Ba(OH)2 ? 14. 25.4? What is the [OH − ] in a solution with pH = 3. 25. Calculate the pH of a solution that is 7. What is the [H + ] in a solution with pH = 4.4 Lesson 24.300 grams of the acid requires 30. 3. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 11? 13.5 Lesson 25. What do you think is wrong with this calculation? 1.0 mL of 0.050 M N aOH.0 mL of 0.4 Salts There are no worksheets for this lesson.0 mL of 0. mL of 0. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ] in a solution made by adding 100. www. Calculate the pH of a solution that is 0.200 M N aOH to neutralize it? 25.0 × 10−5 M . A 1.0 g of KOH is added to enough water to make 400.0 M 10−5 × M g(OH)2 . What is the pH of the final solution in problem 13? 15. mL of 0.ck12. 25.0300 M N aOH. mL of solution.10.000200 M HN O3 to 100. What is the molar mass of a solid monoprotic acid if 0. What is the pH? 7. How many liters of water must be added to change the pH to 3? 8. If you do the regular calculations to determine the pH of a 1.org 144 .5 pH pH Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Calculate the pH of a solution with [H + ] = 7. 2. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 9? 11. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ]? 12.0100 M HCl is mixed with 35.0? 10. 5.3 Arrhenius Bases There are no worksheets for this lesson. You should have a feeling that something is wrong with this situation because this indicates that a solution of acid has a basic pH. 6. Complete the following table.3 Lesson 25.0×10−12 M HBr solution. 4.

8. 11. Will a 1.00 M solution of N H4 N O2 be acidic. Explain why a solution of sodium acetate will be basic. Will a 1.80 × 10−5 . or N 25. Explain the difference between the designations “strong” acid and “weak” acid.0 × 10−2 M [OH − ] 8. basic. 2.org .6 Lesson 25. or neutral? 10.100 M solution of a weak acid. 5.1×10−7 .2 × 10−4 M 10. [H + ] 6. The pH of a 0. What is the Kb for methylamine? 9.4 × 10−4 and the Ka of acid B is 1. or neutral? Use 1. Explain what happens to the pH of a solution of acetic acid when a solution of sodium acetate is added to it. The equation for the reaction of methylamine in water is CH3 N H2(aq) + H2 O + − CH3 N H3(aq) + OH(aq) .0.5 × 10−10 M A. 145 www. The pH of a 1. Base.ck12.7 × 10−5 . The Ka of acid A is 6. Which acid is the stronger acid? 3.6 Weak Acid/Base Equilibria Weak Acids and Bases Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. What is the Ka of this acid? 7. or Neutral pH 9.Table 25.8 × 10−5 as the Kb for N H4 OH and 7.1 × 10−4 as the Ka for HN O2 . HX. 10.3.75 4. if the Ka for HX is 8. basic. HQ. What is the pH of a 0. 6.00 M solution of the weak base methylamine is 12. B.1: Acid.00 M solution of potassium acetate be acidic. is 4. 12. What is the pH of a 0. 4.150 M solution of N H4 OH? The Kb for N H4 OH is 1.0100 M solution of a weak acid.

. or negative ions. . which is then capable of accepting a hydrogen ion. one product of the reaction is the A. HF . Imagine a generic acid. conjugate base = ______ www. conjugate base = ______ − B. Write the formula for the conjugate base of each of the following acids. .7 Lesson 25. HN O2 .ion.ck12. A. . therefore.org 146 . . exist as conjugate pairs whose formulas are related by the gain or loss of a hydrogen ion. and is. every time a base gains an H + .7 Bronsted Lowry Acids-Bases Conjugate Acids-Bases Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Acids and bases exist as conjugate acid-base pairs. The term conjugate come from the Latin meaning “joining together” and refers to things that are joined. the product is a Bronsted acid. positive ions. It signified only that the acid contains a hydrogen ion that is not present in the conjugate base. . . Bronsted acids or bases can be neutral molecules. therefore. it forms a conjugate base. HCN . HA + H2 O ACID H3 O+ + A− BASE Conversely. a Bronsted base. conjugate base = ______ C. HSO4 . The use of the symbols HA and A− for the conjugate acid-base pair does not mean that all acids are neutral molecules or that all bases are negative ions. Exercises 1. such as Bronsted acids and bases. When this acid donate a hydrogen to water. A− + H2 O BASE HA + OH − ACID Acids and bases in the Bronsted model. . particularly in pairs. HA.25. Every time a Bronsted acid acts as a hydrogen ion donor. conjugate base = ______ D.

ck12. conjugate ______ = ______ D. conjugate acid = ______ D. S 2− . . H2 S(aq) + N H3(aq) − + HCOO(aq) + H3 O(aq) + − N H4(aq) + HS(aq) 25. . conjugate ______ = ______ 4. 2− A. HS − . . identify the acid and base on the left and their conjugate partners on the right. conjugate acid = ______ − B. . indicate whether its conjugate partner is an acid or base and write its formula. conjugate ______ = ______ B. . conjugate acid = ______ 3. SO4 . . Write the formula for the conjugate acid of each of the following bases. 147 www. . A. N H3 . .org .8 Lesson 25. conjugate acid = ______ C. . A. HI . Br− .8 Lewis Acids and Bases There are no worksheets for this lesson. . For each given formula. . . HN O3 . . . HCO3 . CHOOH( aq) + H2 O(L) B. . conjugate ______ = ______ C.2. . In each of the following acid-base reactions.

ck12.www.org 148 .

2 Lesson 26. 1. pH and Titration Worksheets 26.69 mL of it is neutralized by 40.8351 M F e(OH)2 is needed to neutralize 98. What volume of 0. What is the concentration of hydroiodic acid if 59.50 mL of the solution is titrated to the endpoint with 51.2118 M nitric acid.29 mL of 0.2 Indicators There are no worksheets for this lesson.5417 M H3 P O4 149 www.3 Lesson 26.Chapter 26 Water. It requires 65.99 mL of 0.1 Water Ionizes There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 26. What is the molarity of a CuOH solution if 50. 26.org .35 mL of 0.3 Titrations Titration Worksheet CK12 Chemistry Name _____________________________ Date ____________ Show ALL your work in solving these problems.39 mL of 0.2968 M lithium hydroxide solution? 2. What is the concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution? 3.ck12.95 mL of potassium hydroxide solution to neutralize 89. H2 CO3 ? 4. 26.3574 M carbonic acid.

ck12. 5. B.000 g of an unknown monoprotic solid acid was titrated with 163.4 Buffers There are no worksheets for this lesson. The standardized N aOH solution is then used to titrate 3.066 g/mol). Oxalic acid is a diprotic acid. HA. www. A solution of N aOH was standardized against oxalic acid dehydrate. The titration required 42.0 mL of 0.4 Lesson 26.org 150 . A.500 g sample.00 mL. C. H2 C2 O4 · 2H2 O (molar mass = 126. Calculate the moles of HA in the 3. The volume of N aOH solution required to neutralize 1. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown acid. What is the molar mass of the acid? 6.5.500 g of oxalic acid was 45.1500 M N aOH solution.00 mL of the N aOH solution. Calculate the molarity of the N aOH solution.500 g of an unknown solid monoprotic acid. 26.

4 kJ.org .4 kJ/mol of heat.1 Lesson 27. when one mole of methane is burned. 27.2 Lesson 27.00 mol of CH4 are burned? B.2 Enthalpy Enthalpy Worksheet 1. How much energy is given off when 2. The combustion of methane.Chapter 27 Thermodynamics Worksheets . releases 890. CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2 O(L) ∆H = −890. CH4 . how much heat would be absorbed during the reaction? Use the following heat of formation table in questions 2 – 6.4 kJ less energy stored in the bonds than the reactants. Thus.0 g of methane from CO2 and H2 O (with O2 also being produced). A negative symbol for ∆H indicates an exothermic reaction.4 kJ are given off to the surroundings. 151 www. This means that the products have 890.HS Chemistry 27.4 g of CH4 are burned? C.ck12. 890. That is. If you were to attempt to make 45.4 kJ A. ∆H for the reaction = −890. How much energy is released when 22.1 Energy Change in Reactions There are no worksheets for this lesson.

34 82 0 143 2. 193 211 240. calculate the heat of reaction for CaC2(s) + 2 H2 O(L) → Ca(OH)2(s) + C2 H2(g) . Using data from the heat of formation table above. calculate the quantity of heat produced when 1. 4. 205 239 −126 −63 −987 227 −394 0 −242 −286 −46 90. C4 H10 . Using the heat of formation table above. Many cigarette lighters contain liquid butane. Using data from the heat of formation table above. 6. calculate the heat of reaction for N2 O(g) + N O2(g) → 3 N O(g) . calculate the enthalpy of reaction for 3 H2(g) + O3(g) → 3 H2 O(g) . 220.ck12. Using data from the heat of formation table above. www.0 g of gaseous butane is completely combusted in air. 3.1: The Standard Enthalpy and Entropy of Various Substances Substance C4 H10(g) CaC2(s) Ca(OH)2(s) C2 H2(g) CO2(g) H2(g) H2 O(g) H2 O(L) N H3(g) N O(g) N O2(g) N2 O(g) O2(g) O3(g) o ∆Hf (kJ/mol) S o (J/K · mol) 310 70. Using data from the heat of formation table above. 5.Table 27. 83 201 214 131 189 70. calculate the heat of reaction for 2 N O(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O2(g) .org 152 .

H2 SO4(L) → SO3(g) + H2 O(g) 153 www.ck12.3: Solution Arrangement Changes Keep Same Keep Same Reverse Equation ∆H Value N2 H4(L) + CH4 O(L) → ∆H = −37 kJ CH2 O(g) + N2(g) + 3 H2(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) ∆H = −46 kJ CH2 O(g) +H2(g) → CH4 O(L) ∆H = +65 kJ Sum Exercises N2 H4(L) + H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) ∆H = −18 kJ 1.Hess’s Law Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Example Problem Find the ∆H for the reaction below. N2 H4(L) + H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) Table 27. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.2: Given Equations and Equation ∆H Value N2 H4(L) + CH4 O(L) → CH2 O(g) + N2(g) + ∆H = −37kJ 3 H2(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) ∆H = −46 kJ CH4 O(L) → CH2 O(g) + H2(g) ∆H = −65 kJ Solution Table 27. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.org . using the following reactions and their ∆H values.

6 kJ 3. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.4: Given Equations and Equation H2 S(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2 SO4(L) H2 S(g) + 2 O2(g) → SO3(g) + H2 O(L) H2 O(L) → H2 O(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −235 kJ ∆H = −207 kJ ∆H = +44 kJ 2. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.5: Given Equations and Equation N2(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −180. 3 H2(g) + 2 C(s) + 1 O2(g) → C2 H5 OH(L) 2 www. using the following reactions and their ∆H values. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.8 kJ ∆H = −483.ck12. P Cl5(g) → P Cl3(g) + Cl2(g) Table 27. 4 N H3(g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 N O(g) + 6 H2 O(g) Table 27.Table 27.6: Equation P4(s) + 6 Cl2(g) → 4 P Cl3(g) 4 P Cl5(g) → P4(s) + 10 Cl2(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −2439 kJ ∆H = +3438 kJ 4.org 154 . Find the ∆H for the reaction below.5 kJ ∆H = −91. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.

5 kJ ∆H = +71.2 kJ ∆H = −283. www. 1 1 H2(g) + Cl2(g) → HCl(g) 2 2 Table 27.org . using the following reactions and their ∆H values.9: Given Equations and Equation ∆H Value COCl2(g) + H2 O(L) → CH2 Cl2(L) + O2(g) ∆H = +48 kJ 1 2 HCl(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2 O(L) + Cl2(g) ∆H = +105 kJ CH2 Cl2(L) + H2(g) + 3 O2(g) → COCl2(g) + ∆H = −403 kJ 2 2 H2 O(L) 27. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.0 kJ 6.3 Lesson 27.8: Given Equations and Equation C2 H2(g) + 2 H2(g) → C2 H6(g) H2 O(g) → H2(g) + 1 O2(g) 2 7 C2 H6(g) + 2 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2 O(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −94.7: Given Equations and Equation C2 H5 OH(L) +3 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) +3 H2 O(L) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) 1 H2(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2 O(L) ∆H Value ∆H = −875.0 kJ ∆H = −394.ck12.5 kJ ∆H = −285. 2 CO2(g) + H2 O(g) → C2 H2(g) + 5 2 O2(g) Table 27. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.3 Spontaneous Processes 155 There are no worksheets for this lesson. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.Table 27.8 kJ 5.

4 Lesson 27. calculate the change in entropy for 2 N O(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O2(g) .ck12.4 Entropy Entropy Worksheet Use the following entropy of formation table in questions 1 – 5. 220.org 156 . Table 27. Using data from the entropy of formation table above. calculate the heat of reaction for www. 2. Using data from the heat of formation table above. 4. Using data from the entropy of formation table above. Using data from the entropy of formation table above. 3. 193 211 240.27. 83 201 214 131 189 70. calculate the entropy of reaction for 3 H2(g) + O3(g) → 3 H2 O(g) . 205 239 −126 −63 −987 227 −394 0 −242 −286 −46 90. calculate the ∆S o for N2 O(g) + N O2(g) → 3 N O(g) . 34 82 0 143 1.10: The Standard Enthalpy and Entropy of Various Substances Substance C4 H10(g) CaC2(s) Ca(OH)2(s) C2 H2(g) CO2(g) H2(g) H2 O(g) H2 O(L) N H3(g) N O(g) N O2(g) N2 O(g) O2(g) O3(g) o ∆Hf (kJ/mol) S o (J/K · mol) 310 70.

Which of the following can definitely be concluded from the equation and heat of reaction above? 157 www. −100 kJ/mol. and Free Energy Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. calculate the change in entropy for the following reaction. 2 HgO(s) → 2 Hg(L) + O2(g) ∆HR = +181. 10 kJ/mol. 5. varies randomly 2.7 kJ 3. increases B. B. 1 kJ/mol. Questions 3 and 4 relate to the following equation and ∆HR value. As the amount of energy required to decompose a compound increases. The enthalpy of formation for a free element is A. decreases C. variable.5 Gibb’s Free Energy Enthalpy. Entropy. C.org . C4 H10(g) + 13 O2(g) → 4 CO2(g) + 5 H2 O(g) 2 27. 0 kJ/mol.CaC2(s) + 2 H2 O(L) → Ca(OH)2(s) + C2 H2(g) . D. the thermodynamic stability of the compound _____________.5 Lesson 27. remains constant D. A. E.ck12. Using the entropy of formation table above.

181. A. enthalpy and entropy D. ∆H D. N O(g) 6. D.ck12. ∆G C. what is the ∆Hf of HgO? A. All reactions that occur spontaneously must have a negative _________.org 158 . N H3(g) B. C. heat and work B. ∆S E. E. CO2(g) C. internal energy and PV E. 0 kJ/mol D.A. The reaction is spontaneous. A.9 kJ/mol 5. From the equation and heat of reaction above. −90. All of these. pressure and volume C. None of these. H2 O(L) D. A.7 kJ/mol C. www. None of these. T ∆S B. −181. The reaction is endothermic. 90. B.7 kJ/mol B. 4. Which of the following four substances is the most thermodynamically stable? Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of the worksheet. 7. The reaction is non-spontaneous.9 kJ/mol E. The reaction is exothermic. The free energy of a reaction is the combination of _________ and _________.

org .1 J/o D. −92.0 kJ D. 9. None of these. None of these.6 kJ B.7 kJ C. −806. −269. 10.8 kJ C. 10.3 kJ E. +806. −575.7 kJ B. +92. 977.6 kJ C. 4 N H3(g) + 5 CO2(g) → 6 H2 O(L) + 4 N O(g) 8. Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of this worksheet to find the ∆SR for the reaction above? A. +575. relate to the equation shown below. +269. Use the ∆HR you found in question 6 and the ∆SR you found in question 8 to calculate ∆GR for this reaction. and 11. A.9 kJ D. −634. 11.ck12. −977. 9. +981.9 J/o C. None of these.9 kJ 159 www. −981. Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of this worksheet to find the ∆HR for the reaction above? A. 634.9 J/o B.8 kJ B. +1419.Questions 8.0 kJ E. −1419.1 J/o E. Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of this worksheet to find the ∆GR for the reaction above? A.3 kJ D.

A. 14. 2 H2 O(g) + 2 F2(g) → O2(g) + 4 HF(g) . A. −146. Use the results from questions 14 and 15 to determine under what conditions this reaction will be spontaneous.ck12. 2 N O(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O2(g) . +500. 12. This reaction will never be spontaneous at any temperature.6 kJ E.0 kJ C. −635. +146. −500. −626.7 J/K D. −3351. +1550. +626. +635.E. 0 J/K B.5 J/K B. 13. +16.0 J/K 16.5 J/K D.7 J/K C.4 kJ 15. 0 kJ B.7 kJ D. Find ∆S for the reaction. +3351.0 kJ B. A. None of these. None of these. −16. None of these. +1657. Find ∆GR for the reaction.5 J/K C.7 kJ C.4 kJ E. What is the change in entropy for 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Al2 O3(s) ? A.6 kJ D. This reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures.org 160 . www.5 J/K E. What is the change in enthalpy for 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Al2 O3(s) ? A. −1657. B. −1550.0 J/K E.

4 0 −273.3 +33. D.6 +51.5 +210.5 0 −271.8 +192. This reaction will be spontaneous at high temperatures.8 −241.7 +202.8 −46.1 −285.5 +86.11: Thermodynamic Properties of Some Substances (at Substance Al(s) Al2 O3(s) CO(g) CO2(g) F2(g) HF(g) H2 O(L) H2 O(g) N H3(g) N O(g) N O2(g) O2(g) o ∆Hf (kJ/mol) ∆Go (kJ/mol) f 0 −1582.8 +69.C.9 +197. This reaction will be spontaneous at low temperatures.1 0 −1675.1 +90.2 −237.8 +240.3 0 S o (J/mol · K) +28.1 +205.7 −110.9 +188.5 −393.ck12.8 +173.2 0 161 www. Table 27.org .3 +50.1 −228.6 −16.2 −394.3 −137.7 +213.

www.org 162 .ck12.

4. Write a half-reaction for the reduction process. 2. Determine the oxidation number for all atoms in the reaction.1 Origin of the Term Oxidation There are no worksheets for this lesson. If the atoms being oxidized and reduced are not already balanced in the half-reactions. Determine which atom is being oxidized and which is being reduced.2 Oxidation-Reduction There are no worksheets for this lesson. 1.3 Lesson 28.Chapter 28 Electrochemistry Worksheets 28.org . 5. balance them. Write a half-reaction for the oxidation process.3 Balancing Redox Equations Using the Oxidation Number Method Balancing Redox Equations Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Steps in the balancing redox equations process.2 Lesson 28. showing the species containing the atom being oxidized and the product containing that atom. 163 www. 28. 28.1 Lesson 28.ck12. showing the species containing the atom being reduced and the product containing that atom. 3.

12. − Step 8a: M nO4 + 5 e− + 8 H + → M n2+ + 4 H2 O www. add H2 O and H + . − 2− Given skeleton: M nO4 + C2 O4 → M n2+ + CO2 (in acid) Step 1: +7 −2 − M nO4 + +3 −2 2− C2 O4 → M n2+ +2 + CO2 +4 −2 (in acid solution) Step 2: M n+7 is being reduced to M n+2 and C +3 is being oxidized to C +4 . 7. Once the half-reactions are balanced. Add the appropriate number of electrons to each half-reaction needed to bring about the reduction and oxidation. add OH − and H2 O. Balance the H and O according to either (a) or (b) depending on whether the reaction is acidic or basic. 11. Check the equation to be sure that it is balanced by both atoms and charge. Add the two half-reactions and cancel those species that are common to both sides. Multiply each half-reaction by a whole number so that the total number of electrons in the reduction half-reaction equals the total number of electrons in the oxidation half-reaction. 9. Charge should now be balanced. 8. (a) If the reaction is acidic. Balance all other atoms in each half-reaction except H and O. then balance H by adding H + .6. and they each equal the LCM. Example of an acidic redox reaction balancing. The H should now be balanced. Balance charge first by adding OH − .org 164 .ck12. − Step 3: M nO4 → M n2+ 2− Step 4: C2 O4 → CO2 − Step 5: M nO4 → M n2+ and 2− C2 O4 → 2 CO2 Step 6: − M nO4 + 5 e− → M n2+ 2− C2 O4 → 2 CO2 + 2 e− Step 7: All atoms other than H and O are balanced. (b) If the reaction is basic. find the lowest common multiple (LCM) for the electrons in the two half-reactions. then balance O by adding H2 O. 10. Balance O first by adding H2 O.

− − Given skeleton: M nO4 + Br− → M nO2 + BrO3 (in basic solution) Step 1: − M nO4 + +7 −2 −1 Br− → +4 −2 M nO2 + +5 −2 − BrO3 (in basic solution) Step 2: M n+7 is being reduced to M n+4 and Br− is being oxidized to Br+5 . we will multiply the reduction halfreaction by 2 and the oxidation half-reaction by 1.2− Step 8a: C2 O4 → 2 CO2 + 2 e− Step 9: The lowest common multiple for the electrons is 10. − Step 10: 2 M nO4 + 6 e− + 4 H2 O → 2 M nO2 + 8 OH − − Step 10: Br− + 6 OH − → BrO3 + 6 e− + 3 H2 O Steps 11 and 12 (Cancel electrons. Br2 + SO2 → Br− + HSO4 (in acidic solution) 165 www. − Step 6: M nO4 + 3 e− → M nO2 and − Br− → BrO3 + 6 e− Step 7: All atoms other than H and O are balanced. Therefore. Therefore. − Step 10: 2 M nO4 + 10 e− + 16 H + → 2 M n2+ + 8 H2 O 2− Step 10: 5 C2 O4 → 10 CO2 + 10 e− − 2− Step 11 and 12: 2 M nO4 + 16 H + + 5 C2 O4 → 2 M n2+ + 8 H2 O + 10 CO2 Example of an basic redox reaction balancing. − Step 8b: M nO4 + 3 e− + 2 H2 O → M nO2 + 4 OH − − Step 8b: Br− + 6 OH − → BrO3 + 6 e− + 3 H2 O Step 9: The LCM for the electrons is 6.ck12. H2 O. − Step 3: M nO4 → M nO2 − Step 4: Br− → BrO3 Step 5: Both the atoms being oxidized and the atoms being reduced are balanced in the half-reactions. and OH − ): − − 2 M nO4 + Br− + H2 O → 2 M nO2 + 2 OH − + BrO3 Exercises Balance the following redox equations.org . − 1. we will multiply the reduction half-reaction by 2 and the oxidation half-reaction by 5.

4 Lesson 28. 5. 28. 3. 3. Which electrode is the cathode? A. Zn www. Which electrode is the anode? A. Zn C.4 Electrolysis There are no worksheets for this lesson. Zn C. − P bO2 + M n2+ → P b2+ + M nO4 (in acidic solution) − 2− − M nO4 + SO3 → M nO2 + SO4 (in basic solution) − 2− Zn + N O3 → N H3 + Zn(OH)4 (in basic solution) − H2 O2 + Cl2 O7 → ClO2 + O2 (in basic solution) 28.5 Lesson 28. 1. Neither.ck12.org 166 . P b B. At which electrode will oxidation occur? A. Neither.1 Use the standard cell sketched above to answer questions 1 . 4. P b B. 2.2.9. P b B.5 Galvanic Cells Electrochemical Cells Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Figure 28.

Becomes maximum.C. C. 4. 0. B. 167 www. 7. Decreases. C. Becomes a positive value less than maximum. C. What is the maximum voltage for this standard cell? A. No electron flow occurs. Remains constant.ck12.org .21. Use the standard cell sketched above to answer questions 10 . Drops to zero. B. B. D.63 V C. Zn C. Which electrode will gain mass as the cell runs? A. 8. C. 0. No cation flow occurs. Neither. What happens to the cell voltage when the reaction reaches equilibrium? A.89 V B. Which way do the electrons flow in the external circuit? A. 6. B.50 V 5.63 V E. Toward the Zn electrode. −0.89 V D. 0. Increases. −0. P b B. Neither. From P b to Zn. May increase or decrease. What happens to the cell voltage as the cell runs? A. Which way do cations flow through the salt bridge? A. 9. Toward the P b electrode. From Zn to P b.

1. 12. B. Which way do the electrons flow in the external circuit? A. From Zn to Al.2 10. Al B. 0. −2. From Al to Zn. B.90 V E. Toward the Zn electrode. No cation flow occurs. Zn C. Zn C.Figure 28. 14.80 V 13.42 V B. 2. C. C. Which electrode is the anode? A. 11.42 V C.90 V D.ck12. Which electrode loses mass as the cell runs? www. At which electrode does reduction occur? A. Neither. What is the voltage of this standard cell? A. Al B. Neither. −0. Toward the Al electrode. Which way do anions flows through the salt bridge? A. 15.org 168 . No electron flow occurs.

C.00 mole of atoms to be deposited on the cathode? A. Al B. How many moles of electrons pass through the external circuit in order for 1. If 24 electrons pass through the external circuit. how many atoms of aluminum must react? A. 0 18. 8 D. B. 2 E. 24 B. Remain the same.org .ck12. 16. 6 B. Neither. 12 C. Decrease. Increase. how many atoms of zinc must react? A. 20. 24 B. 1 17. 4 E. 12 C. What will happen to the voltage of the cell if the molarity of Zn2+ is increased? A. 169 www. 4 E. 0 19. 8 D. Zn C. 3 C. 4 D. Increase. What will happen to the voltage of the cell if the molarity of Al3+ is increased? A.A. If 24 electrons pass through the external circuit.

Yes B. Decrease slightly. C. No 24.org 170 . there are a total of three reduction half-reaction indicated. Zn C. . 21. CCBYSA. Will a reaction occur if aluminum metal is placed in a solution of Zn2+ ? A. . (2) Richard Parsons. B. Yes B. Increase slightly. Drop to zero. CCBYSA. No 25. What will happen to the voltage of the cell if the salt bridge is removed? A. Zn. D. Al B. 22. Will a reaction occur if Pb metal is placed in a solution of Al3+ ? A.B. In the two cells in this worksheet. Which of these three metals is most easily oxidized? A. www.ck12. Will a reaction occur if aluminum metal is placed in a solution of Zn2+ ? A. Remain the same. C. Al. No Image Sources (1) Richard Parsons. Yes B. and P b. Remain the same. Decrease. P b 23.

ck12. 171 www. The atomic number of an atom indicates the number of protons in its nucleus and the mass number of an atom indicates the total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.org . Every atom of a particular element has the same number of protons. Atoms with the same atomic number but a different mass number are called isotopes. A group of atoms of an element must all have the same number of protons but they may have several different numbers of neutrons. Nuclear notation is a shorthand way of writing information about a particular atom. 29.1 Lesson 29.2 Lesson 29. A particular atom of an element does not have to have the same number of neutrons.1 Discovery of Radioactivity There are no worksheets for this lesson.Chapter 29 Nuclear Chemistry Worksheets 29.2 Nuclear Notation Nuclear Notation Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ Background Each element has one or more atoms associated with it. An example of the accepted form of nuclear notation is shown below.

The mass number is represented in the image by the letter “A” and is positioned as a superscript preceding the X. 3 neutrons. and 3 electrons.org 172 . In the nuclear notation for this isotope of carbon. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. An atom contains 3 protons. Another isotope of carbon is a carbon nucleus that contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons. The nuclear notation for this isotope of carbon appears below.The large “X” represents the symbol for the element. showing this atom. like all carbon atoms. Indicate the number of protons.ck12. What is its mass number? 3. Since we know the carbon atom has 6 protons. Exercises 1. a subtraction of the atomic number from the mass number indicates the nucleus contains 6 neutrons. the mass number is 2 greater because the nucleus contains 2 more neutrons and the same number of protons. The atomic number is represented by the letter “Z” and is positioned as a subscript preceding the X. The mass number of 12 shows the nucleus contains a total of 12 protons and neutrons. www. 3 neutrons. and 3 electrons. What is its atomic number? 2. Here is an example of this notation using a carbon isotope that contains six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus. An atom contains 3 protons. has 6 protons in the nucleus. neutrons. We see a carbon atom represented with an atomic number of 6.

Number of protons = _____ 173 www. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. neutrons. Number of protons = _____ Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 5.ck12. neutrons. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. Indicate the number of protons.Number of protons = _____ Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 4.org . Indicate the number of protons. neutrons. Indicate the number of protons. Number of protons = _____ Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 6.

__________ 2. Write the nuclear symbol for an isotope of neon whose nucleus contains 10 protons and 10 neutrons.4 Lesson 29. 29.3 Lesson 29. __________ 3. 29. 8.Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 7.5 Lesson 29.5 Nuclear Equations Nuclear Equations Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.org 174 . 1 p 1 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above.4 Nuclear Disintegration There are no worksheets for this lesson.ck12. www. Write the nuclear symbol for an isotope of bromine whose nucleus contains 35 protons and 45 neuterons. 1 n 0 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. 29.3 Nuclear Force There are no worksheets for this lesson.

org . Multiple Choice 11. __________ 5. 28 26 Al → M g + ? 13 12 210 210 Po → At + ? 84 85 209 4 Bi → He + ? 83 2 242 12 1 Cm + C → 3 n + ? 96 6 0 223 226 1 Fr + ? → Ra + H 87 88 1 10. 82 175 www. . a single nuclear particle is missing.ck12. 9. 0 β -1 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. is bombarded with a proton. 8. An isotope of bismuth. 4 α 2 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. 6. 7. Write the complete nuclear symbol for the missing particle. The produce of the ensuing reaction is an isotope of element X and two neutrons.0 e -1 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. 209 Bi. What is the atomic number of this isotope of element X? A. __________ 4. __________ In questions 6 – 10.

B. What is the mass number of this isotope of element X? A. alpha C. is bombarded with a proton. An isotope of bismuth. Which of the following particles completes this equation? 238 U +4 He → 241 Pu + ? A.org 176 . 209 Bi. beta B. 14. None of these. 85 E.ck12. Which of the following particles completes this equation? www. 211 E. 210 D. beta B. 12. The produce of the ensuing reaction is an isotope of element X and two neutrons. proton D. 84 D. neutron E. 13. 15. neutron E. 83 C. None of these. 208 B. alpha C. Which of the following particles completes this equation? 241 Pu → 241 Am + ? A. None of these. 209 C. proton D. None of these.

What does it mean when an element is radioactive? A. 232 Ac D. If 234 T h undergoes beta decay. neutron E. it means that some of the atoms of the element emit radiation 177 www. 16. alpha C. beta B. 230 T h C. proton D. 235 U E. which of the following will be the resultant particle? A. 234 P a D. 236 N p B.6 Lesson 29. None of these. 233 P a 18. None of these. 234 Ra B. Write the nuclear equations for the decay of decays followed by a beta decay. What is the final particle after both decays? A.ck12.10 B → 6 Li + ? A. 230 P a C. 239 N p E.org . 17.6 Radiation Around Us Radioactivity Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1. 234 U undergoes alpha decay and the resultant particle undergoes beta decay. 210 P o if it undergoes two consecutive alpha 29.

gamma 6. All of the above are true. slow down neutrons in the reactor core D. Xe D. the purpose of the moderator is to A. it means that some of the atoms of the element are becoming more stable D. False 3. alpha B.org 178 .B. Stable systems have more potential energy than unstable systems. absorb neutrons in the outer containment structure C. beta C. All of the above. Gamma rays are emitted along with alpha and beta radiation. A. lost energy D. Within a nuclear reactor. neutron D. Rn 7. Kr C.ck12. lost charge C. 2. absorb neutrons in the reactor core B. it means that some of the atoms of the element are changing into atoms of different elements C. 4. What do gamma rays account for? A. slow down neutrons in the outer containment structure 5. Which of the noble gases is naturally radioactive and has no stable isotopes? A. Ar B. Which type of radiation is most similar to high-energy x-rays? A. True B. lost mass B. Which of the following best describes the operation of a cyclotron? www.

All of the particles listed above could be accelerated in a linear accelerator. an uncharged particle is accelerated to great speeds by a fast moving current of air B. electron E. insufficient data 179 www. radiation is always good for you D. beta C. you could conclude that the radiation was mostly A. man is responsible for all radiation E. gamma D.A.ck12. Which of the following changes occurs in a nucleus when a positron is given off? A. All of the above are false. x-ray E. 8. helium nucleus D. a neutron is produced 9. Which of the following statements is false concerning nuclear radiation? A. 10. a neutron is split into a proton and an electron E. 11. proton B. Which of the following particles could not be accelerated in a linear accelerator? A. the reading dropped to 50 counts per second. an uncharged particle is accelerated by alternating charges on adjacent Dees. An unknown type of radiation was giving a reading on a Geiger counter of 2000 counts per second. Based on this observation.org . exposure to radiation will always make you radioactive B. alpha B. a charged particle is accelerated by alternating charges on adjacent Dees while being subjected to a magnetic field which causes the particle to move in a curved path. solar radiation is more dangerous than nuclear radiation C. a charged particle is accelerated by changing charges in a series of pipes or tubes C. neutron C. a helium-4 nucleus is lost D. a proton is produced B. When a piece of paper was placed between the source and Geiger counter. a neutron is lost C. D.

16 days C. Insufficient data to determine. None of these.0 days D. Ernest Rutherford C.0 grams of a radioactive element is prepared in a nuclear reactor. Element X has only two isotopes. Henri Becquerel D. Marie Curie E.0 days E. 194 C. A. 20. 9. 24 days E.ck12.5 days B. 12 days 14. which of the two isotopes is most commonly found in nature? A.0 gram sample of the isotope half-life of this isotope? A. What is the 180 . Define the following terms. 16. Albert Einstein B.0 days. 8. 3.0 days B.0days. 1.6 days D. Pierre Curie 13. mass defect www.12. One of the isotopes has a mass number of 190 and the other has a mass number of 194. days D. 190 B.6. 193. How many days will it take before there is only 2. 6. 20.5 grams in 24. The two isotopes are equally common. E. Nuclear radiation was discovered by A. The half-life of the isotope is 3.org 131 I decays to 1.50 grams of the substance remaining? A. 15. A 12.0 days C. If the atomic mass of the element is 193.

7 Lesson 29. ionizing power H. 181 www. critical mass D.7 Applications of Nuclear Energy There are no worksheets for this lesson. fusion F. binding energy 29.org .B.ck12. beta decay G. fission E. chain reaction C.

www.ck12.org 182 .

ck12.2 Lesson 30. 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 183 www.2 Hydrocarbons Organic Nomenclature Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Name the following molecules. 30.Chapter 30 Organic Chemistry Worksheets 30.org .1 Carbon. A Unique Element There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 30.

______________ 9. ______________ 6. ______________ www.3. ______________ 7.ck12. ______________ 5. ______________ 4. ______________ 8.org 184 .

30. ______________ Draw the following molecules.5 Biochemical Molecules There are no worksheets for this lesson. 2-Dibromopropane 30.10. Methoxyethane 14. ______________ 11.2 .org . Image Sources 185 www.ck12.3 Aromatics There are no worksheets for this lesson. 1-Butyne 13.4 Lesson 30. Butanal 15.4 Functional Groups Have students continue with the Organic Nomenclature worksheet started in lesson 30.3 Lesson 30. 12. 1. 30.5 Lesson 30.

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