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Investigating the components of the theory of planned behavior that is attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control with the highest influence on adolescents sexuality, there is need to use different theories related to the problem under study. Theories used in this research are those related to adolescents development and the context in which those changes happen, and then theories concerning adolescents sexuality and the different forms of sexual behaviors carried out by adolescents. The first section discusses the definitions of adolescence according to times, culture, characteristics of adolescence and perceptions of late adolescents toward sexual behavior, the second section provides information regarding the prevalence of adolescent sexual behavior in other countries and Indonesia, third, the negative outcomes of adolescent sexual behaviors, fourth, the influence of culture on Indonesian adolescents sexuality will be discussed. The components of the Theory of planned Behavior (attitude, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms). Last is a summary which will explain the gaps from the prior literature, summarize the literature review, and identify the gaps between previous empirical studies and the current studies are addressed.

2.1 Literature review 2.1.1 Defining Adolescence Adolescence is a developmental period that was recognized after the industrial revolution of the 20 th century, primarily in Western countries. In the past, many cultures treated married people as adults regardless of their age; a person was a child then an adult. Since the timing of marriage is different across cultures, the variation of adolescence by culture exists. According to Koteskeys investigation, the minimum legal marriage age was 12 for women and 14 for men, in the Jewish, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and American cultures for 3000 years (Koteskey, 2003). In the Talmud, one Rabbi suggested that to be a good man is to lead his children in the right path, and he marries his children before they attain puberty (Koteskey, 2003). Another definition of adults in Ancient times was puberty. Some cultures regard an individual who has started puberty as an adult. Thus, there is no concept of adolescence in cultures that encouraged early marriage, or regarded puberty as a sign of adults. Puberty is now a sign of adolescence, not adulthood in westernizing countries (Petersen & Leffert, 1995). Although physical development such as puberty is still regarded as the hallmark of adolescence, researchers have started to consider other developmental domains related to adolescence: cognitive, moral, and psychosocial development (Petersen & Leffert, 1995). For instance, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines adolescence as the period of 10 to 19 years old from the perspectives of not only biological development but also psychological development and socioeconomic status (WHO, 2003). Age distinction provides another perspective on defining adolescence. Adolescence is the period from 10 to

20 years old and is further divided into three phases: early, middle and late adolescences (Petersen & Leffert, 1995). However, the age distinction varies significantly among definitions. For example, the Oxford English Dictionary (1961) defines adolescence as the process or condition of growing up; the growing age of human beings; the period which extends from childhood to manhood or womanhood; youth; ordinarily considered as extending from 14 to 25 in males and 12 to 21 in females(Oxford English Dictionary, 1961). The age distinction is continuously changing and only provides a general guideline, not a standard rule. While researchers agree that puberty is a starting point of adolescence (Petersen & Leffert, 1995), they are still looking for the cessation point of adolescence. This delineation could provide clear definition of what the adult role is. Neither marriage nor first sexual behavior are the criteria making the start of adulthood anymore (Pachauri & Santhya, 2002), because many university students engage in premarital sexual behavior during adolescence in modern societies. Also, the extended duration of education influences the average age of a first marriage, childbearing, and adolescent sexual behavior. Therefore, there is a need to identify criterion of adult role for defining adolescence. The following section will briefly explain the characteristics of the three stages of adolescence., social and biological changes in adolescence A. cognitive changes The major cognitive development of some adolescents is the ability to reason obstructively. Piagets period of formal operations describes the adolescents cognitive developments. According to Piaget, formal operation allows a person to

reason obstructively and systematically about abstract concepts and scenarios. This ability allows an individual to think about concepts such as politics, justices and causes of human behaviors. Adolescence is a time of increased decision making about the future, which friends to choose, which collages to attend, which person to date and whether to have intercourse (Santrock, 2003). However, one wonders how competent are, adolescents to make competent decisions? In some reviews, older adolescences are described as being able to make wise decisions as compared to young adolescences, which in turn are more competent than children. Compared to children, young adolescences are more likely to generate opinions, examine situations from different perspectives and can anticipate the consequences of their decisions and to consider the credibility of the sources. Being able to make wise decisions does not guarantee that one will be in position to make them in everyday life, so this is where experience comes into play.

B. social changes Enhanced cognitive ability of adolescents allows them to take other points of view easily, to see themselves as they imagine others see them. This new ability leads them to distortion of how societies see them. Imaginary audience this is a situation where adolescents see them themselves as actors and everyone else as an audience. This makes them to be more confident of themselves and finally get embarrassed; adolescents see themselves as stars and they assume that they have more extra abilities and privileges. They may have unprotected sex as they think that they are immune to possible consequences (Santrock, 2003). One possible consequence of imaginary audience is teenagers vulnerability of peer pressure, in regard to their

appearance; they are self-conscious and are easily made to feel different given their common talk as Bad things happen to others not me Social cultural settings also exert pressure on adolescents on understanding who they are. Social identity is one of the major activities of adolescents this is when they have to decide on who they are and what society wants them to be. At this is a period, family support becomes central in the provision of social support to help them develop good self concepts through democratic process (Santrock, 2003). They also feel the consequences of social changes, need attention paid to them to develop good self-concepts and identity. They also have social roles expected of them from their societies. They are expected to become responsible adults and obedient children. Both childish behaviors like dependency and adult behaviors like smoking and sexual intercourse are taboos and these have always resulted into conflicts and developing extreme views about what they know little. Their hopes are always different from those of their parents, as they always demand for freedom as compared to children (Santrock, 2003).

C. biological changes Adolescence begin with puberty, a period when hormones cause sex organs to mature and secondary characteristics begin to appear, such as breasts for girls and facial hairs for boys. Puberty is a Latin word which means a period when an individual is sexually active. According to Lerner Steinberg (2005) its a period of dynamic biological change that causes psychological and social changes as an individuals continues to define his/her self identity in society.

Puberty from a biological perspective makes the sexual organ ready for sexual activities like intercourse, this is due to hormonal factors for boys and its characterized by ejaculation during wet dreaming, and for girls, its characterized by menstruation for the first time. This menstruation or puberty appears with secondary characteristics for both sexes and for boys, they experience enlargement of the penis and tentacles, pubic hair, changing in voice and the appearance of the beard. While for girls, the secondary characteristics are enlargement of the breasts, changes in the voice that is it becomes more soft and sexy, widening of the hips and the growth of pubic hair under the armpits and the private parts. Other characteristics are general development of the body, increase in height and weight for both sexes (Cobb, 2007). Puberty does not only cause biological changes but also psychological and social changes are experienced by the adolescents (Lerner Steinberg, 2005). Hormonal changes influence emotions, cognitive and behaviors of adolescents. The new perspective of human development, during puberty, the brain the brain is experiencing development and it influences the hormones and physical maturity which can be displayed or seen at a given moment. For example anti-social behaviors, physical aggression, conduct disorder, behavior problems, delinquency and risky sexual behaviors. According to most adolescents, puberty is seen as a process of transition that is full of pressure that triggers negative emotions and depressions from the social environment. When individuals experiences puberty, the older generation expects them to remain obedient children and well behaved adults, environments like family and peers have different expectations for adolescents and chief among them is to control their behaviors. Besides that, physical developments also have got a

role to play in influencing the body image appropriate with what the peers expect him/her to appear (self-image). This kind of pressure puts adolescents at a continuum where they need assistance to enable them adapt to the changes they experience. Context in Adolescences Development Context is a situation where development takes place and its influenced by factors like historical, economic social and cultural. All those changes explained above occur differently to adolescents in different settings with different economic, social and cultural diversities (Santrock, 2003). A. Family context Family is a social system where an individual interacts with different sub-systems. In a family adolescents get socialized and balancing as well where there is children and adolescents. Usually, adolescents take their parents as parents take them. The consequences of this balance are the most important for effective socialization. Many researchers have documented how interaction between parents and adolescents are taking place in a coordinated manner and how behaviors are controlled. There are many changes that happen to adolescents like puberty, development of logical thinking associated by systematic idealistic thinking and the increased need to win him/her self, changes at school or college, peers, friendship, dating and the move toward independence. When children enter this period, parents start thinking about the health of their children, the future, whether its appropriate with their desires, the sexual argue which has declined yet for children its at its peak. The increased demand for freedoms is valued as a sign of disrespect for parents. Dating, autonomy and feeling of responsibility are sources of conflicts for

many parents with their adolescents. Parents always anticipate conflicting conditions with more strict rules and these conflicts according to the new perspective of human development, conflicts can be controlled by parents acting as role models to their children, sources of power and supportive systems which are important in adolescents development. From psychological perspective, a health family is one that involves adolescents in important decision making, train them to be responsible become productive to themselves and society in general. B. peer influence Autonomy to adolescents is important and it must be accompanied by increased interaction with peers. These assume increased importance in influencing attitudes and behaviors. As adolescents advance in age, they tend to spend more time with their friends and parents influence declines which makes them fear that peer and group assume control powers over their children. Peer influence is significant at all ages, from early childhood through old age. The concept of peer influence applies to people of all ages, this influence increase during middle adolescence but after some time, it declines, this is because by late adolescence, people are aware of their values and capable of autonomous judgments and dont have to rely on their parents or peers. It should be noted that the increasing peer attachment should not occur at the expense of parental attachments. Adolescents with positive relationship with their parents through childhood are more likely to develop a positive self-esteem. Increasing peer influence should not undermine parental influence at any one time. Parents and peer both influence adolescents attitudes and behaviors often in a complimentary fashion.

One of the functions of peers is that they provide accurate information about the world outside the family. From group members, adolescences learn their personal roles, social skills and what friends expects of them they compare what they do with others good or bad so the positive peer influence need to be developed in the social setting where adolescence develop. One may ask, what is the interaction of the family and peer or group influence to adolescents? Parents are supposed to act as role models as they interact with their friends; this provides adolescents with good live examples on how to maintain friendship. An adolescent that has a positive example from parents, will have a positive interaction with his/her peers. Peer pressure and conformity, this is both negative and positive (Wall, 1993). Adolescences engage in all sorts of negative behaviors for example stealing, vandalize and make fun of their parents and teachers. However, a great deal of peer conformity like dressing like friends and wanting to spend a lot of time with group members is not negative instead reflects a desire to be involved in the peer world. The main reason for conformity is that many of adolescents develop conflicts with their parents and the only source of help is the peer members who always sideline with each other even when they are wrong, their support and solidarity remains stronger. Adolescence interaction is not only confined to peers of the same sex but also to peers of opposite sexes in their activities of dating or romantic relationships. Majority of adolescents in America begin their dating activities as early as 14-15, dating for adolescents is a form of recreation, social status and its success forms a basis of socialization through learning about relationships as its a source of sexual activities, source of togetherness, support and identity through choosing a partner.

During dating, girls feel more pressure to conform than boys, while are more interested in sexual intercourse and their role is pro-active yet for girls there is recreative. Love during adolescence begins from liking, developing interest followed by dating and then romantic relationships follow.

C. School context School is not only for intellectual development for adolescents but it also acts as a place for social development. The best school for adolescence is one that pays attention to individual differences and focuses on social and emotional as well as intellectual developments. As they continue with the journey of adolescence, there are many changes that are always faced by adolescents. One of which is changing of school and levels up to when they join higher institutions of learning, this may happen more than three times; junior school, primary, secondary and finally higher institutions. At every level of transition, adolescents experience what psychologists call top-dog (atopdown phenomenon). In this process, adolescents move from higher positions from their former schools (in primary school from the highest class) and as they advance in their educational career, joining secondary education they are always at the lowest level, this puts them at a continuum where they need social support to adopt with the transition. A school that provides support for adolescents faces few abnormalities and complexities as they struggle with their adaptations as compared to schools that provide limited or no support.

2.1.2 Adolescences Sexual Behaviors Types of Sexual Behaviors Sexual behaviors constitute a behavior performed due to sexual arousal and this can be with the same sex or opposite sex. These forms of sexual behaviors can be kissing, hugging or making soft touches. These begins with and individual having interest, dating one another, sweet talking and coitus acts, sexual object can be an individual himself or another person or ones fantasy (Sarwono, 2002). From human development perspective, right from childhood to adolescence there different sexual behaviors performed (Lerner and Steinberg, 2005): a. Necking This is a physical intimate due to casual kissing which is limited to few body parts like forehead, around the neck, or above, this may take a specific form like kissing of the lips, cheeks or eyebrows. b. Petting This is a physical contact which does not involve sexual organs, but this act is intended to arouse erotic sexual feelings through hugging, holding sexual organs inside or outside ones pants, holding of ones hands while making soft touches on sensitive body parts like on the thighs which moves toward making sexual organs coming into contact while with pants. c. Premarital intercourse This is a physical contact that involves sexual organs coming into contact or bodyto-body contacts with or without contraceptives. Adolescents behaviors that express love and are regarded as sexual behaviors are necking, petting and intercourse. These three forms of behaviors are the basis of specific sexual behaviors of adolescents which develop into sexual intention. Based on that back

ground, the researcher will use Hurlock theory because it gives detailed explanations about systematic sexual behaviors of adolescents. Intercourse can be understood through the following explanations as given below: 1. Autoerotic Activities Autoerotic activities are sexual behaviors done by an individual alone. These behaviors increase by age after puberty; these are inform of fantasies, masturbation or looking at pornographic pictures or other related pornographic materials like films (Blue movies). Both girls and boys have these behaviors during childhood; however, boys are more likely than girls to practice these behaviors. Masturbation for boys is for sexual fantasy, like having intercourse, but for girls are more interested in fantasies with serious relationship which does not involve erotics. 2. Non Coitus Activities With a Couple The sexual behaviors which are common here is discussion about sexual experiences, holding of hands, kissing, reading or watching pornographic materials especially boys, often masturbate between friends or touching the sexual organs of his friends. There is much empirical evidence that hold that non coitus activities are intended to derive sexual satisfaction and enjoyment (Bauserman & Davis, 1996; Rind, 2001; Sandfort, 1992; Savin-William). During adolescence, dating takes on added importance (Feiring, 1995) as they spend more time either dating or thinking about dating, and this has gone beyond its original courtship during the 21st century which is a function of recreation, source of status, achievement and learning about close relationships this is a task of all adolescents developing from nonsexual child to sexual adult. Elkind (1980) point out the societal factors that have contributed to the enhanced sexual activities; rapid changes in social values, women liberation movements,

increasing divorce rates and the dating activities of parents; all these have contributed greatly to an enhanced environment that support sexuality of adolescents because of the decline of parents and institutional authorities to execute their roles. Some researchers have continuously documented the increased sexual orientation of the daughters of divorced women, pressure from media, peers, and even parents influence on girls to date and become sexually active before they are ready to and without enjoying it. Although the trend is toward increasing sexual behavior, researchers have always noted that university students in 1999, sexual activities were very low as compared to adolescents sexual behaviors in 2007. For example they report of adolescents increased homosexuality, group sex and sex with animals was down, but reports of masturbation, premarital sex with someone or anyone than intended marriage partner and oral all increased. 3. Coitus activities Coitus activities are also known as intercourse which involve the union of sexual organs of a boy (penis) and that of a girl (Vagina) (Hyde, 1990). Adolescents sexual fantasies are increasing and this usually starts with necking or kissing around the body like lips, followed by petting where the sexual organs comes into contact while with clothes this stage is the most tempting for adolescents because their self perceived behavior controls are weak, this petting is followed by sexual organs coming into contact without clothes. According to (Santrock, 2003) about adolescents oral sexuality strengthened that sexual behaviors are sequential. The only sexual behavior discussed here is non coitus which finally turns out to be coitus behavior, It starts with holding of hands, followed by kissing, necking, making soft touches on ones body without clothes, soft touches on the penis with or without pants, soft touches on the


vagina with or without pants and finally intercourse penis-vagina (Halpern, Joyner, 2000 & Steinberg, 2003). According to Hurlock (1973) there several stages through which adolescents go through before intercourse, this explains how adolescents express love to one another (Lovers) and the following are the stages: d. Keepsakes Whoever has the one he/she loves, is an important person in the life of adolescence. e. Constant Association Feelings felt by adolescences when they separate with the person he/she loves although that separation is for a time being, its something great. All efforts are made by the person to get back together with that person. f. Confidence An adolescent, who is in love, feels the need to share his/her feelings, desires joy and sorrows with the person he/she loves. g. Creative expressions When at a distance, an adolescent who is in love sends a letter to the lover, poetry, writes in his/her diary or makes some thing for his lover. h. Jealousy Whoever shows special interest in individuals expressing feelings of love, will develop feelings of jealousy toward the lover.

13 Factors Influencing Adolescences Sexual Behaviors Adolescence is a period of sexual exploration and experimentation with sexual fantasies and realities, of incorporating sexuality into ones identity (Christopher, 2001). Most adolescent have insatiable curiosity about sexual mysteries. They think whether they are sexually attractive, how to do sex, and what the future hold for their sexual lives. Many adolescents manage to develop a mature sexual identity yet others face times of vulnerability and confusion along lifes sexual journey. In some societies, adults try to protect adolescents females from males; yet other societies encourage early marriages, while others allow sexual

experimentation, although there is a controversy about how far sexual experimentation should be allowed to take place. However, its important to remember that adolescents sexuality is a normal aspect of adolescents development. Several sources mention different reasons as to why adolescents engage in sexual behaviors. As a means of comparison, the researcher will focus at 2 different sources well from within and outside Indonesia. According to (Lerner and Steinberg, 2005), the strongest predictor of adolescents sexual behaviors is their sexual intention. The following are some of the reasons why adolescents engage in sexual behaviors:

a. To fulfill sexual desires The increasing desires to meet the sexual argue is one of the reasons why adolescents engage in sexual behaviors. Although there are hormonal changes, but these do not cause sexual desires but there are other forces which come into play to

drive adolescents into sexual behaviors and the need to do away with the sexual argue becomes central and among the methods that is always opted for is masturbation which is a sexual behavior without partner that requires one to manipulate his/her sexual organs to derive satisfaction. b. Desire to know The desire to know more about sexuality is another important reason as to why many adolescents engage in sexuality. They begin by discussing what they see in films, magazines and what they read on the internet or hear from others even what they see on some television stations. Besides parents and friends, media is yet another important source of information through adolescents of the 21st century learns about sexuality. c. Related to emotions Adolescents sexual activity is not for popularity and maturity but also more to get a partner and finally love. To attain social status during adolescence is one of the reasons as to why they indulge themselves in sexual behaviors. Having sex is a sign to show that they are free from parental strict supervision, religion and social norms. Romantic relationships are seen as opportunities for them to have intercourse. When they are romantic relationships, adolescents experience emotions either from their parents or other individuals who are against such behaviors, according to them the only way as a means of compensation is to have intercourse. Usually the performance of these behaviors is due in part to love and its effects are more on boys than girls.


Having sexual intercourse with a partner becomes a basis for girls to develop emotional closeness, yet for boys, sexual intercourse is a basis for partnership and physical enjoyment. Other sources have also added on the reasons as to why adolescent indulge in sexual behaviors and have documented that its intended to reduce on the negative emotions and that it helps them to avoid other problems. The above explanations shows sexual behaviors outside Indonesia and if compared with the current situation here, supported by research from an organization called friendly adolescences 2000, it can be said that sexual behaviors of adolescents is as a result of interaction of internal and external factors, and environments plays an important role in influencing these behaviors as seen below: 1. Sexual experiences are developed through activities like hearing, viewing, and having intercourse. All these motivate adolescents to develop desires for intercourse. Experiences are got from pictures showing erotic women and men on magazines who disguises as dressed but in the actual sense of the word are necked, pornographic films, internet and discussions with friends about sexuality. 2. Personality factors like self-respect, self-control, self-responsibility coping with stress and the ability to make good decisions. Adolescents, who develop a positive self-image, will have strong motivation against sexual behaviors. 3. Understanding and practicing religious values. Adolescents who hold strong religious values always look for other possible productive means that are satisfying as opposed to sexuality. 4. Family influence and parents in particular. The absence of positive communication system between parents and adolescents about sexuality has a strong influence on the way adolescents think about their sexual activities.

Its accepted by psychologists that openness about sexuality through discussions with parents helps adolescents to have accurate information about their sexuality and finally helps them delay their sexual activities. 5. Knowledge about reproductive health, adolescents who have proportional understanding about reproductive health he/she will be aware of the risks and possible alternatives to manage sexual argue in a health and health responsible manner. As seen above, religious values can be taught to adolescents as a measure to control their sexual desires. Religious values should be taken as an important tool in the control of adolescents sexuality, besides, information needed by adolescents needs to be reinforced by family members especially parents in particular so that they can have clear and accurate information about their sexual behaviors. Consequences Of Adolescences Sexual Behaviors Though most adolescents become sexually active during adolescence, most of them engage in sexual activities than others as well and have a number of partners at a time. Adolescents are the lease users of contraceptives which makes them more vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. These consequences can be seen from different perspectives: 1. Unwanted pregnancy: Most adolescences pregnancies carry with them several risks that are (Dani, 2001): a. Medical risks; pregnancy during adolescence is associated with many medical risks, this is because, during this time reproductive organs are still developing and cannot faction optimally. This happens because at the age of 20 according to medical recommendations is when the womb is ready to function and protects

the uterus to develop. Before the age of 20, the muscles are not yet ready to expand and contract so if an adolescent gets pregnant, she is more likely to experience problems during delivery. Additionally, at the age of 14-15, the hormonal system is not yet stable as this can be evidenced from the unstable menstruations, unstable pregnancies, internal bleeding, abortions and death, womb cancer is yet another consequence for those who conceive at an early age. b. Social and psychological risks According to Kinsey (Dani, 2001) fear and worries toward unwanted pregnancy were 44% of the girls who were respondents of the study and had experience of sexual activities and pregnancy. And about 89% conformed to moral and social not and not because of health reasons. When adolescents get pregnant, feelings of shame and guilt are highly experienced by the victims especially if its know to the parents. But what make the problem of adolescences pregnancy more stressing are the parents reactions that always are unable to face the reality proportionally, and this at times results into traumatic violence toward the victim consequently a situation of continued depression all the time.

c. Future risks From adolescents perspectives, pregnancy antagonizes with future pans. For example when its during school time, the consequences are that one may drop out of school, thus colliding with ones future hopes. On the side of the unborn baby, he/she will experience unhappy conditions in life because the mother cannot provide adequate care required for the proper development of the infant not only that but also that children born during adolescence will grow up experiencing social rejection and lacks love from both parents.

d. Psychological risks The changing roles from adolescents to parenting for girls who decide to carry on their unwanted pregnancies until delivery, automatically they develop new roles as a mother. Pregnancy during adolescence is risky to the mother and the baby as well. Usually babies by mothers who are under age are characterized by low weight during delivery and most of them dont live to celebrate their first birthday. An adolescence who conceives has higher chances of dropping out of school and these decisions are a basis to have all the future plans about education frustrated and all hopes for better jobs cannot be realized by the decisions taken. Additionally adolescences that become pregnant are at risks of anemia and other health complications related to being unready for pregnancy compared to mothers of 20-24 years. Adolescents are 2 times likely to produce babies of underweight and this puts the baby at risk of mental and physical development. Adolescents who become mothers are less able to extend comprehensive care to their children and always have few hopes for the development of their children as compared to mothers who are of appropriate age for giving birth, so as a result, such children cannot pass intelligence tests very well, not only that but also their children develop behavioral problems as they grow up. Adolescences that give birth end up losing their adolescence period and privileges like interacting with their peers and dating. For boys are forced out of school and as a result these young fathers seek jobs with low salaries and poor wages (Santrock, 2003: 413: 415). 2. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS)


These are diseases contracted through sexual intercourse, it needs to be noted that these contacts are not limited to vaginal only but also oral-genital and anal-genital (Santrock, 2003). There are several sexually transmitted diseases for example syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDs and many others. All these diseases carries with them different health threats ranging from blindness, infections on the reproductive system and death. Indonesian Cultural Influences on Adolescence Sexuality Culture is the social context, and plays an important role in prevalence of certain behaviors (Maxwell, 2002). Sexual behavior, especially, is viewed in the context of social values, and social acceptance of adolescent sexual activity is different across cultures. For instance, cross cultural psychologist Marshali Segall and colleagues (1990, p. 244), wrote that across all countries, sex is understood to be something females have that males want He added that cultures everywhere attribute greater values for females than males sexuality. Thus, empirical studies have been focused on developing education programs to reduce risky sexual behavior and promote contraceptive methods such as condom use. Health insurance companies in the U.S support this objective by covering contraceptive supplies and services (CDC, 2004). The goal of Healthy People 2010 shares the same view for the solution of the problem of pregnancies resulting from adolescent sexual behavior: support, value and stimulate actions that are consistent with a pregnancy-free adolescence. Indonesian cultures on the other hand, set different objectives in relation to adolescent sexual behavior; find a way to promote sexual abstinence until marriage . Indonesians share certain values such as order, harmony, family closeness and


premarital chastity. All behaviors in relation to premarital sex are regarded as social evils in these societies; and contraceptive use by adolescents is not accepted. Adolescents are expected not to demean their parents since academic achievement is the first step to being successful in life and is away to upgrade parents. Therefore, adolescents try to devote their time and energy to studying until they are accepted to university in order to follow their parents authority and pay off a debt toward their parents sacrifices. In other words, attending University is a way to fulfill obligations toward parents and an indirect expression of how much children are under parental control in Indonesia. With regard to family unity, the family is considered as a collective element in itself, not the aggregation of each member. This is reflected in the Indonesian language where they use the plural possessive instead of the singular possessive when they refer to their family. Each member has a strong loyalty, obligation for each other and feelings of togetherness within the family. Traditionally, adolescents are expected to remain sexually inactive, abstinent until marriage (Denis, 1966). Young children are separated from the opposite gender when they reach 7 years old to maintain sexual ignorance and early marriages are encouraged to avoid the problem of teenager sexual activity. However, the abstinence canon is more strictly applied to girls rather than boys. Virginity for girls is a prerequisite to have an ideal (normal) marriage as being a wife rather than a concubine. Given these views, there is a double standard in relation to adolescents sexual behavior in modern Indonesian society. A boys sexual behavior is still considered an indicator of masculinity and a way to maintain his health; yet, a girl is expected to have the responsibility for appropriate sexual behavior that is to maintain her virginity until marriage.

A child out of wedlock and premarital sex is the girls family disgrace as well as the girls stigma in Indonesia which is rooted in the Asian values of female chastity and a patriarchal family structure. Because the child who is born out of wedlock cannot earn the patriarchal last name in Indonesia and people easily detect the childs secret related to the birth, the social stigma influences the childs entire life. These unique phenomena induce big gender differences in relation to premarital sex and an unusually high abortion rates in Indonesia. In summary, culture mediates psychosocial factors in relation to sexual behavior and actual sexual behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand cultural schemas in terms of sexuality for developing effective sex education programs (, 2002). The biggest challenge related to adolescent sexual behavior in Indonesian societies is how to address the adolescent desire to engage in premarital sexual behaviors and how to develop a sex education programs intended to protect adolescences from the negative outcomes of the premarital sexual behavior not accepted by the traditional cultures. Only a sex education programs that incorporates the cultural influences can be effective in Indonesia if rates of abortions, AIDS, and other related sexual behaviors are to be minimized.

2.1.3 Theory of Planned Behaviors The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is widely used in explaining human behavior and for identifying how and where to target strategies for changing behavior (Ajzen, 1991). It views human beings as capable of reasoning to decide their behaviors (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989). The TpB was developed as an extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to overcome the main criticism that the TRA model did not consider intentions and behaviors that are not completely under perceived control

(Fishbein, & Muellerleile, 2001). Thus, the TpB adds perceived behavioral control to the original TRA model. Both theories emphasize intention, as the best predictor of a corresponding behavior (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989). In the 1960s, Fishbein and colleagues started to investigate human behaviors based on models of intention. They revealed that intention plays an important role in areas such as what items people buy, what they do in their leisure time, what type of contraceptive they use and why they engage in premarital sexual intercourse (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1975). The TRA and the TpB are focused on individual behaviors rather than population. A specific behavior can be predicted by the specific attitude and subjective norms that correspond to a specific target, time and context of behavior (Werner, 2004). That is, these theories seek determinants of specific behaviors and give guidelines for intervention and behavioral change for specific behaviors (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989). Intention as the proximal determinant of a corresponding behavior under a perceived behavioral control is determined by attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 2002; Fishbein, 1989). The purpose of this study is to find out the most influential predictor of sexual behaviors using variables derived from Ajzens TpB in order to explain intentions of premarital sex of adolescences.

Intention Determinates The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and its expansion, the Theory of

Planned Behavior (TpB), have been widely used to predict and explain the relationship between health-related intentions and behaviors (Bryan & Fisher, 2002). When the theory was first developed, it was first applied mostly to populations older than

adolescents (Adler et al, 1990). Before the 1990s few studies applied TRA and TpB to adolescents (Parcel, 1992; Black, Kaljee, 1993) because researchers believed that adolescents behaved impulsively rather than with intention yet these are rational actors. Currently, more and more researchers use the two theories to find effective models not only for adults but also for adolescents, to explain the determinants of AIDS-preventive behaviors, and to delay adolescent sexual initiation (Ajzen, 2002, 2003). However, there remains a need to apply the TpB to various samples because of inconsistent findings according to the age of participants, ethnic groups, and genders (Bogart, 2000).

A. Attitudes These are an individuals positive or negative belief about performing a specific behavior. These beliefs are called behavioral beliefs. An individual will intend to perform a certain behavior when he or she evaluates it positively. Attitudes are determined by the individuals beliefs about the consequences of performing the behavior (behavioral beliefs), weighted by his or her evaluation of those consequences (outcome evaluations). Those attitudes are believed to have a direct effect on behavioral intention and are linked with subjective norm and perceived behavioral control.

B. Subjective norms Subjective norms are also assumed to be a function of beliefs that specific individuals approve or disapprove of performing the behavior. Beliefs that underlie subjective norms are termed normative beliefs. An individual will intend to perform a certain behavior when he/she perceives that important others think he/she should. Important others might be parents, peers, brothers and sisters. The TPB took into account that all behavior is not under volitional control and that behaviors are

located at some point along a continuum that extends from total control to a complete lack of control. The individual may have total control when there are no constraints of any type to adopting a particular behavior. At the opposite extreme, there may be a total lack of control if adoption of a given behavior requires opportunities such as going to party with a friend who has a boy /girl friend which he/she may be lacking. Control factors include both internal and external factors. Internal factors are such things as skills, abilities, information, emotions such as stress. External factors include such things as situation or environmental factors. To overcome this limitation, Ajzen modified the Theory of Reasoned Action by adding a third antecedent of intention called perceived behavioral control.

C. Perceived behavioral control Perceived behavioral control refers to the degree to which an individual feels that performance or nonperformance of the behavior in question is under his or her volitional control. Adolescents are not likely to form a strong intention to perform a behavior if they believe that they do not have any resources or opportunities to do so even if they hold positive attitudes toward the behavior and believe that important others would approve of the behavior (subjective norm). Perceived behavioral control can influence behavior directly or indirectly through behavioral intentions. A direct path from perceived behavioral control to behavior is expected to emerge when there is some agreement between perceptions of control and the persons actual control over the behavior.



Behavioral beliefs Outcome Evaluation

Attitudes Towards behaviors

Normative beliefs Motivation to comply

Subjective norms


Sexual Behavior

Control beliefs Perceived Power

Perceived behavior control

Actual behavior control

Figure 2.1 theory of planned behavior (2006)

In perspective of the above, there are two dimensions concerning the theory of planned behavior. (a) The first being perceived behavior control implication from motivation toward intention. An individual who is sure about the absence of opportunity for performing a target behavior, he/she is said to have a negative attitude toward that behavior, even if that person holds positive beliefs about social expectations from significant others who support the performance of the behavior.

(b) There is a direct connection between perceived behavior control and performance of the target behavior. The performance of a b ehavior does not only depend on motivation or willingness but its also influenced by control of the target behavior to the extent that perceived behavior control can influence a target behavior indirectly through intention and it can be used to predict behavior through actual behavior control. However, perceived behavior control is used as a predictor of behavior when an individual has uniformity between perceived control and actual control toward the target behavior. Ones background plays an important ro in the le formation of attitude, normative beliefs and control beliefs; background like information, social context and personal factors, every individual posses different information about the consequences of a target behavior. This is due in parts that people are brought up in different environments which provides with them different information. Belief Formation To explain human behavior, the theory of planned behavior talks about antecedent from attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as predictors of intention and behavior. The theory postulates that behavior is a function of information or beliefs related to target behavior, an individual can have many beliefs about a target behavior but they only follow a few which are relevant at that time. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) the beliefs about an object constitutes the basis for the formation of attitude toward that object which finally determines the intention about its performance. Furthermore, it was discovered that beliefs are

values or experiences an individual hold toward a given aspect in the world where he/she lives. From the above definition, it can be said that beliefs are the interactions between two aspects in an individuals world. Belief formation depends on the information an individual holds about something, similarly, beliefs are different depending on the information possessed by individuals. The formation of beliefs can be seen from three dimensions: (1) Through direct experience with the object which is related to the formation of descriptive beliefs. Descriptive beliefs are obtained through direct observation that an object has some attributes concerning the five senses of man. For example an individual can see, feel or smell the taste of food being cooked. (2) Through making conclusions from a given phenomenon (individual logical thinking) which forms inferential beliefs. Usually, all beliefs pass through this process concerning characteristics which are not directly observed, for example honesty, friendly, respect or cleverness. The conclusion concerning beliefs is based on descriptive beliefs which an individual holds or based on inferential beliefs held by an individual. (3) Through receiving information which finally forms informational beliefs. Information can be acquired from many different sources like news papers, books, televisions, radios, friends, internet, relatives, and workmates. The available information can also result into descriptive beliefs meaning that the individual is sure of the source of information about the object with many attributes. Its easily said that beliefs can be formed through two ways that is direct experience in a given situation where an individual is in position to know


that there is a connection between two attributes and the same individual can be made aware through different sources that an object has so attributes.

In a nutshell, concerning the three determinants of intention, it can be said that beliefs about consequences as a result of indulging in a given behavior is based on (attitude toward behavior), beliefs about hopes of a communities toward the individual for the formation of belief or not to indulge in a target behavior is based on the subjective norms and beliefs about the existence of factors that facilitate or inhibit the performance of a behavior through perceived behavior control.


Beliefs that sexual behavior leads to certain consequences Evaluation of sexual behavior outcome Beliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behavior Motivation to comply with the specific referents Parent, peers, sisters, brothers Control beliefs (CB) Likelihood of performing sexual behavior or not Perceived behavioral control Attitude towards sexual behavior

Personal -Age, (19-21) - gender, Social -level of education,

Subjective norm

Behavioral intention toward sexual behaviors

Sexual behavioral

-Societal factors,

Actual behavior control

Figure 2.2 Proposed Research framework


The above research framework is a guiding tool for the researcher in the process of looking for the predictor of intention with the highest influence on adolescences sexuality. Intention is a function of three determinants that is attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control toward a target behavior. After data analysis, the researcher will make recommendations from an informed point of view about the most influential predictor of adolescences sexual behaviors basing on intention of the three components that predicts a behavior.

2.14 Dynamics of the TPB Towards Intention of Sexuality of Adolescences Intention towards sexual behavior: to perform sexual behavior, Intentions are assumed to capture the motivational factors that influence a behavior; they are indications of how hard adolescents are willing to try, of how much of an effort they are planning to exert, in order to perform the sexual behavior. As a rule, the stronger the intention to engage in sexual behavior, the more likely should be its performance. Ajzens theory of planned behavior (TPB) consists of a set of variables that attempt to explain sexual behaviors. The TPB is an expansion of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980, 1975). TRA prescribes that performance of behaviors can be predicted by attitudes toward the behavior, and the influence of significant others, mediated by intentions to perform (or not perform) the behavior. TPB expands the TRA by extending an additional predictor, perceived behavior control over performance of the behavior (Ajzen, 1988; 1991). Hence, the TPB prescribes two layers that is social behavior or behavioral intention:

31 TPB Direct variables According to the TPB there are three direct variables which are required to predict behavior (B) and behavioral intention (I). The first variable is attitude towards the behavior (AB), which is a personal factor that refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of a particular behavior. The second factor is subjective norm (SN), which is a social factor that refers to the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior. The third factor is the degree of perceived behavioral control (PBC), which refers to the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behavior. The theory postulates that these three direct variables (AB, SN, and PBC) influence the individuals intention to perform a given behavior (I), and intention together with perceived behavioral control, in turn; influence the individuals actual behavior.

A. Attitude toward sexual behavior These are determined by adolescence beliefs toward the outcome or attributes of their sexual behaviors (behavior beliefs) weighted by evaluation of those outcomes or attributes. Thus, a student who holds strong beliefs that positively valued outcomes will result from performing sexual behavior will have a positive attitude toward the behavior. However, an adolescence that holds strong beliefs that negatively valued outcomes will result from sexual behavior will have a negative attitude toward the behavior.

TPB asserts that the most important determinant of behavior is a persons behavior intention. The direct determinant of an individual behavior intention is their attitude toward performing a behavior and their subjective norms, perceived behavior control associated with the behavior, adolescences attitudes are determined by their individual

beliefs about the outcomes of performing sexual behavior (behavior beliefs) weighted by evaluation of those outcomes.


Subjective norms Adolescences subjective norms are determined by their normative beliefs and motivation to comply, whether important or referent individuals approve or disapprove performance of sexual behaviors, and he or she is motivated to meet the expectations of those referent or important people. Thus, adolescences who believe that certain referent or important persons think he or she should perform sexual behavior, and he or she is motivated to meet the expectations of those people will hold a positive subjective norm. However, adolescences who believe those referents like parents, friends, think he or she should not perform sexual intercourse will have a negative subjective norm, and a student who is less motivated to comply with those referents will have a relative neutral subjective norm.


Perceived behavior control Perceived behavior control are determined by control beliefs concerning the presence or absence of facilitators or obstacles to behavior performance weighted by the perceived power or impact of each other factor to facilitate or to inhibit the behavior. Beliefs are developed from ones past experience, which might be acquired through direct or indirect experiences through observation of friends and other factors, which can remind, strengthen or weaken the intention to perform a target behavior.


Thus adolescences, which hold a strong control belief about existence of factors that facilitate the sexual behavior, will have high-perceived control over sexual behavior. However, adolescences that hold strong control belief about the existence of factors that impede sexual behavior will have low perceived control over sexual behavior. However, sexual behavioral can be explained if the behavior in question is under volitional control, for example, if adolescents can decide at will to perform or not perform the behavior. Although sexual behaviors may in fact meet this requirement quite well, the performance depends at least to some degree on such non motivational factors as availability of opportunities and re- sources (for example, time, money, skills, cooperation of others). Collectively, these factors represent adolescents actual control over sexual behavior. To the extent that adolescence has the required opportunities and resources, and intends to perform the sexual behavior, he or she has higher chances of doing so. TPB Indirect Variables a. The AB indirect factor includes the salient beliefs about that behaviour, termed behavioural beliefs (ABi). The behavioural beliefs reflect the extent to which the individual believes that engaging in the behaviour will lead to favourable outcomes. The behavioural beliefs (ABi) are composed of two parts: perceived consequences of performing the behaviour (BI) and the evaluation of those consequences (EI). b. The SN indirect factor includes the salient beliefs about specific individuals or groups approval or disapproval of performing that behaviour, termed as normative beliefs (SNi). The normative beliefs reflect the extent to which the individual believes that significant


others think the behaviour should be performed. Normative beliefs (SNi) also involve two parts: the perceived expectation of others and individuals motivation to comply with those expectations (MK). c. Finally, the PBC indirect factor includes the salient beliefs regarding the presence or absence of resources and obstacles that may promote or hinder an individuals engagement in the behaviour, termed control beliefs (PBCi). Control beliefs comprise of two parts: perceived control concerning the performance of the behaviour (CB) and evaluation of about the likelihood that the occurrence of object of the control belief facilitates or inhibits performance of the behaviour. External Variables According to Ajzen & Fishbein (1980), demographic variables such as age and sex; considered external variables, may cause considerable variations, but only to the extent that an individual attributes personal attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control to them. These external variables mediate behaviour and give rise to variations in salient beliefs, belief strengths (BI), outcome evaluations (EI), normative beliefs (NK), and motivation to comply (MK), control beliefs (CB), and likelihood of occurrence behavior. Figure 2.5 represents the relationship of the direct, indirect and external variables on intention and behavior. Ajzen & Fishbein (1980). Societal Factors Many societal factors have greatly contributed to sexual behaviors of adolescents. Rapid change in social values, the increasing divorce rates and the new dating styles of parents in the presence of their adolescents. This creates a more overt sexuality, the

decline of parental and institutional authority, which has almost made sexuality of adolescents almost permissible.


Summary and Gaps in the Literature This reviews the importance of a theory-driven study in explaining sexual behavior and the relationships among the variables focusing on psychosocial cognitive predictors and TpB components. The reported findings of sexually active U.S adolescents compared to their counterparts in Indonesia is still lower which suggests that adolescent sexual behavior is not prevalent in Indonesia but its steadily increasing. (However, the reported statistics must be viewed cautiously given the fact that Indonesian perceives adolescent sexual behavior as a moral issue. Thus, Indonesian adolescents may not respond candidly to questions on sexual behaviors. A review of the literature and previous studies, however, support the need for theorybased interventions designed to reduce the negative outcomes associated with risky sexual behavior. One theoretical framework, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) has strong evidence that assists researcher to identify potential determinants of risky sexual behavior and the framework provides a basis for the development of strategies to help adolescents delay initiation of sexual behavior in westernized cultures. Even though there is a dearth of theory-driven studies in Indonesia, within the last decade sexual activity among Indonesian adolescents has increased and Indonesian researchers and administrators have focused on reducing risky sexual behaviors. Furthermore, only a few studies have targeted adolescences sexual behavior with adequate sample sizes in Indonesia.


Additionally, cultural differences greatly impact on social acceptance of adolescent sexual activities and patterns of adolescent sexual behaviors. Due to cultural differences, a review of the literature supports the need to tailor sex education programs to the specific culture and sage of adolescent rather than adopt a Western-style program. Therefore, there is a need to examine whether the TpB, one of the most successful theory models utilized to predict various behaviors, can explain adolescent sexual behavior within Indonesian cultures. Based on the literature review, a number of areas were identified that required more in-depth examination in order to provide guidelines for the development of an effective sex education program in Indonesia. First, researchers need to identify whether an outcome behavior can also be culturally accepted as an intervention target. For example, in Indonesia an intervention designed to promote abstinence among adolescence is possible because: (1) Premarital sex is not culturally accepted, (2) Indonesians are reluctant to use condoms due to social stigma, and (3) Abortion is considered as the best method to avoid premarital motherhood. Second, researchers need to clarify whether a target behavior can be defined in terms of the four theory elements: Target, Action, Context and Time (TACT) described in the theoretical framework section. Since, the TpB was developed to change a specific behavior, not a general behavior; it is very important for researchers to clearly identify which specific behavior can also serve as a target behavior and thus become the target intervention within the identified framework. Finally, researchers need to examine the effectiveness of the TpB to explain Indonesian late adolescents sexual behavior, since the significances of the TpB components and explained variances using the TpB vary according to target behaviors


and populations. Therefore, this study will test the utility of the TpB to provide a preliminary insight on how to develop an effective sex education program in Indonesia.

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is widely used for explaining human behavior and for identifying how and where to target strategies for changing behavior (Ajzen, 1991). It views human beings as capable of reasoning to decide their behaviors (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989). The TpB was developed as an extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to overcome the main criticism that the TRA model did not consider intentions and behaviors that are not completely under volitional control. Both theories emphasize intention, the best predictor of a corresponding behavior. In the 1960s, Fishbein and colleagues started to investigate human behaviors based on models of intention. They revealed that intention plays an important role in areas such as what items people buy, what they do in their leisure time, what type of contraceptive they use and why they engage in premarital sexual intercourse (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1975). The TRA and the TPB are focused on individual behaviors rather than population. A specific behavior can be predicted by the specific attitude and subjective norms that correspond to a specific target, time and context of behavior (Werner, 2004). These theories seek determinants of specific behaviors and give guidelines for intervention and behavioral change for specific behaviors (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1989). Intention as the proximal determinant of a corresponding behavior and is determined by attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control (Ajzen, 2002; Fishbein, 1989).