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# PowerPic Reference Sheets for k-2 Math Common Core Standards

Based on the following PowerPics by Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin Kindergarten PowerPics First Grade Math PowerPics Second Grade Math PowerPics Third Grade Math PowerPics

counting 1 to 5

Common Core Standards K.CC.1. Count to 100 by ones and by tens. Question: What is counting 1 to 5? Answer: Counting 1 to 5 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Gesture: Hold up one finger for each number until you are holding up five fingers. Teaching Suggestion: Using various groups of objects and numbers, teach students how to count from 1 to 5. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is 1, 2, 3 counting 1 to 5? (Vary the sequence, occasionally using the correct number set.) 2. Is this the counting 1 to 5 picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the counting 1 to 5 PowerPix occasionally.) 3. Is this the counting 1 to 5 gesture? (Make various gestures; include the counting 1 to 5 gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting 1 to 5 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 2. Counting 1 to 5 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 3. Counting 1 to 5 is counting 2, 3, 4, 5. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with counting 1 to 5 and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting 1 to 5 and other Power Pix.

counting 1 to 10

Common Core Standards K.CC.1. Count to 100 by ones and by tens. Question: What is counting 1 to 10? Answer: Counting 1 to 10 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Gesture: Hold up one finger for each number until you are holding up ten fingers. Teaching Suggestion: Using various groups of objects and numbers, teach students how to count from 1 to 10. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 counting 1 to 10? (Vary the sequence, occasionally using the correct number set.) 2. Is this the counting 1 to 10 picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the counting 1 to 10 Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the counting 1 to 10 gesture? (Make various gestures; include the counting 1 to 10 gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting 1 to 10 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 10. 2. Counting 1 to 10 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 3. Counting 1 to 10 is counting 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with counting 1 to 10 and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting 1 to 10 and other Power Pix.

pointer counting

Common Core Standards K.CC.1. Count to 100 by ones and by tens. K.CC.2. Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1). K.CC.3. Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). K.CC.5. Count to answer ―how many?‖ questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects. Question: What is pointer counting? Answer: Pointer counting is pointing and counting. Gesture: Use the index finger of one hand to point at and count three fingers on the other hand (saying, ―one, two, three‖ as you point). Teaching Suggestion: Use various props and/or groups of objects to teach students the concept of pointer counting, i.e. pointing at objects and counting them. Next, have students repeat after you, as you point at objects in the classroom and count aloud. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this pointer counting? (Point at and count various objects in the classroom. Occasionally, to demonstrate incorrect pointer counting, say the alphabet or nonsense words in place of numbers.) 2. Is this the pointer counting picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the pointer counting Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the pointer counting gesture? (Make various gestures; include the pointer counting gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Pointer counting is pointing and counting. 2. We start counting with one. 3. Pointer counting is counting 4, 8, 9. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the pointer counting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the pointer counting and other Power Pix.

equal numbers (with 3 = 3) Common Core Standards K.CC.6. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1 K.CC.7. Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals. Question: What are equal numbers? Answer: Equal numbers are the same numbers. Gesture: Hold up three fingers on each hand, showing equal numbers. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write equal number pairs on the board, using numbers from 1 to 10, for example 1 = 1, 3 = 3, etc. In some examples, make one number taller than the other or a different color, so that students understand equal numbers refers to number value not height or color. Using the number pairs on the board and various groups of objects, teach students the concept of equality. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are these equal numbers? (Point at various objects, letters, numbers, including the equal numbers on the board.) 2. Is this the equal numbers picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the equal numbers Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the equal numbers gesture? (Make various gestures; include the equal numbers gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Four and four are equal numbers. 2. Four and six are equal numbers. 3. Three and three are equal numbers. 4. Equal numbers are the same number. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with equal numbers and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for equal numbers and other Power Pix.

equals sign

Common Core Standards K.CC.6. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1 K.CC.7. Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

Question: What is the equals sign? Answer: The equals sign means ―the same as.‖ Gesture: Make an equals sign by holding your forearms parallel to the ground in front of your body. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write groups of numbers on the board, some of which include the correct use of the equals sign. Explain the concept of equality and the equals sign. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an equals sign? (Point at various symbols/numbers on the board, including correct examples of the equals sign.) 2. Is this the equals sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the equals sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the equals sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the equals sign gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The equals sign means ―one more than.‖ 2. The equals sign means ―the same as.‖ 3. Two plus two equals four. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the equals sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the equals sign and other Power Pix.

less than

Common Core Standards K.CC.6. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1 K.CC.7. Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals. Question: What is less than? Answer: Less than is when one group is less than another group. [Note: Though, in general, we try to avoid ―kid talk‖, it is sometimes useful to describe abstract concepts, like less than, in concrete terms, ―one group is less than another‖, as we have here. This teaching preference in early education for the concrete over the abstract dates back, at least, to Piaget.] Gesture: Hold up one finger on one hand and five fingers on the other hand. Say the answer as follows, ―Less than is when one group (waggle one finger) is less than another group (waggle five fingers).‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach more than and less than together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, make simple drawings of objects on the board, i.e. two circles and two squares, three houses and two cars, one tree and one dog. Use the drawings and various props and/or groups of objects, to teach students the concept of less than. Use pointer counting to compare the number of objects in two groups. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this group less than this group? (Point at various groups of objects and drawings on the board.) 2. Is this the less than picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the less than Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the less than gesture? (Make various gestures; include the less than gesture occasionally.) 4. Is two apples less than ten apples? (Insert other numbers and examples.) 5. Am I holding up less than five fingers? (Hold up your fingers in various combinations.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Two is less than one. 2. Less than is when one group is less than another group. 3. You have less than 30 toes. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the less than and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the less than and other Power Pix.

more than

Common Core Standards K.CC.6. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1 K.CC.7. Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals. Question: What is more than? Answer: More than is when one group is more than another group. [Note: Though, in general, we try to avoid ―kid talk‖, it is sometimes useful to describe abstract concepts, like more than, in concrete terms, ―one group is more than another‖, as we have here. This teaching preference in early education for the concrete over the abstract dates back, at least, to Piaget.] Gesture: Hold up three fingers on one hand and two fingers on the other hand. Say the answer as follows, ―More than is when one group (waggle three fingers) is more than another group (waggle two fingers).‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach more than and less than together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, make simple drawings of objects on the board, i.e. two circles and two squares, three houses and two cars, one tree and one dog. Use the drawings and various props and/or groups of objects, to teach students the concept of more than. Use pointer counting to compare the number of objects in two groups. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this group more than this group? (Point at various groups of objects and drawings on the board.) 2. Is this the more than picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the more than Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the more than gesture? (Make various gestures; include the more than gesture occasionally.) 4. Is ten desks more than four desks? (Insert other numbers and examples.) 5. Am I holding up more than two fingers? (Hold up your fingers in various combinations.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Two is more than one. 2. More than is when one group is more than another group. 3. You have more fingers than eyes. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with more than and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for more than and other Power Pix.

Addition

Common Core Standards K.OA.1. Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings 1, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. K.OA.2. Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. Question: What is addition? Answer: Addition is putting together. (If you prefer a definition that is more complete, use ―Addition is putting numbers or things together.‖ The definition we have used, ―Addition is putting together‖ makes a clear contrast to our definition of subtraction, ―Subtracting is taking away.‖) Gesture: Start with your hands wide apart. Then, hold up two fingers on one hand and three fingers on the other hand. Finally, bring your two hands together so that you are showing your students a group of five fingers. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach addition and subtraction together) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write simple addition and subtraction problems on the board. Use these problems and groups of objects to teach students the concept of addition. Point out that adding with numbers always involves a plus sign. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an addition problem? (Point at various problems on the board.) 2. Is this the addition picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the addition Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the addition gesture? (Make various gestures; include addition occasionally.) 4. Is four plus six addition? (Use other examples, including subtraction, ―Is 9 minus 3 addition?‖ 5. Do we always use a plus sign in addition? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Two plus two is an addition problem. 2. Three take away two is an addition problem. 3. Addition is putting numbers or objects together. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with addition and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for addition and other Power Pix.

Subtraction

Common Core Standards K.OA.1. Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings 1, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. K.OA.2. Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. Question: What is subtraction? Answer: Subtraction is taking away. Gesture: Hold up two fingers on one hand next to three fingers on the other hand. Then move the hand with three fingers away, symbolizing ―taking away.‖ Teaching Suggestion: (teach addition and subtraction together) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write simple addition and subtraction problems on the board. Using these problems and groups of objects and numbers, teach students the concept of subtracting. Point out that subtracting in math problems always involves a minus sign. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a subtraction problem? (Point at various problems on the board.) 2. Is this the subtraction picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the subtraction Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the subtraction gesture? (Make various gestures; include the subtraction occasionally.) 4. Is subtraction taking away? 5. Do we always use a minus sign in subtraction? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Three minus one is a subtraction problem. 2. Three take away two is an subtraction problem. 3. Subtraction is taking away. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with subtraction and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for subtraction and other Power Pix.

minus sign Common Core Standards K.OA Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. Question: What is a minus sign? Answer: A minus sign shows subtraction. Gesture: Hold one forearm parallel to the ground, making a minus sign. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write a list of subtraction and addition problems on the board. Use these problems to show students examples of how a minus sign appears in simple subtraction. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a minus sign? (Point at numbers, minus signs and plus signs on the board.) 2. Is this the minus sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the minus sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the minus sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the minus sign occasionally.) 4. Is the minus sign used in addition? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A minus sign shows one number is added to another. 2. A minus sign is used in subtraction problems. 3. A minus sign is the same as a number. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with minus sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for minus sign and other Power Pix.

plus sign Common Core Standards K.OA Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. Question: What is a plus sign? Answer: A plus sign shows addition. Gesture: Cross your forearms making a plus sign. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write a list of addition and subtraction problems on the board. Explain the concept of the plus sign and addition and contrast it with the minus sign and subtraction. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a plus sign? (Point at numbers, minus signs or plus signs on the board.) 2. Is this the plus sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the plus sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the plus sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the plus sign occasionally.) 4. Does the plus sign show addition? 5. Does the plus sign show subtraction? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The plus sign is a number. 2. The plus sign shows addition. 3. One plus one is two. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the plus sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the plus sign and other Power Pix.

addition sign Common Core Standards K.OA Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. Question: What is the addition sign? Answer: The addition sign is the plus sign. Gesture: Cross your forearms in a plus sign. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach the addition sign and subtraction sign together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write simple addition and subtraction problems on the board. Use these problems and groups of objects to teach students the difference between the addition sign and the subtraction sign. Point out that adding with numbers always involves a plus sign; subtracting with numbers always involves a minus sign. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this an addition sign? (Point at various problems on the board.) 2. Is this the addition picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the addition sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the addition sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include addition occasionally.) 4. Is four plus six addition? (Use other examples, including subtraction, ―Is 9 minus 3 addition?‖) 5. Do we always use a plus sign in addition? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The addition sign is the plus sign. 2. The plus sign is the same as the minus sign. 3. Addition is putting numbers or objects together. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the addition sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the addition sign and other Power Pix.

subtraction sign Common Core Standards K.OA Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. Question: What is the subtraction sign? Answer: The subtraction sign is the minus sign. Gesture: Hold up one forearm and make a minus sign. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach the addition sign and the subtraction sign together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write simple addition and subtraction problems on the board. Using these problems and groups of objects and numbers, teach students the concept of subtracting. Point out that subtracting with numbers always involves a minus sign. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this the subtraction sign? (Point at various problems on the board.) 2. Is this the subtraction sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the subtraction Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the subtraction sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the subtraction occasionally.) 4. Is subtraction taking away? 5. Do we always use a minus sign in subtraction? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The subtraction sign is the minus sign. 2. The subtraction sign is different than the minus sign. 3. Three minus one is a subtraction problem. 4. Three take away two is an subtraction problem. 5. Subtraction is taking away. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the subtraction sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the subtraction sign and other Power Pix.

Counting by 2s Common Core Standards 2.OA.3. Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends. Question: What is counting by 2s? Answer: Counting by 2s is 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and so on. Gesture: Hold up 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 fingers Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write lists of numbers on the board. Some lists are counting by 1s, 2s, 5s, 10s and other lists contain random numbers. Explain the concept of counting by 2s. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this counting by 2s? (Point at various lists.) 2. Is 2, 4, 6, 8 counting by 2s? 3. Is this the counting by 2s gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is 1, 2, 3, 4, counting by 2s? 5. Is this the counting by 2s Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting by 2s is 9, 7, 18. 2. Counting by 2s is 10, 9, 8, 7. 3. Counting by 2s is 2, 4, 6, 8. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with counting by 2s and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting by 2s and other Power Pix.

1s place Common Core Standards K.NBT.1. Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 1.NBT.1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Question: What is the 1s place? Answer: The first number on the right is the 1s place. Gesture: Hold up four fingers on one hand. With the other hand, grab the first finger on the right and wiggle it. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach 1s place, 10s place, 100s place, and 1000s place together.) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write a list of numbers on the board and explain the concept of the 1s place. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this the 1s place? (Point at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is the 1s place the first number on the right? 3. Is this the 1s place gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the 1s place the first number on the left? 5. Is this the 1s place Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. In the number 21, the number 2 is in the 1s place. 2. In the number 9, the 9 is in the 1s place. 3. The 1s place is the first number on the right. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 1s place and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 1s place and other Power Pix.

10s place

Common Core Standards K.NBT.1. Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 1.NBT.1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Question: What is the 10s place? Answer: The second number from the right is the 10s place. Gesture: Hold up four fingers on one hand. With the other hand, grab the second finger from the right and wiggle it. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach 1s place, 10s place, 100s place, and 1000s place together.) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write a list of numbers on the board and explain the concept of the 10s place. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this the 10s place? (Point at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is the 10s place the first number on the right? 3. Is this the 10s place gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the 10s place the second number from the left? 5. Is this the 10s place Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. In the number 42, the number 4 is in the 10s place. 2. In the number 34, the 4 is in the 10s place. 3. The 10s place is the second number from the right. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 10s place and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 10s place and other Power Pix.

100s place Common Core Standards 1.NBT.1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Question: What is the 100s place? Answer: The third number from the right is the 100s place. Gesture: Hold up four fingers on one hand. With the other hand, grab the third finger from the right and wiggle it. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach 1s place, 10s place, 100s place, and 1000s place together.) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write a list of numbers on the board and explain the concept of the 100s place. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this the 100s place? (Point at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is the 100s place the third number from the right? 3. Is this the 100s place gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the 100s place the first number from the right? 5. Is this the 100s place Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. In the number 321, the number 3 is in the 100s place. 2. In the number 431, the number 3 is in the 100s place. 3. The 100s place is the third number from the right. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 100s place and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 100s place and other Power Pix.

1 less than rule Common Core Standards 1.NBT.1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Question: What is the 1 less than rule? Answer: To subtract 1 from a number, subtract 1 from the 1s place. Gesture: Wave 1 finger and then point down. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach the 1 more than rule, 1 less than rule, 10 more than rule and 10 less than rule together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write numbers on the board. Then use these numbers and a number line, and show students how decreasing the number in the 1s place, subtracts 1 from a number. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is 10 one less than nine? 2. Is six one less than seven? 3. Is this the 1 less than rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. To subtract 1 from a number, do we subtract 1 from the 1s place? 5. Is this the 1 less than rule Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Four is one less than five. 2. To subtract 1 from a number, subtract 1 from the 1s place. 3. Three is one less than four. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 1 less than rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 1 less than rule and other Power Pix.

1 more than rule Common Core Standards 1.NBT.1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Question: What is the 1 more than rule? Answer: To add 1 more to a number, add 1 to the 1s place. Gesture: Wave 1 finger and then point up. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach the 1 more than rule, 1 less than rule, 10 more than rule and 10 less than rule together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write numbers on the board. Then use these numbers and a number line, and show students how increasing the number in the 1s place, adds 1 to a number. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is 10, one more than nine? 2. Is five, one more than three? 3. Is this the 1 more than rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. To add 1 more to a number, do we add 1 to the 1s place? 5. Is this the 1 more than rule Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Eleven is one more than 15. 2. To add 1 more to a number add 1 to the 10s place. 3. Three is one more than four. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 1 more than rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 1 more than rule and other Power Pix.

10 less than rule Common Core Standards 1.NBT.5. Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used. Question: What is the 10 less than rule? Answer: To subtract 10 from a number, subtract 10 from the 10s place. Gesture: Wave 10 fingers and then point down. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach the 1 more than rule, 1 less than rule, 10 more than rule and 10 less than rule together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, Write numbers on the board. Then, use these numbers and a number line to show students how decreasing the number in the 10s place, subtracts 10 from a number. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: *** rephrase questions below? 1. Is five, 10 less than 20? 2. Is five, 10 less than 15? 3. Is this the 10 less than rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. To subtract 10 from a number, do we subtract 10 from the 10s place? 5. Is this the 10 less than rule Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Fifteen is 10 less than five. 2. To subtract 10 from a number, subtract 10 from the 10s place. 3. Twenty is 10 less than 30. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 10 less than rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 10 less than rule and other Power Pix.

10 more than rule Common Core Standards 1.NBT.5. Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used. Question: What is the 10 more than rule? Answer: To add 10 more to a number, add 10 to the 10s place. Gesture: Wave 10 fingers and then point up. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach the 1 more than rule, 1 less than rule, 10 more than rule and 10 less than rule together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write numbers on the board. Then use these numbers and a number line, and show students how increasing the number in the 10s place, adds 10 to a number. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is 20, ten more than ten? 2. Is five, ten more than 10? 3. Is this the 10 more than rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. To add 10 more to a number, do we add 10 to the 10s place? 5. Is this the 10 more than rule Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Fifteen is 10 more than five. 2. To add 10 more to a number, add 10 to the 10s place. 3. Twenty is 10 more than 10. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the 10 more than rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the 10 more than rule and other Power Pix.

counting by 5s

Common Core Standards 2.NBT.2. Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s. Question: What is counting by 5s? Answer: Counting by 5s is 5, 10, 15, 20 and so on. Gesture: Hold up five fingers over and over as you say, ―5, 10, 15, 20.‖ Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write lists of numbers on the board. Some lists are counting by 1s, 2s, 5s, 10s and other lists contain random numbers. Explain the concept of counting by 5s. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this counting by 5s? (Point at various lists.) 2. Is 2, 4, 6, 8 counting by 5s? 3. Is this the counting by 5s gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is 5, 10, 15, 20 counting by 5s? 5. Is this the counting by 5s Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting by 5s is 1, 2, 3, 4. 2. Counting by 5s is 5, 10, 15, 20. 3. Counting by 5s is 3, 6, 9, 12. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with counting by 5s and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting by 5s and other Power Pix.

counting by 10s

Common Core Standards K.CC.1. Count to 100 by ones and by tens. 2.NBT.2. Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s. Question: What is counting by 10s? Answer: Counting by 10s is 10, 20, 30, 40 and so on. Gesture: Hold up 10 fingers over and over as you say, ―10, 20, 30, 40.‖ California State First Grade Math Standard: Number Sense 2.4: Count by 2s, 5s, and 10s to 100. First Grade Power Pix Math, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin 30 Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write lists of numbers on the board. Some lists are counting by 1s, 2s, 5s, 10s and other lists contain random numbers. Explain the concept of counting by 10s. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this counting by 10s? (Point at various lists.) 2. Is 10, 20, 30, 40 counting by 10s? 3. Is this the counting by tens gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is 5, 10, 15, 20 counting by 10s? 5. Is this the counting by tens Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting by 10s is 1, 2, 3, 4. 2. Counting by 10s is 5, 10, 15, 20. 3. Counting by 10s is 10, 20, 30, 40. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with counting by 10s and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting by 10s and other Power Pix.

expanded form

Common Core Standards 1.NBT.2. Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: a.10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a ―ten.‖ b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Question: What is expanded form? Answer: Expanded form is writing a number in 1s and 10s. Gesture: Hold up two fingers on one hand. With the other hand wiggle the first finger to the right as you say ―1s‖, then the next finger as you say ―10s.‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach expanded form after teaching 1s place, 10s place, 100s place.) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write pairs of numbers on the board; one of the two numbers is in expanded form. For example, write 34 and 30 + 4. Explain the concept of expanded form to your students. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this number in expanded form? (Point at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is expanded form writing a number in 1s and 10s? 3. Is this the expanded form gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is 20 + 4 the expanded form of 29? 5. Is this the expanded form Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The expanded form of 34 is 30 + 4. 2. The expanded form of 22 is 2 + 2. 3. Expanded form is writing a number in 1s and 10s. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with expanded form and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for expanded form and other Power Pix.

less than/more than rule Common Core Standards 1.NBT.3. Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

Question: What is the less than/more than rule? Answer: The less than/more than rule is: the arrow always points at the smaller number. Gesture: Make a V with two fingers on one hand, like the less than/more than symbol. With one finger on the other hand, indicate the point of the V and say ―less than.‖ Then indicate the opening of the V and say ―more than.‖ For additional clarity, make the same symbol with the other hand, so that the V points the opposite direction. Again, indicate the point of the V and say ―less than‖ and the opening of the V and say ―more than.‖ Students will understand the V can point to the left or the right. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write examples on the board of less than/more than relationships (10<15, 18>2.) Explain to students that the point on the V always indicates the smaller number. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this the less than/more than symbol? (Point at various symbols/numbers on the board.) 2. Does this say _____? (Fill in the blank, depending on the numbers you are pointing at. If you’re pointing at, 22>13, you would ask, ―Does this say 22 is greater than 13?‖ You could also ask, ―Does this say 22 is less than 13?‖) 3. Is this the less than/more than rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the less than/more than symbol the same as the equals sign? 5. Is this the less than/more than rule Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Nineteen is less than twenty. 2. The less than/more than arrow always points at the smaller number. 3. The less than/more than arrow always points at the larger number. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the less than/more than rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the less than/more than rule and other Power Pix.

Calendar Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is a calendar? Answer: A calendar shows the months of the year and the days of the week. Gesture: Move one hand through the air, left to right and then right to left, as if searching for a date on an imaginary calendar. Teaching Suggestion: Use a calendar to show your students its major features. Explain the difference between days, months and a year. (For kindergartners, this may amount to no more than indicating that months have lots of days and years have lots of months.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a calendar? (Point at various objects in the classroom, including the calendar.) 2. Is this the calendar picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the calendar Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the calendar gesture? (Make various gestures; include the calendar gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The calendar tells us about hours and minutes. 2. A calendar shows the months of the year and the days of the week. 3. A calendar has a big hand and a little hand. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with calendar and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for calendar and other Power Pix.

days of the week Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What are the days of the week? Answer: The days of the week are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Gesture: Hold up one finger for each day of the week, until you are holding up seven fingers. Teaching Suggestion: Use a calendar and other appropriate materials to teach your students the days of the week. Make a one week calendar on the board. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this ______? (Point at various days, on the one week board calendar; ask ―Is this Monday ... Tuesday ... ― ) 2. Is this the days of the week picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the days of the week Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the days of the week gesture? (Make various gestures; include the days of the week gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. There are seven days of the week. 2. January is one of the days of the week. 3. Monday is one of the days of the week. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with days of the week and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for days of the week and other Power Pix.

Evening Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is evening? Answer: Evening is after the sun sets. Gesture: Make a circle with both hands and then bring your hands down, (symbolizing the sun setting). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach morning, noon, afternoon and evening together.) Explain the relationship between sunset and evening. Draw or show pictures that represent the evening (stars and moon out, lights on, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the evening? (Point at various drawings or pictures.) 2. Is this the evening picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the evening Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the evening gesture? (Make various gestures; include the evening gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Evening is after the sun sets. 2. Evening is when the sun rises. 3. Evening is nighttime. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with evening and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for evening and other Power Pix.

Morning Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is a morning? Answer: Morning is when the sun rises and we wake up. Gesture: Make a stretching motion like you are waking up. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach morning, noon, afternoon and evening together.) Explain the concept of morning to your students. Ask exploratory questions like, ―What are things you do in the morning? ... What do your parents do in the morning? ... What do you do on mornings when you go to school? .... What do you do on mornings when you don’t go to school?‖ Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Do we wake up in the morning? (Include examples of activities that are, and aren’t, associated with the morning.) 2. Is this the morning picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the morning Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the morning gesture? (Make various gestures; include the morning gesture occasionally.) 4. Does morning start before lunch? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Morning is when the sun rises and we wake up. 2. Morning is when the sun sets and we go to sleep. 3. Morning is before lunch. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with morning and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for morning and other Power Pix.

Noon Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is noon? Answer: Noon is when both clock hands are on the 12 and we eat lunch. Gesture: Put both hands over your head, like clock hands pointing at 12, and then use an imaginary spoon to put food in your mouth. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach morning, noon, afternoon and evening together.) Explain the concept of noon to your students. Use a clock with moveable hands to show students the position of the hands at noon. (Save the concept of midnight for later in the year!) Ask exploratory questions like, ―What are things you do at noon? ... What do your parents do at noon? ... What do you do at noon when are in school? .... What do you do at noon when you don’t go to school?‖ Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this noon? (Move the clock hands to various positions; occasionally put both hands pointing at 12.) 2. Is this the noon picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the noon Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the noon gesture? (Make various gestures; include the noon gesture occasionally.) 4. Is noon before breakfast? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Noon is when the sun rises and we wake up. 2. Noon is when the sun sets and we go to sleep. 3. Noon is when both clock hands are on the 12 and we eat lunch. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with noon and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for noon and other Power Pix.

Tomorrow Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is tomorrow? Answer: Tomorrow is the day after today. Gesture: Put your palms together and then point both arms straight ahead (as if making an arrow toward the future, tomorrow.) Teaching Suggestion: (teach today, yesterday and tomorrow together.) Using a calendar, show students the day it is today (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) Show students what day it was yesterday and what day it will be tomorrow. Explain to students that tomorrow comes after today. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Will tomorrow be Thursday? (Substitute other days of the week. Return several times to the correct day for tomorrow.) 2. Is this the tomorrow picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the tomorrow Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the tomorrow gesture? (Make various gestures; include the tomorrow gesture occasionally.) 4. Was this morning part of tomorrow? 5. Is tomorrow the day after today? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Tomorrow is the day before today. 2. Tomorrow is the day after today. 3. Tomorrow will be ______. (Insert correct or incorrect day.) Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with tomorrow and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for tomorrow and other Power Pix.

Today Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is a today? Answer: Today is the day we are in right now. Gesture: Clap hands twice. And then point at the ground (symbolizing ―right now‖). Say, ―Today is the day we are in right [clap] now [clap].‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach today, yesterday and tomorrow together.) Using a calendar, show students the day it is today (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) Show students what day it was yesterday and what day it will be tomorrow. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is today Wednesday? (Substitute other days of the week. Return several times to the correct day for today.) 2. Is this the today picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the today Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the today gesture? (Make various gestures; include the today gesture occasionally.) 4. Was this morning part of today? 5. Will this evening be part of today? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Today is the day we are in right now. 2. Today is ______. (Insert correct or incorrect day.) 3. Today is yesterday. (Or, tomorrow.) Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with today and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for today and other Power Pix.

Yesterday Not in Common Core Standards but is a Core Concept Question: What is yesterday? Answer: Yesterday is the day before today. Gesture: Jerk your thumb over your shoulder, indicating yesterday is ―past.‖ Teaching Suggestion: (teach today, yesterday and tomorrow together.) Using a calendar, show students the day it is today (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) Show students what day it was yesterday and what day it will be tomorrow. Explain to students that yesterday comes before today. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Was yesterday Monday? (Substitute other days of the week. Return several times to the correct day for yesterday.) 2. Is this the yesterday picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the yesterday Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the yesterday gesture? (Make various gestures; include the yesterday gesture occasionally.) 4. Was this morning part of yesterday? 5. Will this evening be part of yesterday? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Yesterday is the day before today. 2. Yesterday was a school day. 3. Yesterday was ______. (Insert correct or incorrect day of the week.) Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with yesterday and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for yesterday and other Power Pix.

equal height

Common Core Standards K.MD.2. Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has ―more of‖/―less of‖ the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter. Question: What is equal height? Answer: Equal height means the same height. (One person and three people on top of each other.) Gesture: Hold both hands up as high as possible, showing they have equal height. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, make simple drawings of pairs of objects on the board, i.e. a tree and a house, a square and a rectangle, a boy and a girl. In some pairs, the objects are equal height; in other pairs one object is smaller than the other. Use the drawings and various props and/or groups of stackable objects to teach students the concept of equal height. Next, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are these equal height? (Point at pairs of various objects, including drawings on the board that do, and do not, represent equal height.) 2. Is this the equal height picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the equal height Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the equal height gesture? (Make various gestures; include the equal height gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A boy and a girl four feet tall have equal height. 2. Equal height means the same height. 3. Two things with equal height must be the same color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with equal height and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for equal height and other Power Pix.

sorting

Common Core Standards K.MD.3. Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. 1 Question: What is sorting? Answer: Sorting is putting things together that are similar. Gesture: Grab four fingers of one hand with the other hand, to symbolize bringing things together that are similar (your fingers). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of sorting based on a variety of attributes (all green things, all round things, all plastic things, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are all these ______, ______? (Point at groups of objects in the classroom. Create Yes/No Way! questions. Are all these desks, wood? Are all these pencils, yellow? Are all these crayons, square?) 2. Is this the sorting picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the sorting Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the sorting gesture? (Make various gestures; include the sorting gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Sorting is putting things together that are similar. 2. I could sort red blocks together because they are all red. 3. I could sort red blocks together because they are all yellow. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sorting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sorting and other Power Pix.

**big hand on a clock
**

Common Core Standards 1.MD.3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Question: What is the big hand on a clock? Answer: The big hand on a clock points at the minutes. Gesture: Point one arm straight down. (This is the ―big hand‖ on a clock.) Teaching Suggestion: (Teach little hand on a clock, big hand on a clock and clock together.) Use a clock with moveable hands to teach your students the concept of telling time. Explain that the big hand points at minutes. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the big hand on a clock? (Point at various objects in the classroom and parts of the clock, the frame, numbers, big hand and little hand.) 2. Is this the big hand on a clock picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the big hand on a clock Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the big hand on a clock gesture? (Make various gestures; include the big hand on a clock gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The big hand is longer than the little hand. 2. The big hand on a clock points at minutes. 3. The big hand on a clock points at hours. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with big hand on a clock and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for big hand on a clock and other Power Pix.

clock Common Core Standards 1.MD.3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Question: What is a clock? Answer: A clock is for telling time. Gesture: Bend one arm and put it slightly above your head. (This is the little hand on a clock.) Point your other arm straight down. (This is the big hand on a clock.) Teaching Suggestion: (Teach little hand on a clock, big hand on a clock and clock together.) Use a clock with moveable hands to teach your students the concept of telling time. Explain that the little hand points at hours and the big hand points at minutes. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a clock? (Point at various objects.) 2. Is this the clock picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the clock Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the clock gesture? (Make various gestures; include the clock gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A clock is for telling time. 2. A clock shows us the days of the week. 3. A clock tells us what time it is. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with clock and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for clock and other Power Pix.

**little hand on a clock
**

Common Core Standards 1.MD.3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Question: What is the little hand on a clock? Answer: The little hand on a clock points at the hours. Gesture: Bend one arm and put it slightly above your head. (This is the little hand on a clock.) Teaching Suggestion: (Teach little hand, big hand and clock together.) Use a clock with moveable hands to teach your students the concept of telling time. Explain that the little hand points at hours. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the little hand on a clock? (Point at various objects in the classroom and parts of the clock, the frame, numbers, big hand and little hand.) 2. Is this the little hand on a clock picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the little hand on a clock Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the little hand on a clock gesture? (Make various gestures; include the little hand on a clock gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The little hand on a clock is shorter than the big hand on a clock. 2. The little hand on a clock points at minutes. 3. The little hand on a clock points at hours. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with little hand on a clock and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for little hand on a clock and other Power Pix.

half hour

Common Core Standards 1.MD.3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Question: What is a half hour? Answer: A half hour is 30 minutes. Gesture: Hold up 10 fingers three times, count aloud, ―10, 20, 30 minutes is half an hour!‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach minute, half hour and hour together) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write various times on the board: 6:30, 3:15, 2:45, 9:15, 8:30, etc. Using a clock with moveable hands, teach students the concept of a half hour. Point out that a half hour is 30 minutes. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Does this number show a half hour? (Point at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is a half hour longer than an hour? 3. Is this the half hour gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a half hour longer than a minute? 5. Is this the half hour Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A half hour is 30 minutes. 2. A half hour is longer than 10 minutes. 3. A half hour is 15 minutes. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with half hour and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for half hour and other Power Pix.

hour

Common Core Standards 1.MD.3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Question: What is an hour? Answer: An hour is 60 minutes. Gesture: Hold up 10 fingers six times, count aloud, ―10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes is an hour.‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach minute, half hour and hour together.) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write various times on the board, 6:30, 3:15, 2:45, 9:15, 8:30, etc. Using a clock with moveable hands, teach students the concept of an hour. Point out that the first number indicates the hour. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Does this number show the hour? (Pointing at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is an hour longer than a day? 3. Is this the hour gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is an hour longer than half an hour? 5. Is this the hour Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An hour has 60 minutes. 2. 60 minutes is the same length of time as an hour. 3. If the time is 6:30, the 30 is the hour. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with hour and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for hour and other Power Pix.

minute

Common Core Standards 1.MD.3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. 2.MD.7. Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. Question: What is a minute? Answer: A minute is 60 seconds. Gesture: Hold up 10 fingers six times, count aloud, ―10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 seconds is a minute!‖ Teaching Suggestion: (Teach minute, half hour and hour together.) While your students are involved in individual or group tasks, write various times on the board: 6:30, 3:15, 2:45, 9:15, 8:30, etc. Using a clock with moveable hands, teach students the concept of a minute. Explain that a minute has 60 seconds. Ask them to watch a clock with a minute hand and hold up their hands after 60 seconds. Point out that a half hour is 30 minutes. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Does this number show the minutes? (Point at various numbers on the board.) 2. Is a second shorter than a minute? 3. Is this the minute gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a minute longer than a second? 5. Is this the minute Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A minute is 60 seconds. 2. A minute is longer than a second. 3. A second is longer than a minute. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with minute and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for minute and other Power Pix.

Dime Common Core Standards Core Concept in first grade 2.MD.8. Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? Question: What is a dime? Answer: A dime is 10 pennies. Gesture: Hold up one hand and pinch your thumb and finger together, as if holding a penny. Then, with the other hand, hold up five fingers once and then again (symbolizing that a dime is worth 10 pennies.) Students should count ―five‖ as they hold up five fingers the first time and ―ten‖ as they hold up five fingers the second time. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach penny, nickel, dime, quarter and dollar bill together.) Show students dimes and pictures of dimes. Explain that 5 pennies make a nickel, 10 pennies make a dime and that two nickels make a dime. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is a dime worth 10 pennies? 2. Is 10 pennies worth a dime? 3. Is this the dime gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a nickel worth less than a dime? 5. Is this the dime Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A dime is the smallest value coin. 2. A dime is 10 pennies. 3. Five pennies make one dime. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with dime and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for dime and other Power Pix.

Nickel Common Core Standards Core Concept in first grade 2.MD.8. Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? Question: What is a nickel? Answer: A nickel is five pennies. Gesture: Hold up one hand and pinch your thumb and finger together, as if holding a penny. Then, with the other hand, hold up five fingers (symbolizing that a nickel is worth 5 pennies). Students should say ―five‖ as they hold up five fingers. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach penny, nickel, dime, quarter and dollar bill together.) Show students nickels and pictures of nickels. Explain that 5 pennies make a nickel and that two nickels make a dime. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Are there any coins worth more than a nickel? 2. Are there any coins worth less than a nickel? 3. Is this the nickel gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a nickel five pennies? 5. Is this the nickel Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A nickel is the smallest value coin. 2. Two nickels make one penny. 3. Five pennies make one nickel. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with nickel and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for nickel and other Power Pix.

penny

Common Core Standards Core Concept in first grade 2.MD.8. Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? Question: What is a penny? Answer: A penny is one cent. Gesture: Hold up one hand and pinch your thumb and finger together, as if holding a penny. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach penny, nickel, dime, quarter and dollar bill together.) Show students pennies and pictures of pennies. Explain that 5 pennies make a nickel. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Are there any coins worth more than a penny? 2. Are there any coins worth less than a penny? 3. Is this the penny gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a nickel five pennies? 5. Is this the penny Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A penny is the smallest value coin. 2. Two pennies make one nickel. 3. Five nickels make one penny. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with penny and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for penny and other Power Pix.

Quarter Common Core Standards Core Concept in first grade 2.MD.8. Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? Question: What is a quarter? Answer: A quarter is 25 pennies. Gesture: 5 Teaching Suggestion: (Teach penny, nickel, dime, quarter and dollar bill together.) Show students quarters and pictures of quarters. Explain that 25 pennies make a quarter, 5 nickels make a quarter and so forth. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is a quarter worth 10 pennies? 2. Is a quarter worth 25 pennies? 3. Is this the quarter gesture? (Make various gesture.) 4. Is a quarter worth less than a dime? 5. Is this the quarter Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A quarter is worth 25 nickels. 2. A quarter is worth 25 pennies. 3. Five dimes make one quarter. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with quarter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for quarter and other Power Pix.

pounds and ounces Common Core Standards Core concept Question: What are pounds and ounces? Answer: A pound is 16 ounces. Gesture: Put one hand on top of the other at belt level and slightly bounce your hands up and down as if carrying something. Teaching Suggestion: Explain the concept of pounds to your students and that lbs is an abbreviation for pounds and oz is an abbreviation for ounces. Use a scale and let students guess how many pounds various objects weigh ... including themselves! Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Does a desk weigh more than 5 pounds? 2. Does a pound weigh more than an ounce? 3. Is this the pounds and ounces gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a pound 16 ounces? 5. Is this the pounds and ounces Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A basketball weighs less than 100 pounds. 2. You weigh more than one ounce. 3. A pound is 16 ounces Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with pounds and ounces and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the pounds and ounces and other Power Pix.

bar graph Common Core Standards 2.MD.10. Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems1 using information presented in a bar graph. 3.MD.3. Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step ―how many more‖ and ―how many less‖ problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets. Question: What is a bar graph? Answer: A bar graph compares numbers using bars. Gesture: Put your two forearms straight up, one higher than the other, as if they were unequal bars on a bar graph. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of bar graphs and explain that the height of the bar represents the size of a number. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is this number larger than this one? (Pointing at various bars on a bar graph.) 2. Does this bar mean _____ ? (Point at graphs, and ask students about the amount various bars represent.) 3. Is this the bar graph gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is this amount less than this amount? (Ask students to compare two bars on a bar graph.) 5. Is this the bar graph Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Bars on a bar graph stand for numbers. 2. On a bar graph, a tall bar represents a small number. 3. On a bar graph, a short bar represents a small number. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with bar graph and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for bar graph and other Power Pix.

Estimate Common Core Standards 2.MD.3. Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. 3.MD.2. Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).1 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.2 Question: What is an estimate? Answer: An estimate is a guess. Gesture: Scratch your head as if you are thinking and say, ―hmmmm.‖ Teaching Suggestion: Ask students to make estimates about various things in the classroom: the number of books on a shelf, the number of pencils in a can, the distance in steps from a chair to the door, the number of pages in a book, etc. Explain the concept of estimating and the difference between good and bad estimates. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: *** 1. Is it an estimate, guess, to say this is a class? (Include other statements that are, and are not, estimates. For example, ―Is it an estimate, a guess, to say, your name Jose? ... Is it an estimate, a guess, to say, I think you weigh about 50 pounds?‖) 2. Is this the estimate picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the estimate Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the estimate gesture? (Make various gestures; include the estimate gesture occasionally.) 4. Is every estimate a good guess? 5. Is it a good estimate that there are two students in this class? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. All estimates are guesses. 2. All estimates are good guesses. 3. A bad estimate is that there are three books in this room. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with estimate and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for estimate and other Power Pix.

foot and 12 inches Common Core Standards 2.MD.3. Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. Question: What is a foot and 12 inches? Answer: A foot is made of 12 inches. Gesture: Hold up 10 fingers and then 2 fingers. Then hold your hands approximately a foot apart. Teaching Suggestion: Show students a foot ruler and explain that it is 12 inches long. Give students foot rulers and ask them to individually, or in teams, measure objects in class. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Are you more than a foot tall? 2. Are you less than an inch tall? 3. Is this the foot and 12 inches gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a foot longer than an inch? 5. Is this the foot and 12 inches Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A foot is made of 20 inches. 2. Twenty inches make a foot. 3. A foot is made of 12 inches. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with the foot and 12 inches and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for foot and 12 inches and other Power Pix

tally marks Common Core Standards 1.MD.4. Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. Question: What are tally marks? Answer: Tally marks are marks in groups of five. Gesture: Hold up four fingers on one hand and then cross them with one finger from the other hand, symbolizing four tally marks crossed by a fifth mark. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach tally marks and counting by 5s together.) Show students examples of tally marks and contrast them with groups of numbers and random collections of lines. Play Yes/No Way! With one or more questions like the following: 1. Are these tally marks? (Pointing at various numbers and marks on the board.) 2. Do these tally marks equal ___? (Point at various groups of tally marks and ask students how many marks are in each group.) 3. Is this the tally mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Does the crossed line stand for the fifth tally mark? 5. Is this the tally mark Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Tally marks are a way of counting by five. 2. Two complete groups of tally marks equal 10. 3. Tally marks are a way of counting by 2s. Critical Thinking: Play Together/Apart with tally marks and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for tally marks and other Power Pix.

circle

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a circle? Answer: A circle is a round shape. Gesture: Using the thumb and forefinger of one hand, make a circle. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of circles and explain their similarities (each one is round, has no corners or straight lines, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a circle? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the circle picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the circle Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the circle gesture? (Make various gestures; include the circle gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a square a circle? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A circle is made from four straight lines. 2. A circle is a round shape. 3. A circle has four corners. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with circle and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for circle and other Power Pix.

Cone

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a cone? Answer: A cone has a circle on one end and a point on the other. Gesture: Hold an imaginary ice cream cone in one hand and take a big bite out of the ice cream. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of cones and explain their similarities (a circle at one end and a point at the other.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a cone? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the cone picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the cone Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the cone gesture? (Make various gestures; include the cone gesture occasionally.) 4. Does a cone have a circle on each end? 5. Is an ice cream cone a cone? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A cone has a circle on one end. 2. A cone has a point on one end. 3. A can of soda is a cone. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with cone and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for cone and other Power Pix.

Cube

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a cube? Answer: A cube is made of six squares! [sound excited] Gesture: With two hands, shape a cube in the air, as if you are holding top and bottom, side and side, front and back. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of cubes and explain their similarities (all have six sides, every side is a square, no sides are rectangles, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a cube? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the cube picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the cube Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the cube gesture? (Make various gestures; include the cube gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a book a cube? 5. Is an ice cube a cube? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A cube is round. 2. A cube is made from squares. 3. A cube has corners. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with cube and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for cube and other Power Pix.

Cylinder

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a cylinder? Answer: A cylinder has a circle on both ends. Gesture: Use the thumb and forefinger on each hand to make circles. Then hold these circles in the air to show both ends of a cylinder. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of cylinders and explain their similarities (a circle at both ends). Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a cylinder? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the cylinder picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the cylinder Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the cylinder gesture? (Make various gestures; include the cylinder gesture occasionally.) 4. Does a cylinder have a circle on each end? 5. Does a cylinder have corners? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A cylinder is made from four straight lines. 2. A cylinder has a circle on both ends. 3. A can of soda is a cylinder. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with cylinder and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for cylinder and other Power Pix.

Rectangle

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a rectangle? Answer: A rectangle has four sides. Gesture: With one finger, draw an imaginary rectangle in the air. (Make the top and bottom lines very long and the end lines very short, to distinguish rectangles from squares.) Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of rectangles and explain their similarities (all have four sides, all have four corners, etc.) Distinguish between rectangles and squares (the latter having four equal sides.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a rectangle? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the rectangle picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the rectangle Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the rectangle gesture? (Make various gestures; include the rectangle gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a triangle a rectangle? 5. Is a ball a rectangle? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A rectangle is made from four straight lines. 2. A rectangle is a square. 3. A rectangle has four sides. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with rectangle and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for rectangle and other Power Pix.

Sphere

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a sphere? Answer: A sphere is like a ball. Gesture: With one hand, pretend as if you are bouncing a ball on the floor. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of spheres and explain their similarities (all are round, can roll in any direction unlike a cylinder, etc.) Also, point out that some spheres are not balls, for example, a globe. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a sphere? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the sphere picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the sphere Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the sphere gesture? (Make various gestures; include the sphere gesture occasionally.) 4. Do spheres have corners? 5. Are all spheres blue? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A sphere is round. 2. A sphere is like a ball. 3. A basketball is a sphere. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sphere and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sphere and other Power Pix.

Square

Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a square? Answer: A square has four equal sides. (Emphasize equal as you say the answer, to distinguish squares from rectangles.) Gesture: With one finger, draw an imaginary square in the air. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of squares and explain their similarities (all have four equal sides, all have four corners, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a square? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the square picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the square Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the square gesture? (Make various gestures; include the square gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a square round? 5. Is a triangle a square? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A square is made from four straight lines. 2. A square has four equal sides. 3. A square has three corners. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with square and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for square and other Power Pix.

Triangle Common Core Standards K.G.1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. K.G.2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. K.G.3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ―flat‖) or three-dimensional (―solid‖). K.G.4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/―corners‖) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. K.G.6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 1.G.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size) ; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 1.G.2. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1 1.G.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Question: What is a triangle? Answer: A triangle has three sides. Gesture: Bringing together the thumb and forefinger of both hands, make one triangle. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of triangles and explain their similarities (all have three sides, all have three corners, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a triangle? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the triangle picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the triangle Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the triangle gesture? (Make various gestures; include the triangle gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a triangle a circle? 5. Does a triangle have three corners? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A triangle is made from four straight lines. 2. A triangle is made from three straight lines. 3. A triangle has three sides. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with triangle and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for triangle and other Power Pix.