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A E Lawrence

Abstract An explicit calculation of the volume of a hypersphere in Euclidean space using only elementary methods is given.

1

Introduction

The volume of an n-dimensional hypersphere is often needed in information theory among other places. Write V (r ) for the volume of an n-dimensional hypersphere Sr of radius r . That is the volume of the set of points Sr = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) |

n 2 i=1 xi

= r 2 , xi ∈ R}

The volume here is integrated from that of elementary n-cuboid elements with volume as the product of their sides. This corresponds to all the usual measures including Riemann and Lebesgue.

r

ρ dz z

θ

**It is clear that Vn (r ) =
**

r −r

Vn−1 (ρ)dz 1

I (1)I (0). And every one else will wonder what this note is about. 2 From equation 1. the other coordinates range over a (n − 1)-sphere of radius ρ = r sin θ. . (1) π 0 π 0 sinn θα(n − 1)d θ = α(n − 1) π 0 sinn θd θ sinn θd θ 2 Properties of I (n) I (0) = π 0 d θ = π. 2 . we can evaluate it with elementary methods. Equation 2 gives I (n)I (n − 1) = 1 n −2 I (n − 2)I (n − 3) n (n ≥ 3) (3) Readers familiar with non-standard analysis will realise that this is reasonable as it stands. I (1) = π 0 sin θd θ = [cos θ]0 = 2 π For n ≥ 2. . we can integrate by parts: π π I (n) = 0 sinn θd θ = 0 sin θ sinn−1 θd θ π 0 2 π = (− cos θ) sinn−1 θ π + 0 cos2 θ(n − 1) sinn−2 θd θ = (n − 1) 0 (1 − sin θ) sinn−2 θd θ = (n − 1) [I (n − 2) − I (n)] So I (n) = n −1 I (n − 2) n (n ≥ 2) (2) 1 Notice that this gives I (2) = 2 I (0) = π . . Those familiar with measure theory know how to express this properly if they are in a pedantic mood. I (2)α(1) Although I (n) is related to standard integrals. we see that it will be useful to calculate Π(n) = I (n)I (n−1)I (n−2) . The n-volume element matching an increment dz is thus Vn−1 (ρ)dz 1 . so α(n) = or α(n) = I (n)α(n − 1) with I (n) = So α(n) = I (n)I (n − 1) .because when the n th coordinate has a value z . So we have Vn (r ) = r π 0 sin θVn−1 (r sin θ)d θ But we can write Vn (r ) = r n α(n). .

.We use this repeatedly below: I (2k + 1)I (2k ) . we have α(n) = equations 5 and 4: α(1) = Π(n) π since α(1) = 2. So using α(2k ) = and πk k! and V2k (r ) = π k 2k k! r α(2k + 1) = k! 2k +1 π k (2k +1)! 2 and V2k +1 (r ) = k! 2k +1 π k r 2k +1 (2k +1)! 2 4 Summary The volume of an 2k or 2k + 1 dimensional hypersphere of radius r is given by V2k (r ) = π k 2k r k! k! 22k +1 π k r 2k +1 (2k + 1)! (6) (7) V2k +1 (r ) = 3 . . . . 2k 2k − 2 2k − 4 2 [I (2k − 4)I (2k − 5)]5 . 2k 2k − 2 1 1 1 . [I (1)I (0)]k +1 2k + 1 2k − 1 3 2k 2k 2k 2k which can be conﬁrmed by induction. . . . + 1 2k − 1 1 1 1 . . = = = which gives Π(2k + 1) = k! 22k +1 π k +1 (2k + 1)! (4) −1 [I (2k − 1)I (2k − 2)]2 . . . 2k −1 [I (2)I (1)]k I (0) 2k 2k − 2 4 3 Results Π(n) 2π Π(n) Since α(n) = I (1)I (0) α(1). . . . Similarly I (2k )I (2k − 1) . I (0) = = = which gives Π(2k ) = π k +1 k! (5) 2k − 2 [I (2k − 2)I (2k − 3)]2 . . . . +1 − 1 2k − 3 2 [I (2k − 3)I (2k − 4)]3 .

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