You are on page 1of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 Department of Technical Education DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

CS ENGG. Third Semester Sub: ELECTRICAL MACHINES I Sub code: Contact Hrs/Week: 04 Chapter No. Topic UNIT- I PART A DC GENERATORS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Working Principle of D.C. Generator Construction and Types Armature Windings Induced E.M.F Armature Reaction Commutation Characteristics Efficiency & Voltage regulation UNIT- II PART B 9 10 11 12 13 14 DC MOTORS 1 2 3 2 2 06 12 2 16 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 Contact Hrs/ Sem : 64 Contact Hrs.

Construction and Working Principle of D.C. Motor Types of D.C. Motors Torque in DC Motors Characteristics of D.C. Motor Speed Control Starting Devices

PART -C SPECIAL MOTORS 15 Construction and working principle, applications of Special Motors UNIT- III PART D 20 16 Construction and Working principle ALTERNATORS

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 1 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Armature winding EMF Equation Armature Reaction. Vector Diagram Voltage regulation Excitation systems Parallel operation Hunting and Cooling Tests & Revision Industrial Innovation TOTAL 2 3 2 2 4 1 3 1 4 6 _________ 64

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 2 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

CONTENT 1.0 D.C. GENERATOR 1.1 1.2 Working principle of D.C. Generator: Generated E.M.F, Simple loop Generator, Direction of induced E.M.F. Construction and types of D.C Generators. Construction -Yoke, Armature, field poles, field coils, Commutator, brushes-Materials used for construction -properties of these materials-Reason for using these materials -slot insulation materials -properties. Functions of each part in brief. Types of DC generators with circuit representation. Armature windings: Types of windings, Rules of lap & wave winding, application of lap & Wave windings. Induced E.M.F: Emf equation & problems Armature reaction: Explanation of armature reaction with sketches, De-magnetizing & cross -magnetizing effect Commutation: Definition-Explanation -methods of improving commutation. Characteristics: Open circuit, internal, External characteristics of separately excited D.C. Generator: - OCC of shunt Generator -critical resistance- conditions for voltage build up-failure to build up -internal & External characteristics of shunt Generator. Efficiency & voltage Regulation: Losses in D.C. Generator, Efficiency, voltage regulation & its importance-simple problems.

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

1.8

2.0 D.C.MOTORS 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Principal of D.C Motor: Working principle -comparison of motor & Generator action. Back emf & voltage equation & simple problems. Types of motors: Self excited shunt, series & compound motors, Torque developed by D.C motors. Meaning of Torque & torque equation[no derivation] Motors: Torque speed relationship Characteristics of D.C.Motors: Torque Speed, Speed Load and Torque Load Characteristics of Series, Shunt & Compound motors their Applications.

2.5 Speed control: Methods of speed control shunt field control armature resistance

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 3 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 control Electronic speed control [Block diagram] 2.6 Starting Devices: Necessity of starter-construction & operation of 3 point starter. 3.0 SPECIAL MOTORS Principle of working, construction and applications of the following motors. 3.1 Universal motors 3.2. Hysterisis motor 3.3 Reluctance motor 3.4 Stepper motor 3.5 Servo motor 3.6 Brushless D.C. Motors 4.0 ALTERNATOR 4.1 4.2 4.3 Principle Alternator principle. Construction Construction of salient and non-salient pole types of rotors. Armature winding Types of armature windings,full pitch and fractional pitch windings and their advantages and dis-advantages. Emf equation Relationsip between P,N,f, emf equation, and Problems. Armature Reaction Armature reaction in an alternator with sketches Effects of p.f of load on armature reaction Effects of armature reaction on terminal voltage. Voltage regulation Procedure for conducting O.C & S.C. tests on alternator with circuit arrangements Definition of effective resistance, leakage reactance & synchronous reactance. Calculate the synchronous impedance by O.C. & S.C.test results. Vector diagram of alternator on Load at different power factors. Equation for the no-load terminal voltage at different power factors. Voltage regulation - Definition. and methods to find voltage regulation. Parallel operation Conditions for parallel operation of single phase & three phase alternators, Parallel operation of three phase alternators using synchronoscope.

4.4 4.5

4.6

4.7

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 4 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

4.8 4.9

Excitation Systems Meaning and types of excitation. Static excitation system. Un-equal voltage Effect of un-equal voltage on load sharing. Effect of change in excitation and prime mover input power on distribution of load. Hunting and its prevention Hunting in alternators and its prevention. Cooling Necessity of cooling in alternators. Cooling agents. - Hydrogen cooling

4. 10 4.11

REFERENCES: 1. Electrical Technology volume 2 - BL Theraja & A.K.Theraja S.Chand publication 2. Principles of Electrical Machines by V.K.Mehtha.S.Chand publication 3. Electrical Machines by Bhattacharya. Tata McGraw Hill Co. 4. Electrical Machines - J.B.Guptha Kataria & Sons Publications. 5. Generation of Electrical Energy by BR Gupta. S.Chand Publication. 6. Fundamentals of elecrical drives - G.K. Dubey Narosa publications. 7. Electrical Machines Deshpande.

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 5 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1 D.C.GENERATOR 1.1 Working Principle 1.1.1 Explain the principle on which a D.C.Generator works. 1.1.2 Explain how emf is generated in a simple loop generator. 1.1.3 Find the direction of emf. induced in a coil by Fleming's Right hand rule. 1.2 Construction and Types 1.2.1 Sketch the neat diagram of a D.C.machine and label the parts. 1.2.2 Explain the construction details of a D.C Generator 1.2.3 State the functions of above parts. 1.2.4 Name the material used for the construction of yoke, pole-core, pole shoe, armature core, commutator, brush and windings. 1.2.5 List the important Electrical & Magnetic properties of the above materials. 1.2.6 Justify the selection of the material. 1.2.7 Name different materials used for slot insulation. 1.2.8 List the properties of slot insulation materials and justify the selection. 1.3. Armature windings 1.3.1 Name the types of D.C. Windings 1.3.2 Define the terms: conductor, coil, coil span, pole pitch, back pitch, front pitch resultant pitch, average pitch 1.3.3 State the rules of lap and wave windings 1.3.6 State the application of lap & wave windings. 1.4 Induced E.M.F 1.4.1 Derive the emf equation of D.C.Generator. 1.4.3 Differentiate between separately exited and self exited generator. 1.44 Explain with circuit diagram series, shunt and short shunt and long shunt Compound generators. 1.45 Calculate field current, load current, armature current and hence terminal voltage in 1.shunt 2.Series 3.long shunt compound 4.short shunt compound generators. 1.46 Problems on above. 1.5 Armature Reaction 1.5.1 Define and explain the armature reaction with sketches. 1.5.2 Explain de-magnetising and cross magnetising effects. 1.6 Commutation 1.6.1 Define and explain the commutation. 1.6.2 Explain the term-Reactance voltage 1.6.3 Mention the reason for poor commutation. 1.6.4 State and explain the methods of improving the commutation

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 6 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 1.6.4.1 Resistance commutation 1.6.4.2 Emf commutation 1.7 Characteristics 1.7.1 State and draw the O.C.C. External and Internal Characteristics of separately excited D.C. generator. 1.7.2 Draw the O.C.C. of a D.C. shunt generator and determine the critical field resistance. 1.7.3 Define critical resistance of a D.C shunt generator. 1.7.4 Explain the process of voltage build up of a shunt generator. 1.7.5 State the conditions to build up the voltage in a shunt generator. 1.7.6 List the causes for the failure of voltage build up in a D.C shunt generator. 1.7.7 Suggest the remedies for the failure to build up the voltage in a generator. 1.7.8 Sketch and Explain the external characteristic of D.C. shunt generator. 1.7.9 Sketch and Explain the internal characteristic with the help of external characteristic. 1.8 Efficiency 1.8.1 List the various losses in D.C generator and write equations for electrical, mechanical, commercial efficiencies. 1.8.2 State the condition for maximum efficiency 1.8.3 Solve simple problems on efficiency.. 1.8.4 Define voltage regulation. 1.8.5 State importance of efficiency and regulation. 2. D.C.MOTORS 2.1 Principle 2.1.1 Explain the working Principle of D.C.motors. 2.1.2 Compare the generator and motor action. 2.1.3 Explain the significance of back emf. 2.2 Types of DC motors 2.2.1 List the types of D.C. motors and write their voltage equations. 2.3 Torque in DC motors. 2.3.1 Define torque, Write expressions for shaft Torque, Armature Torque. Convert Torque in Newton Metre into BHP. 2.4 Characteristics of D.C.Motors 2.4.1 Explain the torque-speed characteristic of shunt, series and compound motors. 2.4.2 Explain the speed-load characteristic of shunt, series and compound motors. 2.4.3 Explain the Torque-load characteristic of shunt, series and compound motors. 2.4.4 Applications of shunt, series and compound motors. 2.5 Speed control Explain the various methods of speed control of shunt motor. 2.5.1 Field control method

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 7 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 2.5.2 Armature resistance method 2.5.3 Electronic speed control (Block diagram) 2.6 Starting Devices 2.5.1 Explain the necessity of starter 2.5.2 Explain the construction and operation of 3-point starter. 3.0 SPECIAL MOTORS Principle of working, construction and applications of the following motors. 3.1 Universal motors 3.2. Hysterisis motor 3.3 Reluctance motor 3.4 Stepper motor 3.5 Servo motor 3.6 Brushless D.C. Motors 4.0 ALTERNATOR 4.1 4.1.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.41 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 4.6.5 Principle Describe the basic principle alternator. Construction Describe the construction of salient and non-salient pole types of rotors. Armature winding State the types of armature windings Distinguish between full pitch and fractional pitch windings and state their advantages and dis-advantages. Emf equation Establish relation between P,N,f Derive an equation for emf generated in a 3-phase alternator. Solve the problems on the above Armature Reaction Explain the armature reaction in an alternator with sketches Discuss the effects of p.f of load on armature reaction State the effects of armature reaction on terminal voltage. Voltage regulation Explain the procedure for conducting O.C & S.C. tests on alternator with circuit arrangements Define effective resistance, leakage reactance & synchronous reactance. Calculate the synchronous impedance by O.C. & S.C.test results. Draw the vector diagram of alternator on load at different power factors. Derive the equation for the no-load terminal voltage at different power factors.

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 8 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 4.6.6 Define regulation. List different methods to determine voltage regulation. 4.6.7 Explain EMF method of finding regulation of alternator. 4.6.8 Solve the problems on the above 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.8 Parallel operation State the necessity the conditions for parallel operation of single phase & three phase alternators With a neat circuit diagram explain the parallel operation of three phase alternators using synchronoscope. Excitation Systems Meaning of excitation, List the types of excitation Draw the circuit arrangement for static excitation system and explain. Un-equal voltage Explain the effect of un-equal voltage on load sharing. Describe the effect of change in excitation and prime mover input power on distribution of load.

4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2

4. 10 Hunting and its prevention 4.10.1 Explain hunting in alternators. 4.10.2 How is Hunting Prevented in alternators? 4.11 Cooling 4.11.1 Explain the necessity of cooling of alternators. 4.11.2 List different cooling agents. 4.11.3 List the merits of Hydrogen cooling

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 9 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

MODEL QUESTION PAPER Third Semester Diploma Examination ELECTRICAL BOARD Electrical Machines-I TIME: 3 Hours Note: i) Question No. 1 is compulsory. ii) Answer any two full questions each from sections II, III & IV Section I 1. a) Fill in the blanks. (5X1=5) i) Lamination of Field poles and armature core minimise ______________ loss in DC generator. ii) The material used for making commutators in DC generators is_______ iii) Production of reluctance voltage in a short circuited coil undergoing Commutation leads to _____________commutation. iv) ________method of speed control is used to run shunt motors at speeds higher than nominal rated speed. v) Voltage regulation is negative for _____PF loads on Alternator. b) Explain Armature reaction in alternators with neat sketches. Section II 2. a) Draw a neat sketch of DC Generator and label the parts. b) State the rules of Lapp winding. c) Draw the emf equation of a DC generator. 3. a) Explain with circuit diagram, long shunt and short shunt compound Generators. b) Explain demagnetizing and cross magnetizing effects of armature reaction. c) Explain the methods of improving commutation. (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) Max Marks: 100

4. a) State the conditions to build up the voltage in a shunt generator. (5) b) List the various losses in a DC generator. Define electrical efficiency and commercial efficiency. (5) c) A 4 pole DC generator having wave wound armature winding has 51 slots, each slot containing 20 conductors.What will be the voltage generated in the machines when driven at 1500 rpm assuming flux per pole to be 7 mill webers. (5)

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 10 of 11

CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11 Section III 5. a) Explain the significance of back emf in DC motors. b) List different types of DC motors and write their voltage equation. c) Draw and explain Torque v/s Speed characteristics of DC shunt motor. 6. a) Explain with circuit diagram, flux control method of controlling the speed of DC shunt motor. b) With a neat sketch explain the construction of 3 point starter. 7. a) Explain with sketch, the construction and working principle of Stepper Motor. b) List any 3 applications of brushless DC motor. c) Explain the working principle of reluctance motor. Section IV 8. a) Draw a neat sketch of salient pole type alternator and explain its Constructional features in brief. (8) b)List the merits of fractional pitched winding. (5) c) State the effects of armature reaction on terminal voltage on lagging PF loads. (2) 9. a) Draw the vector diagram of alternator at lagging PF load and label the parameters. b) Write the step by step procedure for finding voltage regulation of Alternator. c) Explain hunting in alternators. How it is prevented? 10. a) Draw the circuit arrangement for static excitation system and explain. b) Explain the effect of unequal voltage on load sharing. (5) (6) (4) (9) (6) (5) (5) (5) (6) (9) (9) (3) (3)

EE Third Semester Electrical Machines I

Page 11 of 11