A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

April 2010

.... WELFRED CHAI KHAI HUNG 19 APRIL 2010 .................... The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.........ii I declare that thesis entitled “Construction Site Waste Management Approach in UTM” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references......... Signature Name Date : : : ...............

iii Specially dedicated to my beloved family and friends .

Besides. whose encouragement. Dr Khairulzan Yahya. I would like to thank my family and friends.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am heartily thankful to my supervisor. Without his guidance. Lastly. I would like to thank the rest that I had accidentally missed out here for directly and indirectly lending your hand throughout this study. They provided valuables advice and moral support when I am faced with obstacles and challenges. They have been encouraged and help me when I have faced the difficulties during this research. guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject. I am sure that this study and research would not be completed as it is now. .

The study was carried out to analyse the waste handling processes in five selected construction site within UTM by using the free flow mapping methods. it provided a level of indication about the current practice of waste management on construction sites. The WMMM provides an alternative tool assisting in waste handling processes on construction sites. The analysis leads to develop a waste management mapping model (WMMM). As a result. the waste management becomes the important function of construction project management in order to reduce the volume of waste on site. . which incorporates the good practices embodied in the existing practices. It can be a medium for comparing the waste management practices between construction sites.v ABSTRACT The construction waste has been identified as one of the major contributors to the solid waste and hence contributed to the environmental impacts in both developed and developing countries. waste management approaches and waste disposal technologies. these approaches give less intention in the waste management on construction site. thus both good practices and weaknesses can be identified. Besides. Waste management has been grouped under three main groups namely waste classification. Nevertheless.

model tersebut memberikan tahap penunjuk tentang amalan pengurusan sampah di tapak pembinaan. Akibatnya. Selain itu. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis proses pengendalian sisa di lima tapak pembangunan yang dipilih dalam campus UTM dengan menggunakan kaedah pemetaan aliran bebas. Model tersebut merupakan alat alternatif untuk membantu dalam pengendalian sisa proses pada tapak pembinaan. Pengurusan sisa telah dikumpulkan dalam tiga kumpulan utama iaitu klasifikasi sisa. pengurusan sisa di lokasi pembinaan kurang diberi perhatian yang sewajarnya. Model tersebut dapat menjadi rujukan atau medium untuk membandingkan amalan pengurusan sisa antara tapaki pembinaan. sehingga kedua-dua amalan yang baik dan kelemahan dapat dikenalpasti. . pendekatan pengurusan sisa dan teknologi pembuangan sisa. Analisis mengarah untuk membangunkan pengurusan sisa model pemetaan (WMMM). pengurusan sisa menjadi fungsi penting dalam pengurusan projek pembinaan untuk mengurangkan kuantiti sisa pembinaan di tapak. yang menggabungkan amalan-amalan yang baik diwujudkan. Namun ABSTRAK Sisa pembinaan telah dikenalpasti sebagai salah satu penyumbang utama terhadap sisa pepejal dan menyumbang terhadap kesan persekitaran di negara yang maju mahupun negara yang sedang berkambang.

2 1.3 1.4 1.1 2.2 Introduction Concept of Construction Waste 7 7 8 .vii TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiii 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.5 1.6 Background of Study Statement of the Problem Aim and Objectives Significance of Study Scope of Study Reseach of Methodology 1 1 3 4 4 5 5 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

3 Introduction Preliminary Stage of Study Data Collection and Analysis 3.3.4 Incineration 2.2.4 2.5 2.5 Sanitary Landfill 2.3.6.viii 2.4.3 Waste According to its Control Recycling 2.6.6 Types of Construction Waste Causes of Waste Construction Waste Management 2.6.1 Construction Waste Generation Construction Waste Classification 2.4 Waste According to its Origin 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 2.1 Waste According to the Typical Resource Consumed 2.2 Waste Reuse 2.7 Waste Management Option in Practice 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Source Reduction 2.1 Free Flow Mapping 22 22 23 24 25 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDING 4.2 3.1 3.3 4.6.1 4.4 Mapping of the Waste Handling Processes Profiles of weaknesses and Advantages 4.3.2 Introduction Background of the Project Sites 4.2 Analysis on Advantages 27 27 28 29 30 38 39 42 .1 Analysis on Weaknesses 4.2 Waste According to its Nature 2.

7 Conclusion 55 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.ix 4.3 Introduction Overview on the Objectives Conclusion and Recommendations 56 56 56 60 REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D 61 64 69 73 82 .5.1 Statistical Evaluation 45 45 50 4.2 5.1 5.6 Developing an Effective Waste Management Mapping Model (WMMM) 4.5 Analysis on the Weaknesses and Advantages of Waste Management Practices 4.

1 Table 3.4 Table 4. TITLE PAGE Table 2.5 Questionnaires Design 25 Terminologies Used in Mapping Waste Handling Process 26 Details of Each Project Site Types of Waste Produced in Each Project Site List of Weaknesses and Their Symbols List of Advantages and Their Symbols Comparative Result of Weaknesses in Practicing Waste Management between Five Project Sites 28 29 38 39 40 Table 4.7 Statistical Result on Weaknesses in the Existing Waste Handling Practices within Project sites 47 Table 4.8 Statistical Result on Advantages in the Existing Waste Handling Practices within Project sites 48 .1 Comparison between composition of construction waste in Hong Kong and United Kingdom 14 Table 2.3 Table 4.x LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.6 Comparative Result of advantages in Practicing Waste Management between Five Project Sites 43 Table 4.2 Table 4.2 Waste generation factors across construction project life cycle (Vivian et al. 2007) 15 Table 3.

. 2007) 11 Figure 2. 2007) 2 Figure 1.2 Figure 4.1 Figure 3. 2004) 16 Figure 2. 2004) 21 Figure 3.2 Construction Waste Classification (source: Cristiano. 2007) 10 Figure 2.1 Flow of research methodology Classification of construction waste in Hong Kong (adopted from: Shen et al.xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. 1999) 12 Figure 2. 2004) 6 9 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Waste according to the type of resource consumed (adopted from: Cristiano.4 Waste according to its nature (adopted from Formoso et al.6 Waste management flow in construction site (source: Shen et al.5 The waste management hierarchy (adopted from Shen et al..2 Mapping of Waste Management Practice for Project Site II 34 .1 Five stages of research work Waste Flow Symbols Mapping of Waste Management Practice for Project Site I 23 26 33 Figure 4. TITLE PAGE Figure 1.1 Solid waste disposal in 2001 (adopted from Vivian et al.

xii Figure 4.5 Mapping of Waste Management Practice for Project Site V 37 Figure 4.4 Mapping of Waste Management Practice for Project Site IV 36 Figure 4.6 Waste Management Mapping Model 54 .3 Mapping of Waste Management Practice for Project Site III 35 Figure 4.

xiii LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A B C D Profiles of Weaknesses Profiles of Advantages Questionnaires Photos from Sites 64 69 73 82 .

previous studies suggested that the construction industry is the major contributor to the generation of waste and pollution. 2003.14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 2000). .. 2001). 2003. there is 38 percent of the disposed solid waste in Hong Kong was generated by construction and demolition as shown in Figure 1. in year 2001.1 Background of Study High demands of the infrastructure projects implementation in the commercial buildings constructions and residential construction have shown a significant increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation in the last decade. EPD.1 (Tam et al. 2007. The daily average of C&D waste generated was four times as much as that of municipal solid waste (Poon et al. Poon et al.. For example. Moreover. EPD.

2007) At the same time.15 Domestic waste. 10% Special waste. incineration and landfill (Renbi et al. Besides.. One of the waste management methods which had been practiced is by follow the waste management hierarchy which includes reduce. this study will focus on the understanding of the existing waste handling within construction site in Malaysia.1 Solid waste disposal in 2001 (adopted from Tam et al. 2001). Despite these research works and implementation. various waste management method have been developed by previous researchers and have been practiced in many countries. 45% Construction and demolition waste. 7% Figure 1. recycle. reuse. 38% Commercial and industrial waste. . prefabricated components are also introduced to reduce the application of conventional construction method. Hence. it is still unclear that how waste are handled from the point of generation to disposal.

there is a lack of methodology in providing guideline on how to produce waste management plan (Sim 2006. the construction waste becomes one of the major contributors of the solid waste in this country. As a result. 2003). . 2000). the waste management has been receiving less attention comparison to construction cost and time management because there is a lack of awareness of environmental management in the construction site (Tam et al.. Shen et al.16 1.2 Statement of the Problem Malaysia is pacing into era of globalisation in this decade. Although various methodologies for reducing construction waste have been introduced. it is become one of the major environmental problems in both developed and developing countries. Due to the fast development of the construction industry. The study tends to identify alternative tool assisting in planning waste management practices in local construction sites.. 2007. their application is still ineffective (Tam et al. Nevertheless.. Shen et al... 2004). Besides. lack of knowledge of secondary market. lack of equipment for waste sorting. improper site layout planning. 2007. 2007). 2002. Tam. Apart from that. the cost of managing waste is often relatively higher than the benefits that the organisation may gain from such management. Lingard et al. There are many reasons for the limited effectiveness in implementation of these methods which included no specification of waste reduction methods. lack of experience in waste recycling operations. and poor knowledge of environmental and safety regulations (Tam et al. According to the statistic in Waste Management Framework Planning in Sarawak by Chong & Eulogius (2006). most of the construction waste are informally dumped which contributed 41 percent of the amount of construction waste whereas there is only 10 percent of the construction waste is recycled..

the objectives are: a) To investigate and compare the flow process of construction wastes within five selected project sites in UTM via mapping with the assistance of freeflow mapping presentation technique b) To identify weakness and advantages embodied in the existing waste management practices within these sites. Therefore. c) To propose an effective waste management mapping based on good operations embodied in the existing practices and also the outcomes of interview with the project proponents as well as observations on sites 1. From this study.3 Aim and Objectives The aim of the study is to analyse the construction site waste management approaches used by contractors in the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) construction site.17 1. and. the data obtained will be useful in analysing the weaknesses and advantages of each practise. In order to ensure this study meets its purpose. . the waste handling practises in site will be identified. As a result.4 Significance of Study The construction wastes need to be handled in the correct methods. the alternative waste handling practises will be proposed based on the comparative between the existing waste handling practices among the five project sites in UTM and provided a level of indication about the current practise of waste management on construction sites.

5 Scope of Study The scope of the study will be limited to the construction sites in UTM.18 1. 1. . five project sites had been selected. The literature review was done to collect the data and information from the previous study.2. For the data collection in waste handling processes. After data were analysed. The flow of the methodology is as shown in Figure 1. the recommendation will be proposed. The process of waste handling processes on site will be focused. This study involves the data collection from the site and interviews with the site managerial staffs. In this study. They were made up of mainly development of extra building in the selected faculties in UTM. the information such as waste management guideline from other countries can obtained through the internet sources. objectives and scope of study.6 Research Methodology The study started with the identification of the problem. In this case. the data obtained through the distribution of the questionnaire as well as interviews with the site managerial staffs and on-site observations. Besides. most of the information obtained from the journals in the related field.

19 Identify the problem Establish objectives and scope of research Literature Review Empirical Research Data Collection Data analysis and Discussion Conclusion and Recommendations Figure 1.2 Flow of research methodology .

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