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Description of the Proposed Wharf Facility

This chapter provides information about the potential impacts of the construction and operation of the wharf facility. These potential impacts have been assessed using the impact assessment methodology described in Volume 1. Details on the wharf facility design are derived from Maunsell (2005), which is in Appendix 47, Volume 15.



A key component of the proposal is to construct and operate a wharf facility. The proposed facility is required to meet specific design criteria to facilitate the most cost effective method proposed for pulp storage, handling and dispatch to market. The proposed wharf will be situated on the Tamar River adjacent to the pulp mill. The facility will be located on the east bank of the Tamar River, north of Dirty Bay and south of Big Bay in Long Reach (Figure 9-1).


Infrastructure and Services

Wharf Infrastructure

The wharf facility has a service life of 50 years and will be designed, constructed and operated to accommodate: mooring of purpose built pulp freighters with capacity of up to 65,000 dead weight tonnage (dwt) and a range of general cargo and container carriers with capacity of up to 50,000 dwt (Table 9.1); dispatch and transport of pulp product from the warehouse/terminal using 64 tonne pay load flat deck tractor trailers along side of the berthed self loading vessels; receipt and handling of heavy plant and equipment for the pulp mill during the construction period; and receipt and handling of equipment by mobile cranes (one 400 tonne mobile crane and two 100 tonne mobile cranes) required for ongoing pulp mill operations on a periodic basis. The facility will also be able to accommodate a portainer crane as an option. These requirements will be satisfied with the following proposed wharf specifications: Loading quay (wharf deck) is 224m long; Wharf deck level of RL+5m; Depth along berthing face to allow for vessel draft of 13m; The width of the quay allows tractor trailers to pass each other. The adopted width of the quay is 20m; The width of the approach trestles is 10m; and Heavy lift bay to facilitate operation of mobile cranes as required.

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The facility is required to cater for Open Hatch Bulk Carriers (OHBC), Container vessels and Gearbulk vessels (General Cargo vessels). In addition to these, the facility is also required to accommodate barges. Details of the vessels considered in the design are noted below: Table 164: Size Class Vessels to Use the Proposed Wharf Facility
Type Max Vessel OHBC Star O Class Dead Weight Tonnage (dwt) Length OA Beam Laden Draught Laden Freeboard 230 m 32.26 m 12.02 m 4.5 m 105 m 230 m 15.8 m - 32 m 6.4 m -12 m 2.7 m 4.5 m 50 m 15 m 3m 0.5 m 24.4 m 7.8 m 1.66 m 0.5 m 65,000 t 5,000 - 50,000 t Min Vessel Gearbulk Vessel Barge Heavy Plant and Equipment Barge Bell Bay Port No 4 Barge -

Source: Maunsell Aecom, 2005.

The proposed wharf (Figure 9-1) will extend into the Tamar River approximately 185 m from the high tide mark. This is necessary to achieve the required draft of RL -13 m. Situating the wharf at this location prevents the need for dredging that would otherwise be necessary to accommodate the required draft of the OHBC Star O Class and Gearbulk vessels at berth (Figure 9-2). Photographic Sheet 9-1 shows typical shipping configuration for loading such vessels. It is anticipated that maintenance dredging of the deep - water berth will not be required throughout the life of the facility.

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Figure 9-1



Figure 9-2

Photographic Sheet 9-1. OHBC Star Class vessel loading O


Ship Loading

The design vessel (OHBC) is self loading and will not be moved during loading. The vessel includes two overhead gantries that may load the ship simultaneously. Based on a laden draft of 12.02m, it is proposed that a minimum underkeel clearance of 1m be adopted. A minimum of 13m depth for the maximum design vessel will thus be required below lowest astronomical tide (LAT): thus the seabed level adjacent to the wharf face is to be RL-13m or lower.


Pulp Storage Warehouse

The primary building constructed in association with the wharf facility is the proposed pulp storage warehouse. This facility will be 14.0 metres high, will have a floor space of 20,000 m2, and, once completed, up to 50,000 tonne of pulp will be stored here prior to dispatch to market. This facility will be designed to maximise materials storage, handling and dispatch efficiency from the warehouse to the loading gantry. The building will be founded on reinforced cast-in-situ concrete foundations on ground. The floor slabs will be power floated and treated with protective coating as required. The lightweight roof structures will be constructed of galvanized anti condensate profiled steel sheets on the galvanized roof purlins. Storage will be ventilated by natural ventilation consisting of ridge ventilators and wall mounted grilled openings. The lower parts of the external walls will be constructed of block work or prefabricated concrete panels. The upper parts of the external walls will be built using: Galvanized structural steel z-purlins fixed to the columns; and Vertical profiled, PVF2 finished, steel sheeting according to the detailed design. 9.2.4 Cargo The OHBC and Gearbulk vessels will carry pulp stacks, organised into 32 tonne units. It is anticipated that the units will be stacked and stored in a warehouse adjacent to the wharf. The stacking of units will be carried out using forklifts, and transportation of pulp to the wharf/terminal will be by tractors and trailers. Terminal Tractor and Trailer Loads Terminal tractors and trailers will be loaded such that the maximum total combined load of a single tractor trailer will be 90 to 100 tonnes. The trailers will be approximately 3.6 m wide, have three axles and be designed to support 64 tonnes (2 pulp units). The terminal tractor trailers will be similar to the Kalmar terminal tractor trailers, used in Australian ports.
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Design Loads

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The terminal export operations considered involve the continuous shuttling of pulp units to the wharf where they are loaded onto the vessel by the ships gear. Other Material Loads Salt will be unloaded from the Gearbulk vessels and either unloaded into truck loading hoppers or placed directly on the deck by retrieval by front end loaders into trucks. Measures will be required to address potential structure durability issues that will arise from this operation. Cranes The wharf site will be used as a staging point for the importation of select equipment during the construction of the new pulp mill. The size of some of this equipment impedes its transportation by road, and the new wharf will therefore receive such items. It is expected that this gear will be brought onto site by barge and unloaded off the barge at the wharf with the use of mobile cranes. Mobile cranes will also be used for the occasional unloading of heavy cargo from vessels once the wharf is operational. Allowance has been made for a heavy lift bay to facilitate the operation of these mobile cranes. Wharf and storage warehouse construction Construction of the proposed wharf facility will be a staged process over a 14-month period, which will commence immediately after receipt of project approval. A preliminary design feasibility study undertaken by Maunsell Aecom (2005) indicates that the preferred option is a piled deck with approach bridges. This option comprises a complete suspended structure on piles and two mooring dolphins. The suspended structure consists of two approach trestles each approximately 10 metres wide and 95 metres long and a wharf deck, 20 metres wide and 224 metres long respectively. Generally, this suspended structure consists of an in-situ reinforced concrete deck on prestressed concrete planks supported by precast concrete headstocks. The facilitys mooring dolphins (approximately 4 metres x 4 metres in dimension and supported on piles) will be positioned upstream and downstream of the wharf deck with an offset of approximately 30 metres from the approach trestles and a setback of 10 metres from the berthing face. Catwalks will provide access to the dolphins. A site specific geotechnical investigation has been undertaken for the proposed wharf facility. The geotechnical investigation has discovered considerable depth of sediments (up to 40m) overlying dolerite rock. Pile size and pile bent spacings for the wharf were adopted after consideration of the geotechnical conditions encountered on-site. Steel tubular piles 760 mm diameter with bent spacings reduced to 6 m will be used. The total thickness of the deck will be 450 mm. It is estimated that completion of bulk earthworks activities associated with the construction of the storage warehouse will occur within five months of commencement. Within twelve months into the overall project 26-month construction period, sections of the wharf will be completed to enable receipt of heavy
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lift plant and equipment required for the construction of the pulp mill. This equipment will be transported from the wharf to the pulp mill construction site. Plant and equipment deployed on-site during the wharf construction will include dump trucks, bulldozers, excavators, vibrating rollers, pile drivers, drilling rigs, barges, tenders, concrete pumps, mobile cranes and concrete trucks.



Water Supply Potable water will be provided on the wharf. A non-potable water main will also be installed on the wharf for deck and hopper wash down and fire fighting. An approved (by the Fire Brigade) 150 diameter main, will need to be provided with hydrants at 60m centres for adequate coverage. Both potable and nonpotable water services on the wharf will be connected to water mains on land. Sewerage Domestic sewerage facilities will be required at the wharf facility. This service will be integrated into the proposed sewer system associated with the pulp mill. Lighting General operational lighting on wharf for trucking operations and on mooring dolphins for line handling will be required. For the purposes of reducing potential impact on neighbouring properties, lighting will be baffled as required. Cope lighting will also be provided along the berthing face of the wharf. Electricity General power will be provided on the wharf. General Purpose Outlets (GPOs) will be positioned along the wharf approximately every 40 metres. Stormwater Kerb and guttering will be provided and a stormwater system will be provided to drain the facility. The stormwater system will comprise stormwater pits on the working platform and approach trestles which will drain into Gross Pollutant Traps (GPT) installed on the wharf (suspended off the deck) or installed on land. The water is subsequently pumped to the effluent treatment plant. Natural Gas Natural gas will not be required at this facility. Telecommunications Telecommunications services will be installed in the warehouse and at other locations on the wharf facility as required.

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Containment of Hazardous Materials

Hazardous materials including liquid caustic soda, sulphuric acid bullets, and salt will be handled in a specified bunded area on the wharf. The bunded areas will drain into a GPT through valves, installed on the deck, which will be open when chemicals and other hazardous materials are not being handled. At times when chemicals are being handled, these valves will be locked shut to guard against the possibility of a spill into the stormwater system and to contain the spill in the bund. Pipework will be provided on the wharf to allow for the pumping of caustic soda from the vessel to a tank and transfer pump on the reclaimed land. The caustic transfer pipe outside the bunded area will be installed inside a second outer pipe for safety and for containment of any leak should this occur. Potable water will be provided on the wharf for a safety shower and eyewash for emergency washdown. Salt handling operations will occur on the wharf and run off from this area will be through the stormwater system into a GPT as for normal stormwater.


Design Options
Portainer Crane Option

Containers may also be utilised in the future for the transportation of pulp and, as a result, a portainer crane option has been considered. The portainer crane option is based on the preferred wharf option (piled deck with approach bridges) with additional crane beams and intermediate piles being introduced to support crane loads and tie down. Other modifications to the preferred option include the provision of a crane maintenance area. For the portainer crane operation, the necessary wharf modifications are considered in two stages. Stage 1 includes works that are built into the wharf at the time of initial construction. Implementing the Stage 1 works will reduce the cost of those items that will be difficult to build into the facility at a later time. Stage 2 includes works that can be deferred until a later time without the need for significant modification of the constructed wharf. For the size of vessels using the facility (up to 65,000 dwt) the overall hatch coverage length is approximately 150m. With buffers placed clear of the approach road, the coverage of the crane will be 177m (224m-20m-27m). It is anticipated that the rail mounted ship to shore crane will be as detailed in Table 165.

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Table 165: Typical Portainer Crane Dimensions and Loading

General Dimensions Rail Gauge Length of crane between buffers Reach Distance between wheel bogie centrelines Loading Wheels per leg Distance between wheels Load per wheel 8 no. 1m 60 tonnes 25.4m 27m 40m 12m


Modifications due to Portainer Crane Requirements

The modifications to the wharf facility include the addition of 2 crane beams (front and rear), extra piles to support the crane loads and a crane maintenance area as shown in Sketch 20024505 - 007 in Appendix 47, Volume 15. The Portainer Crane could be installed some time after commissioning of the wharf and thus only the front crane beam will be provided in the initial construction (Stage 1). The front crane beam will be constructed along the front row of piles, the front row piles will be 914OD. The rear crane beam could be built as Stage 2 and prior to the commissioning of the Portainer Crane and its construction could be carried out from the existing deck.


Heavy Lift Area

A heavy lift area will give greater flexibility in operation of the wharf. This heavy lift area will be used initially for the unloading of large/heavy equipment brought by ship or barge (required for the construction of the mill) and once the wharf is operational, be used for the occasional unloading of heavy cargo from vessels. The heavy lift area will consist of supplementary parallel RC beams that will be installed in the mid section of the wharf. The heavy lift area will be located as shown in the drawings in Appendix 47, Volume 15.

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