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OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
CALCULUS STUDY GUIDE
MTH 251
By
Juha Pohjanpelto
Revised Edition
September 1, 2010
Contents
Syllabus for MTH 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Introduction and Notes for Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
MTH 251 Sample Symbolic Diﬀerentiation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Lesson 0 – Ch. 1: Review of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Limits
Lesson 1 – §2.1: The Idea of Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lesson 2 – §2.2: Deﬁnition of Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lesson 3 – §2.3: Techniques for Computing Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lesson 4 – §2.4: Inﬁnite Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lesson 5 – §2.5: Limits at Inﬁnity and Horizontal Asymptotes . . . . . . 9
Lesson 6 – §2.6: Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Derivatives
Lesson 7 – §3.1: Introducing the Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lesson 8 – §3.2: Rules of Diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Lesson 9 – §3.3: Product and Quotient Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Lesson 10 – §3.4: Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . 17
Lesson 11 – §3.5: Derivatives as Rates of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Lesson 12 – §3.6: The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Lesson 13 – §3.7: Implicit Diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Lesson 14 – §3.8: Logarithmic and Exponential Functions . . . . . . . . . 25
i
Lesson 15 – §3.9: Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . 27
Applications of Derivatives
Lesson 16 – §3.10: Related Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Lesson 17 – §4.1: Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Lesson 18 – §4.2: What Derivatives Tell Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Lesson 19 – §4.3: Graphing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Lesson 20 – §4.4: Optimization Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Lesson 21 – §4.5: Linear Approximations and Diﬀerentials . . . . . . . . 38
Lesson 22 – §4.6: Mean Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Lesson 23 – §4.7: L’Hˆ opital’s Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Laboratory Manual 45
Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Laboratory I – Graphing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Laboratory II – Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Laboratory III – The Intermediate Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Laboratory IV – Velocity and Tangent Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Laboratory V – The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Laboratory VI  Derivatives in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Laboratory VII  Higher Derivatives, Exponential Functions . . . . . . . 75
Laboratory VIII  Curve Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Laboratory IX  Logarithmic Functions and Newton’s Method . . . . . . 82
ii
SYLLABUS FOR MTH 251
Study Guide Text Topic
Lesson 0 Ch. 1 Review of Functions
Lesson 1 §2.1 Idea of Limits
Lesson 2 §2.2 Deﬁnition of Limit
Lesson 3 §2.3 Computing Limits
Lesson 4 §2.4 Inﬁnite Limits
Lesson 5 §2.5 Limits at Inﬁnity
Lesson 6 §2.6 Continuity of Functions
Lesson 7 §3.1 Deﬁnition of Derivative
Lesson 8 §3.2 Basic Rules of Diﬀerentiation
Lesson 9 §3.3 Product and Quotient Rules
Lesson 10 §3.4 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
Catchup/Review
Lesson 11 §3.5 Rates of Change
Lesson 12 §3.6 Chain Rule
Lesson 13 §3.7 Implicit Diﬀerentiation
Lesson 14 §3.8 Logarithmic and Exponential Functions
Lesson 15 §3.9 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Lesson 16 §3.10 Related Rates
Lesson 17 §4.1 Maxima and Minima
Lesson 18 §4.2 Locating Extreme Values
Lesson 19 §4.2–4.3 Graphing Functions
Catchup/Review
Lesson 20 §4.4 Optimization Problems
Lesson 21 §4.5 Linear Approximations and Diﬀerentials
Lesson 22 §4.6 Mean Value Theorem
Lesson 23 §4.7 L’Hˆ opital’s Rule
Catchup/Review
iii
Introduction and Notes for Students
Introduction. This is a study guide for MTH 251 Diﬀerential Calculus. It is
intended to be used in conjunction with the ﬁrst edition of the text Calculus – Early
Transcendentals by Briggs and Cochran. The study guide designed for a ten week
term with 29 lectures and 9 laboratory sessions, with two class hours reserved for
exams, four for review and catchup, and 23 lessons devoted to new material from
the text. The lesson plan for the course by and large follows the organization of the
material in the text.
A number of the recitation sessions will involve scheduled laboratory activities as
designed by your instructor, and the remaining ones are set aside for review and for
questions and answers. You should consult your instructor for a detailed syllabus for
your section of the course.
Comments and suggestions on study habits. In this course much new material
will be presented at a rapid pace. You will also be expected to understand and apply
mathematical concepts and reasoning, not merely perform calculations. Therefore
developing good study habits from the outset in order to keep up with the course is
particularly important. Listed below are a number of points to heed.
Time commitment: It is essential to devote enough time on a daily basis to the
course. You should plan on spending at least two to three hours studying the ma
terial and solving assignments for each hour of lecture. If you have encountered
some of this material before, it is easy to fall into the habit of not dedicating
enough time to the course at the beginning of the term. Then, when more chal
lenging topics are presented later on, you could ﬁnd yourself too far behind to
catch up.
Algebra skills. Applying the proper algebraic manipulations taught in precalculus
courses is one of the most common hurdles for students taking a calculus class.
If your skills are rusty, practice now and seek help before it will be too late.
This course is taught with the premise that you master the basics of algebra and
trigonometry covered in your previous mathematics courses.
Attendance. Your instructors will from time to time introduce a new viewpoint
or amplify on the material set forth in the text or the study guide. Beside the
calculus text, exams for the course will be based on the lectures, recitations, lab
activities and assignments, and you are accountable for all the materials. It is
then in your own interest to plan on attending all the class meetings and to get
notes from another student for any that you might have missed.
iv
Homework. Exercises in the text are divided into several categories. Review Ques
tions test your conceptual understanding of the narrative, while solving Basic
Skills exercises will improve you computational dexterity. Exercises under the
Further Explorations and Applications heading are built on the Basic Skills prob
lems and are more demanding. Finally, Additional Exercises will challenge your
thinking and often involve mathematical proofs. Each chapter in the text con
cludes with Review Exercises which will help you to synthesize the contents of the
entire chapter.
Most students can only excel in this course by solving a large number of problems
and you should therefore aim to work through most of the exercises in the text.
As a starting point, you will ﬁnd lists of basic Starter Problems and the more
challenging Recommended Problems at the end of each lesson in this study guide.
Keep in mind that simply getting the answer at the back of the book should not
be your only goal, but that understanding the principles and methods needed to
solve an exercise is the primary purpose of an assignment, and also a requisite for
solving similar problems in the exams and in reallife situations.
Laboratory Activities. There are nine detailed group activities presented in the
Laboratory Manual of this study guide. During the term you may be assigned to
work on a subset of these as part of the weekly recitation sessions. Your instructor
will provide a detailed schedule for the activities.
Other Resources. The Mathematics Learning Center (MLC) provides dropin help
for all lower division mathematics courses. The MLC is located on the ground
ﬂoor of Kidder Hall in room 108, and is normally open Monday through Thursday
from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. and on Fridays from 9 a.m.to 5 p.m., from the second week
of the term through the Dead Week. The MLC also provides evening tutoring in
the Valley Library, in general Sunday through Thursday from 6 p.m. till 9 p.m.
Current hours can be found at the MLC homepage.
By purchasing the course text you will gain access to MyMathLab, an online cal
culus portal maintained by the publisher. In addition to homework problems and
tests with automated grading, the site oﬀers a number of useful tools, including
powerpoint and video lectures, review cards, and tutorial exercises, for organizing
your studies and to facilitate learning the course material.
Acknowledgments. This study guide relies on the previous Mathematic Depart
ment’s MTH 251 study guides, with material written by Bob Burton, Tevian Dray,
Christine Escher, and Dennis Garity. Valuable comments were also received from
Stephen Scarborough. To all of these people I extend my profound thanks.
v
MTH 251 Sample Symbolic Diﬀerentiation Test
NAME: Student ID#:
Show only your answers on this page. Carry out your computations on a separate
piece of paper and turn it in with this page. You must show all your work to receive
full credit. No calculators or notes are allowed!
Compute the following derivatives: (You do not need to simplify your answers.)
1.
d
dx
(2x −4x
4
−16)
2.
d
dx
x
3
x
2
+ 3
3.
d
dx
√
cos x + 2
4.
d
dx
sec
3
x
5.
d
dx
sin(x
3
−7)
6.
d
dx
(x
5
−14)
4/3
7.
d
dx
(x tan x)
8.
d
dx
cos x
x + 1
9.
d
dx
1
x
3
10.
d
dx
(sin(x) cos(2x))
vi
Lesson 0 – Ch. 1: Review of Functions
The chapter contains a summary of some of the background material required for
this course. You should carefully review it on your own as it will not be thoroughly
covered in class.
Section 1.1 Browse through the section to ensure that your understand the basic
concepts and are able to solve the exercises in the text. You should be familiar with
the following terminology:
• Domain of a function • Range of a function • Independent variable
• Dependent variable • Graph of a function • Composite function
• Even function • Odd function
An even function satisﬁes f(−x) = f(x) for all x in the domain of f(x), while an
odd function is characterized by f(−x) = −f(x). For example, any even powered
monomial f(x) = x
2n
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , yields an even function, and any odd powered
monomial f(x) = x
2n+1
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , an odd function. Also, as you can easily
verify, the absolute value function x =
x, if x ≥ 0,
−x, if x < 0,
is even.
Section 1.2 treats various types of elementary functions and their graphs. For you
the most important ones to be able to work with are
• Polynomials • Rational functions • Algebraic functions
• Exponental functions • Logarithmic functions • Trigonometric functions
A linear function f(x) = mx +b, where m, b are constants, is a polynomial function
of degree 1. The square root function f(x) =
√
x and the cubic root function f(x) =
x
1/3
are familiar examples of algebraic functions.
The slope function g(x) of a function f(x) speciﬁes the slope of the graph of y = f(x)
at x. You will discover in this class that, for example, the slope function of the
parabola y = x
2
is g(x) = 2x, while the slope function of the sine function y = sin x
is g(x) = cos x.
You can construct new functions by shifting and scaling the graph of a given function
f(x) in the x and ydirections. As an example, graph (by hand!) the xshift sin(x+2),
the yshift sin x+2, the xscaling sin(2x), and the yscaling 2 sin x of the sine function
in the same grid and make sure you understand how the graphs of these are related
1
to the graph of their progenitor.
Section 1.3. Brush up on inverse functions and the horizontal line test for checking
whether a function is onetoone. As an exercise, determine the largest intervals on
which the function f(x) = x
2
−2x is onetoone and ﬁnd its inverse function on each
of the intervals you have identiﬁed.
Review the deﬁnition of the exponential function and the logarithmic function as its
inverse. You will be expected to understand their basic properties and to be able to
apply the exponential and logarithmic rules as spelled out in the margin of the text.
Section 1.4. Start by reviewing the deﬁnition of the radian measure and, for prac
tise, express the angle measurements 15
◦
, 30
◦
, 45
◦
, 60
◦
, 90
◦
, 180
◦
in radians.
You should be familiar with the graphs of the basic trigonometric functions
sin θ, cos θ, sec θ, csc θ, tan θ, cot θ,
and to be able to ﬁnd their precise values for the angles
θ = 0, π/6, π/4, π/2, π,
without a calculator. The various trigonometric identities often prove handy in
simplifying complicated trigonometric expressions.
The inverse trigonometric functions will be covered in Lesson 15.
Starter Problem List:
Section 1.1: 6, 13, 22, 31, 36, 41, 47.
Section 1.2: 3, 7, 8, 13, 16, 21, 30.
Section 1.3: 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 25, 29, 35, 49.
Section 1.4: 2, 3, 7, 16, 17, 18, 25, 31.
2
Recommended Problem List:
Section 1.1: 8, 14, 18, 25, 29, 33, 39, 44, 45, 52, 64.
Section 1.2: 10, 20, 24, 28, 32, 37, 47.
Section 1.3: 11, 15, 21, 22, 24, 28, 30, 36, 40, 44, 54.
Section 1.4: 4, 8, 20, 21, 26, 28, 32, 33, 66.
3
Lesson 1 – §2.1: The Idea of Limits
The limit of a function f(x), which describes the behavior of f(x) near a ﬁxed point,
is a key concept in calculus. Roughly, the limit is the number that the values of the
function approach as the input x gets close, but is not equal, to the ﬁxed point.
In this section the importance of limits is underscored by the way of examples in
volving average and instantaneous velocities, and the secant and tangent lines. You
will revisit these type of examples after learning about the derivative of a function.
Starter Problem List: 2, 4, 5, 7, 13.
Recommended Problem List: 6, 9, 12, 16, 19, 20, 23, 24.
4
Lesson 2 – §2.2: Deﬁnition of Limits
Intuitively, the limit of a function f(x) at x = a equals L,
lim
x→a
f(x) = L,
if the values of f(x) are arbitrarily close to L when x is suﬃciently close, but not
equal, to a. Hence the limit of a function may exist at x = a even when the function
is not deﬁned at x = a.
You can ﬁnd the precise δ deﬁnition of a limit in Section 2.7 of the text. However,
the description given in Section 2.3 will by and large suﬃce for the purposes of
this course, although you might want to study ﬁgures 2.57–2.59 to gain a deeper
understanding of the limit concept.
When computing the limit of a function at x = a, one considers values of f(x) on
both sides of a. Thus the limit of a function is often referred to as a twosided limit.
A useful variation to the basic limit concept is that of onesided limits,
lim
x→a
+
f(x), lim
x→a
−
f(x),
where, in the ﬁrst instance, one only considers values of x larger than a and, in the
second one, smaller than a.
The limit lim
x→a
f(x) exists if and only if the onesided limits lim
x→a
+ f(x), lim
x→a
− f(x)
exist and are equal. Hence, both of the onesided limits may exist at a point even
when the twosided limit does not. (Can you construct an example?)
You can often estimate the limit lim
x→a
f(x) by zooming in on the graph of f(x)
near x = a. However, graphing utilities can also lead you awry due to rounding
errors as you will discover in Laboratory assignment I.
Starter Problem List: 2, 6, 7, 11, 15, 17, 31, 35.
Recommended Problem List: 13, 14, 16, 21, 25, 27, 29, 37.
5
Lesson 3 – §2.3: Techniques for Computing Limits
In this lesson you will learn a number of rules for computing limits for the most
common types of functions you will encounter in this course. You should study the
examples in the text carefully as these will help you understand how to apply the
limit laws.
The basic rules for computing limits are as follows: Suppose that c is a constant, n
a positive integer, and that the limits lim
x→a
f(x) and lim
x→a
g(x) exist. Then
1. lim
x→a
c = c.
2. lim
x→a
x = a.
3. lim
x→a
(cf(x)) = c lim
x→a
f(x).
4. lim
x→c
(f(x) + g(x)) = lim
x→a
f(x) + lim
x→a
g(x).
5. lim
x→a
(f(x)g(x)) = (lim
x→a
f(x))(lim
x→a
g(x)).
6. lim
x→a
f(x)
g(x)
=
lim
x→a
f(x)
lim
x→a
g(x)
, provided that lim
x→a
g(x) = 0.
7. lim
x→a
(f(x))
n
=
lim
x→a
f(x)
n
.
8. lim
x→a
n
f(x) =
n
lim
x→a
f(x) , provided that f(x) ≥ 0 for x near a when n is even.
As an example, if lim
x→2
f(x) = −3 and lim
x→2
g(x) = 2, it then follows from limit laws 3,
4, and 7 that
lim
x→2
f(x)
2
−3g(x)
=
lim
x→2
f(x)
2
−3 lim
x→2
g(x) = 3.
All the above rules also hold for onesided limits with the obvious modiﬁcations.
The limits laws can be used to ﬁnd the limits of polynomial and rational functions:
If p and q are polynomials, then
lim
x→a
p(x) = p(a), lim
x→a
p(x)
q(x)
=
p(a)
q(a)
, provided that q(a) = 0.
6
The computation of a limit lim
x→a
f(x)/g(x) of the quotient of two functions, where
g(a) = 0, often calls for algebraic manipulations. Two basic techniques, cancel
ing common factors and multiplying by the algebraic conjugate, are illustrated in
Example 6 in the text.
Yet another technique for ﬁnding limits is aﬀorded by the Squeeze Theorem: If
f(x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x) for all x near a (except possibly at a), and if lim
x→a
f(x) =
lim
x→a
h(x) = L, then
lim
x→a
g(x) = L.
You should try to decipher the content of the Squeeze Theorem in terms of the graphs
of f(x), g(x), and h(x).
Starter Problem List: 4, 7, 10, 11, 15, 17, 23, 25, 33, 49.
Recommended Problem List: 20, 22, 27, 32, 34, 38, 41, 43, 45, 48, 51, 60, 64.
7
Lesson 4 – §2.4: Inﬁnite Limits
A function f(x) possesses an inﬁnite limit at x = a when its values grow larger and
larger without bound as x approaches a. In this case one writes
lim
x→a
f(x) = ∞.
As an example, lim
x→0
1/x
2
= ∞.
In analogy, if the values of f(x) are negative and grow larger and larger in magnitude
as x approaches a, then the limit of f(x) at x = a is negative inﬁnity, or
lim
x→a
f(x) = −∞.
One deﬁnes inﬁnite limits for the onesided limits lim
x→a
± f(x) in a like fashion.
For inﬁnite limits one has the following variant of the Squeeze Theorem: Suppose
that f(x) ≥ g(x) for all x near, but not equal to, a, and lim
x→a
g(x) = ∞, then
also lim
x→a
f(x) = ∞. As an exercise, formulate an analogous statement involving
a negative inﬁnity limit.
If at least one of the onesided limits at x = a is either ∞ or −∞, the line x = a
is called a vertical asymptote of f(x). If f(x) = p(x)/q(x) is a rational function
in reduced form (that is, p(x), q(x) share no common factors), then the vertical
asymptotes are situated at the zeros of the denominator q(x). The trigonometric
functions tan θ, cot θ, sec θ, csc θ possess an inﬁnite number of vertical asymptotes.
Can you locate all of them?
Starter Problem List: 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 17, 27, 29, 39.
Recommended Problem List: 10, 15, 18, 20, 23, 25, 32, 34, 36, 37, 43.
8
Lesson 5 – §2.5: Limits at Inﬁnity and Horizontal
Asymptotes
The limit
lim
x→∞
f(x)
of a function f(x) as x approaches ∞ describes the values of f(x) as x becomes
larger and larger without bound. For example, since 1/x ≈ 0 when x is large, one
can conclude that
lim
x→∞
sin(
1
x
) = 0.
On the other hand,
lim
x→∞
(x
2
−x) = ∞,
since the term x
2
grows much faster than x. Finally,
lim
x→∞
sin x
does not exist. Can you see why?
The limit lim
x→−∞
f(x) of f(x) at negative inﬁnity is similarly found by letting x
become negative and larger and larger in magnitude.
If either one of lim
x→±∞
f(x) = L exists and is ﬁnite then the line y = L is a
horizontal asymptote for f(x). Thus, as we saw above, the line y = 0 is a horizontal
asymptote for f(x) = sin(1/x).
Suppose that f(x) = p(x)/q(x) is a rational function with
p(x) = a
m
x
m
+ a
m−1
x
m−1
+· · · + a
1
x + a
o
,
q(x) = b
n
x
n
+ b
n−1
x
n−1
+· · · + b
1
x + b
o
,
where a
m
, b
n
= 0, then
1. lim
x→±∞
p(x)
q(x)
= 0, if m < n,
2. lim
x→±∞
p(x)/q(x) = a
m
/b
n
, if m = n,
3. lim
x→±∞
p(x)/q(x) = ±∞, if m > n, depending on whether m−n is even or odd.
9
Hence the rational function f(x) = p(x)/q(x) has a horizontal asymptote precisely
when the degree of q(x) is equal or larger than the degree of p(x).
One can use the exponent rules for the natural exponential function to conclude that
lim
x→∞
e
x
= ∞, lim
x→−∞
e
x
= 0.
Consequently, the logarithm function, as the inverse of the exponential function,
must satisfy
lim
x→0
ln x = −∞, lim
x→∞
ln x = ∞,
as you can also verify by graphing the functions.
Starter Problem List: 4, 9, 11, 15, 21, 31, 35, 38.
Recommended Problem List: 12, 13, 18, 20, 23, 26, 27, 33, 36, 40, 44, 52.
10
Lesson 6 – §2.6: Continuity
A function f(x) is continuous at x = a if lim
x→a
f(x) = f(a). That is, f(x) is continuous
at x = a, if
1. f(x) is deﬁned on some interval containing x = a,
2. the limit lim
x→a
f(x) exists, and
3. the limit is equal to the value f(a).
Intuitively speaking, if f(x) is continuous at x = a, then the graph of f(x) contains
no holes or breaks at x = a.
A function f(x) is continuous on an interval if it is continuous at every point con
tained in that interval.
All algebraic functions and the basic transcendental functions sin x, cos x, e
x
, ln x
are continuous in their respective domains of deﬁnition.
The Limit Laws imply that the sum, the diﬀerence, the product, and the quotient of
two continuous functions are again continuous in their domains of deﬁnition. More
over, the composition of two continuous functions is continuous, as is the inverse
function of a continuous function when it exists.
The Limit Laws also yield many more continuous functions. Can you see why the
function
f(x) =
4
2 + sin(
1
1 + x
2
)
is continuous for all values of x?
The Intermediate Value Theorem can be used to locate solutions to equations. For
example, you can apply the IVT to conclude that the seemingly complicated equation
x
7
−5x
5
+ x
2
+ 1 = 0
must have a solution in the interval (0, 1)! You will ﬁnd other applications of the
IVT in the exercises below and in Laboratory Activity III.
Starter Problem List: 4, 10, 11, 13, 19, 25, 30, 39, 51.
Recommended Problem List: 15, 20, 24, 28, 34, 35, 41, 46, 49, 54, 61, 74.
11
Lesson 7 – §3.1: Introducing the Derivative
The diﬀerence quotient of a function f(x) on the interval [a, a + h] is given by
f(a + h) −f(a)
h
,
which can be interpreted as the slope of the secant line through the points (a, f(a))
and (a + h, f(a + h)), or, alternately, as the average rate of change of f(x) on the
interval (a, a + h).
A function f(x) is diﬀerentiable at the point x = a if the limit of the diﬀerence
quotient
f
(a) = lim
h→0
f(a + h) −f(a)
h
exists (and is ﬁnite). One frequently also writes
f
(a) = lim
x→a
f(x) −f(a)
x −a
.
(Check that the two deﬁnitions are equivalent!)
The value of the limit, f
(a), is called the derivative of f(x) at x = a. If f(x)
is diﬀerentiable at every point on an interval I, then the diﬀerentiation process
determines a new function f
(x), the derivative of f(x), on I. One often employs the
Leibniz notation
df
dx
(x) to indicate the derivative f
(x).
If f(x) is diﬀerentiable at x = a, then it is also continuous at x = a. Thus if f(x) is
not continuous at x = a, then it can not be diﬀerentiable at that point either. But
keep in mind that there are a lot of continuous functions that are not diﬀerentiable,
as, for example, is the case with f(x) = x at x = 0.
The computation of the derivative using the deﬁnition is illustrated in Examples 3,
4, and 5 in the text and you should carefully go through the steps so that you will
be able to carry out similar calculations on your own.
Basic applications of the derivative include the slope of the tangent line to the graph
of a function and the instantaneous rate of change of a function. Thus, given the
slope m = f
(a) of the tangent line at x = a, its equation can be written as
y = m(x −a) + f(a).
12
In the same vein, if x = s(t) is the position of a particle moving along the xaxis,
its velocity is given by v(t) =
ds
dt
(t). (Note that the time t is now the independent
variable, so the derivative must be computed with respect to t.)
Starter Problem List: 6, 7, 13, 14, 18, 23, 36, 41, 45.
Recommended Problem List: 11, 15, 19, 22, 27, 34, 43, 49, 53, 58, 65.
13
Lesson 8 – §3.2: Rules of Diﬀerentiation
The following rules for the derivative can be derived directly from the deﬁnition.
1. Constant function rule:
d
dx
c = 0.
2. Power rule:
d
dx
x
n
= nx
n−1
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
3. Constant multiple rule:
d
dx
cf(x)
= c
d
dx
f(x).
4. Sum rule:
d
dx
f(x) + g(x)
=
d
dx
f(x) +
d
dx
g(x).
As you will see in section 3.8, the power rule
d
dx
x
r
= rx
r−1
, in fact, holds true for
any real exponent r.
One often needs to combine the above rules to compute the derivative of a given
function. For example, by applying both the constant multiple and sum rules we see
that
d
dx
(2f(x) −5g(x)) = 2f
(x) −5g
(x).
Notice that in order to compute a derivative at a particular point using any of the
four rules above, you only need to know the value of the derivatives of the constituent
functions at that point. So if we know that f
(1) = −1, g
(1) = 3, then
d
dx
(2f(x) −5g(x))
x=1
= 2f
(1) −5g
(1) = −17.
Euler’s number e = 2.718 . . . is deﬁned by the property that
lim
h→0
e
h
−1
h
= 1.
As a consequence,
d
dx
e
x
= e
x
,
that is, the natural exponential function is its own derivative!
14
The higher order derivatives
d
2
dx
2
f(x) = f
(x),
d
3
dx
3
f(x) = f
(x), . . .
of a function f(x) are obtained by repeatedly diﬀerentiating f(x). For example,
d
2
dx
2
x
7
=
d
dx
d
dx
x
7
= 7
d
dx
x
6
= 42x
5
.
As a exercise, compute
d
4
dx
4
x
3
. What do you notice? Can you generalize your
observation into a rule for higher order derivatives of a polynomial function?
Starter Problem List: 7, 9, 13, 17, 19, 23, 27, 29, 35, 39, 42, 50, 54.
Recommended Problem List: 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 32, 38, 41, 44, 45, 48, 56, 66.
15
Lesson 9 – §3.3: Product and Quotient Rules
In this section you will learn rules for computing the derivatives of the product and
quotient of two functions in terms of the values of the functions and their derivatives.
1. Product rule:
d
dx
f(x)g(x)
= f
(x)g(x) + f(x)g
(x).
2. Quotient rule:
d
dx
¸
f(x)
g(x)
=
f
(x)g(x) −f(x)g
(x)
g(x)
2
.
Importantly, these rules allow one to compute the derivative of the product and quo
tient of two functions at a point from the values of the functions and their derivatives
at that point only! As an example, suppose that the following information is given:
f(−1) = 3, f
(−1) = −1, g(−1) = 2, g
(−1) = −3.
Then by the quotient rule,
d
dx
¸
f(x)
g(x)
x = −1
=
f
(−1)g(−1) −f(−1)g
(−1)
g(−1)
2
=
7
4
.
In more complicated derivative computations you will need to be able to combine
these (and other) rules of diﬀerentiation; see Example 7 in the text for a typical
application.
The quotient rule can also be used to extend the power rule of diﬀerentiation of
Lesson 8 to negative values of the exponent.
The horizontal scaling f(x) →f(kx) changes the instantaneous rate of change of the
function by the factor k. Thus
d
dx
f(kx) = kf
(kx), so, in particular,
d
dx
e
kx
= ke
kx
, for any real number k.
The function e
kx
appears in models for population growth and radioactive decay.
Starter Problem List: 6, 8, 13, 17, 23, 27, 31, 37, 41, 47, 54, 64.
Recommended Problem List: 9, 15, 22, 26, 30, 34, 39, 44, 51, 55, 60, 62, 68, 71.
16
Lesson 10 – §3.4: Derivatives of Trigonometric Func
tions
The following limits, which are important on their own right, are used to compute
the derivatives of the sine and cosine functions:
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1, lim
x→0
cos x −1
x
= 0.
Both expressions are in indeterminate form, so ﬁnding the required limits by a geo
metric argument, as is done in the text, takes some work. It is important to bear in
mind that in these limit statements the x variable must be expressed in radians.
You should commit to memory the derivative formulas of the basic trigonometric
functions cataloged in the table below.
1.
d
dx
sin x = cos x 2.
d
dx
cos x = −sin x
3.
d
dx
tan x = sec
2
x = (cos x)
−2
4.
d
dx
cot x = −csc
2
x = −(sin x)
−2
5.
d
dx
sec x = sec x tan x =
sin x
cos
2
x
6.
d
dx
csc x = −csc x cot x = −
cos x
sin
2
x
Note the antisymmetry in the formulas for the derivatives of the sine and cosine
functions. The remaining derivatives 36 can be obtained from these two with the
help of the quotient rule, as you should verify on your own. Typically the derivatives
of tan x, cot x, sec x and csc x are given in terms of the same, but keep in mind that
when manipulating or simplifying a complicated trigonometric expression, it is often
helpful to convert it ﬁrst as an expression involving sine and cosine only.
Caveat: In all the derivative formulas x must be expressed in radians. If you use
other units (degrees, grads, . . . ), you will need to modify the formulas accordingly.
Thus, for example, if z is given in degrees, then
d sin z
dz
=
π
180
cos z,
as you should conﬁrm on your own.
17
Starter Problem List: 6, 7, 9, 15, 19, 27, 32, 34, 38, 46, 51, 54.
Recommended Problem List: 11, 13, 17, 22, 30, 35, 40, 44, 50, 56, 58, 68, 71.
18
Lesson 11 – §3.5: Derivatives as Rates of Change
The key concepts of this lesson are the average rate of change and the instantaneous
rate of change of a quantity that varies in time t.
Suppose that an object moves along the xaxis so that its position is given by x =
f(t), where t denotes the time. For example, x = cos t describes an instance of
harmonic motion. Then the displacement of the object during a time period t = a
to t = a +∆t is ∆x = f(a +∆t) −f(a), so the average velocity of the object is given
by
v
ave
=
∆x
∆t
=
f(a + ∆t) −f(a)
∆t
,
where, as you notice, the righthand side is simply the diﬀerence quotient of the
function f(t) on the interval [a, a + ∆t].
As can be easily checked, the average velocity in harmonic motion x = cos t over the
interval [0, 2π] is zero even though the object moves back and forth between 1 and
−1. Thus the average velocity does not often accurately characterize motion. A more
precise description is obtained by computing the average velocity on increasingly
smaller intervals, that is, by letting ∆t →0 in the above formula. But the limit (once
again) results in the derivative and so the (instantaneous) velocity of the particle is
simply
v = f
(t).
The instantaneous rate of change of velocity is the acceleration, so
a(t) =
d
dt
v(t).
(Warning: Don’t be confused by the text’s use of the same symbol a for a ﬁxed value
of the xcoordinate and the acceleration of an object.)
The ﬁnal example of the section treats a business application. Suppose that the
cost of producing x items in a manufacturing plant can be computed from the cost
function C(x). Then the average cost of producing x items is C(x)/x, while the
marginal cost measures the expense of manufacturing one additional item. The
increase in production from x to x + ∆x items incurs the extra average expense of
C(x + ∆x) −C(x)
∆x
per item. The marginal cost is obtained by taking the limit as ∆x → 0, and so is
given by the derivative C
(x) of the cost function. Of course, in real life situation, x
19
and ∆x take on integral values, so the marginal cost will only give an approximation
to the actual increase in the cost of producing one more item,
C(x + 1) −C(x) ≈ C
(x).
Starter Problem List: 4, 7, 9, 11, 17, 21, 27, 38.
Recommended Problem List: 10, 15, 19, 24, 29, 32, 35, 41, 45, 48.
20
Lesson 12 – §3.6: The Chain Rule
The chain rule allows you to compute the derivative of the composition of two func
tions f(g(x)) in terms of the derivatives f
(x) and g
(x).
Chain Rule:
d
dx
f(g(x))
= f
(g(x))g
(x).
You will see many variants of this basic formula such as
d
dt
f(h(t)) = f
(h(t))h
(t),
dy
dx
=
dy
du
du
dx
, and
dy
dt
=
dy
dx
dx
dt
,
but they all express the same fact as the boxed formula, only in diﬀerent notation.
The chain rule is one of the most useful tools for ﬁnding the derivatives of complicated
functions as it lets you break down the computation into the diﬀerentiation of simpler
functions.
Perhaps the following argument will help you to understand and remember the chain
rule. Recall that if x changes by a small amount ∆x, then the change in the values
of the function g(x) is approximately
g(x + ∆x) −g(x) ≈ g
(x)∆x.
Thus, in the composition f(g(x)), the argument (or the input) of f(y) changes by
∆y ≈ g
(x)∆x, where we have written y = g(x). So the value of f(g(x)) changes by
f(y + ∆y) −f(y) ≈ f
(y)∆y ≈ f
(g(x))g
(x)∆x.
But this must be equal to
d
dx
f(g(x))
∆x, so by comparing the two expressions for
the change of f(g(x)), you will recover the chain rule
d
dx
f(g(x)) = f
(g(x))g
(x).
Example. If f(y) = y
n
with the derivative f
(y) = ny
n−1
, then the chain rule
reduces to
d
dx
g(x)
n
= ng(x)
n−1
g
(x).
For n = −1, this, combined with the product rule, yields an alternate useful form
d
dx
h(x)
g(x)
=
d
dx
h(x)g(x)
−1
= h
(x)g(x)
−1
−h(x)g(x)
−2
g
(x)
21
of the quotient rule.
Example. A derivative computation often requires a repeated application of the
chain rule. For example,
d
dx
sin(cos(x
2
)) = cos(cos(x
2
))
d
dx
cos(x
2
) = cos(cos(x
2
))(−sin(x
2
))
d
dx
(x
2
)
= cos(cos(x
2
))(−sin(x
2
))2x = −2x cos(cos(x
2
)) sin(x
2
),
where, at ﬁrst, we used the chain rule with f(y) = sin(y), g(x) = cos(x
2
) and, in
computing the derivative of cos(x
2
), with f(y) = cos(y), g(x) = x
2
. Example 5 in
the text highlights the same type of computation.
Example. In light of the chain rule, the rate of change of the composition f(g(x))
at x = a is the product of the rate of change of f(y) at y = g(a) and of g(x) at x = a.
As an illustration, suppose we know that g(0) = 1, g
(0) = 3, f
(1) = −1. Then
d
dx
f(g(x))

x=0
= f
(g(0))g
(0) = f
(1)3 = −3.
Thus the rate of change of f(g(x)) at x = 0 is −3.
Starter Problem List: 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 20, 30, 36, 38, 49.
Recommended Problem List: 14, 16, 22, 26, 31, 34, 39, 50, 55, 58, 62, 67, 75.
22
Lesson 13 – §3.7: Implicit Diﬀerentiation
Suppose your task is to compute the slope of the tangent line to the ellipse 4x
2
+y
2
= 1
at the point (
1
4
,
√
3
2
). You can, of course, solve the equation for y to ﬁnd that
y = ±
√
1 −4x
2
,
which can then be diﬀerentiated to obtain the slope.
But as an alternate approach, note that the equation for the ellipse deﬁnes (up to a
± sign) y as a function of x. Write y = f(x) for the function so that
4x
2
+ f(x)
2
= 1.
But this equation simply states that the function 4x
2
+ f(x)
2
on the lefthand side
must be identically constant 1! Hence its derivative must vanish, so, by the chain
rule for powers, we obtain
8x + 2f(x)f
(x) = 0, =⇒ f
(x) = −
4x
f(x)
.
Thus the slope at (
1
4
,
√
3
2
) will be f
(
1
4
) = −
2
√
3
.
One typically forgoes writing f(x) for y and directly diﬀerentiates both sides of the
deﬁning equation 4x
2
+y
2
= 1 while keeping in mind that y is a function of x. This
gives
8x + 2yy
= 0 =⇒ y
= −
4x
y
.
It is now a simple matter to ﬁnd the slope by plugging in the x and ycoordinates of
the base point.
This process of diﬀerentiating y without knowing its explicit expression in terms of
x is called implicit diﬀerentiation. As we saw, it simpliﬁed the task of ﬁnding the
slope of the tangent line to the ellipse, but implicit diﬀerentiation really becomes an
indispensable tool in problems in which one can not analytically solve y in terms of
x. (It can be shown that the equation y + e
x
2
y
= 1 deﬁnes y as a function of x, but
can you ﬁnd an explicit expression for y in terms of x? How about dy/dx in terms
of x and y?)
Caveat: Common mistakes in carrying out implicit diﬀerentiation are to forget to
apply the chain rule when diﬀerentiating terms involving y (which is to be considered
a function of x) and to forget to diﬀerentiate constant terms.
23
Two lines
1
,
2
intersects perpendicularly (or at 90
◦
angle) if their slopes satisfy
s
1
s
2
= −1, provided that s
1
= 0, ∞. You can use this property to ﬁnd the normal
line to a plane curve at a point: since the slope of the tangent line is dy/dx, the slope
of the normal line will be −1/(dy/dx) (The normal line is vertical when dy/dx = 0).
Example. Example 5 in the text asks for the slope of the tangent line to the curve
2(x + y)
1/3
= y at (4, 4). As in the text, diﬀerentiate the equation implicitly to get
2
3
(x + y)
−2/3
1 +
dy
dx
=
dy
dx
.
Since the goal is to ﬁnd the slope at a given point, there is no need to solve the
equation to derive a general formula for dy/dx – one can instead directly substitute
the coordinates of the base point to see that
2
3
(4 + 4)
−2/3
1 +
dy
dx
=
1
6
1 +
dy
dx
=
dy
dx
,
from which dy/dx = 1/5. Hence, in particular, the tangent line to the curve at (4, 4)
is given by y = x/5 + 16/5 and the normal line by y = −5x + 24. You can use the
same trick to facilitate solving several of the exercises in this section.
Starter Problem List: 1, 5, 9, 13, 23, 27, 35, 41, 61, 65.
Recommended Problem List: 10, 21, 26, 29, 31, 39, 45, 48, 52, 64, 67, 69.
24
Lesson 14 – §3.8: Logarithmic and Exponential Func
tions
You recall that the natural exponential function is onetoone, so it has an inverse,
which is called the natural logarithmic function ln x. The domain of ln x is (0, ∞)
and the range is (−∞, ∞), as you should verify by graphing ln x using the graph of
e
x
as the starting point. Thus, by deﬁnition,
e
ln x
= x, for x > 0, and ln e
x
= x, for all x.
The power rules for the exponential function have their counterparts, the logarithm
rules, which are summarized below.
1. e
x
e
y
= e
x+y
⇐⇒ ln(xy) = ln x + ln y.
2.
e
x
y
= e
xy
⇐⇒ ln(x
y
) = y ln x.
These formulas also yield the expression for the derivative of the natural logarithm
function: Diﬀerentiate the equation x = e
ln x
with respect to x (and don’t forget to
apply the chain rule) to see that
1 = e
ln x
d
dx
ln x = x
d
dx
ln x,
where, in the second step, we used the relation x = e
ln x
. This can be easily solved:
d
dx
ln x =
1
x
.
As we will see later, the above computation is just a special case of a general algorithm
for determining the derivative of an inverse function.
The logarithm function in base b, b > 0, is deﬁned by the relations
y = log
b
x ⇐⇒ x = b
y
, where x > 0.
You should derive the identities
b
x
= e
xln b
, log
b
x =
ln x
ln b
,
25
which, by diﬀerentiation, give
d
dx
b
x
= (ln b)b
x
,
d
dx
log
b
x =
1
x ln b
,
for the derivatives of the exponential and logarithm function in base b.
Logarithmic diﬀerentiation is founded on the observation that
d
dx
ln f(x) =
f
(x)
f(x)
⇐⇒ f
(x) = f(x)
d
dx
ln f(x).
Thus one can ﬁnd the derivative of a function f(x) by starting with diﬀerentiating
ln f(x) and then multiplying the result by f(x). For certain type of functions this
will simplify computing the derivative. Can you think of any examples?
Example. As an application of logarithmic diﬀerentiation we compute
d
dx
(sin x)
x
.
We have that
d
dx
(sin x)
x
= (sin x)
x
d
dx
ln(sin x)
x
= (sin x)
x
d
dx
(x ln sin x)
= (sin x)
x
ln sin x + x
cos x
sin x
= (sin x)
x
ln sin x + xcos x(sin x)
x−1
.
Starter Problem List: 3, 9, 13, 17, 26, 31, 38, 44, 52, 59.
Recommended Problem List: 11, 15, 19, 20, 25, 27, 32, 36, 39, 47, 50, 60, 68,
75.
26
Lesson 15 – §3.9: Derivatives of Inverse Trigono
metric Functions
Suppose that f(x) is invertible with the inverse function f
−1
(x). Then, by the very
deﬁnition, f(x) and f
−1
(x) satisfy f(f
−1
(x)) = x. We can diﬀerentiate this identity
to see that
f
(f
−1
(x))
d
dx
f
−1
(x) = 1.
(Can you see why we again needed to use the chain rule?) Solving for the derivative
of the inverse function, we obtain
d
dx
f
−1
(x) =
1
f
(f
−1
(x))
.
In other words, the derivative of f
−1
(x) is the reciprocal of f
(x) composed with
f
−1
(x)!
Example. Suppose that f(x) is invertible and that you are given the following
information:
f(1) = 3, f(3) = −2, f
(1) = 6, f
(3) = 4.
Find
d
dx
f
−1
(x)
x=3
. Can you compute
d
dx
f
−1
(x)
x=1
based on the above data?
In order to ﬁnd
d
dx
f
−1
(x)
x=3
we apply the basic identity for the derivative of the
inverse function. For this, we will need f
−1
(3) which, since f(1) = 3, equals 1. Thus
d
dx
f
−1
(x)
x=3
=
1
f
(f
−1
(3))
=
1
f
(1)
=
1
6
.
In order to ﬁnd
d
dx
f
−1
(x)
x=1
we would need need to know the value of f
−1
(1), that
is, an x value so that f(x) = 1, but this is not given, so the answer to the latter
question is negative.
The sine function is 2πperiodic, so it fails the horizontal line test and can not
be invertible. However, its principal part, the restriction of sin x to the interval
[−π/2, π/2], is onetoone and possesses an inverse function, which is denoted by
sin
−1
x (or often also by arcsin x). Thus
y = sin x, −
π
2
≤ x ≤
π
2
⇐⇒ x = sin
−1
y, −1 ≤ x ≤ 1.
27
As an exercise, graph sin
−1
(x) starting from the graph of sin x, carefully identifying
the domain and range of sin
−1
x in your plot.
You should note that the inverse function of sin x can be deﬁned on any interval, for
example, on [−3π/2, π/2], [π/2, 3π/2], . . . , where it is onetoone. The choice of the
particular interval is usually dictated by the problem at hand.
Caveat 1. On account of the deﬁnitions,
sin(sin
−1
(x)) = x, for all −1 ≤ x ≤ 1,
but
sin
−1
(sin x) = x, only when −
π
2
≤ x ≤
π
2
.
Can you derive an expression for sin
−1
(sin x) that holds for any x?
Caveat 2. Make sure that you can distinguish between the notation used for the
inverse sine and for the reciprocal of the sine function:
sin
−1
x = arcsin x, (sin x)
−1
=
1
sin x
.
In order to ﬁnd the derivative of sin
−1
(x), we apply the general procedure for diﬀer
entiating inverse functions. This gives
d
dx
sin
−1
(x) =
1
cos(sin
−1
(x))
.
We still need to simplify the composition cos(sin
−1
(x)), which will rely on the basic
trigonometric identity cos
2
θ + sin
2
θ = 1. If you substitute θ = sin
−1
x into this and
use the identity sin(sin
−1
(x)) = x, you see that
cos
2
(sin
−1
x) + x
2
= 1.
When solving for the cosine term, keep in mind that the values of θ = sin
−1
(x) fall
on the interval [−π/2, π/2], where cos θ is positive, so the above equation yields
cos(sin
−1
x) =
√
1 −x
2
.
In conclusion,
d
dx
sin
−1
(x) =
1
√
1 −x
2
.
The inverse functions of the other basic trigonometric function are similarly deﬁned
by a restriction to a suitable interval. The derivatives of the inverse functions are
then computed using the general process as explained above; see the table below.
28
f(x) Domain and Range of
d
dx
f
−1
(x)
Principal Part
1. sin x [−
π
2
,
π
2
], [−1, 1]
1
√
1 −x
2
2. cos x [0, π], [−1, 1] −
1
√
1 −x
2
3. tan x (−
π
2
,
π
2
), (−∞, ∞)
1
1 + x
2
4. cot x (0, π), (−∞, ∞) −
1
1 + x
2
5. sec x [0,
π
2
) ∪ (
π
2
, π], (−∞, −1] ∪ [1, ∞)
1
x
√
x
2
−1
6. csc x [−
π
2
, 0) ∪ (0,
π
2
], (−∞, −1] ∪ [1, ∞) −
1
x
√
x
2
−1
Starter Problem List: 3, 5, 7, 13, 18, 31, 35, 40, 44, 51.
Recommended Problem List: 10, 15, 26, 29, 27, 34, 37, 41, 47, 53, 58, 66.
29
Lesson 16 – §3.10: Related Rates
Suppose that two quantities, changing with time t, are related by an equation. Then,
if we know the rate of change of one of the quantities, we can ﬁnd the rate of change
of the other quantity by diﬀerentiating the relating equation with respect to t. As
a speciﬁc example, consider the x and y coordinates of an object moving along the
ellipse 4x
2
+y
2
= 1. Then x and y are functions of time, so by taking the t derivative
of the equation of the ellipse (and again applying the chain rule), we see that
8x
dx
dt
x + 2y
dy
dt
= 0 ⇐⇒
dy
dt
= −
4x
y
dx
dt
.
Thus, if we know the position of the object and the rate of change of the x coordinate,
we can readily compute the rate of change of the y coordinate.
This simple example underscores the general fact that related rate problems typically
reduce to diﬀerentiating an equation involving two or more quantities changing in
time. The diﬀerentiation step entails applying the chain rule very much like in
problems requiring implicit diﬀerentiation. Many of the exercises in the text involve
basic geometry and call for a bit of creativity, but steps for solving related rates
problems outlined in the section will help you to get on the right track.
Starter Problem List: 2, 5, 7, 12, 14, 19, 26, 32.
Recommended Problem List: 11, 13, 17, 23, 27, 29, 35, 37.
30
Lesson 17 – §4.1: Maxima and Minima
Many applications of calculus to concrete problems call for ﬁnding the maximum or
the minimum value of a pertinent function, which, for example, could be the revenue
or cost function, the acceleration of an object, air drag, the size of a population, and
so on.
A value f(c) is a local maximum of a function f(x) if there is some interval (c−h, c+
h), h > 0, so that f(c) is the largest value of f(x) in this interval (so f(c) ≥ f(x) for
any x between c − h and c + h, but there can be x values outside the interval with
f(x) > f(c)). One similarly deﬁnes a local minimum.
A function assumes an absolute maximum value at x = c if f(c) ≥ f(x) for any
x in the domain of the function. Again, the absolute minimum of f(x) is deﬁned
similarly.
Note that a function needs not possess any local or absolute maxima or minima
as you can see, for example, by graphing the function f(x) = x
3
or f(x) = tan x.
However, a continuous function deﬁned on a ﬁnite and closed interval always attains
an absolute maximum and minimum on that interval, which could also be realized
at the endpoints of the interval. This fact is known as the extreme value theorem,
and as is easily veriﬁed by the way of examples, continuity is a necessarily condition
for the theorem to hold.
If f(c) yields a local maximum for a diﬀerentiable function f(x), then the slope of
the graph of f(x) must be nonnegative immediately to the left of c and nonpositive
immediately to the right of c. Thus, at x = c, the derivative of f(x) must vanish,
f
(c) = 0. An analogous statement holds for local minima. Hence, in general, if
f(c) is a local maximum or minimum of f(x), then either f
(c) does not exist or
f
(c) = 0! Points that satisfy either one of the two conditions are collectively called
critical points of f(x) and they can often be eﬀectively used to locate local maxima
and minima, and, with the help of these, also the absolute maximum and minimum
of a given function.
Starter Problem List: 5, 11, 15, 17, 24, 31, 35, 43, 48, 66.
Recommended Problem List: 19, 22, 25, 29, 34, 42, 50, 53, 61, 65, 71.
31
Lesson 18 – §4.2: What Derivatives Tell Us
The ﬁrst and second derivatives are intimately related to the behavior of a function
and, consequently, they provide further tools for analyzing extremum value problems
discussed in the previous lesson. Roughly speaking, the derivative f
(x) measures
the steepness of the graph, or its direction, and the second derivative gauges the
rate at which this direction is changing. Thus, intuitively speaking, f
(x) yields a
measurement for the curvature of the graph.
A function f(x) is (strictly) increasing on an interval I if for all x
2
> x
1
on I,
f(x
2
) > f(x
1
), and (strictly) decreasing on I if for all x
2
> x
1
on I, f(x
2
) < f(x
1
).
One can detect intervals on which f(x) is increasing or decreasing by the sign of the
derivative:
f
(x) > 0 for all x on I =⇒ f(x) is increasing on I;
f
(x) < 0 for all x on I =⇒ f(x) is decreasing on I.
Intuitively, f
(x) > 0 implies that the slope of the tangent line is pointing upward so
the graph of the function is tending higher when x moves to the right, that is, f(x)
is increasing. Analogously, f
(x) < 0 implies that the graph is tending lower so the
function must be decreasing. But note that the converse of the above derivative test
does not hold: a function increasing on an interval I can have f
(x) = 0 at some (in
fact, even at inﬁnitely many) x on I.
Next assume that c is a critical point of f(x) and that f
(x) > 0 on some interval
immediately to the left of c and f
(x) < 0 on some interval immediately to the right
of c. Then as x approaches c from the left, f(x) increases and, as x moves past c,
it decreases. It follows that f(x) must have a local maximum at c; see the diagram
below.
f
(x) > 0
f(x) increasing
f
(x) < 0
f(x) decreasing
Critical
Point
Local
Maximum
32
Similarly, the conditions f
(x) < 0 immediately to the left of c and f
(x) > 0
immediately to the right of c imply that f(c) must be a local minimum for f(x):
f
(x) > 0
f(x) increasing
f
(x) < 0
f(x) decreasing
Critical
Point
Local
Minimum
Finally, if the derivative f
(x) does not change sign at x = c, f(c) will not be a local
maximum or minimum.
The above arguments can also be ap
plied to the function f
(x) (provided, of
course, that its derivative df
(x)/dx =
f
(x) exists). Thus if f
(x) > 0 on an
interval I, the derivative f
(x) is increas
ing. In this situation the tangent lines
drawn along the graph of f(x) turn coun
terclockwise with increasing x – the func
tion f(x) is said to be concave up on I.
If, in turn, f
(x) < 0 on an interval
I, then the tangent lines turn clockwise
along the graph of the function, and f(x)
is said to be concave down on I.
A point c in the domain of f(x) is called an inﬂection point for f(x) if concavity
changes at c. In particular, you can locate inﬂection points by ﬁrst ﬁnding all points
c at which f
(c) does not exist or at which f
(c) = 0. If f
(x) changes sign at c,
then c will be an inﬂection point. But bear in mind that a point c in the domain of
f(x) can be an inﬂection point also when f
(c) does not exist.
These type of arguments also yields the second derivative test for local extrema:
Suppose that f
(x) exists on an interval I and x = c is an critical point on I with
f
(c) = 0. If f
(c) > 0, then f(c) is a local minimum for f(x), while if f
(c) < 0,
then f(c) is a local maximum for f(x).
The fact that positive second derivative is associated with a local minimum might
seem counterintuitive at ﬁrst, but the second derivative test is easy to remember in
its correct form by considering the parabola f(x) = x
2
for which f
(0) > 0 at the
local (in fact, absolute) minimum at x = 0.
33
Finally, the second derivative test is inconclusive if f
(c) = f
(c) = 0, and in this
case you should investigate the sign of the derivative f
(x) on each side of c.
Starter Problem List: 8, 11, 15, 17, 23, 31, 43, 54, 57, 64, 67.
Recommended Problem List: 13, 22, 26, 29, 33, 38, 45, 53, 55, 60, 65, 70.
34
Lesson 19 – §4.3: Graphing Functions
As we saw in the previous lesson, the ﬁrst and second derivatives are closely associ
ated with the properties of a function. It then comes as no surprise that they also
yield a large amount of information valuable in analyzing the graph of the function.
Caveat: When plotting a function, do not rely on your graphing utility to do the
work for you but perform the steps outlined below on your own and by hand. Only
when you are done with the problem should you doublecheck your results against
the graph produced by software.
In a typical graphing problem you should follow the steps outlined below.
1. Identify the interval on which the function f(x) is to be graphed. This can be a
subset of the domain of f(x).
2. Check for special properties of f(x). Is the function even (f(−x) = f(x)) or odd
(f(−x) = −f(x)), or, more generally, symmetric with respect to the line x = c
(f(2c − x) = f(x)) or antisymmetric with respect to it (f(2c − x) = −f(x))? Is
it periodic (f(x + L) = f(x)) or antiperiodic (f(x + L) = −f(x))? (How would
you graph the function in each instance?)
3. Find the intercepts of the graph with the x and yaxes.
4. Compute the derivative f
(x) and locate all critical points. Identify intervals on
which f(x) is increasing or decreasing, and classify all local and absolute extrema.
5. Compute the second derivative f
(x) and locate all inﬂection points. Identify
intervals on which f(x) is concave up or down. You may also doublecheck your
classiﬁcation of local extrema in step 3 by the second derivative test.
6. Compute the limits lim
x→±∞
f(x) and locate vertical and horizontal asymptotes,
if any.
7. Graph the function with the help of all the information you have gathered in the
above steps. And keep in mind that there is no substitute for doing it yourself.
Practice makes perfect!
Starter Problem List: 2, 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 21, 38, 42, 51.
Recommended Problem List: 13, 17, 24, 25, 31, 33, 35, 40, 43, 46, 55, 60.
35
Lesson 20 – §4.4: Optimization Problems
One of the principal applications of calculus is to ﬁnding the best possible solution
in practical problems. Identifying these optimal solutions is based on the min/max
problems of Lesson 17, but, besides calculus, some experience with general problem
solving will be called for. The following example illustrates the general procedure.
Example. A farmer has 1200 m of fencing and wants to fence oﬀ a rectangular
pasture that borders a straight river. He needs no fence along the river. Find the
maximum area the pasture.
1. The problem asks for the maximum
area of a rectangular ﬁeld, so the rele
vant quantities in this problem are the
width w along the river, the length l,
and the area A of the pasture.
2. The quantity to be maximized is the
area which is given in terms of the other
quantities by A = wl. This is a func
River
Pasture
w
l l
tion of two variables and we have not learned yet how to ﬁnd the extreme values
of such functions.
3. However, the problem imposes a constraint between w and l: The total length
of the three sides of the pasture is 1200, so w + 2l = 1200. (Recall that we are
assuming that the river runs along the width of the pasture. We will also omit
units from now on.)
4. The constraints between w and l can be solved, say, for w to yield w = 1200 −2l.
This expression, when substituted into the expression for A, gives A = (1200−2l)l,
a function of one variable. Both l and w are be positive, so l must be constrained
in the interval [0, 600].
5. We have reduced our optimization problem to ﬁnding the absolute maximum of
the function A = (1200 −2l)l = 1200l −2l
2
on the interval [0, 600]. This function
has only one critical point at l = 300 as you can verify by solving for the zeros of
the derivative dA/dl. At the endpoints A(0) = 0, A(600) = 0, so A(300) = 18, 000
yields the maximum area (in square meters) that the farmer can fence oﬀ.
To check the reasonableness of our answer, we compare it to the area of a square
pasture with three sides made out of a total of 1, 200 m of fencing. We ﬁnd that
36
the area of the square pasture, 16, 000 m
2
, is less than the answer we obtained for
the maximum area, lending support to our solution of the problem.
One can solve a typical optimization problem by completing steps that are similar
to the ones carried out in the above example:
Procedure for Solving Optimization Problems
1. Read the problem carefully to identify all the quantities involved. Give them
names or designate each one by a symbol. Try drawing a sketch to visualize the
problem. Make sure you understand what the question is.
2. Identify the quantity to be optimized and ﬁnd a mathematical expression for it
in terms of the quantities uncovered in Step 1. This is the objective function in
the terminology of the text.
3. Write down all the relationships you can come up with between the quantities
found in step 1.
4. Use the conditions discovered in step 3 to eliminate all but one variable in the
function to be optimized. Find the relevant interval for the remaining variable.
(By requiring that the length, area, and volume must be positive, etc.)
5. Use calculus (cf. Lesson 17) to ﬁnd the absolute minimum or maximum value of
the function to be optimized, and interpret your result in terms of the original
quantities in the problem. Finally, doublecheck that your answer is reasonable by
verifying that it is physically sensible and satisﬁes the constraints imposed by the
problem and, for example, by making a comparison with some easily computable
special cases of the problem.
Starter Problem List: 4, 6, 7, 10b, 12, 18, 24a, 27, 39a, 48, 55a.
Recommended Problem List: 8, 15, 21, 28, 30, 37, 41, 47, 50, 56a,c, 59.
37
Lesson 21 – §4.5: Linear Approximations and Dif
ferentials
If a function f(x) is diﬀerentiable at x = a, then the limit
f
(a) = lim
x→a
f(x) −f(a)
x −a
gives the approximation
f(x) −f(a) ≈ f
(a)(x −a),
or
f(x) ≈ f(a) + f
(a)(x −a),
for x near a. The expression
L(x) = f(a) + f
(a)(x −a)
on the righthand side is called the linear approximation to f(x) at x = a.
As you recognize, the graph of the linear approximation is simply the tangent line to
the graph of f(x) at x = a. Thus, geometrically, using linear approximation amounts
to replacing the graph of the function by the graph of the tangent line. As a rule of
thumb, the linear approximation gives a good estimate for the values of f(x) when
the second derivative f
(x) is small near a.
Example. We use linear approximations to estimate sin 0.05 (Note that the angle
measurement is in radians).
Now f(x) = sin x. We need a point near x = 0.05 for which we know the precise
value for sin x. The obvious choice is a = 0. Thus the linear approximation gives
L(0.05) = sin 0 + cos 0(0.05 −0) = 0.05.
As you can check on your calculator, sin 0.05 ≈ 0.04998 to 5 signiﬁcant ﬁgures, so
the linear approximation yields a surprisingly good estimate for sin 0.05. But this
was more or less expected as f
(x) = −sin x, which is small near the base point
a = 0.
Writing ∆x = x −a for the change in x and ∆y = f(x) −f(a) for the change in the
values of f(x), we can rewrite the expression for linear approximation as
∆y ≈ f
(a)∆x.
38
By replacing ∆x and ∆y by their diﬀerentials dx, dy, which, in traditional calculus,
represent “inﬁnitesimal changes” in x and y, the above formula becomes
dy = f
(a)dx.
The custom of denoting inﬁnitesimal variations by diﬀerentials might seem odd at
ﬁrst, but the notion can be made completely rigorous in the setting of modern dif
ferential geometry.
Starter Problem List: 2, 6, 7, 11, 13, 23, 25, 29, 35, 42.
Recommended Problem List: 9, 12, 16, 19, 22, 27, 31, 36, 40, 41, 44.
39
Lesson 22 – §4.6: Mean Value Theorem
This section treats an important theorem that can be used to prove rigorously many
of the claims justiﬁed on intuitive grounds in the previous lessons. Roughly, the
conclusion of the theorem is that given an interval [a, b] contained in the domain of
a diﬀerentiable function, there is some c between a and b at which the tangent line
is parallel to the line connecting the points (a, f(a) and (b, f(b)) on the graph of the
function.
The Mean Value Theorem (MVT). Let f(x) be continuous on the closed interval
[a, b] and diﬀerentiable on the open interval (a, b). Then there is some c, a < c < b,
so that
f
(c) =
f(b) −f(a)
b −a
.
Rolle’s Theorem is a special case of the MVT obtained by assuming f(a) = f(b) = 0.
Note that for a given f(x) and an interval [a, b], ﬁnding the value of c can be diﬃcult
if not impossible (consider, for example, f(x) = sin x − x
2
, a = 0, b = 1), but in
spite of this, the MVT yields a surprising amount of useful information about the
behavior of diﬀerentiable functions.
For example, you can now see once and for all without having to appeal to intuitive
geometric arguments that if f
(x) > 0 on an interval I, then f(x) is strictly increasing
on I. Simply choose any a, b in I, b > a. Then by the MVT,
f(b) −f(a) = f
(c)(b −a), for some a < c < b.
But as both f
(c) > 0 and b −a > 0 by assumption,
f(b) −f(a) = f
(c)(b −a) > 0.
Consequently f(b) > f(a). But the conclusion holds for any a < b on I, so f(x)
must be increasing on I.
The MVT also implies that if two functions have the same derivatives f
(x) = g
(x)
on some interval I, then there is a constant C so that g(x) = f(x) + C identically
on I. Thus the graph of g(x) can be obtained from the graph of f(x) by a shift in
the ydirection.
As you recall (cf. the table on page 29), the derivatives of sin
−1
x and cos
−1
x are
opposite. What do you conclude about the two functions in light of the MVT? Can
you derive similar identities between tan
−1
x and cot
−1
x, and sec
−1
x and csc
−1
x?
40
Starter Problem List: 3, 6, 7, 12, 15, 20, 27, 29, 31, 36.
Recommended Problem List: 9, 11, 14, 17, 19, 24, 28, 30, 35.
41
Lesson 23 – §4.7: L’Hˆopital’s Rule
Suppose that your task is to compute the limit
lim
x→0
e
x
−1
sin x
.
The substitution x = 0 yields 0/0, so the limit is in socalled indeterminate form
and you won’t be able to use the quotient rule for limits to solve the problem. As a
workaround divide both the numerator and denominator by x and insert sin 0 = 0
in the denominator, after which the original limit problem becomes
lim
x→0
e
x
−1
x
sin x −sin 0
x
.
Now you can recognize the diﬀerence quotients of e
x
and sin x at x = 0 in the resulting
expression, so taking the limit as x → 0 amounts to computing the derivatives of
these functions at x = 0. But both derivatives equal 1, so now the quotient rule for
limits can be used to compute
lim
x→0
e
x
−1
sin x
=
lim
x→0
e
x
−1
x
lim
x→0
sin x −sin 0
x
=
d
dx
e
x

x=0
d
dx
sin x 
x=0
= 1.
The same process can be applied to any limit lim
x→a
f(x)/g(x) in the indeterminate form
0/0 (that is, f(a) = g(a) = 0): If the derivatives f
(a), g
(a) exist and g
(a) = 0,
then
lim
x→a
f(x)
g(x)
=
f
(a)
g
(a)
.
This is the basic form of l’Hopital’s rule, which is one of the most useful techniques
for ﬁnding limits of the quotient of two functions in indeterminate form.
Caveat: When putting l’Hospital’s rule into practice, you need to make sure that
the limit is in indeterminate form, and that you ﬁrst diﬀerentiate f(x) and g(x)
separately and only then compute the limit of the quotient of the derivatives.
L’Hopital’s rule also applies in the same form to limits lim
x→a
f(x)/g(x) in the inde
terminate forms ±∞/∞ (that is, the limits of f(x) and g(x) are both either ∞ or
42
−∞.). In each of the cases 0/0 and ±∞/∞, the limit point a can also be ±∞.
L’Hopital’s rule also holds for onesided limits with the obvious modiﬁcations.
If an application of l’Hopital’s rule results in indeterminate form, the method can be
applied repeatedly until the value of the limit is found (provided, of course, that the
required derivatives exist).
Example. Compute the limit lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
.
The limit is in indeterminate form 0/0, so we resort to l’Hopital’s rule. By computing
derivatives, we get
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
sin x
2x
.
The resulting limit is still in indeterminate form 0/0, so to proceed we apply l’Hopital’s
rule again. This gives
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
cos x
2
=
1
2
,
where, in the last step, we were able to compute the limit by substitution.
L’Hopital’s rule can also be used to compare the growth rates of functions at ±∞.
For example,
lim
x→∞
(ln x)
n
x
= lim
x→∞
n(ln x)
n−1
/x
1
= lim
x→∞
n(ln x)
n−1
x
= · · · = lim
x→∞
n!
x
= 0,
where, in each step save the last, the limit is in indeterminate form ∞/∞. Thus
when x approaches inﬁnity, x becomes much larger than (ln x)
n
for any integer n,
that is, x dominates (ln x)
n
.
There are many variants of the basic version of l’Hopital’s rule designed to compute
the limit in the case of the indeterminate forms 0 · (±∞), ∞−∞, 1
±∞
, 0
0
, ∞
0
. The
instances involving powers typically require an application of the natural logarithm
function in their solution.
Example. Compute the limit lim
x→0
+
(sin x)
sin x
.
We write h(x) = (sin x)
sin x
, and start by computing
lim
x→0
+
ln h(x) = lim
x→0
+
(sin x) ln sin x.
The resulting limit is in indeterminate form 0· (−∞), so, in order to apply l’Hopital’s
43
rule, we rewrite it as
lim
x→0
+
ln h(x) = lim
x→0
+
ln sin x
1
sin x
,
which in the form −∞/∞. We compute derivatives to see that
lim
x→0
+
ln h(x) = lim
x→0
+
cos x
sin x
−cos x
sin
2
x
= lim
x→0
+
(−sin x) = 0.
Thus the limit of ln h(x) is 0, so by continuity of the natural exponential function,
lim
x→0
+
h(x) = lim
x→0
+
e
ln h(x)
= e
lim
x→0
+
ln h(x)
= e
0
= 1.
In conclusion, we have shown that
lim
x→0
+
(sin x)
sin x
= 1.
Starter Problem List: 7, 11, 13, 15, 22, 27, 31, 36, 39, 49, 65, 75.
Recommended Problem List: 17, 19, 24, 30, 34, 35, 40, 42, 55, 70, 71, 75, 83.
44
Mathematics Department Laboratory Manual for
Mth 251 –Diﬀerential Calculus
Instructions.
1. Overview of laboratory activities. You work in small groups on each labo
ratory activity according to your recitation instructor’s directions. You will spend
about 50 minutes of the recitation time on the scheduled lab and the remaining 30
minutes may be used as a question and answer period about homework assignments,
for tests, or for other class activities. You are expected to prepare a report observing
the format speciﬁed for each lab. These reports are usually due the week follow
ing the laboratory activity. Although you collaborate on the laboratory activities
in groups during the recitation, your reports should be written up independently.
Your instructor and recitation instructor will provide additional information about
the expectations and the grading policy for the laboratory activities.
2. Procedure.
Discuss the problems included in the laboratory activity and work on them with
your group. You should print a paper copy of the lab in advance for recording your
work done during the recitation hour. Complete the assignment and polish up your
report outside the class to turn it in to your recitation instructor by the designated
deadline.
3. Graphs.
Several of the laboratory activities require you to plot the graph of a function or
functions on a given grid. Before graphing, carefully choose and label the variables
and their ranges on your plot. Unlabeled graphs may not be graded. You may
need to experiment on your graphing utility to ﬁnd ranges that correctly display the
requisite information.
45
Laboratory I – Graphing
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed to acquaint you with
the graphing features of your calculator or computer and to reinforce the lectures on
limits. Speciﬁc goals for this activity are:
a. Use calculators or computers to graph functions in diﬀerent windows.
b. Use calculators or computers to identify limits from a graph and from numerical data.
c. Compute limits analytically to determine the correct answer.
Problem I. This problem is designed to investigate the limit lim
x→1
f(x) as x ap
proaches 1 of the function
f(x) =
x −1
x
2
−3x + 2
.
a) Graph the function f(x) for x in the interval [0.5, 1.5]. Choose an appropriate
yrange for your graph. Remember to label all your graphs.
46
b) Graph the function f(x) for x in the interval [0.9, 1.1]. Choose an appropriate
yrange for your graph.
c) Based on these two graphs, estimate the limit lim
x→1
f(x).
d) Fill in the table of values for f(x). Give your answers correct to six decimal
places.
x f(x)
0.9
1.1
0.99
1.01
0.999
1.001
0.9999
1.0001
47
e) Estimate the limit lim
x→1
f(x) based on the values in the table.
f ) Compute the limit by factoring the denominator and simplifying the expression
for f(x) when x = 1. What is the limit?
48
Problem II. This problem is designed to estimate the slope of the tangent line to
the graph of f(x) =
√
x when x = 1. Remember to label your graphs.
a) Graph f(x) for x in [0.5, 1.5]. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph.
b) Graph f(x) for x in [0.9, 1.1]. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph.
49
c) Graph f(x) for x in [0.99, 1.01]. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph.
d) On each of the above graphs, try to draw a tangent line to the graph at the
point (1, 1). Estimate the slope of the tangent lines from your sketches.
e) Fill in the chart with the values of the slope of the secant line through the
points (1, 1) and (1 + h, f(1 + h)) for small values of h. Recall that the slope
is given by d(h) =
f(1 + h) −f(1)
h
. Give your answers correct to six decimal
places.
h d(h)
0.1
0.01
10
−10
10
−20
10
−30
50
f ) Based on the chart, what does the slope of the tangent line appear to be?
g) Why did you obtain a wrong answer with a calculator? The correct slope is
1/2.
Problem III. Describe in a few sentences what you have learned from this labora
tory activity.
51
Laboratory II – Limits
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed give you more expe
rience in working with limits. The goals are to be able to use graphing calculators
or computers to estimate limits from a graph and from numerical data.
Problem I.
a) Why is the equation
x
2
+ x −6
x −2
= x + 3
incorrect?
b) Explain, however, why the equation
lim
x→2
x
2
+ x −6
x −2
= lim
x→2
x + 3
is correct.
52
Problem II. Suppose that f satisﬁes −10 ≤ f(x) ≤ 10 for all x in its domain
I = (0, 1).
a) Explain why
lim
x→0
+
√
xf(x) = 0
by applying the properties of limits from the text. Justify the value of the
above limit graphically using the grid below.
53
b) Let f(x) = 5 + x. Use your graphing calculator or computer to ﬁnd a small
interval (0, δ) with the property that for all values of x in this interval,
√
xf(x)
is within 0.001 of 0. Draw the graph of the
√
xf(x) for values of x in this
interval on the grid.
54
Problem III. Consider the function f(x) =
x
2
(1.001)
x
for x ≥ 0. Try to ﬁnd the
limit lim
x→∞
f(x) of f(x) as x →∞, as follows.
a) Chart several values of f(x) for large values of x to estimate the limit. What
do you think the limit is?
x f(x)
b) Graph the function f(x) on your calculator or computer and sketch the graph
on the grid for x in the interval [0, 100].
55
c) Graph the function f(x) on your calculator or computer and sketch the graph
on the grid for x in the interval [0, 1,000].
d) Graph the function f(x) on your calculator or computer and sketch the graph
on the grid for x in the interval [0, 5,000].
56
e) Estimate the limit. How can you be sure that you would not arrive at a diﬀerent
answer by increasing the graphing interval?
57
Laboratory III – The Intermediate Value Theorem
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed to acquaint you with
one of the basic theorems in calculus, the Intermediate Value Theorem, and to help
you gain appreciation for its applications in both theoretical and concrete problems.
The Intermediate Value Theorem states that given a function f(x) continuous on a
closed interval I = [a, b] and a number L between the values f(a) and f(b), then
there is at least one c on I so that f(c) = L. In short, a continuous function f(x)
on a closed interval I = [a, b] realizes every value between f(a) and f(b) on I, or,
geometrically, there will be no gaps in the graph of f(x) on I (no matter how close
you zoom in).
Problem I. Let p(x) = x
6
−3x
2
−x+1 be a 6
th
degree polynomial and let I = [1, 3].
a) Compute p(1) and p(3). Is there a point c on I so that p(c) = 0, that is, is
there a root of the the polynomial p(x) on I?
b) Graph the polynomial p(x) on I. Does the graph agree with you conclusion in
part a?
Problem II. Consider the function f(x) =
e
−x
, if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1,
x
2
−5x + 4, if 1 < x ≤ 3.
a) Compute f(0) and f(3) and note that these have opposite signs. Next solve
the equation f(x) = 0 on the interval I = [0, 3]. How many solutions did you
ﬁnd? Does your result contradict the IVT? Explain!
b) Graph f(x) on I and verify that the plot agrees with your conclusion in part
b.
The IVT is often used to ﬁnd the rough location of a solution to an equation that
can not be solved analytically. This is then used to choose the seed, or the starting
value, for a numerical algorithm, such as Newton’s method treated in Laboratory
activity IX, for ﬁnding an approximate solution to high accuracy. Note that the IVT,
under the assumptions of the theorem, only guarantees the existence of a solution
on a given interval but it does not provide a method for pinpointing its location.
Problem III. Consider the equation sin x+x
6
+x = 2. In order to apply IVT, write
58
f(x) = sin x + x
6
+ x. Then ﬁnding the solutions of the above equation becomes
tantamount to ﬁnding the x values for which f(x) = 2.
a) Compute f(0) and f(1). Can you use the IVT to conclude that the equation
has at least one root on the interval (0, 1)? Explain!
b) Plot the function f(x). Does the graph support your conclusion in part a?
c) Use your graphing utility together with the IVT to identify other intervals on
which the equation has solutions.
d) How many solutions do you think there are?
A straightforward algorithm for approximating solutions to complicated equations is
furnished by the bisection method, which is illustrated in the following problem.
Problem IV. In this problem we try to ﬁnd an approximate solution to the equation
cos(x
3
) −sin x = 0, accurate within 0.02.
a) Write f(x) = cos(x
3
) − sin x so that solving the original equation becomes
equivalent to ﬁnd the zeros of f(x). Why does the IVT apply to f(x) on any
(ﬁnite) interval?
b) Verify that the equation must have a solution on the interval [0, 1] by computing
f(0) and f(1). (Recall that x is expressed in radians.)
c) Next bisect the interval [0, 1] into the intervals [0, 0.5] and [0.5, 1] and compute
f(0.5). Then use IVT to show that our equation must have a solution on
[0.5, 1].
d) Next bisect this interval into the intervals [0.5, 0.75] and [0.75, 1], compute
f(0.75). Note that the bisection point 0.75 must be a solution to our equation
or, otherwise, the IVT will guarantee the existence of a solution on exactly one
of the subintervals. Explain!
e) This process leads to a general algorithm for approximating solutions to equa
tions. Give a detailed stepbystep description of it.
f ) Finally apply the algorithm to ﬁnd a solution to our original equation accurate
within 0.02.
Problem V. The following problems involve typical applications of the IVT.
a) Let f(x) and g(x) be continuous functions on I = [a, b]. Suppose that f(a) <
g(a) and f(b) > g(b). Show that the graphs of f(x) and g(x) must intersect at
least once on the interval I.
59
b) Show that the polynomial p(x) = 32x
5
−144x
4
−16x
3
+456x
2
+2x−105 must
have at least ﬁve zeros. (Hint: compute p(0), p(1), p(−1), p(2), p(−2),. . . .) Ex
actly how many zeros does p(x) then have in light of the fundamental theorem
of algebra?
c) A cyclist start at 8 a.m. from Corvallis and rides along highway 20 to Newport,
arriving there at 1 p.m. On the next day he returns along the same way, starting
from Newport at 8 a.m. and arriving in Corvallis at 1 p.m. Is there a location
on highway 20 that the cyclist passed at exactly the same time on both days?
60
Laboratory IV – Velocity and Tangent Lines
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed to give you more
experience in working with the velocity of an object and with the tangent line as an
approximation to a function.
Problem I. A person gets in a car and drives 100 feet to the house next door.
The graph below represents the position of the person during the ride. Recall that
the instantaneous velocity is given by the slope of the tangent line to the graph of
position as function of time.
a) How far did the person travel between t = 4.5 and t = 6.0? What is the
location of the car at those times?
b) Estimate the velocity of the car at t = 2.
61
c) At which of the times t = 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.5 does the car have the highest
velocity? Explain.
d) At which of the times t = 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0 is the acceleration the highest?
Explain.
62
Problem II. Consider the function y = f(x) = 3x
2
− 4x + 3 . The graph of this
function near the point (1, 2) is sketched below. Check whether your calculator or
computer produces the same graph.
a) On the graph above, sketch the line that seems to you as the best approximation
to the function through the point (1, 2).
b) The exact slope of the tangent line is f
(1) = 6 · 1 −4 = 2. Estimate the slope
of the line that you sketched in part a. Compare the exact slope of the tangent
line with the slope of your line.
63
c) Any reasonable approximating line to y = f(x) near the point P = (1, 2) must
pass through point P. Below, you will try to gather evidence for the fact
that the best approximating line of this form is the tangent line. Write down
formulas for the four lines of slope 1.0, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 through P.
Line
1
of slope 1 through P: y
1
=
Line
2
of slope 1.5 through P: y
2
=
Line
3
of slope 2 through P: y
3
=
Line
4
of slope 2.5 through P: y
4
=
d) If you use these lines as an approximation to f(x), the error is the absolute
value of the diﬀerence between f(x) and the corresponding yvalue of a point
on the line y = L(x):
Error=f(x) −L(x).
Write down formulas for the errors using each of the four lines.
Error for line
1
: f(x) −y
1
 =
Error for line
2
: f(x) −y
2
 =
Error for line
3
: f(x) −y
3
 =
Error for line
4
: f(x) −y
4
 =
e) Compute the errors for the 4 indicated values of x for the lines
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
by
ﬁlling in the tables below. You should perform all calculations accurate to at
least 6 decimal places.
x f (x) y value for
1
y value for
2
y value for
3
y value for
4
1.02
0.98
1.001
0.999
1.0001
64
x error for
1
error for
2
error for
3
error for
4
1.02
0.98
1.001
0.999
1.0001
f ) Which of the four lines seems to result in the smallest errors?
65
Laboratory V – The Chain Rule
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity provides handson practice on
the chain rule.
Problem I. Let
f(x) = tan(x), g(x) =
π
4
x
2
.
a) Write down an expression for the composition f(g(x)).
b) Compute the derivative of f(g(x)) with respect to x using the expression in
part a.
c) Next compute the derivative of f(g(x)) with respect to x by using the chain
rule. Did you get the same answer as in part b?
d) Compute the equation of the tangent line to f(g(x)) at the point (1, 1) .
66
e) Graph both f(g(x)) and the tangent line for xvalues between −π and π on
the grid below. Don’t forget to label your graph!
67
Problem II. Let f(x) = (x
2
−x)
1
3
.
a) Compute the derivative of f(x) by the chain rule.
b) Graph both f(x) and f
(x) on the grids below for xvalues between −2 and 2.
Choose an appropriate yrange for your graphs.
68
c) Compare the graphs of f and f
to see if your computation of the derivative
seems reasonable. How do you detect intervals on which f is increasing or
decreasing?
d) Are there any points at which f is not diﬀerentiable?
69
Laboratory VI  Derivatives in Action
Problem I. The values of functions f(x) and g(x) and their derivatives at x =
0, ±1, ±2 are collected in the table below.
x f(x) f’(x) g(x) g’(x)
2 3 1 5 8
1 2 1 3 2
0 4 4 3 9
1 1 5 1 4
2 3 3 2 7
Compute the following derivatives based on the given data.
a) Let h(x) = g(x)/
√
9 + cos 2x. Find h
(0).
b) Let j(x) = 2g(x)(3x
2
+ f(x)
2
). Find j
(−2).
c) Let k(x) = πg(x
2
). Find k
(−1).
70
d) Let l(x) = f(3f(x) −x). Find l
(1).
e) Assume that g(x) is also invertible. Let m(x) = xg
−1
(x). Find m
(3).
f ) Let n(x) = arctan(4πf(x)
2
). Find n
(2).
g) Suppose p(x) satisﬁes p(x)
6
+ 4p(x)
3
+ f(x)g(x)e
x
= 8. Find p
(0).
h) Let q(x) = (x
2
−6x)g(x) and suppose that q
(3) = 10. Find g
(3).
71
Problem II. The graphs of functions f(x) and g(x) are depicted below. Using the
information from the plot, estimate the values of the given derivatives.
a)
d
dx
(f(x)g(x)) 
x=1
.
b)
d
dx
(3g(x) −f(x)) 
x=0.6
.
72
c)
d
dx
(x
4
f(x)) 
x=0.8
.
d)
d
dx
(g(x) ln(1 + x)) 
x=1.4
.
e)
d
dx
(f(x))
2
3g(x) −2

x=1.8
.
f )
d
dx
f(x)
1 + x
2

x=1.2
.
g)
d
dx
(g(x))
x

x=0.4
.
73
Problem III. The gas mileage of a car going at speed v (in miles per hour) is given
by M(v). Suppose M(55) = 25 and M
(55) = −0.3.
1) Let U(v) denote the amount of gas the car uses to travel one mile. How are
M(v) and U(v) related? Compute U(55) and U
(55).
2) Let G(v) stand for the amount of gasoline the car consumes when it travels at
constant speed v for one minute. How are M(v) and G(v) related? Compute
G(55) and G
(55).
3) What is the practical meaning of the derivatives M
(55), U
(55), and G
(55)?
74
Laboratory VII  Higher Derivatives, Exponential
Functions
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity explores the properties of the
ﬁrst and second derivatives of a function, and of exponential functions and their
derivatives.
Problem I. Pictured below are the graphs of a function f(x) and the ﬁrst two
derivatives f
(x) and f
(x) for values of x between −3 and 3.
The graph of g(x) is represented by the red curve, and the graphs of h(x) and k(x)
by the blue and green curves, respectively.
By analyzing where the tangent lines to the various graphs have positive and negative
slope, you should be able to determine which of the three function represents f(x),
f
(x) or f
(x). Circle the true statement on the next page. For each statement that
you deem false, provide a reason, based on the graphs below, for your conclusion.
75
a) g(x) = f(x), h(x) = f
(x) k(x) = f
(x).
b) g(x) = f(x), k(x) = f
(x) h(x) = f
(x).
c) h(x) = f(x), g(x) = f
(x) k(x) = f
(x).
d) h(x) = f(x), k(x) = f
(x) g(x) = f
(x).
e) k(x) = f(x), h(x) = f
(x) g(x) = f
(x).
f) k(x) = f(x), g(x) = f
(x) h(x) = f
(x).
76
Problem II.
a) Use a calculator or computer to evaluate the quantity
4
h
−1
h
for the values 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, and −0.0001 of h. Perform computations
correct to ﬁve decimal places.
b) Use your answers from part (a) to estimate the limit
lim
h→0
4
h
−1
h
to two decimal places.
c) What does the limit in part b represent geometrically?
77
Problem III.
a) Use a calculator or computer to estimate the limits
lim
h→0
2.7
h
−1
h
and lim
h→0
2.8
h
−1
h
to two decimal places. Use a procedure similar to that employed in problem
II.
b) What do these limits represent geometrically?
78
Laboratory VIII  Curve Sketching
Background: This laboratory activity covers material about concavity, inﬂection
points, and their applications to curve sketching.
Problem I. Consider the function
f(x) =
10x(x −1)
4
(x −2)
3
(x + 1)
2
.
a) Find the x and yintercepts and all the asymptotes of this function.
b) On the grid below, sketch the graph by hand using asymptotes and intercepts,
but not derivatives.
79
c) Use your sketch as a guide to producing a graph (now with the graphing cal
culator) on the grid below that displays all major features of the curve, i.e.,
asymptotes, intercepts, maxima, minima and inﬂection points.
d) Use your graph to estimate the maximum and minimum values of f(x).
80
Problem II. Consider the polynomial P(x) = x
4
+ cx
2
+ x where c is a constant.
a) For what values of c does the polynomial P(x) have two inﬂection points? One
inﬂection point? None?
b) Illustrate what you discovered in part a by ﬁrst graphing P(x) with c = 1, c = 0,
c = −1 and c = −2, all in the same viewing window on your graphing utility.
Then sketch these graphs on the grid below.
c) Describe how the graph changes as c decreases.
81
Laboratory IX  Logarithmic Functions and New
ton’s Method
Background: This laboratory activity covers material about derivatives of log
arithmic functions and investigates an algorithm, socalled Newton’s method, for
approximating solutions to equations that can not be solved explicitly.
Problem I. In this problem we analyze linear approximations to the natural loga
rithm function ln x. Recall that
d
dx
ln x =
1
x
.
a) Find the linear approximation to f(x) = ln(x) at the point (1, 0). That is, ﬁnd
the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f(x) at that point.
b) Graph both f(x) and the linear approximation on the interval: .6 ≤ x ≤ 1.6.
Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph.
82
c) For what values of x is the linear approximation accurate to within 0.10?
Give an answer accurate to two decimal places. (To determine this, graph
the functions ln(x), ln(x) + 0.10, and your linear approximation in the same
viewing window. Then zoom in to the places where the linear approximation
meets the graph of ln(x) + 0.10.)
Problem II. Consider the equation ln(x−1)−e
−x
= 0. Write f(x) = ln(x−1)−e
−x
so that the roots of the equation correspond to the zeros of the function f(x).
a) Can you solve the equation analytically for x? Explain.
b) On the grid below, graph the function f(x) near the point where the graph
crosses the xaxis. Choose an appropriate x−range and y−range for the graph
and label the graph. (Your total x−range should be 1 to 3 units long.)
83
c) Use your graph from part (a) to estimate to the nearest tenth where the graph
crosses the xaxis. Write x
o
for your estimate and compute f(x
o
).
d) In order to improve your estimate for the xintercept of the graph, ﬁnd the
equation for the tangent line to the graph of f(x) at (x
o
, f(x
o
)) and solve for
its xintercept, carrying out the computations on your calculator correct to at
least 8 decimals. Write x
1
for the intercept of the tangent line (this is the ﬁrst
iteration in Newton’s method). Then compute f(x
1
). What do you notice?
e) Next ﬁnd the tangent line to the graph of f(x) at (x
1
, f(x
1
)) and solve for its
xintercept x
2
. Then compute f(x
2
). What do you notice?
84
f ) Continue this iterative process to compute x
3
, x
4
, x
5
, and x
6
. Then ﬁll out the
table below and analyze the results.
n x
n
f (x
n
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
85
Contents
Syllabus for MTH 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction and Notes for Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTH 251 Sample Symbolic Diﬀerentiation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 0 – Ch. 1: Review of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii iv vi 1
Limits
Lesson 1 – §2.1: The Idea of Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 2 – §2.2: Deﬁnition of Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 6 8 9 11
Lesson 3 – §2.3: Techniques for Computing Limits Lesson 4 – §2.4: Inﬁnite Limits
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 5 – §2.5: Limits at Inﬁnity and Horizontal Asymptotes . . . . . . Lesson 6 – §2.6: Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivatives
Lesson 7 – §3.1: Introducing the Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 8 – §3.2: Rules of Diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 9 – §3.3: Product and Quotient Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 10 – §3.4: Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . Lesson 11 – §3.5: Derivatives as Rates of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 12 – §3.6: The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 13 – §3.7: Implicit Diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 14 – §3.8: Logarithmic and Exponential Functions . . . . . . . . . i 12 14 16 17 19 21 23 25
Lesson 15 – §3.9: Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . .
27
Applications of Derivatives
Lesson 16 – §3.10: Related Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 17 – §4.1: Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 18 – §4.2: What Derivatives Tell Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 19 – §4.3: Graphing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 20 – §4.4: Optimization Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 21 – §4.5: Linear Approximations and Diﬀerentials . . . . . . . . 30 31 32 35 36 38 40 42
Lesson 22 – §4.6: Mean Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 23 – §4.7: L’Hˆpital’s Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
Laboratory Manual
Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory I – Graphing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory II – Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory III – The Intermediate Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory IV – Velocity and Tangent Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory V – The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory VI  Derivatives in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory VII  Higher Derivatives, Exponential Functions Laboratory VIII  Curve Sketching . . . . . . .
45 45 46 52 58 61 66 70 75 79 82
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Laboratory IX  Logarithmic Functions and Newton’s Method . . . . . .
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1 §2.2–4.9 §3.10 §4.2 §3.5 §4.1 §3.5 §3.1 §4.3 §4.3 §3.6 §3.6 §3.2 §2.4 §4.8 §3.3 §2.5 §2.2 §4.6 §4.4 §2.SYLLABUS FOR MTH 251 Study Guide Lesson 0 Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Text Ch.4 §3.7 Topic Review of Functions Idea of Limits Deﬁnition of Limit Computing Limits Inﬁnite Limits Limits at Inﬁnity Continuity of Functions Deﬁnition of Derivative Basic Rules of Diﬀerentiation Product and Quotient Rules Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions Catchup/Review Rates of Change Chain Rule Implicit Diﬀerentiation Logarithmic and Exponential Functions Inverse Trigonometric Functions Related Rates Maxima and Minima Locating Extreme Values Graphing Functions Catchup/Review Optimization Problems Linear Approximations and Diﬀerentials Mean Value Theorem L’Hˆpital’s Rule o Catchup/Review iii .7 §3.1 §2.
Therefore developing good study habits from the outset in order to keep up with the course is particularly important. You should consult your instructor for a detailed syllabus for your section of the course. It is then in your own interest to plan on attending all the class meetings and to get notes from another student for any that you might have missed. not merely perform calculations. recitations. This course is taught with the premise that you master the basics of algebra and trigonometry covered in your previous mathematics courses. Attendance. If your skills are rusty. four for review and catchup. Your instructors will from time to time introduce a new viewpoint or amplify on the material set forth in the text or the study guide. with two class hours reserved for exams. Applying the proper algebraic manipulations taught in precalculus courses is one of the most common hurdles for students taking a calculus class. Algebra skills. The study guide designed for a ten week term with 29 lectures and 9 laboratory sessions.Introduction and Notes for Students Introduction. If you have encountered some of this material before. you could ﬁnd yourself too far behind to catch up. exams for the course will be based on the lectures. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the ﬁrst edition of the text Calculus – Early Transcendentals by Briggs and Cochran. You should plan on spending at least two to three hours studying the material and solving assignments for each hour of lecture. lab activities and assignments. and you are accountable for all the materials. iv . when more challenging topics are presented later on. Listed below are a number of points to heed. Time commitment: It is essential to devote enough time on a daily basis to the course. it is easy to fall into the habit of not dedicating enough time to the course at the beginning of the term. The lesson plan for the course by and large follows the organization of the material in the text. A number of the recitation sessions will involve scheduled laboratory activities as designed by your instructor. and the remaining ones are set aside for review and for questions and answers. Beside the calculus text. This is a study guide for MTH 251 Diﬀerential Calculus. practice now and seek help before it will be too late. In this course much new material will be presented at a rapid pace. Comments and suggestions on study habits. and 23 lessons devoted to new material from the text. Then. You will also be expected to understand and apply mathematical concepts and reasoning.
Each chapter in the text concludes with Review Exercises which will help you to synthesize the contents of the entire chapter. There are nine detailed group activities presented in the Laboratory Manual of this study guide. To all of these people I extend my profound thanks. till 9 p. Additional Exercises will challenge your thinking and often involve mathematical proofs.m. Valuable comments were also received from Stephen Scarborough. By purchasing the course text you will gain access to MyMathLab. including powerpoint and video lectures. The MLC also provides evening tutoring in the Valley Library.m. Laboratory Activities. while solving Basic Skills exercises will improve you computational dexterity. Most students can only excel in this course by solving a large number of problems and you should therefore aim to work through most of the exercises in the text. but that understanding the principles and methods needed to solve an exercise is the primary purpose of an assignment. the site oﬀers a number of useful tools. and is normally open Monday through Thursday from 9 a. for organizing your studies and to facilitate learning the course material.m. and Dennis Garity. As a starting point.to 5 p. you will ﬁnd lists of basic Starter Problems and the more challenging Recommended Problems at the end of each lesson in this study guide. In addition to homework problems and tests with automated grading.Homework.m.m. and on Fridays from 9 a. The MLC is located on the ground ﬂoor of Kidder Hall in room 108. Exercises under the Further Explorations and Applications heading are built on the Basic Skills problems and are more demanding. Exercises in the text are divided into several categories. Current hours can be found at the MLC homepage. Finally. Your instructor will provide a detailed schedule for the activities. an online calculus portal maintained by the publisher. During the term you may be assigned to work on a subset of these as part of the weekly recitation sessions. Review Questions test your conceptual understanding of the narrative. review cards. Christine Escher.. Tevian Dray. with material written by Bob Burton. and tutorial exercises. Other Resources. to 6 p. in general Sunday through Thursday from 6 p. Keep in mind that simply getting the answer at the back of the book should not be your only goal. This study guide relies on the previous Mathematic Department’s MTH 251 study guides. The Mathematics Learning Center (MLC) provides dropin help for all lower division mathematics courses. v . from the second week of the term through the Dead Week. Acknowledgments. and also a requisite for solving similar problems in the exams and in reallife situations.m.
3. No calculators or notes are allowed! Compute the following derivatives: (You do not need to simplify your answers. You must show all your work to receive full credit. 8. 5. Carry out your computations on a separate piece of paper and turn it in with this page. d (2x − 4x4 − 16) dx d dx x3 x2 + 3 2.) 1. 7. 10. 9. d√ cos x + 2 dx d sec3 x dx d sin(x3 − 7) dx d 5 (x − 14)4/3 dx d (x tan x) dx d cos x dx x + 1 d dx 1 x3 4. d (sin(x) cos(2x)) dx vi . 6.MTH 251 Sample Symbolic Diﬀerentiation Test NAME: Student ID#: Show only your answers on this page.
−x. for example. You can construct new functions by shifting and scaling the graph of a given function f (x) in the x and ydirections. is a polynomial function are of degree 1. Section 1. . . . 2. . verify. if x ≥ 0. n = 1. and any odd powered monomial f (x) = x2n+1 .2 treats various types of elementary functions and their graphs. For example. You should carefully review it on your own as it will not be thoroughly covered in class. an odd function. . Also. For you the most important ones to be able to work with are • Polynomials • Exponental functions • Rational functions • Logarithmic functions • Algebraic functions • Trigonometric functions A linear function f (x) = mx + b. You should be familiar with the following terminology: • Domain of a function • Dependent variable • Even function • Range of a function • Graph of a function • Odd function • Independent variable • Composite function An even function satisﬁes f (−x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of f (x).Lesson 0 – Ch. The square root function f (x) = x and the cubic root function f (x) = x1/3 are familiar examples of algebraic functions. graph (by hand!) the xshift sin(x+2). As an example. as you can easily x. You will discover in this class that. b √ constants. 3. n = 0. Section 1. The slope function g(x) of a function f (x) speciﬁes the slope of the graph of y = f (x) at x. while an odd function is characterized by f (−x) = −f (x).1 Browse through the section to ensure that your understand the basic concepts and are able to solve the exercises in the text. the absolute value function x = is even. if x < 0. . any even powered monomial f (x) = x2n . while the slope function of the sine function y = sin x is g(x) = cos x. . 2. the xscaling sin(2x). and the yscaling 2 sin x of the sine function in the same grid and make sure you understand how the graphs of these are related 1 . the slope function of the parabola y = x2 is g(x) = 2x. . where m. the yshift sin x+2. yields an even function. 1. 1: Review of Functions The chapter contains a summary of some of the background material required for this course.
Section 1. 10. 30◦ . 21. 16. 30. 17. Section 1. csc θ. Section 1. 3. sec θ. determine the largest intervals on which the function f (x) = x2 − 2x is onetoone and ﬁnd its inverse function on each of the intervals you have identiﬁed. 25. Start by reviewing the deﬁnition of the radian measure and. 7. Section 1. express the angle measurements 15◦ . Brush up on inverse functions and the horizontal line test for checking whether a function is onetoone.4. The inverse trigonometric functions will be covered in Lesson 15. 8. 25. 17.2: 3. 13. You should be familiar with the graphs of the basic trigonometric functions sin θ. without a calculator. 22. 90◦ . Review the deﬁnition of the exponential function and the logarithmic function as its inverse. 180◦ in radians. cot θ. 8. 49. 60◦ . 7. 18. tan θ.3: 4. 2 . 13. 36.4: 2. π/6. Starter Problem List: Section 1. cos θ. π. 31. π/4. π/2. Section 1. 47. 19. 14. 35.3. 16. and to be able to ﬁnd their precise values for the angles θ = 0.1: 6. You will be expected to understand their basic properties and to be able to apply the exponential and logarithmic rules as spelled out in the margin of the text. 45◦ . 12. for practise. The various trigonometric identities often prove handy in simplifying complicated trigonometric expressions. As an exercise. 29. 31. 41.to the graph of their progenitor.
22. 40.3: 11. 32.4: 4. 64. 30. 44. 52. 54. 20. Section 1. 47. Section 1. 21. 8. 28. 20. 36. 21. 33.Recommended Problem List: Section 1. 15. Section 1. 24. 24. 28. 44.1: 8. 26.2: 10. 45. 33. 29. 25. 3 . 32. 37. 28. 14. 18. 39. 66.
Roughly. Starter Problem List: 2. 5. You will revisit these type of examples after learning about the derivative of a function. 20.Lesson 1 – §2. to the ﬁxed point. 9. and the secant and tangent lines. 7. is a key concept in calculus. 23. 16. 24. the limit is the number that the values of the function approach as the input x gets close. 19. 12. which describes the behavior of f (x) near a ﬁxed point. In this section the importance of limits is underscored by the way of examples involving average and instantaneous velocities. but is not equal. 13.1: The Idea of Limits The limit of a function f (x). Recommended Problem List: 6. 4 . 4.
x→a+ lim f (x). x→a lim f (x) = L. x→a− lim f (x). smaller than a. Thus the limit of a function is often referred to as a twosided limit. (Can you construct an example?) You can often estimate the limit limx→a f (x) by zooming in on the graph of f (x) near x = a. 37. 17. but not equal.2: Deﬁnition of Limits Intuitively. the limit of a function f (x) at x = a equals L. A useful variation to the basic limit concept is that of onesided limits. 15.57–2. 11. Recommended Problem List: 13. although you might want to study ﬁgures 2. 14.Lesson 2 – §2. 6. You can ﬁnd the precise δ deﬁnition of a limit in Section 2. 16. Hence the limit of a function may exist at x = a even when the function is not deﬁned at x = a. where. 25. 7. When computing the limit of a function at x = a. both of the onesided limits may exist at a point even when the twosided limit does not. one only considers values of x larger than a and. the description given in Section 2. limx→a− f (x) exist and are equal. Starter Problem List: 2.7 of the text. 5 . The limit limx→a f (x) exists if and only if the onesided limits limx→a+ f (x). Hence. 27.59 to gain a deeper understanding of the limit concept. one considers values of f (x) on both sides of a. However. if the values of f (x) are arbitrarily close to L when x is suﬃciently close. 31.3 will by and large suﬃce for the purposes of this course. 21. 29. However. to a. in the second one. in the ﬁrst instance. 35. graphing utilities can also lead you awry due to rounding errors as you will discover in Laboratory assignment I.
q(x) q(a) 6 provided that q(a) = 0. and that the limits limx→a f (x) and limx→a g(x) exist. 8. provided that lim g(x) = 0. it then follows from limit laws 3. provided that f (x) ≥ 0 for x near a when n is even. lim (f (x)g(x)) = (lim f (x))(lim g(x)). x→a x→a 4.3: Techniques for Computing Limits In this lesson you will learn a number of rules for computing limits for the most common types of functions you will encounter in this course. then x→a lim p(x) = p(a). and 7 that x→2 lim f (x)2 − 3g(x) = lim f (x) x→2 2 − 3 lim g(x) = 3.Lesson 3 – §2. x→a n x→a 7. x→a x→a x→a 6. x→2 x→2 4. The basic rules for computing limits are as follows: Suppose that c is a constant. lim (f (x))n = lim f (x) x→a x→a . lim n x→a f (x) = n x→a lim f (x) . Then 1. The limits laws can be used to ﬁnd the limits of polynomial and rational functions: If p and q are polynomials. x→2 All the above rules also hold for onesided limits with the obvious modiﬁcations. x→a 3. You should study the examples in the text carefully as these will help you understand how to apply the limit laws. lim c = c. lim (f (x) + g(x)) = lim f (x) + lim g(x). x→a 2. lim x = a. if lim f (x) = −3 and lim g(x) = 2. x→c x→a x→a 5. lim (cf (x)) = c lim f (x). . lim x→a f (x) g(x) = x→a lim f (x) lim g(x) . As an example. x→a lim p(x) p(a) = . n a positive integer.
7 . Two basic techniques. 32. 15. g(x). 33. where g(a) = 0. x→a You should try to decipher the content of the Squeeze Theorem in terms of the graphs of f (x). 27. then lim g(x) = L. 43. 64. 10. 23. and if limx→a f (x) = limx→a h(x) = L. 17.The computation of a limit limx→a f (x)/g(x) of the quotient of two functions. canceling common factors and multiplying by the algebraic conjugate. 45. 34. and h(x). 25. 22. 38. 60. often calls for algebraic manipulations. 11. 7. Recommended Problem List: 20. Yet another technique for ﬁnding limits is aﬀorded by the Squeeze Theorem: If f (x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x) for all x near a (except possibly at a). Starter Problem List: 4. 51. 41. 49. are illustrated in Example 6 in the text. 48.
formulate an analogous statement involving a negative inﬁnity limit. 25. 5.Lesson 4 – §2. then the limit of f (x) at x = a is negative inﬁnity.4: Inﬁnite Limits A function f (x) possesses an inﬁnite limit at x = a when its values grow larger and larger without bound as x approaches a. q(x) share no common factors). The trigonometric functions tan θ. 13. the line x = a is called a vertical asymptote of f (x). or x→a lim f (x) = −∞. csc θ possess an inﬁnite number of vertical asymptotes. 6. 37. 23. 27. 36. limx→0 1/x2 = ∞. As an example. 8. 20. One deﬁnes inﬁnite limits for the onesided limits limx→a± f (x) in a like fashion. 39. In this case one writes x→a lim f (x) = ∞. Recommended Problem List: 10. but not equal to. In analogy. For inﬁnite limits one has the following variant of the Squeeze Theorem: Suppose that f (x) ≥ g(x) for all x near. 17. 15. 43. As an exercise. If f (x) = p(x)/q(x) is a rational function in reduced form (that is. 29. then also limx→a f (x) = ∞. Can you locate all of them? Starter Problem List: 4. sec θ. 32. a. If at least one of the onesided limits at x = a is either ∞ or −∞. p(x). cot θ. 18. if the values of f (x) are negative and grow larger and larger in magnitude as x approaches a. 8 . then the vertical asymptotes are situated at the zeros of the denominator q(x). 34. and limx→a g(x) = ∞.
lim (x2 − x) = ∞. one can conclude that 1 lim sin( ) = 0. q(x) = bn xn + bn−1 xn−1 + · · · + b1 x + bo . x→∞ 2 lim sin x does not exist. Can you see why? The limit limx→−∞ f (x) of f (x) at negative inﬁnity is similarly found by letting x become negative and larger and larger in magnitude.Lesson 5 – §2. the line y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote for f (x) = sin(1/x). bn = 0. lim p(x)/q(x) = ±∞. x→±∞ 9 . if m = n. Finally.5: Limits at Inﬁnity and Horizontal Asymptotes The limit x→∞ lim f (x) of a function f (x) as x approaches ∞ describes the values of f (x) as x becomes larger and larger without bound. if m > n. x→∞ since the term x grows much faster than x. Suppose that f (x) = p(x)/q(x) is a rational function with p(x) = am xm + am−1 xm−1 + · · · + a1 x + ao . lim p(x)/q(x) = am /bn . depending on whether m − n is even or odd. as we saw above. Thus. For example. since 1/x ≈ 0 when x is large. x→∞ x On the other hand. 3. lim p(x) = 0. where am . If either one of limx→±∞ f (x) = L exists and is ﬁnite then the line y = L is a horizontal asymptote for f (x). if m < n. then 1. x→±∞ q(x) x→±∞ 2.
the logarithm function. Consequently. 36. 21. Recommended Problem List: 12. 38. 35. 20. 31. 33. 10 . 11. x→0 x→∞ as you can also verify by graphing the functions.Hence the rational function f (x) = p(x)/q(x) has a horizontal asymptote precisely when the degree of q(x) is equal or larger than the degree of p(x). 13. One can use the exponent rules for the natural exponential function to conclude that x→∞ lim ex = ∞. 40. must satisfy lim ln x = −∞. x→−∞ lim ex = 0. lim ln x = ∞. 18. 23. 26. 52. 9. 15. 27. 44. as the inverse of the exponential function. Starter Problem List: 4.
1)! You will ﬁnd other applications of the IVT in the exercises below and in Laboratory Activity III. Can you see why the function 1 4 ) f (x) = 2 + sin( 1 + x2 is continuous for all values of x? The Intermediate Value Theorem can be used to locate solutions to equations. Intuitively speaking. 10. ln x are continuous in their respective domains of deﬁnition. 49. For example. if 1. Starter Problem List: 4. 74. The Limit Laws also yield many more continuous functions. Recommended Problem List: 15. as is the inverse function of a continuous function when it exists. All algebraic functions and the basic transcendental functions sin x. 2. A function f (x) is continuous on an interval if it is continuous at every point contained in that interval. Moreover. 61. and the quotient of two continuous functions are again continuous in their domains of deﬁnition. ex . 13.Lesson 6 – §2. 28. 51. 20. and 3. 25. 41. 11. f (x) is continuous x→a at x = a. 46. cos x. the limit limx→a f (x) exists. The Limit Laws imply that the sum. 54. 34. 11 . then the graph of f (x) contains no holes or breaks at x = a. the product. the composition of two continuous functions is continuous. 30. 35. if f (x) is continuous at x = a.6: Continuity A function f (x) is continuous at x = a if lim f (x) = f (a). 19. the limit is equal to the value f (a). the diﬀerence. That is. 24. 39. f (x) is deﬁned on some interval containing x = a. you can apply the IVT to conclude that the seemingly complicated equation x7 − 5x5 + x2 + 1 = 0 must have a solution in the interval (0.
Leibniz notation dx If f (x) is diﬀerentiable at x = a. One often employs the df (x) to indicate the derivative f (x). as the average rate of change of f (x) on the interval (a. But keep in mind that there are a lot of continuous functions that are not diﬀerentiable. is the case with f (x) = x at x = 0. 12 . on I. If f (x) is diﬀerentiable at every point on an interval I. and 5 in the text and you should carefully go through the steps so that you will be able to carry out similar calculations on your own. then it can not be diﬀerentiable at that point either. then the diﬀerentiation process determines a new function f (x). or. The computation of the derivative using the deﬁnition is illustrated in Examples 3. Thus. Basic applications of the derivative include the slope of the tangent line to the graph of a function and the instantaneous rate of change of a function. for example. as. h which can be interpreted as the slope of the secant line through the points (a. f (a). is called the derivative of f (x) at x = a. f (a + h)). A function f (x) is diﬀerentiable at the point x = a if the limit of the diﬀerence quotient f (a + h) − f (a) f (a) = lim h→0 h exists (and is ﬁnite). 4. a + h). Thus if f (x) is not continuous at x = a. given the slope m = f (a) of the tangent line at x = a.Lesson 7 – §3. the derivative of f (x). One frequently also writes f (a) = lim f (x) − f (a) . alternately. then it is also continuous at x = a. a + h] is given by f (a + h) − f (a) . f (a)) and (a + h. x→a x−a (Check that the two deﬁnitions are equivalent!) The value of the limit. its equation can be written as y = m(x − a) + f (a).1: Introducing the Derivative The diﬀerence quotient of a function f (x) on the interval [a.
so the derivative must be computed with respect to t. 22. 58.) Starter Problem List: 6. 45. ds its velocity is given by v(t) = (t). 65. 27. 15. (Note that the time t is now the independent dt variable. if x = s(t) is the position of a particle moving along the xaxis. 23. 13 . 18.In the same vein. 43. 19. 41. 53. 34. 49. 7. 14. Recommended Problem List: 11. 36. 13.
d x e = ex . n = 1. the natural exponential function is its own derivative! 14 . . dx d n x = nxn−1 .2: Rules of Diﬀerentiation The following rules for the derivative can be derived directly from the deﬁnition. Constant multiple rule: 4. the power rule dx any real exponent r. 2. . dx dx dx d r x = rxr−1 . dx that is. dx dx d d d f (x) + g(x) = f (x) + g(x). dx d d cf (x) = c f (x). by applying both the constant multiple and sum rules we see that d (2f (x) − 5g(x)) = 2f (x) − 5g (x). . One often needs to combine the above rules to compute the derivative of a given function. h→0 h lim As a consequence. dx Euler’s number e = 2.Lesson 8 – §3. holds true for As you will see in section 3. 1. Constant function rule: 2.718 .8. . So if we know that f (1) = −1. 3. is deﬁned by the property that eh − 1 = 1. in fact. then d (2f (x) − 5g(x))x=1 = 2f (1) − 5g (1) = −17. Sum rule: d c = 0. Power rule: 3. you only need to know the value of the derivatives of the constituent functions at that point. . . dx Notice that in order to compute a derivative at a particular point using any of the four rules above. g (1) = 3. For example.
29. d d2 7 d d 7 x = 7 x6 = 42x5 . 56. 41. 19. 45. 44. Recommended Problem List: 10. 13. compute dx4 observation into a rule for higher order derivatives of a polynomial function? Starter Problem List: 7. 15 . 9.. 26. 22. 42. 32. 35. of a function f (x) are obtained by repeatedly diﬀerentiating f (x). 39. dx2 d3 f (x) = f (x). x = dx2 dx dx dx d4 3 x . 38. 23. 66. 14. For example. 48.. 54. dx3 . 50. 17. 27. 18.The higher order derivatives d2 f (x) = f (x). What do you notice? Can you generalize your As a exercise.
these rules allow one to compute the derivative of the product and quotient of two functions at a point from the values of the functions and their derivatives at that point only! As an example. 30. Product rule: 2. 31. 13. 8. 51. d f (x)g(x) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x). g (−1) = −3. 39. Quotient rule: Importantly. 44. in particular. The quotient rule can also be used to extend the power rule of diﬀerentiation of Lesson 8 to negative values of the exponent. Thus dx d kx e = kekx . 26. 16 . 27. The function ekx appears in models for population growth and radioactive decay. 17. 47.3: Product and Quotient Rules In this section you will learn rules for computing the derivatives of the product and quotient of two functions in terms of the values of the functions and their derivatives.Lesson 9 – §3. Then by the quotient rule. dx d f (x) f (x)g(x) − f (x)g (x) = . see Example 7 in the text for a typical application. dx for any real number k. g(−1) = 2. 64. 62. 55. 68. 34. 15. The horizontal scaling f (x) → f (kx) changes the instantaneous rate of change of the d f (kx) = kf (kx). function by the factor k. so. 37. 60. Recommended Problem List: 9. Starter Problem List: 6. 2 x = −1 = dx g(x) g(−1) 4 In more complicated derivative computations you will need to be able to combine these (and other) rules of diﬀerentiation. 22. 41. dx g(x) g(x)2 1. f (−1) = −1. suppose that the following information is given: f (−1) = 3. 71. 7 f (−1)g(−1) − f (−1)g (−1) d f (x) = . 54. 23.
Lesson 10 – §3. takes some work. grads. . x→0 x lim cos x − 1 = 0. If you use other units (degrees. for example. tan x = sec2 x = (cos x)−2 dx sin x d sec x = sec x tan x = 5. 17 . as is done in the text. cot x. sec x and csc x are given in terms of the same. It is important to bear in mind that in these limit statements the x variable must be expressed in radians. are used to compute the derivatives of the sine and cosine functions: sin x = 1. dz 180 as you should conﬁrm on your own. which are important on their own right. x→0 x lim Both expressions are in indeterminate form. ). Caveat: In all the derivative formulas x must be expressed in radians. dx cos2 x 1. if z is given in degrees. you will need to modify the formulas accordingly. You should commit to memory the derivative formulas of the basic trigonometric functions cataloged in the table below.4: Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions The following limits. but keep in mind that when manipulating or simplifying a complicated trigonometric expression. it is often helpful to convert it ﬁrst as an expression involving sine and cosine only. d sin x = cos x dx d 3. as you should verify on your own. . csc x = − csc x cot x = − 2 dx sin x 2. then π d sin z = cos z. Thus. cot x = − csc2 x = −(sin x)−2 dx d cos x 6. The remaining derivatives 36 can be obtained from these two with the help of the quotient rule. so ﬁnding the required limits by a geometric argument. Typically the derivatives of tan x. Note the antisymmetry in the formulas for the derivatives of the sine and cosine functions. . d cos x = − sin x dx d 4.
22. 32. 13. 51. 40. 35. 68. 15. 54. 17. 19. 30. 44. 71. 50. 38.Starter Problem List: 6. 46. 34. 27. 56. 58. 7. Recommended Problem List: 11. 18 . 9.
5: Derivatives as Rates of Change The key concepts of this lesson are the average rate of change and the instantaneous rate of change of a quantity that varies in time t. by letting ∆t → 0 in the above formula. the average velocity in harmonic motion x = cos t over the interval [0. Suppose that an object moves along the xaxis so that its position is given by x = f (t). dt (Warning: Don’t be confused by the text’s use of the same symbol a for a ﬁxed value of the xcoordinate and the acceleration of an object. As can be easily checked. x = cos t describes an instance of harmonic motion. where t denotes the time. in real life situation. Then the displacement of the object during a time period t = a to t = a + ∆t is ∆x = f (a + ∆t) − f (a). as you notice. A more precise description is obtained by computing the average velocity on increasingly smaller intervals. The instantaneous rate of change of velocity is the acceleration. and so is given by the derivative C (x) of the cost function.) The ﬁnal example of the section treats a business application. Of course. vave = ∆t ∆t where. For example. x 19 . Suppose that the cost of producing x items in a manufacturing plant can be computed from the cost function C(x). The increase in production from x to x + ∆x items incurs the extra average expense of C(x + ∆x) − C(x) ∆x per item. while the marginal cost measures the expense of manufacturing one additional item. The marginal cost is obtained by taking the limit as ∆x → 0. But the limit (once again) results in the derivative and so the (instantaneous) velocity of the particle is simply v = f (t). that is. 2π] is zero even though the object moves back and forth between 1 and −1.Lesson 11 – §3. so a(t) = d v(t). so the average velocity of the object is given by f (a + ∆t) − f (a) ∆x = . Thus the average velocity does not often accurately characterize motion. the righthand side is simply the diﬀerence quotient of the function f (t) on the interval [a. Then the average cost of producing x items is C(x)/x. a + ∆t].
24. 7. 17. 45. 19. 48. 11. 29. 35.and ∆x take on integral values. 38. C(x + 1) − C(x) ≈ C (x). 21. 32. 15. Recommended Problem List: 10. Starter Problem List: 4. so the marginal cost will only give an approximation to the actual increase in the cost of producing one more item. 27. 41. 9. 20 .
in the composition f (g(x)). dx But this must be equal to Example. Perhaps the following argument will help you to understand and remember the chain rule. dt dx dt but they all express the same fact as the boxed formula. combined with the product rule.6: The Chain Rule The chain rule allows you to compute the derivative of the composition of two functions f (g(x)) in terms of the derivatives f (x) and g (x). yields an alternate useful form d h(x) d = h(x)g(x)−1 = h (x)g(x)−1 − h(x)g(x)−2 g (x) dx g(x) dx 21 . this. d f (g(x)) ∆x. where we have written y = g(x). If f (y) = y n with the derivative f (y) = ny n−1 .Lesson 12 – §3. dt dy dy du = . dx du dx and dy dy dx = . then the change in the values of the function g(x) is approximately g(x + ∆x) − g(x) ≈ g (x)∆x. so by comparing the two expressions for dx d the change of f (g(x)). you will recover the chain rule f (g(x)) = f (g(x))g (x). Recall that if x changes by a small amount ∆x. then the chain rule reduces to d g(x)n = ng(x)n−1 g (x). d f (g(x)) = f (g(x))g (x). Thus. the argument (or the input) of f (y) changes by ∆y ≈ g (x)∆x. dx For n = −1. only in diﬀerent notation. The chain rule is one of the most useful tools for ﬁnding the derivatives of complicated functions as it lets you break down the computation into the diﬀerentiation of simpler functions. dx Chain Rule: You will see many variants of this basic formula such as d f (h(t)) = f (h(t))h (t). So the value of f (g(x)) changes by f (y + ∆y) − f (y) ≈ f (y)∆y ≈ f (g(x))g (x)∆x.
34. 12. 7. Example 5 in the text highlights the same type of computation. g(x) = cos(x2 ) and. Example. 58. 75. g(x) = x2 . 36. 26. 10. 50. dx Thus the rate of change of f (g(x)) at x = 0 is −3. As an illustration. 30. g (0) = 3. For example. Example. 22. 20. Then d f (g(x)) x=0 = f (g(0))g (0) = f (1)3 = −3. Recommended Problem List: 14. 16. 38. 55. with f (y) = cos(y). d d d sin(cos(x2 )) = cos(cos(x2 )) cos(x2 ) = cos(cos(x2 ))(− sin(x2 )) (x2 ) dx dx dx = cos(cos(x2 ))(− sin(x2 ))2x = −2x cos(cos(x2 )) sin(x2 ). 39. 49. A derivative computation often requires a repeated application of the chain rule. f (1) = −1. where. in computing the derivative of cos(x2 ). Starter Problem List: 2. 62. at ﬁrst. 31. 6. In light of the chain rule. we used the chain rule with f (y) = sin(y). the rate of change of the composition f (g(x)) at x = a is the product of the rate of change of f (y) at y = g(a) and of g(x) at x = a. 67.of the quotient rule. suppose we know that g(0) = 1. 22 .
7: Implicit Diﬀerentiation Suppose your task is to compute the slope of the tangent line to the ellipse 4x2 +y 2 = 1 √ at the point ( 1 . 4 √ 3 ) 2 =⇒ f (x) = − 4x . so. 23 . by the chain rule for powers. Write y = f (x) for the function so that 4x2 + f (x)2 = 1. You can. But this equation simply states that the function 4x2 + f (x)2 on the lefthand side must be identically constant 1! Hence its derivative must vanish. but implicit diﬀerentiation really becomes an indispensable tool in problems in which one can not analytically solve y in terms of 2 x. y It is now a simple matter to ﬁnd the slope by plugging in the x and ycoordinates of the base point. (It can be shown that the equation y + ex y = 1 deﬁnes y as a function of x. But as an alternate approach. f (x) 1 2 will be f ( 4 ) = − √3 . of course. Thus the slope at ( 1 . 23 ). we obtain 8x + 2f (x)f (x) = 0. One typically forgoes writing f (x) for y and directly diﬀerentiates both sides of the deﬁning equation 4x2 + y 2 = 1 while keeping in mind that y is a function of x. note that the equation for the ellipse deﬁnes (up to a ± sign) y as a function of x. As we saw. which can then be diﬀerentiated to obtain the slope. This gives 4x 8x + 2yy = 0 =⇒ y = − . but can you ﬁnd an explicit expression for y in terms of x? How about dy/dx in terms of x and y?) Caveat: Common mistakes in carrying out implicit diﬀerentiation are to forget to apply the chain rule when diﬀerentiating terms involving y (which is to be considered a function of x) and to forget to diﬀerentiate constant terms. solve the equation for y to ﬁnd that 4 √ y = ± 1 − 4x2 . it simpliﬁed the task of ﬁnding the slope of the tangent line to the ellipse. This process of diﬀerentiating y without knowing its explicit expression in terms of x is called implicit diﬀerentiation.Lesson 13 – §3.
You can use the same trick to facilitate solving several of the exercises in this section. 67. 35. 45. in particular. 39. 41. ∞. 26. 65. As in the text. 3 dx dx Since the goal is to ﬁnd the slope at a given point. diﬀerentiate the equation implicitly to get dy dy 2 (x + y)−2/3 1 + = . 31. 2 intersects perpendicularly (or at 90◦ angle) if their slopes satisfy s1 s2 = −1. Recommended Problem List: 10. 23. 64. Starter Problem List: 1. 29. 61. 52. 13. You can use this property to ﬁnd the normal line to a plane curve at a point: since the slope of the tangent line is dy/dx. 27. the slope of the normal line will be −1/(dy/dx) (The normal line is vertical when dy/dx = 0). Example. Example 5 in the text asks for the slope of the tangent line to the curve 2(x + y)1/3 = y at (4. 24 .Two lines 1 . there is no need to solve the equation to derive a general formula for dy/dx – one can instead directly substitute the coordinates of the base point to see that 2 dy 1 dy dy (4 + 4)−2/3 1 + . the tangent line to the curve at (4. 5. = 1+ = 3 dx 6 dx dx from which dy/dx = 1/5. Hence. 48. 4) is given by y = x/5 + 16/5 and the normal line by y = −5x + 24. 69. provided that s1 = 0. 4). 9. 21.
is deﬁned by the relations y = logb x You should derive the identities bx = ex ln b . The power rules for the exponential function have their counterparts. ∞) and the range is (−∞. The domain of ln x is (0. The logarithm function in base b. This can be easily solved: d 1 ln x = . ln b ⇐⇒ x = by . as you should verify by graphing ln x using the graph of ex as the starting point. ∞). which are summarized below. logb x = 25 ln x .Lesson 14 – §3.8: Logarithmic and Exponential Functions You recall that the natural exponential function is onetoone. the logarithm rules. =e xy These formulas also yield the expression for the derivative of the natural logarithm function: Diﬀerentiate the equation x = eln x with respect to x (and don’t forget to apply the chain rule) to see that 1 = eln x d d ln x = x ln x. dx x As we will see later. so it has an inverse. b > 0. ex ey = ex+y 2. ⇐⇒ ln(xy ) = y ln x. Thus. the above computation is just a special case of a general algorithm for determining the derivative of an inverse function. in the second step. 1. by deﬁnition. dx dx where. . e x y ⇐⇒ ln(xy) = ln x + ln y. eln x = x. for x > 0. which is called the natural logarithmic function ln x. we used the relation x = eln x . and ln ex = x. for all x. where x > 0.
which. 26 . sin x Starter Problem List: 3. For certain type of functions this will simplify computing the derivative. 36. 38. As an application of logarithmic diﬀerentiation we compute dx We have that d d d (sin x)x = (sin x)x ln(sin x)x = (sin x)x (x ln sin x) dx dx dx cos x x = (sin x) ln sin x + x = (sin x)x ln sin x + xcos x(sin x)x−1 . 52. dx x ln b for the derivatives of the exponential and logarithm function in base b. 32. 75. by diﬀerentiation. dx d 1 logb x = . dx Thus one can ﬁnd the derivative of a function f (x) by starting with diﬀerentiating ln f (x) and then multiplying the result by f (x). 17. 68. 20. Can you think of any examples? d (sin x)x . 39. Logarithmic diﬀerentiation is founded on the observation that d f (x) ln f (x) = dx f (x) ⇐⇒ f (x) = f (x) d ln f (x). 13. 9. Example. 25. 47. 19. 59. 44. Recommended Problem List: 11. 15. give d x b = (ln b)bx . 60. 50. 27. 31. 26.
the restriction of sin x to the interval [−π/2. −1 (3)) dx f (f f (1) 6 In order to ﬁnd d −1 f (x)x=1 we would need need to know the value of f −1 (1). Thus y = sin x. is onetoone and possesses an inverse function. f (3) = −2. Then. f (3) = 4. the derivative of f −1 (x) is the reciprocal of f (x) composed with f −1 (x)! Example.Lesson 15 – §3. .9: Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions Suppose that f (x) is invertible with the inverse function f −1 (x). that dx is. but this is not given. Find d −1 d −1 f (x)x=3 . −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. We can diﬀerentiate this identity to see that d f (f −1 (x)) f −1 (x) = 1. since f (1) = 3. by the very deﬁnition. π/2]. For this. equals 1. we will need f −1 (3) which. we obtain d −1 1 f (x) = . f (1) = 6. The sine function is 2πperiodic. so it fails the horizontal line test and can not be invertible. its principal part. Suppose that f (x) is invertible and that you are given the following information: f (1) = 3. − π π ≤x≤ 2 2 ⇐⇒ 27 x = sin−1 y. which is denoted by sin−1 x (or often also by arcsin x). −1 (x)) dx f (f In other words. f (x) and f −1 (x) satisfy f (f −1 (x)) = x. so the answer to the latter question is negative. However. Can you compute f (x)x=1 based on the above data? dx dx d −1 f (x)x=3 we apply the basic identity for the derivative of the dx inverse function. an x value so that f (x) = 1. dx (Can you see why we again needed to use the chain rule?) Solving for the derivative of the inverse function. Thus In order to ﬁnd 1 1 1 d −1 f (x)x=3 = = = .
The derivatives of the inverse functions are then computed using the general process as explained above. keep in mind that the values of θ = sin−1 (x) fall on the interval [−π/2. π π ≤x≤ . π/2]. . on [−3π/2. In conclusion. where cos θ is positive. sin x In order to ﬁnd the derivative of sin−1 (x). carefully identifying the domain and range of sin−1 x in your plot. Make sure that you can distinguish between the notation used for the inverse sine and for the reciprocal of the sine function: sin−1 x = arcsin x. 2 2 −1 Can you derive an expression for sin (sin x) that holds for any x? only when − Caveat 2. so the above equation yields √ cos(sin−1 x) = 1 − x2 . The choice of the particular interval is usually dictated by the problem at hand. This gives 1 d sin−1 (x) = . . you see that cos2 (sin−1 x) + x2 = 1. where it is onetoone. (sin x)−1 = 1 . dx 1 − x2 The inverse functions of the other basic trigonometric function are similarly deﬁned by a restriction to a suitable interval. for all −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. but sin−1 (sin x) = x. You should note that the inverse function of sin x can be deﬁned on any interval. [π/2. d 1 sin−1 (x) = √ . When solving for the cosine term.As an exercise. dx cos(sin−1 (x)) We still need to simplify the composition cos(sin−1 (x)). . which will rely on the basic trigonometric identity cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1. Caveat 1. If you substitute θ = sin−1 x into this and use the identity sin(sin−1 (x)) = x. π/2]. 28 . graph sin−1 (x) starting from the graph of sin x. . sin(sin−1 (x)) = x. see the table below. for example. we apply the general procedure for diﬀerentiating inverse functions. On account of the deﬁnitions. 3π/2].
34. 0) ∪ (0. 2 2 [0. ]. 58. 29 . ]. 31. 2 2 (0. 47. −1] ∪ [1. 18. 2 2 [−1. ∞) (−∞. csc x π π [− . 13. ∞) (−∞. tan x 4. sin x 2. π]. ). 35.f (x) Domain and Range of Principal Part π π [− . cot x 5. sec x 6. 41. 29. π π (− . 7. 53. 40. cos x 3. 15. −1] ∪ [1. 44. ∞) 2 2 Starter Problem List: 3. π π [0. π). ∞) d −1 f (x) dx 1 √ 1 − x2 1 −√ 1 − x2 1 1 + x2 1 − 1 + x2 1 √ x x2 − 1 1 − √ x x2 − 1 1. 26. 51. (−∞. 66. Recommended Problem List: 10. 1] [−1. 5. 1] (−∞. 27. ) ∪ ( . 37. π].
Then x and y are functions of time. 17. are related by an equation. The diﬀerentiation step entails applying the chain rule very much like in problems requiring implicit diﬀerentiation. 19. 35. dt y dt Thus. if we know the rate of change of one of the quantities. 7. we can ﬁnd the rate of change of the other quantity by diﬀerentiating the relating equation with respect to t. we see that 8x dy dx x + 2y =0 dt dt ⇐⇒ dy 4x dx =− . Then. 13. 26. Many of the exercises in the text involve basic geometry and call for a bit of creativity. we can readily compute the rate of change of the y coordinate. Starter Problem List: 2. 32. 12. 27. 30 . so by taking the t derivative of the equation of the ellipse (and again applying the chain rule). changing with time t. consider the x and y coordinates of an object moving along the ellipse 4x2 + y 2 = 1. This simple example underscores the general fact that related rate problems typically reduce to diﬀerentiating an equation involving two or more quantities changing in time. Recommended Problem List: 11. 23. 14. 37. As a speciﬁc example.Lesson 16 – §3. but steps for solving related rates problems outlined in the section will help you to get on the right track. 29. if we know the position of the object and the rate of change of the x coordinate.10: Related Rates Suppose that two quantities. 5.
65. for example. 29. h > 0. the size of a population. 34. This fact is known as the extreme value theorem. for example. 48. 25. then the slope of the graph of f (x) must be nonnegative immediately to the left of c and nonpositive immediately to the right of c. If f (c) yields a local maximum for a diﬀerentiable function f (x). Recommended Problem List: 19. 43. the absolute minimum of f (x) is deﬁned similarly. 24.1: Maxima and Minima Many applications of calculus to concrete problems call for ﬁnding the maximum or the minimum value of a pertinent function. c + h). and. A value f (c) is a local maximum of a function f (x) if there is some interval (c − h. 31 . f (c) = 0. 50. which could also be realized at the endpoints of the interval. However. and as is easily veriﬁed by the way of examples. One similarly deﬁnes a local minimum. Thus. 66.Lesson 17 – §4. 53. the derivative of f (x) must vanish. so that f (c) is the largest value of f (x) in this interval (so f (c) ≥ f (x) for any x between c − h and c + h. A function assumes an absolute maximum value at x = c if f (c) ≥ f (x) for any x in the domain of the function. 15. continuity is a necessarily condition for the theorem to hold. by graphing the function f (x) = x3 or f (x) = tan x. 11. and so on. 61. air drag. 17. 71. if f (c) is a local maximum or minimum of f (x). 31. could be the revenue or cost function. in general. which. Note that a function needs not possess any local or absolute maxima or minima as you can see. but there can be x values outside the interval with f (x) > f (c)). 42. also the absolute maximum and minimum of a given function. then either f (c) does not exist or f (c) = 0! Points that satisfy either one of the two conditions are collectively called critical points of f (x) and they can often be eﬀectively used to locate local maxima and minima. 22. at x = c. Again. An analogous statement holds for local minima. with the help of these. 35. the acceleration of an object. a continuous function deﬁned on a ﬁnite and closed interval always attains an absolute maximum and minimum on that interval. Hence. Starter Problem List: 5.
f (x) > 0 Critical Point Local Maximum f (x) < 0 f (x) increasing f (x) decreasing 32 . and the second derivative gauges the rate at which this direction is changing. f (x) is increasing. Intuitively. A function f (x) is (strictly) increasing on an interval I if for all x2 > x1 on I.2: What Derivatives Tell Us The ﬁrst and second derivatives are intimately related to the behavior of a function and. Next assume that c is a critical point of f (x) and that f (x) > 0 on some interval immediately to the left of c and f (x) < 0 on some interval immediately to the right of c. they provide further tools for analyzing extremum value problems discussed in the previous lesson. f (x) increases and. and (strictly) decreasing on I if for all x2 > x1 on I. f (x) > 0 implies that the slope of the tangent line is pointing upward so the graph of the function is tending higher when x moves to the right. f (x) < 0 implies that the graph is tending lower so the function must be decreasing. But note that the converse of the above derivative test does not hold: a function increasing on an interval I can have f (x) = 0 at some (in fact. It follows that f (x) must have a local maximum at c. that is. Analogously. see the diagram below. One can detect intervals on which f (x) is increasing or decreasing by the sign of the derivative: f (x) > 0 for all x on I f (x) < 0 for all x on I =⇒ f (x) is increasing on I. the derivative f (x) measures the steepness of the graph. Roughly speaking. intuitively speaking. f (x2 ) < f (x1 ). consequently. Thus. or its direction. it decreases. =⇒ f (x) is decreasing on I. f (x) yields a measurement for the curvature of the graph. f (x2 ) > f (x1 ). even at inﬁnitely many) x on I.Lesson 18 – §4. as x moves past c. Then as x approaches c from the left.
that its derivative df (x)/dx = f (x) exists). absolute) minimum at x = 0. In this situation the tangent lines drawn along the graph of f (x) turn counterclockwise with increasing x – the function f (x) is said to be concave up on I. then f (c) is a local minimum for f (x). These type of arguments also yields the second derivative test for local extrema: Suppose that f (x) exists on an interval I and x = c is an critical point on I with f (c) = 0. A point c in the domain of f (x) is called an inﬂection point for f (x) if concavity changes at c. then c will be an inﬂection point. if the derivative f (x) does not change sign at x = c. The fact that positive second derivative is associated with a local minimum might seem counterintuitive at ﬁrst. If f (c) > 0. In particular. f (x) < 0 on an interval I. Thus if f (x) > 0 on an interval I. If f (x) changes sign at c. If. in turn. of course. and f (x) is said to be concave down on I.Similarly. The above arguments can also be applied to the function f (x) (provided. f (c) will not be a local maximum or minimum. then the tangent lines turn clockwise along the graph of the function. the conditions f (x) < 0 immediately to the left of c and f (x) > 0 immediately to the right of c imply that f (c) must be a local minimum for f (x): f (x) < 0 Critical Point Local Minimum f (x) > 0 f (x) decreasing f (x) increasing Finally. the derivative f (x) is increasing. but the second derivative test is easy to remember in its correct form by considering the parabola f (x) = x2 for which f (0) > 0 at the local (in fact. you can locate inﬂection points by ﬁrst ﬁnding all points c at which f (c) does not exist or at which f (c) = 0. then f (c) is a local maximum for f (x). while if f (c) < 0. But bear in mind that a point c in the domain of f (x) can be an inﬂection point also when f (c) does not exist. 33 .
53.Finally. Recommended Problem List: 13. 22. 29. 33. 57. 31. the second derivative test is inconclusive if f (c) = f (c) = 0. 64. 55. and in this case you should investigate the sign of the derivative f (x) on each side of c. 23. 60. 15. 43. 70. 11. Starter Problem List: 8. 17. 54. 34 . 65. 67. 38. 45. 26.
7. In a typical graphing problem you should follow the steps outlined below. Compute the second derivative f (x) and locate all inﬂection points. 38. 21. 5. 35. Practice makes perfect! Starter Problem List: 2. Caveat: When plotting a function. And keep in mind that there is no substitute for doing it yourself. or. 35 . 6. 31. Identify intervals on which f (x) is concave up or down. the ﬁrst and second derivatives are closely associated with the properties of a function.Lesson 19 – §4. You may also doublecheck your classiﬁcation of local extrema in step 3 by the second derivative test. Find the intercepts of the graph with the x and yaxes. if any. Check for special properties of f (x). Identify intervals on which f (x) is increasing or decreasing. 15. 42. Compute the limits limx→±∞ f (x) and locate vertical and horizontal asymptotes. Graph the function with the help of all the information you have gathered in the above steps. Compute the derivative f (x) and locate all critical points. 46. 11. 6. 55. more generally. 17. 25. 2. 24. Identify the interval on which the function f (x) is to be graphed. 33. Recommended Problem List: 13. This can be a subset of the domain of f (x). 1. 51. and classify all local and absolute extrema. do not rely on your graphing utility to do the work for you but perform the steps outlined below on your own and by hand. Only when you are done with the problem should you doublecheck your results against the graph produced by software.3: Graphing Functions As we saw in the previous lesson. symmetric with respect to the line x = c (f (2c − x) = f (x)) or antisymmetric with respect to it (f (2c − x) = −f (x))? Is it periodic (f (x + L) = f (x)) or antiperiodic (f (x + L) = −f (x))? (How would you graph the function in each instance?) 3. 7. 40. It then comes as no surprise that they also yield a large amount of information valuable in analyzing the graph of the function. 18. 60. Is the function even (f (−x) = f (x)) or odd (f (−x) = −f (x)). 4. 43.
000 yields the maximum area (in square meters) that the farmer can fence oﬀ. He needs no fence along the river. say. some experience with general problem solving will be called for. At the endpoints A(0) = 0. Identifying these optimal solutions is based on the min/max problems of Lesson 17. We will also omit units from now on. The following example illustrates the general procedure. Both l and w are be positive. Find the maximum area the pasture. The problem asks for the maximum area of a rectangular ﬁeld. gives A = (1200−2l)l. This is a function of two variables and we have not learned yet how to ﬁnd the extreme values of such functions. but. so A(300) = 18. a function of one variable. so the relevant quantities in this problem are the width w along the river. (Recall that we are assuming that the river runs along the width of the pasture. A(600) = 0. besides calculus. Example. and the area A of the pasture. the problem imposes a constraint between w and l: The total length of the three sides of the pasture is 1200. 200 m of fencing. 600]. To check the reasonableness of our answer. The constraints between w and l can be solved. River Pasture l l 2. However. We have reduced our optimization problem to ﬁnding the absolute maximum of the function A = (1200 − 2l)l = 1200l − 2l2 on the interval [0.) 4. 600]. A farmer has 1200 m of fencing and wants to fence oﬀ a rectangular pasture that borders a straight river. we compare it to the area of a square pasture with three sides made out of a total of 1. 1. This expression. for w to yield w = 1200 − 2l. when substituted into the expression for A. so w + 2l = 1200.Lesson 20 – §4. 3. We ﬁnd that 36 . 5. the length l. The quantity to be maximized is the area which is given in terms of the other w quantities by A = wl. so l must be constrained in the interval [0.4: Optimization Problems One of the principal applications of calculus is to ﬁnding the best possible solution in practical problems. This function has only one critical point at l = 300 as you can verify by solving for the zeros of the derivative dA/dl.
37. This is the objective function in the terminology of the text. 3. 4. and interpret your result in terms of the original quantities in the problem. for example. 15. 37 . 12. Starter Problem List: 4. Identify the quantity to be optimized and ﬁnd a mathematical expression for it in terms of the quantities uncovered in Step 1. 41. One can solve a typical optimization problem by completing steps that are similar to the ones carried out in the above example: Procedure for Solving Optimization Problems 1. lending support to our solution of the problem. Lesson 17) to ﬁnd the absolute minimum or maximum value of the function to be optimized. 28. Use calculus (cf. Make sure you understand what the question is. Give them names or designate each one by a symbol. Find the relevant interval for the remaining variable. area.) 5. (By requiring that the length. Use the conditions discovered in step 3 to eliminate all but one variable in the function to be optimized. 56a. 24a. 16. etc. 47. 18.c. 7. is less than the answer we obtained for the maximum area. Try drawing a sketch to visualize the problem. 000 m2 . 55a. 10b. Write down all the relationships you can come up with between the quantities found in step 1. 27. 6. and volume must be positive. doublecheck that your answer is reasonable by verifying that it is physically sensible and satisﬁes the constraints imposed by the problem and. by making a comparison with some easily computable special cases of the problem. Recommended Problem List: 8. 50. 21. Finally. 39a. 59. 2. 48. Read the problem carefully to identify all the quantities involved. 30.the area of the square pasture.
04998 to 5 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. or f (x) ≈ f (a) + f (a)(x − a).5: Linear Approximations and Differentials If a function f (x) is diﬀerentiable at x = a. we can rewrite the expression for linear approximation as ∆y ≈ f (a)∆x. the graph of the linear approximation is simply the tangent line to the graph of f (x) at x = a. We need a point near x = 0.05 ≈ 0. As you can check on your calculator.05 (Note that the angle measurement is in radians).05.05. Now f (x) = sin x.Lesson 21 – §4. the linear approximation gives a good estimate for the values of f (x) when the second derivative f (x) is small near a. 38 f (x) − f (a) x→a x−a . Thus. so the linear approximation yields a surprisingly good estimate for sin 0. As a rule of thumb.05) = sin 0 + cos 0(0. for x near a. Example.05 − 0) = 0. sin 0. which is small near the base point a = 0. Thus the linear approximation gives L(0. using linear approximation amounts to replacing the graph of the function by the graph of the tangent line.05 for which we know the precise value for sin x. As you recognize. We use linear approximations to estimate sin 0. But this was more or less expected as f (x) = − sin x. then the limit f (a) = lim gives the approximation f (x) − f (a) ≈ f (a)(x − a). The expression L(x) = f (a) + f (a)(x − a) on the righthand side is called the linear approximation to f (x) at x = a. geometrically. The obvious choice is a = 0. Writing ∆x = x − a for the change in x and ∆y = f (x) − f (a) for the change in the values of f (x).
By replacing ∆x and ∆y by their diﬀerentials dx, dy, which, in traditional calculus, represent “inﬁnitesimal changes” in x and y, the above formula becomes dy = f (a)dx. The custom of denoting inﬁnitesimal variations by diﬀerentials might seem odd at ﬁrst, but the notion can be made completely rigorous in the setting of modern differential geometry. Starter Problem List: 2, 6, 7, 11, 13, 23, 25, 29, 35, 42. Recommended Problem List: 9, 12, 16, 19, 22, 27, 31, 36, 40, 41, 44.
39
Lesson 22 – §4.6: Mean Value Theorem
This section treats an important theorem that can be used to prove rigorously many of the claims justiﬁed on intuitive grounds in the previous lessons. Roughly, the conclusion of the theorem is that given an interval [a, b] contained in the domain of a diﬀerentiable function, there is some c between a and b at which the tangent line is parallel to the line connecting the points (a, f (a) and (b, f (b)) on the graph of the function. The Mean Value Theorem (MVT). Let f (x) be continuous on the closed interval [a, b] and diﬀerentiable on the open interval (a, b). Then there is some c, a < c < b, so that f (b) − f (a) . f (c) = b−a Rolle’s Theorem is a special case of the MVT obtained by assuming f (a) = f (b) = 0. Note that for a given f (x) and an interval [a, b], ﬁnding the value of c can be diﬃcult if not impossible (consider, for example, f (x) = sin x − x2 , a = 0, b = 1), but in spite of this, the MVT yields a surprising amount of useful information about the behavior of diﬀerentiable functions. For example, you can now see once and for all without having to appeal to intuitive geometric arguments that if f (x) > 0 on an interval I, then f (x) is strictly increasing on I. Simply choose any a, b in I, b > a. Then by the MVT, f (b) − f (a) = f (c)(b − a), for some a < c < b.
But as both f (c) > 0 and b − a > 0 by assumption, f (b) − f (a) = f (c)(b − a) > 0. Consequently f (b) > f (a). But the conclusion holds for any a < b on I, so f (x) must be increasing on I. The MVT also implies that if two functions have the same derivatives f (x) = g (x) on some interval I, then there is a constant C so that g(x) = f (x) + C identically on I. Thus the graph of g(x) can be obtained from the graph of f (x) by a shift in the ydirection. As you recall (cf. the table on page 29), the derivatives of sin−1 x and cos−1 x are opposite. What do you conclude about the two functions in light of the MVT? Can you derive similar identities between tan−1 x and cot−1 x, and sec−1 x and csc−1 x? 40
Starter Problem List: 3, 6, 7, 12, 15, 20, 27, 29, 31, 36. Recommended Problem List: 9, 11, 14, 17, 19, 24, 28, 30, 35.
41
the limits of f (x) and g(x) are both either ∞ or 42 . after which the original limit problem becomes ex − 1 x lim . so the limit is in socalled indeterminate form and you won’t be able to use the quotient rule for limits to solve the problem. which is one of the most useful techniques for ﬁnding limits of the quotient of two functions in indeterminate form. g (a) exist and g (a) = 0. But both derivatives equal 1.7: L’Hˆpital’s Rule o Suppose that your task is to compute the limit ex − 1 . x→a g(x) g (a) This is the basic form of l’Hopital’s rule. x→0 sin x − sin 0 x Now you can recognize the diﬀerence quotients of ex and sin x at x = 0 in the resulting expression. then f (x) f (a) lim = . Caveat: When putting l’Hospital’s rule into practice. and that you ﬁrst diﬀerentiate f (x) and g(x) separately and only then compute the limit of the quotient of the derivatives. L’Hopital’s rule also applies in the same form to limits lim f (x)/g(x) in the index→a terminate forms ±∞/∞ (that is. you need to make sure that the limit is in indeterminate form. As a workaround divide both the numerator and denominator by x and insert sin 0 = 0 in the denominator. so now the quotient rule for limits can be used to compute ex − 1 d x e x=0 e −1 x→0 x = = 1. = dx lim d x→0 sin x sin x − sin 0 sin x x=0 lim dx x→0 x x lim The same process can be applied to any limit lim f (x)/g(x) in the indeterminate form x→a 0/0 (that is. x→0 sin x lim The substitution x = 0 yields 0/0.Lesson 23 – §4. f (a) = g(a) = 0): If the derivatives f (a). so taking the limit as x → 0 amounts to computing the derivatives of these functions at x = 0.
x becomes much larger than (ln x)n for any integer n. in the last step. For example. so. This gives 1 − cos x cos x 1 lim = lim = . we get sin x 1 − cos x . Compute the limit lim (sin x)sin x . = lim lim 2 x→0 2x x→0 x The resulting limit is still in indeterminate form 0/0. of course. we were able to compute the limit by substitution. that is. 00 . + x→0 We write h(x) = (sin x)sin x . + x→0 The resulting limit is in indeterminate form 0·(−∞). Example. x dominates (ln x)n . Thus when x approaches inﬁnity. the method can be applied repeatedly until the value of the limit is found (provided. so to proceed we apply l’Hopital’s rule again. x2 The limit is in indeterminate form 0/0.). The instances involving powers typically require an application of the natural logarithm function in their solution. the limit point a can also be ±∞. and start by computing x→0+ lim ln h(x) = lim (sin x) ln sin x. x→∞ x→∞ x→∞ x→∞ x x 1 x lim where. that the required derivatives exist). (ln x)n n(ln x)n−1 /x n(ln x)n−1 n! = lim = lim = · · · = lim = 0. Example. in each step save the last. 2 x→0 x→0 x 2 2 where. L’Hopital’s rule also holds for onesided limits with the obvious modiﬁcations. In each of the cases 0/0 and ±∞/∞. ∞0 . the limit is in indeterminate form ∞/∞. ∞ − ∞. in order to apply l’Hopital’s 43 . By computing derivatives. There are many variants of the basic version of l’Hopital’s rule designed to compute the limit in the case of the indeterminate forms 0 · (±∞).−∞. so we resort to l’Hopital’s rule. 1±∞ . If an application of l’Hopital’s rule results in indeterminate form. L’Hopital’s rule can also be used to compare the growth rates of functions at ±∞. Compute the limit lim x→0 1 − cos x .
31. 39. 71. 19. we have shown that x→0+ lim (sin x)sin x = 1. we rewrite it as x→0 lim ln h(x) = lim + + x→0 ln sin x . We compute derivatives to see that cos x sin x lim ln h(x) = lim = lim (− sin x) = 0. 70. 15. x→0 lim h(x) = lim eln h(x) = elimx→0+ ln h(x) = e0 = 1. 35. 40. + + x→0 In conclusion. 34. x→0+ x→0+ − cos x x→0+ 2 sin x Thus the limit of ln h(x) is 0. Starter Problem List: 7. 83. 75. 30. 22. 27. 11. 55. 44 . 24.rule. 75. Recommended Problem List: 17. 36. 49. 13. 42. 1 sin x which in the form −∞/∞. so by continuity of the natural exponential function. 65.
Complete the assignment and polish up your report outside the class to turn it in to your recitation instructor by the designated deadline. Unlabeled graphs may not be graded. Your instructor and recitation instructor will provide additional information about the expectations and the grading policy for the laboratory activities. 1. You are expected to prepare a report observing the format speciﬁed for each lab. Procedure. You should print a paper copy of the lab in advance for recording your work done during the recitation hour. Discuss the problems included in the laboratory activity and work on them with your group. Before graphing.Mathematics Department Laboratory Manual for Mth 251 –Diﬀerential Calculus Instructions. Graphs. carefully choose and label the variables and their ranges on your plot. These reports are usually due the week following the laboratory activity. 45 . Overview of laboratory activities. You will spend about 50 minutes of the recitation time on the scheduled lab and the remaining 30 minutes may be used as a question and answer period about homework assignments. or for other class activities. 3. Although you collaborate on the laboratory activities in groups during the recitation. You may need to experiment on your graphing utility to ﬁnd ranges that correctly display the requisite information. your reports should be written up independently. Several of the laboratory activities require you to plot the graph of a function or functions on a given grid. You work in small groups on each laboratory activity according to your recitation instructor’s directions. 2. for tests.
Problem I. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph. Remember to label all your graphs. 46 . 1. b. Compute limits analytically to determine the correct answer. Speciﬁc goals for this activity are: a.Laboratory I – Graphing Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed to acquaint you with the graphing features of your calculator or computer and to reinforce the lectures on limits. Use calculators or computers to graph functions in diﬀerent windows. c.5].5. This problem is designed to investigate the limit lim f (x) as x apx→1 proaches 1 of the function x−1 f (x) = 2 . Use calculators or computers to identify limits from a graph and from numerical data. x − 3x + 2 a) Graph the function f (x) for x in the interval [0.
9.9999 1.0001 f (x) 47 . Give your answers correct to six decimal places.99 1.999 1. 1.001 0. c) Based on these two graphs.1 0. estimate the limit lim f (x). x 0. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph.9 1.01 0.b) Graph the function f (x) for x in the interval [0. x→1 d) Fill in the table of values for f (x).1].
x→1 f ) Compute the limit by factoring the denominator and simplifying the expression for f (x) when x = 1.e) Estimate the limit lim f (x) based on the values in the table. What is the limit? 48 .
Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph. This problem is designed to estimate the slope of the tangent line to √ the graph of f (x) = x when x = 1. 1.9.5.5].Problem II. b) Graph f (x) for x in [0. 49 . Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph. a) Graph f (x) for x in [0.1]. 1. Remember to label your graphs.
Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph.01].01 10−10 10−20 10−30 d(h) 50 . h 0.99. e) Fill in the chart with the values of the slope of the secant line through the points (1. d) On each of the above graphs. try to draw a tangent line to the graph at the point (1. 1). 1. Give your answers correct to six decimal h places.1 0. Recall that the slope f (1 + h) − f (1) is given by d(h) = . f (1 + h)) for small values of h. Estimate the slope of the tangent lines from your sketches.c) Graph f (x) for x in [0. 1) and (1 + h.
Describe in a few sentences what you have learned from this laboratory activity. what does the slope of the tangent line appear to be? g) Why did you obtain a wrong answer with a calculator? The correct slope is 1/2.f ) Based on the chart. 51 . Problem III.
why the equation x2 + x − 6 = lim x + 3 x→2 x→2 x−2 lim is correct. a) Why is the equation x2 + x − 6 =x+3 x−2 incorrect? b) Explain.Laboratory II – Limits Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed give you more experience in working with limits. however. The goals are to be able to use graphing calculators or computers to estimate limits from a graph and from numerical data. 52 . Problem I.
a) Explain why x→0 lim + √ xf (x) = 0 by applying the properties of limits from the text. 53 . 1).Problem II. Justify the value of the above limit graphically using the grid below. Suppose that f satisﬁes −10 ≤ f (x) ≤ 10 for all x in its domain I = (0.
Use your graphing calculator or computer to ﬁnd √ small a interval (0. δ) with the property that for all values of x in this interval.001 of 0. xf (x) √ is within 0. 54 . Draw the graph of the xf (x) for values of x in this interval on the grid.b) Let f (x) = 5 + x.
Consider the function f (x) = limit lim f (x) of f (x) as x → ∞. 55 .001)x a) Chart several values of f (x) for large values of x to estimate the limit. as follows.Problem III. x→∞ x2 for x ≥ 0. 100]. Try to ﬁnd the (1. What do you think the limit is? x f(x) b) Graph the function f (x) on your calculator or computer and sketch the graph on the grid for x in the interval [0.
5.000]. d) Graph the function f (x) on your calculator or computer and sketch the graph on the grid for x in the interval [0.c) Graph the function f (x) on your calculator or computer and sketch the graph on the grid for x in the interval [0.000]. 56 . 1.
e) Estimate the limit. How can you be sure that you would not arrive at a diﬀerent answer by increasing the graphing interval? 57 .
The Intermediate Value Theorem states that given a function f (x) continuous on a closed interval I = [a. 3]. the Intermediate Value Theorem. This is then used to choose the seed. Let p(x) = x6 −3x2 −x+1 be a 6th degree polynomial and let I = [1. b] and a number L between the values f (a) and f (b). In order to apply IVT.Laboratory III – The Intermediate Value Theorem Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed to acquaint you with one of the basic theorems in calculus. such as Newton’s method treated in Laboratory activity IX. there will be no gaps in the graph of f (x) on I (no matter how close you zoom in). for ﬁnding an approximate solution to high accuracy. Note that the IVT. a) Compute p(1) and p(3). that is. In short. a continuous function f (x) on a closed interval I = [a. 3]. only guarantees the existence of a solution on a given interval but it does not provide a method for pinpointing its location. Does the graph agree with you conclusion in part a? Problem II. under the assumptions of the theorem. Consider the equation sin x+x6 +x = 2. or. Problem I. if 1 < x ≤ 3. a) Compute f (0) and f (3) and note that these have opposite signs. The IVT is often used to ﬁnd the rough location of a solution to an equation that can not be solved analytically. 2 x − 5x + 4. is there a root of the the polynomial p(x) on I? b) Graph the polynomial p(x) on I. if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. How many solutions did you ﬁnd? Does your result contradict the IVT? Explain! b) Graph f (x) on I and verify that the plot agrees with your conclusion in part b. or the starting value. for a numerical algorithm. Consider the function f (x) = e−x . and to help you gain appreciation for its applications in both theoretical and concrete problems. b] realizes every value between f (a) and f (b) on I. geometrically. Next solve the equation f (x) = 0 on the interval I = [0. Problem III. then there is at least one c on I so that f (c) = L. write 58 . Is there a point c on I so that p(c) = 0.
Suppose that f (a) < g(a) and f (b) > g(b). f ) Finally apply the algorithm to ﬁnd a solution to our original equation accurate within 0. 0.75). b]. The following problems involve typical applications of the IVT. accurate within 0. 1].5. 1] by computing f (0) and f (1). Then ﬁnding the solutions of the above equation becomes tantamount to ﬁnding the x values for which f (x) = 2. 1]. Why does the IVT apply to f (x) on any (ﬁnite) interval? b) Verify that the equation must have a solution on the interval [0.02. compute f (0.f (x) = sin x + x6 + x. Can you use the IVT to conclude that the equation has at least one root on the interval (0. a) Write f (x) = cos(x3 ) − sin x so that solving the original equation becomes equivalent to ﬁnd the zeros of f (x).5). 59 . d) Next bisect this interval into the intervals [0.5. 0.75 must be a solution to our equation or.75] and [0.5] and [0. (Recall that x is expressed in radians. Explain! e) This process leads to a general algorithm for approximating solutions to equations.02. Problem V. Show that the graphs of f (x) and g(x) must intersect at least once on the interval I. 1] into the intervals [0. d) How many solutions do you think there are? A straightforward algorithm for approximating solutions to complicated equations is furnished by the bisection method. a) Let f (x) and g(x) be continuous functions on I = [a. a) Compute f (0) and f (1). Give a detailed stepbystep description of it.) c) Next bisect the interval [0. which is illustrated in the following problem. Problem IV. the IVT will guarantee the existence of a solution on exactly one of the subintervals. 1)? Explain! b) Plot the function f (x). 1] and compute f (0.5. In this problem we try to ﬁnd an approximate solution to the equation cos(x3 ) − sin x = 0. otherwise. Then use IVT to show that our equation must have a solution on [0.75. Note that the bisection point 0. Does the graph support your conclusion in part a? c) Use your graphing utility together with the IVT to identify other intervals on which the equation has solutions.
p(2). .. p(−1).m. p(1). . starting from Newport at 8 a.) Exactly how many zeros does p(x) then have in light of the fundamental theorem of algebra? c) A cyclist start at 8 a. arriving there at 1 p. p(−2). and arriving in Corvallis at 1 p. Is there a location on highway 20 that the cyclist passed at exactly the same time on both days? 60 . . On the next day he returns along the same way. (Hint: compute p(0).m. from Corvallis and rides along highway 20 to Newport.m.m.b) Show that the polynomial p(x) = 32x5 − 144x4 − 16x3 + 456x2 + 2x − 105 must have at least ﬁve zeros.
The graph below represents the position of the person during the ride.5 and t = 6.Laboratory IV – Velocity and Tangent Lines Background and Goals: This laboratory activity is designed to give you more experience in working with the velocity of an object and with the tangent line as an approximation to a function. Problem I. 61 . A person gets in a car and drives 100 feet to the house next door. Recall that the instantaneous velocity is given by the slope of the tangent line to the graph of position as function of time. a) How far did the person travel between t = 4.0? What is the location of the car at those times? b) Estimate the velocity of the car at t = 2.
5.0. 4.5.0. 2.c) At which of the times t = 0.5. 62 .5 does the car have the highest velocity? Explain. 5.5.5.0 is the acceleration the highest? Explain. 1. 2. 4. d) At which of the times t = 0.5. 5. 1.
2). The graph of this function near the point (1. sketch the line that seems to you as the best approximation to the function through the point (1. 63 .Problem II. a) On the graph above. Check whether your calculator or computer produces the same graph. Consider the function y = f (x) = 3x2 − 4x + 3 . 2) is sketched below. Compare the exact slope of the tangent line with the slope of your line. b) The exact slope of the tangent line is f (1) = 6 · 1 − 4 = 2. Estimate the slope of the line that you sketched in part a.
c) Any reasonable approximating line to y = f (x) near the point P = (1, 2) must pass through point P . Below, you will try to gather evidence for the fact that the best approximating line of this form is the tangent line. Write down formulas for the four lines of slope 1.0, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 through P . Line Line Line Line
1 2 3 4
of slope 1 through P: of slope 1.5 through P: of slope 2 through P: of slope 2.5 through P:
y1 = y2 = y3 = y4 =
d) If you use these lines as an approximation to f (x), the error is the absolute value of the diﬀerence between f (x) and the corresponding yvalue of a point on the line y = L(x): Error=f (x) − L(x). Write down formulas for the errors using each of the four lines. Error for line Error for line Error for line Error for line
1: 2: 3: 4:
f (x) − y1  = f (x) − y2  = f (x) − y3  = f (x) − y4  =
e) Compute the errors for the 4 indicated values of x for the lines 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 by ﬁlling in the tables below. You should perform all calculations accurate to at least 6 decimal places.
x 1.02 0.98 1.001 0.999 1.0001
f (x)
y value for
1
y value for
2
y value for
3
y value for
4
64
x 1.02 0.98 1.001 0.999 1.0001
error for
1
error for
2
error for
3
error for
4
f ) Which of the four lines seems to result in the smallest errors?
65
Laboratory V – The Chain Rule
Background and Goals: This laboratory activity provides handson practice on the chain rule. Problem I. Let f (x) = tan(x), g(x) = π 2 x. 4
a) Write down an expression for the composition f (g(x)).
b) Compute the derivative of f (g(x)) with respect to x using the expression in part a.
c) Next compute the derivative of f (g(x)) with respect to x by using the chain rule. Did you get the same answer as in part b?
d) Compute the equation of the tangent line to f (g(x)) at the point (1, 1) .
66
e) Graph both f (g(x)) and the tangent line for xvalues between −π and π on the grid below. Don’t forget to label your graph! 67 .
Problem II. 1 b) Graph both f (x) and f (x) on the grids below for xvalues between −2 and 2. 68 . Let f (x) = (x2 − x) 3 . a) Compute the derivative of f (x) by the chain rule. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graphs.
How do you detect intervals on which f is increasing or decreasing? d) Are there any points at which f is not diﬀerentiable? 69 .c) Compare the graphs of f and f to see if your computation of the derivative seems reasonable.
b) Let j(x) = 2g(x)(3x2 + f (x)2 ).Laboratory VI . Find k (−1). Find h (0). Find j (−2). √ a) Let h(x) = g(x)/ 9 + cos 2x. 70 . The values of functions f (x) and g(x) and their derivatives at x = 0. x 2 1 0 1 2 f(x) 3 2 4 1 3 f’(x) 1 1 4 5 3 g(x) 5 3 3 1 2 g’(x) 8 2 9 4 7 Compute the following derivatives based on the given data. ±1.Derivatives in Action Problem I. c) Let k(x) = πg(x2 ). ±2 are collected in the table below.
h) Let q(x) = (x2 − 6x)g(x) and suppose that q (3) = 10. Find l (1). Find p (0). f ) Let n(x) = arctan(4πf (x)2 ). 71 . e) Assume that g(x) is also invertible. Find g (3). Let m(x) = xg −1 (x).d) Let l(x) = f (3f (x) − x). g) Suppose p(x) satisﬁes p(x)6 + 4p(x)3 + f (x)g(x)ex = 8. Find m (3). Find n (2).
a) d (f (x)g(x)) x=1 . The graphs of functions f (x) and g(x) are depicted below.6 . dx 72 . dx b) d (3g(x) − f (x)) x=0. Using the information from the plot.Problem II. estimate the values of the given derivatives.
8 .4 .4 .8 . dx 3g(x) − 2 f) d f (x) x=1. dx e) d (f (x))2 x=1. dx d) d (g(x) ln(1 + x)) x=1.2 . dx 1 + x2 g) d (g(x))x x=0.c) d 4 (x f (x)) x=0. dx 73 .
Suppose M (55) = 25 and M (55) = −0.Problem III.3. U (55). 3) What is the practical meaning of the derivatives M (55). and G (55)? 74 . The gas mileage of a car going at speed v (in miles per hour) is given by M (v). 2) Let G(v) stand for the amount of gasoline the car consumes when it travels at constant speed v for one minute. How are M (v) and U (v) related? Compute U (55) and U (55). How are M (v) and G(v) related? Compute G(55) and G (55). 1) Let U (v) denote the amount of gas the car uses to travel one mile.
for your conclusion. you should be able to determine which of the three function represents f (x). Problem I. and the graphs of h(x) and k(x) by the blue and green curves. Circle the true statement on the next page.Laboratory VII . The graph of g(x) is represented by the red curve. respectively. 75 . based on the graphs below. Exponential Functions Background and Goals: This laboratory activity explores the properties of the ﬁrst and second derivatives of a function.Higher Derivatives. and of exponential functions and their derivatives. By analyzing where the tangent lines to the various graphs have positive and negative slope. Pictured below are the graphs of a function f (x) and the ﬁrst two derivatives f (x) and f (x) for values of x between −3 and 3. f (x) or f (x). For each statement that you deem false. provide a reason.
k(x) = f (x) g(x) = f (x). e) k(x) = f (x). g(x) = f (x) h(x) = f (x). c) h(x) = f (x). 76 . h(x) = f (x) k(x) = f (x). f ) k(x) = f (x).a) g(x) = f (x). d) h(x) = f (x). g(x) = f (x) k(x) = f (x). h(x) = f (x) g(x) = f (x). b) g(x) = f (x). k(x) = f (x) h(x) = f (x).
0001 of h. Perform computations correct to ﬁve decimal places. a) Use a calculator or computer to evaluate the quantity 4h − 1 h for the values 0.1.Problem II.01. b) Use your answers from part (a) to estimate the limit 4h − 1 h→0 h lim to two decimal places. 0. and −0.0001. 0. c) What does the limit in part b represent geometrically? 77 . 0.001.
a) Use a calculator or computer to estimate the limits 2.7h − 1 h→0 h lim and 2. b) What do these limits represent geometrically? 78 . Use a procedure similar to that employed in problem II.Problem III.8h − 1 h→0 h lim to two decimal places.
Laboratory VIII . b) On the grid below. sketch the graph by hand using asymptotes and intercepts.Curve Sketching Background: This laboratory activity covers material about concavity. Problem I. Consider the function f (x) = 10x(x − 1)4 . 79 . and their applications to curve sketching. (x − 2)3 (x + 1)2 a) Find the x and yintercepts and all the asymptotes of this function. but not derivatives. inﬂection points.
e.c) Use your sketch as a guide to producing a graph (now with the graphing calculator) on the grid below that displays all major features of the curve. maxima. asymptotes. intercepts. 80 . d) Use your graph to estimate the maximum and minimum values of f (x). i. minima and inﬂection points..
Consider the polynomial P (x) = x4 + cx2 + x where c is a constant.Problem II. c) Describe how the graph changes as c decreases. Then sketch these graphs on the grid below. c = 0. a) For what values of c does the polynomial P (x) have two inﬂection points? One inﬂection point? None? b) Illustrate what you discovered in part a by ﬁrst graphing P (x) with c = 1. all in the same viewing window on your graphing utility. 81 . c = −1 and c = −2.
Problem I. In this problem we analyze linear approximations to the natural loga1 d ln x = . That is.6 ≤ x ≤ 1.Laboratory IX .6.Logarithmic Functions and Newton’s Method Background: This laboratory activity covers material about derivatives of logarithmic functions and investigates an algorithm. b) Graph both f (x) and the linear approximation on the interval: . 82 . socalled Newton’s method. ﬁnd the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f (x) at that point. for approximating solutions to equations that can not be solved explicitly. Choose an appropriate yrange for your graph. rithm function ln x. 0). Recall that dx x a) Find the linear approximation to f (x) = ln(x) at the point (1.
Choose an appropriate x−range and y−range for the graph and label the graph.10. Consider the equation ln(x−1)−e−x = 0. graph the functions ln(x).) Problem II. (To determine this. and your linear approximation in the same viewing window. b) On the grid below.c) For what values of x is the linear approximation accurate to within 0. ln(x) + 0. graph the function f (x) near the point where the graph crosses the xaxis. Then zoom in to the places where the linear approximation meets the graph of ln(x) + 0.) 83 .10? Give an answer accurate to two decimal places. (Your total x−range should be 1 to 3 units long.10. a) Can you solve the equation analytically for x? Explain. Write f (x) = ln(x−1)−e−x so that the roots of the equation correspond to the zeros of the function f (x).
c) Use your graph from part (a) to estimate to the nearest tenth where the graph crosses the xaxis. d) In order to improve your estimate for the xintercept of the graph. Then compute f (x2 ). ﬁnd the equation for the tangent line to the graph of f (x) at (xo . f (xo )) and solve for its xintercept. f (x1 )) and solve for its xintercept x2 . Write xo for your estimate and compute f (xo ). What do you notice? e) Next ﬁnd the tangent line to the graph of f (x) at (x1 . What do you notice? 84 . Write x1 for the intercept of the tangent line (this is the ﬁrst iteration in Newton’s method). Then compute f (x1 ). carrying out the computations on your calculator correct to at least 8 decimals.
n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 xn f (xn ) 85 . and x6 . x5 . Then ﬁll out the table below and analyze the results.f ) Continue this iterative process to compute x3 . x4 .
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