Submitted by: CHIRAG MOHANTY Roll no.: 604045 B.Tech, 6th Semester Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology KIIT UNIVERSITY Bhubaneshwar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With the completion of the training my experience at the firm was excellent. The task of undertaking the training travelled through a dynamic experience. With the consta nt guidance, valuable suggestions, timely help and heart warming encouragement rend ered to me by Mr. Sarthak Dash along with all other members of the Installation and Commissioning (I&C) team the firm served as an excellent learning platform. During the course of the training I came through the working pattern of the offi ce along with professionalism. Also the basic practical experience at the site helped a lot. T heoretical discussions, off-site situation handling and on-site experience are to name a fe w of the environments to which I was exposed. Along with it I was given enough opportunit ies and encouragement to think independently in various problem solving situations. I would like to express my deepest sense of gratitude to the whole team of engin eers of the Installation and Commissioning (I&C) department Mr. Sarthak Dash, Mr. Ajit Routr ay, Mr. Bijay Panda, Mr. Biswajit Mishra, and Mr. Saroj Jena. I would also like to thank Mr. Manoj Mishra, Mr. Santosh Moharana and Mr. Debasi sh Mahapatra for the valuable help and support they have rendered throughout the tr aining process. I would like to express my thanks to all those people who directly or indirectly supported me throughout my term for the training. Above all I want to thank Mr. Venkat Shastri, Head of Training & Placement Depar tment, KIIT UNIVERSITY, for recommending me to the practical training; and Mr. Jugal Satapathy, HR, Orissa Circle, Reliance Communications for inducting me into the firm as a trainee. Thanking you sincerely, Chirag Mohanty

CERTIFICATION This is to certify that Mr. Chirag Mohanty, Roll no. 604045, of 3rd year, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, underwent Practical Training from 1st May 2009 to 15th June 2009 at our firm; for the course requirement at Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, KIIT UNIVERSITY, Bhubaneshwar. He has completed his training with utmost dedication and sincerity. We wish him all the best for his future endeavours. Signature Signature Jugal P. Satapathy Sarthak Dash H.R. Engineer Incharge of Orissa Circle Training Reliance Communications Limited

This backbone was commissioned on 28 December 2002. an offshoot of the Reliance Group founded by Shri Dhirubhai H Ambani (1932-2002). had stated as early as 1999: Make the tools of information and communication available to people at an a ffordable cost. It was with this belief in mind that Reliance Communications (formerly Reliance Infocomm) started laying 60. with over 77 million subscribers. convergent (voice. is India's largest private sector information and communications company. high-capacity. He wanted Reliance to spearhead a communications revolution that would dramatically cut down the cost of connectivity. The group has business interests that range from telecomm unications (Reliance Communications Limited) to financial services (Reliance Capital Ltd) a nd the generation and distribution of power (Reliance Infrastructure Limited). by far.The rest.Company Profile Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. as they say. the lowest anywhere in the world. dat a and video) digital network. integrated (wireless and wireline). the auspicious occasion of Dhirubhai s 70th birt . who singlehandedly built India s largest private sector company virtually from scratch. and propel India into the digita l age. to offer services spanning the entire infocomm value chain. Reliance ADA Group s flagship company. Reliance Communications is India s largest information and communications s ervices provider offering the full range of integrated telecom services at prices that are . They will overcome the handicaps of illiteracy and lack of mobility. Today. Reliance Communications. Dhirubhai. are wid The Late Dhirubhai Ambani dreamt of a digital India -an India where the common m an would have access to affordable means of information and communication. ranks among India s top three private sector busin ess houses in terms of net worth. It was one of Dhirubhai s great dreams in life to see ordinary Indians enjoy the e normous economic benefits of being able to access affordable yet world class telecommuni cations infrastructure. is history. It was therefore entirely logical for Reliance to enter the telecommunications space when the sec tor was opened up for private participation in the 1990s.000 route kilometres of a pan-India fibre optic backbone. It has been listed on the National Stock Exchange and the Bombay Stock Exchange. His ultimate ambition: To make the cost of a phone call cheaper than that of a post card. It has esta blished a panIndia. Other major group companies Reliance Capital and Reliance Infrastructure ely acknowledged as the market leaders in their respective areas of operation.

though sadly after his unexpected demise on 6 July 2002. Our constant endeavour is to achieve customer delight by enhancing the productivity of the en terprises and individuals we serve. national and international long distance servi ces and data services along with an exhaustive range of value-added services and applications .hday. was among t he initial . coinciding with the joyous occasion of the late Dhirubhai Ambani s 70th birthday. It includes broadband. Our business encompasses a complete range of telecom services covering mobile an d fixed line telephony. launched on 28 December 2002. Reliance Mobile (formerly Reliance India Mobile).

truly bringing about a new way of life. integrated (both wireless and wireline) and convergent (voice. Today. Reliance Communications is revolutionizing the way India communicates and networks. and consulting. data and video) digital network. by b estowing it in the hands of the common man at affordable rates. It is capable of deliver ing a range of services spanning the entire infocomm (information and communication) value chai n.initiatives of Reliance Communications. applicatio ns. Today. high-capacity. It marked the auspicious beginning of Dh irubhai s dream of ushering in a digital revolution in India. including infrastructure and services . we can proudly claim that w e were instrumental in harnessing the true power of information and communication.for enterprises as well as individuals. History of Telecommunications . Reliance Communications has a reliable.

1890 s: First demos of radio by experimenters Telegraphy: Early electronic communication was carried only by wires and used only crude onoff signaling to laboriously spell out the message. 1857: First trans-atlantic cable put in service . . 1680 s: Isaac Newton s idea of the spectrum . 1830 s: Basic Electricity . . 1844: First commercial telegraph systems operational . 1837: Samuel Morse patented his telegraph .Radio has been around only for the last 100 years (out of ~6000 years of written human history).

just four hours before Elisha Grey applied for the same patent. Bell filed his patent for the telephone on February 14. In 1880 the company was renamed American Bell. Initial telephone demonstrations sparked intense public interest and by t he late 1890 s. which was formed in 1877. Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone.Telephony: In 1876. originated in 1876 w hen Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone in an attempt to communicate with his mother and wife. Through legal maneuvering Bell s patent was upheld and the Bell Telephone Company. gives lab demo of existance of electroma gnetic waves at radio frequencies . bega n to expand across the United States of America and emerged as a near monopoly supplier of t elephone services. we might ha ve had the Grey Telephone System instead of the Bell Telephone System. Radio Milestones: . Thus. who were both deaf. a device for carrying act ual voices over wires. But for that timing. the telecommunications industry. as we know it today. 1888: Heinrich Hertz. German physicist. 1876 . telephone service was available in most towns and cities across the USA.

ASICs . 1920s: Radio used for commercial broadcasting . and to amplify signals) . 1950s: first public marriage of radio and telephony . triode vacuum tube (feasible now to make stead carriers. 1897: the British fund Marconi s development of reliable radio telegraphy over ran ges of 100 kM . commercial deployment Frequencies Used by Wireless Systems: Overview of the Radio Spectrum . 1906: Lee De Forest invents y audion . 1895: Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates a wireless radio telegraph over a 3-km path near his home it Italy . LSI. 1983: AMPS cellular demo. 1902: Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates voice over radio .. 1961: IMTS . 1970s: Integrated circuit progress: MSI. Mobile Telephone Syst em . 1961: transistor developed: portable radio now practical . 1979. VLSI. 1940s: first application of RADAR -English detection of incoming German planes during WW-II .MTS. 1914: Radio became valuable military tool in World War I . 1902: Marconi s successful trans-Atlantic demonstration .Improved Mobile Telephone Service .

Structure of a Typical Wireless System .

One wireless system in a large metropolitan area may require hundreds of base st ations to deliver unbroken coverage and provide sufficient capacity to handle all potentia l users.Wireless Base Stations: . . The Switch: . It provides the radio connection between mobile users and the switch.

interpreting dialed phone numbers. The switch is also responsible for storing billing records. Controls the base stations and implements the handoff of calls from one base sta tion to another as users drive across the system Home Location Register (HLR): . The Base Station Controller (BSC) interfaces the Switch and the base stations . and implementing all calling features The Base Station Controller (BSC): .. Each call involves joining a circuit leading to one customer (usually on the rad io side of the system) and a circuit leading to another person (usually out in the Public S witched Telephone Network (PSTN) . routing calls. The device that makes the actual physical connection is called the switch . Compresses speech signals for more efficient transmission over the scarce radio spectrum .

and if so. or held in a server at a central location where mu ltiple switches can interrogate it Information held in the HLR: current account status/validity phone s technical parameters whether the phone is presently turned on. System sends voice channel assignment to mobile on control channel . System assigns a voice channel to the mobile . System checks database for current location of mobile. . The HLR (Home Location Register) is the official database of all customers on a wireless system . Phone rings and mobile subscriber answers call . and pages this area . mobile acknowledges and jumps to the assigned voice channel 4. Conversation begins An illustration of the above is given on the following page. Someone dials a mobile subscriber s number 1. Database is kept up-to-date by a process called registration 2. the identity of switch whic h is presently serving the phone secret keys for authentication to avoid fraudulent use/cloning Delivering an Incoming Wireless Call: . Mobile recognizes page and sends back acknowledgment to the strongest cell 3. It can be part of the switch..

it passes from the coverage zone o f one base station into the coverage of another . Signal strength measurements by the mobile or the base station trigger the BSC a nd switch to hand off the call from base station to base station.Managing Handoffs: . Each wireless technology uses its own methods to implement the handoffs. CDMA ca n even simulcast to the mobile from multiple base stations to reduce fading effects (this is called soft handoff ) What is Multiple Access? . avoiding dropped ca lls and interference . As a mobile travels through the service area.

Each user s signal must be kept uniquely distinguishable from other users to allow private communications on demand . mingled with other users code patterns. If a user s code pattern is known. the presence or absence of their signal can be detected.. signals. but it only belongs to the user during c ertain time slots in a repeating sequence Code Division Multiple Access Each user s signal is a continuous unique code pattern buried within a shared sign al. . Multiple Access is the simultaneous use of a communications system by more than one user . or any other varia ble imaginable Wireless Multiple Access Methods Frequency Division Multiple Access A user s channel is a private frequency Time Division Multiple Access A user s channel is a specific frequency. thus conveying information. time. Users can be separated in many ways: physically: on separate wires by arbitrarily defined channels established in frequency.

8 timeslots. . CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users .but with a uniquely recoverable code . thus conveying information. 7 or 8 users occupy in rotation CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access . CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users . three users occupy in rotation INTERNATIONAL VERSION . Developed in Europe. battery life extension. Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd . intended for use within existing AMPS systems . used in roughly 50% of all wireless systems worldwide . the pres ence or absence of their signal can be detected. 6 timeslots. The fr equency is used by other users during other time slots. GSM: Groupe Special Mobile . IS-54: The original TDMA format. If a user s code pattern is known.TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access Each user has a specific frequency but only during an assigned time slot. IS-136: Enhanced TDMA with special control channels to allow short message servi ce. other features . mingled with other users code patterns. Each user s signal is a continuous unique code pattern buried within a shared sign al. All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Time and frequency ar e not used as discriminators . like a condominium at a beach re sort UNITED STATES VERSIONS: .

Third Generation Wireless Systems 2G to 3G Migration Paths: A Game of Avoiding Extremes .

02 is a common goal at the radio level in a system notati . very poor economic efficiency Principles of Traffic Engineering: Blocking Probability / Grade of Service . very poor economic efficiency! . too much cost . users unhappy. very poor economic efficiency! . revenue is low due to poor quality . Blocking probability sometimes is called Grade Of Service . Blocking . Overdimensioning . insufficient resources to construct .The traffic engineer must walk a fine line between two problems: . Capacity for billable revenue is low . Most blocking in cellular systems occurs at the radio level. blocking can occur anywhere in a wireless system: not enough radios. Probability of Blocking is the likelihood that blocking will happen . etc. P. In principle. Blocking probability is usually expressed as a percentage using a shorthand on: P. Blocking is inability to get a circuit when one is needed . the cell is full not enough paths between cell site and switch not enough paths through the switching complex not enough trunks from switch to PSTN . cancel service . Underdimensioning . Poor technical performance(interference) . traffic revenue is too low to support costs .02 is 2% probability.

Success comes from managing resources Handoff Thresholds properly set Neighbor lists well-optimized RF Coverage: holes vs. Access Failures. Key Performance Indicators and Objectives Dropped Calls. excessive overlap PN or Frequency Planning Hardware defects: watch statistics for clues ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS .Wireless System Performance Optimization . FER Handoff Activity Levels Capacity and Blocking . system BER.

Unfortunately.ANALOG: Historically. When voice is con verted to an electrical signal through the microphone in a telephone.000 samples per second. Digital transmission has higher quality than analog. and each sample is transmitted as a binary code. A voice telephone circuit is designed to handle frequen cies from 300 to 4. when the voice signal is amplified. the signal loses strength over dista nce (attenuation) and has to be amplified. Like analog signals. However. digita l signals lose strength over distance. DIGITAL: Unlike the analog signal. The wave matches the pressure pattern of the sound that created it and conveys loudness which is measured as amplitude. telephone systems were entirely analog circuits. the analog sign al is also unpredictable. regenerators detect the incoming bit stream of 0s and 1s and create a new signal that is identical to the original si gnal. any noise on the line is also amplified. The analog voice signal is sampled at the rate of 8. and pitch which is measured as frequenc y. Circuit noise can make the conversion unintelligible. The binary states of 0 and 1 are represented as discrete levels of voltage. After much amplification the line noise component may be larg er than the actual voice signal.000 hertz (4 Khz). discontinuous voltage pulses. which means cycles per second. with digital transmission. a digital signal is predictable. it provides a continuou sly varying electrical wave. What is a Transmission Network? . The rate at which the electrical current alternates is measure d in hertz. The basic shape of an electrical wave used to transmit telecommunications signal s is represented by the sine wave. Because the tone (pitch) and loudness (amplitude) of voice is unpredictable. A digital signal is a series of discrete. As an analog signal travels through a wire.

003%) . Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) Link .g. -Intercity connectivity between local trunk and tandem exchanges within a c ity also falls in the category of Tpt NW e. Coaxial cable . Terabits per sec (1 Tb=1012b) -Lucent recently tried 2 Tbps data rate using DWDM over a single fibre .5 Gbps (1Gb=109b) .. protection and cost) Transport Systems required to carry large data .g. voice. video and other s ignals over long distances is referred to as Transport (Tpt) or Transmission (Tx) Netwo rk. reliability. Future Data Rates in terms of Petabits per sec (1 Pb=1015b) and Exabits per seco nd (1 Eb = 1018b) Transmission systems.000 voice channels. distance. must have . RING or MESH topologies (main criterion -connectivity. environmental conditions) . NW design -STAR. VSAT . OFC or satellites as a medium (criterion of selection -Tx rate. Low Bit Error Rates (BER < 10-9) . Microwave Link . Min Down Time (0. Self Healing Ring Structure Transmission links used are primarily of two types these days: . Intracity also called Backhaul NW . High MTBF (5 years) . 40 Gbps . 2. since they carry large data rates. Tpt NW . Figurative Rep of a Tpt NW . cost.Physically consists of MW. Area of Telecom Network dealing with transport of data. 10 Gbps. TREE. e.30. protection.

What is Microwave Radio? Microwave radio is a point to point fixed link that operates in duplex mode I.e. each radio frequency channel consists of a pair of frequencies for the transmit and receive directions .

respectively. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves similar to light. Precipitation. Uses angle modulation I. Signal follows a straight line or line of sight (LOS) path. Beam traverses through the Troposphere. . . Radios have a stepped cost profile where as fibre has a linear cost profile. Do not involve ROW (Right Of Way) Permissions.e. The signal is modulated ove r an RF carrier and is transmitted over the air as an electromagnetic waveform. Frequency Modulation or Phase Modulation Advantages of Microwave Radio: . The Micr owave Radio links cover the frequency spectrum from 150 MHz to 60 GHz. Diffraction. . The base band signal which contains the user information occupies a limited bandwidth depending upon the modulation scheme used. Scattering and Polarization. Re fraction. . Uses frequencies above 150 MHz. . . Characteristics of a Radio Link System: . . Propagation is affected by Free Space Attenuation. Microwave radios are cheaper than Satellite or Leased Line Service. . Reflection.

Stages in installation of a Microwave System: Microwave links are set up for connecting two distinctly located points for esta blishing telecommunications circuits. V arious sub-activities are briefly explained below: . Better overall reliability.. . This is similar to laying multi-core cables between the two points. Installation of Radios does not impact the intervening terrain since no digging is involved. Fast Roll out. . Radio systems are easy to install. but in quality and overall economics this is far superior to the cable system. .

3) Construction of Equipment room -The equipment room is constructed keeping in vie w the size of the equipment as well as the capacity of the equipment to be install ed in the room.1) Survey -The first job to be undertaken before establishing a microwave link is s urvey of the terrain between the two locations intended to be connected. b) Since ground space is costly at a location. GPS (Global Positioning System) is extensively used by engineers for more accurate & reliable results. For this purpose air filled balloons are used to estimate height. If the room in which the equipment is to be installed is on the top floor of the building. If the installation is to be done on the ground floor it should be ensured that water l ogging does not take place. c) If any existing tall building is available at any end. Proper layout is made well in advance and should be approved from the owne r/user. Care should be taken to keep elbow space i. choose the biggest tow er height that the building can support. space for future expansion. 2) Assessment of height -Once all the physical obstructions have been identified . use of lower tower height at this end is going to be cheaper. The survey consi sts of two parts: theoretical survey using survey maps and actual survey by visiting variou s sites. But in different terrain and in city are as it will be difficult to complete the survey without actual visits to the sites. For this purpose a ac curate device. d) If transportation of the material is difficult or if soil condition is bad at one end. For the purpose of economy following policies are followed: a) Existing structures if available are used so that structure s height at the end it is available is used to check required tower height at the other end. Survey of India publishes maps which clearly indicate the height of various poin ts above mean sea level (MSL) for theoretical survey. distance from one of the point to be connected is plotted against the obstruction height at that point.e. However for assessment of the actual height of the obstruction it is not sufficient to consider the height of physical structure above MSL alone. lower tower height are used at th at end. it is to be made sure that the position chosen for installing the equipment is free from any .

7) Radio Transceivers -The installation of the radio transceiver does not involve m uch effort. The tower design must ensure that the twist and sw ay of the tower is within the beam width of the microwave beam. For this purpose the antennas to be inst alled are brought below the tower structure and ropes tied at suitable anchoring points of the antennas. 4) Erection of Tower -The erection of tower involves selection of proper tower desi gn. it is possible to install the antennas. 5 Degrees for antenna gains of about 40 dB. Typical twist and sway is required to be restricted within about 0. provision of tower founda tions and fitting of tower members. fabrication of tower members.water drips. 5) Fitting Of Antenna -After erecting the tower and also the antenna-mounting arran gement. Normally the main waveguides/coaxial c ables are very rigid and the ends connections are made by small lengths of flexible co axial cables. Most of t he . and design of the tower. After that. as the present-day equipment are lightweight and modular in structure. othe r fittings such as the feed horn and wave-guide have to be done. Once the antenna is lifted to the top is bolted onto the antenna mount ing pipes through suitable fittings which normally come with the antenna. These cables are flexible but cannot be used in lengths more than one me tre. 6) Waveguides & Flexible cable -Waveguides or coaxial cables are used for connectin g antenna feed horns to radio transceivers.

As the area covered increases. Italy and racks are locally ordered.equipment are rack mountable. When a signal radiates from the antenna. Two standard racks are quite common-48cm (19 Inch) rack and slim rack which are first of all fixed to the floor. The antennae alignment is carried out with the h elp of Compass. The radio signal is more concentrated at point A than at Point B. 8) Alignment -This is the process in which the two antennae are optimised to receiv e the maximum signal from each other. . you must first calculate the lin k s free space loss. Radios are importe d from SIAE. it spreads out ove r an increasingly larger distance. This is simila r in principal to how objects appear in a car s headlights at night. Free Space Loss Before you can determine if a link is feasible. the power density ( or the amount of power per unit area) decreases. The effectively weakens the radio signal. Binocular. Free Space Loss is the expected attenuation of a signal as it travels away from the Transmitting device. Walkie-Talkie and other basic tools.

Receive Signal Level: The Receive Signal Level (RSL) is the expected strength of a signal when it reac hes the receiving radio. FSL = 96. Transmitting source (car head light) pointA pointB The loss between the transmitting and the receiving antenna with transmission me dium as vacuum is termed as free space loss.6 + 20 log D + 20 log F Where F = frequency in GHz D = distance in miles Receiver Sensitivity Threshold: The Receiver Sensitivity Threshold (Rx) defines the minimum signal strength requ ired in order for a radio to successfully receive a signal.Lctx + Gatx Where. The antenna at each side is isotropic havin g a gain of 1 or 0 dB. Po is the output power of the transmitter (in dBm) Lctx is the cable loss between the transmitter and its antenna (in dB) Gatx is the gain of the transmitter s antenna (in dBi) .Objects closer to the headlights appear brighter than objects further away. A radio can not receive or i nterpret a signal that is weaker than the receiver sensitivity threshold. The following formula defines the Receive Signal Level: Lcrx + Gatx FSL = RSL O .

then the link may be feasible since the signal should be strong enoug h to be successfully interpreted by the receiver. we have to compare the calculated Receive Si gnal Level with the Receiver Sensitivity Threshold. The link is theoretically feasibl e if RSL > = Rx If the Receive Signal Level is greater than or equal to the Receiver Sensitivity Threshold. The link is not feasible since RSL is less than Rx (-80. humid environments (like south easte rn U.77 dB). which is the percentage of time that the link is functional. Note: This formula is not a guarantee that a link is viable.5 dB <. dry location (like Rocky Mountain States).) than in rough.S. Fade margin is directly related to Link A vailability. Path profile A path profile is a graphical representation of the path traveled by the radio w . The percentage of t ime that link is available increases as the fade margin increases. The Receiver Signal Level does account for path fading phenomena that may add addition loss to the radio signal and cause the strength of receive d signal to fall below the receiver sensitivity threshold. Therefore link i n flat and humid area requires a greater Fade Margin to achieve the same level of Link Avai lability as a link in a rocky and dry location. Fade Margin and link availability Fade margin is the difference between the unfaded received signal level and the receive sensitivity threshold.Lcrx is the cable loss between the receiver and its antenna (in dB) Gatx is the gain of the receiver s antenna (in dBi) FSL is free space loss (in dB) Link Feasibility Formula To determine if a link is feasible. It should be used f or proof-ofconcept purpose only. Climate condition and path fading Path fading occurs more frequently in flat. A link will experience fewer s ystem outages with greater Fade Margin. Each link must have sufficient fade margin to protect aga inst path fading that weakens the radio signals. A link with little or no Fade Margin may experience pe riodic outages due to path fading phenomena.

such as multipath reflec tions. The path profile determines the location and height of t he antenna at each end of the link. and not subject to propagation losses from radio phenomena. such as hills. . and it insures that the link is the link of obstructions.aves between the two ends of a link.

Multipath Reflections As described earlier in the discussion of Fresnel Zones. multipath occ urs when a reflected wave reaches the receiver at the same as the direct wave that travels in a straight line from the transmitter. As the length of the path increases. Typically. Radio line-of-sight is not the same optical line-of-sight (that is.In addition to terrain elevation . W hen a radio wave hits a physical object. defined the propagation o f a radio wave as a three-dimensional elliptical path between the transmitter and receiver . a radio signal is compo sed of individual waves that travel in different directions as the signal propagates. Fresnel divide the path into several zones based on the phase and speed of the propagating waves . Also. or be absorbed by the object. Fresnel Zone clearance The endpoints of a radio link must have unobstructed radio line-of-sight. Figure illustrates a case where a path has optical line-of. the size of the Fresnel Zone also increases. If the two signals reach the receiver in-phase (that is.a Path Profile must consider the effects of se veral radio phenomena . Multipath means that th e radio signal can travel multiple paths to reach the receiver. Augustine Fresnel. An electromagnetic wave does not travel in a straight line: the wave spreads out as it propagates. be reflected by the ob ject. Therefore. Radio line-of-sight require s more clearance than optical line-of-sight to accommodate the characteristics of micro wave signals. the ability to see one end of a link from the other). be have differently in response to environmental conditions. A reflected wave causes a phenomenon known as multipath. and provide ad equate Fresnel Zone clearance. therefore. the individual waves that make up a radio signal do not travel at the same phase velocity. The size of each Fresnel Zone varies based on the frequency of the radio signal and the length of the path.sight but not radio line-of-sight. As frequency decreases. A French physicist. A Fre snel Zone s radius is greatest at the mid point of the path. the size of the Fresnel Zone increas es. including multipath reflections and refraction. the midpoint require s the most clearance of any point in the path. both signals . it may penetrate the object.as shown in the figure. Microwaves have a lower frequency than visible light and .

they weaken the overall received signal. This is known as an upfade. If the two waves reach the receiver out-ofphase (that is. they can completely cancel each other out so that a rad io does not . the two signals are at opposite points in the wave cycle when they rea ch the receiver). then the signal is amplified.are at the same point in the wave cycle when they reach the receiver). If the two waves are 180° apar t when they reach the receiver.

one should design the path so its reflection point does not fall on a ref lective surface.receive a signal at all. To avoid system failures. such as a body of water. one should design a path so that the reflected signal is dispersed by an uneven surface before it reaches the receiver and cancels out the direct wave . the height of the transmitting antenna has been reduced so that the refle cted signal is dispersed by rocky terrain. An RF engineer is to be consulted or use a path profile software program to iden tify the location of a path s reflection point. A location where a signal is canceled out by multipath is called a null or downfade . or a metal r oof. Smooth surfaces . In figure below. one can adjust the height or change the position of one or both an tennas to move the reflection point so that it is blocked by an obstruction or strikes an uneven su rface. In other words. A Change in the Antenna Height Moves the Reflection Point Refraction . reflect radio signals. In figure above. Transmitter Receiver Reflected Signal Cancels Out Direct Signal If necessary. the body of water reflects a wave that cancels o ut the direct signals and brings down the radio link. a flat stretch of earth.

Q. What is meant by "Plesiochronous"? If two digital signals are Plesiochronous. Commonly Used Capacity Configurations in MW Radio .811. 16 x 2 Mbps or 16 x E1 . most path fading caused by refraction occurs between midnight and 7:00 am. For example. For example. the bottom of a radio wave travels through a denser atmosphe re and moves more slowly than the top of the wave . or K Factor. and air density. such as humidity. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) . 155 Mbps or STM1 In microwave link there are mainly two types of transmission (Tx) technologies: . This causes the radio signal to refract or bend towards to earth s surface following the curvature of the earth. The refraction index. This causes a w ave to bend or refract as it travels through substances of different densities. 8 x 2 Mbps or 8 x E1 . These limits are set d own in ITUT recommendation G. In general. with any variation being constrained within tight limits. What is meant by "Synchronous"? . This is kn own as a plesiochronous difference. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Q. a Path Profile will use K = 4/3 to determine the effe cts of refraction on a proposed radio link. In fact. their transitions occur at "almost" t he same rate. light bends when it hits water. if two networks need to interwork. temperature. Since the density of the earth s atmosphere decreases as altitude increases. 4 x 2 Mbps or 4 x E1 .Radio waves move slower through substances of greater densities. For exa mple. there's a small frequency difference between one clock and the other. Refraction varies with environment conditions. their cloc ks may be derived from two different PRCs. Although these clocks are extremely accu rate. a radio signal bends closer to the earth at night than during the day due to the increased moisture in the lower atmosphere that result s from condensation. describes how a radio wave bends in relation to the earth s surface. ba rometric pressure.

or low-frequency wander introduced in the transmission . These phase differences may be due to propagation time delays.In a set of Synchronous signals. and this would lie within specified limits. the digital transitions in the signals occur at exactly the same rate. There may however be a phase difference between the transitions of th e two signals.

Basic packet capacity . CEPT Standards (Committee of European Posts and Telegraph) . 34Mbps (480 channels). Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) There are three separate standards for PDH: .760 channels) & 1. Further multiples such as 8Mbps (120 channels).6Gbps (23. also contains so me info for handling the data e. In a synchronous network. These different Tx capacities are called Tx hierarchies.1. 100Mbps (1. Min packet size is 2Mbps (30 voice channels or 32´64kbps -2 channels reserved for signaling and related Tx info) also called E1 . USA Standards . Each step. Later expanded to 32Mbps (480 channels).g.040 channels) Comparison of Multiplexing Hierarchies .5Mbps (like USA) . destination addresses.1. Japan s Standards .network. Higher value systems working a t 565Mbps are also available as proprietary equipment . apart from data capacity. all the clocks are traceable to one Stratum 1 Primary Reference Clock (PRC).5Mbps corresponding to 24 voice calls (also called T1) . 140Mbps(1920 channels) were standardised by ITU-T.440 channels) and 400Mbps (5. Basic packet capacity . Later extended to 6Mbps (96 channels) and 45Mbps(672 channels) .

each generating a slightly different bit rate.368 Mbit/s 16 E1 E4 139. Details of PDH Signals: Signal Digital Bit Rate Channels E0 64 kbit/s One 64 kbit/s E1 2.264 Mbit/s 64 E1 The main limitations of PDH are: . The same pro blems with synchronization. Insufficient capacity for network management . The use of plesiochronous operation throughout the hierarchy has led to adoption of the term "plesiochronous digital hierarchy". Inability to identify individual channels in a higher-order bit stream. There's no standardised definition of PDH bit rates greater than 140 Mbit/s . This process is known as plesiochronous operation. leaving the original signal. and discarded. meaning "almost synchronous".048 Mbit/s 32 E0 E2 8. . Most PDH network management is proprietary . CEPT & USA Standards are most popular This multiplexing hierarchy appears simple enough in principle but there are com plications. or PDH. Th us. as described above. The justification bits are re cognize as such when demultiplexing occurs. occur at every level of the multipexing hie rarchy. When multiplexing a number of 2 Mbit/s channels they are likely to have been cre ated by different pieces of equipment.. so justification bits are added at each stage.448 Mbit/s 128 E0 E3 34. . from Greek. before these 2 Mbit/s channels can be bit interleaved they must all be brought up to the same b it rate adding 'dummy' information bits. or 'justification bits'.

There are different hierarchies in use around the world. economical and flexible telecommunication infrastructur e. Specialized interface e quipment is required to interwork the two hierarchies Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) SDH stands for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy & is an international Standard for a high capacity optical telecommunications network. It is a synchronous digital transport system aimed at providing a more simple. .

the first generations of fibre-optic systems in the public telephone network used proprietary architectures. The users of this equipment wanted standards so they could mix and m atch equipment from different suppliers The primary reason for the creation of SDH was to provide a long-term solution f or an optical mid-span meet between operators. for example. and to replace s everal network elements.32 Mbit/s 2.544 Mbit/s systems (U. Also. digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on m ultiplexing signals which are plesiochronous (running at almost the same speed). and Japan) and those using the 2. which may have previously existed solely for interface purpose s. that is.4 Gbit/s STM-16 1008 E1 or 16 E4 9953. What led to SDH development ? Before SDH. Details of SDH Signals: Bit Rate Abbreviated SDH SDH Capacity 51.28 Mbit/s 10 Gbit/s STM-64 4032 E1 or 64 E4 39813.12 Mbit/s 40 Gbit/s STM-256 16128 E1 or 256 E4 STM = Synchronous Transport Module Q. . equipment line codes.A. Traditionally. to allow equipment from different vend ors to communicate with each other.S. This ability is referred to as multi-vendor interwo rking and allows one SDH-compatible network element to communicate with another. multiplexing formats.08 Mbit/s 622 Mbit/s STM-4 252 E1 or 4 E4 2488. between those countries using 1. What are the advantages of SDH over PDH? The increased configuration flexibility and bandwidth availability of SDH provid es significant advantages over the older telecommunications system.52 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s STM-1 63 E1 or 1 E4 622.Q. and maint enance procedures.048 Mbit/s system.84 Mbit/s 51 Mbit/s STM-0 21 E1 155. vario us parts of the world use different hierarchies which lead to problems of international interwor king.

. and add-drop multiplexers. digital cross-connects. . or when the higher-order path signals are adapted into a Multiplex Section. . The availability of a set of generic standards. The definition of a flexible architecture capable of accommodating future applic ations. to allow the first byte of the Virtual Container to be located. Multiplexing: This process is used when multiple lower-order path layer signals are adapted in to a higher-order path signal.These advantages include: .the overhead bytes permitting mana gement of the payload bytes on an individual basis and facilitating centralized Fault sectionalisation. . some spare capacity has be en designed into the SDH frame to provide enough space for all the various tributary rates. 34 Mbit/s. Various steps in multiplexing? The multiplexing principles of SDH follow. There fore. A reduction in the amount of equipment and an increase in network reliability. with a variety of transmission rates. at certain . using these terms and definitions: Mapping: A process used when tributaries are adapted into Virtual Containers (VCs) by add ing justification bits and Path Overhead (POH) information. 140 Mbit/s) which greatly simplifies the i nterface to digital switches. Stuffing: As the tributary signals are multiplexed and aligned. Aligning: This process takes place when a pointer is included in a Tributary Unit (TU) or an Administrative Unit (AU). which enable multi-vendor intero perability. The provision of overhead and payload bytes . The definition of a synchronous multiplexing format for carrying lower-level dig ital signals (such as 2 Mbit/s. Existing & future signals can be accommoda ted. nearly 5% of signal structure allocated for this purpose.

the traffic reverts to the working facility as soon as the f ailure has been corrected. 1+1 protection: In 1+1 protection switching. At the Far End of the section. Tree .points in the multiplexing hierarchy. this space capacity is filled with "fixed stuffing" bits that carry no information. In 1:N protection architecture. there is a protection facility (backup line) for ea ch working facility At the near end the optical signal is bridged permanently (split into two signal s) and sent over both the working and the protection facilities simultaneously. both signal s are monitored independently for failures. but are required to fill up the particular frame. optical signals are normally sent only o ver the working facilities. or a signal d egrade (soft failure caused by the error rate exceeding some pre-defined value). Simple NMS Disadvantages: o No Protection Path o Centre determines the performance of the whole NW o No optimised BW . there is one protection facility for several workin g facilities (the range is from 1 to 14). producing a worki ng signal and a protection signal that are identical. Star Advantages: . 1:N protection: In 1:N protection switching. Optimised cost of paths . In 1:N protection switching. Standard Network Topologies . with the protection facility being kept free until a working facilit y fails. The receiving equipment selects either the working o r the protection signal. using the K1 and K2 bytes. all communication from t he Near End to the Far End is carried out over the APS channel. This selection is based on the switch initiation criteria which are eith er a signal fail (hard failure such as the loss of frame (LOF) within an optical signal). All swit ching is revertive. that is.

Clear Hierarchies . Ring Advantages: .Advantages: . Simple NMS Disadvantages: o No Protection Path o Failure of one branch separates whole NW parts .

Optimised BW Diadvantages: o Complex NMS Common Network Architectures . Nth station depends on N-1 Links . of elements depends on ring capacity and traffic relations o Connected rings increase complexity . High Availability . High Availability . High Flexibility . Mesh Advantages: .. Optimised paths . For N Stations N-1 Links are required . Simple NMS Disadvantages: o No.

For N Stations N Links are required .For N Stations N-1 Links are required Each Station depends on Only 1 Link . Full Proof Route Protection . Each Station is Connected to Every Other . Route Diversity is available for all stations .

6 and 7 GHz Frequency Bands are used · Backbone routes are normally high capacity routes · Nominal Hop Distances 25 40 Km . Intra City routes Access · Access routes are planned at Higher Frequency Bands · 15. Typical Network Consist of Rings and Spurs Network Routes and Route Capacities ..18 and 23 GHz Frequency Bands are used · Nominal Hop Distance 1 10 Km Few well known MW Radio Manufacturers: . Inter.City routes Backbone · Backbone routes are planned at Lower Frequency Bands · 2.

What gives these rings such gargantuan bandwidth OFC . 1B. These rings traverse all the 18 circles. Ericsson .. Lucent . Also having these 11 rings provide enough alternative routes in case of failure in one secti on. From these rings. Hariss SDH BackBone Rings At the National level Reliance Communications has established 7 very high bandwi dth Transport Rings.which I will discuss later in this report. Digital Microwave Corporation . Alcatel . 3B. 1C & 3A. touch all major cities and cover about 90% of India n population. called National BackBone/ Long Distance Rings. NEC . Established (read utilized) Bandwidth of these rings is at 10 GBps. but that s jus t tip of the iceberg compared to what we can achieve. Fujitsu . which connect other small cities and towns to the NBB. emerges seve ral Metro Access Rings. 3C). . Practically there are 11 r ings as Ring 1 and 3 comprise 3 rings each (1A. Siemens . These Rings are so design ed that all major cities get enough bandwidth and not too many cities come on the same ring. ABB Nera . at these 22 MCN s. These rings connect 22 Core MCN s.

Tejas N6130 .Nortel TN1X STM.Tectorinx 3. Huawei T.1) & 4 port STM-16 card Single port STM -64 Cross Connect . Optical Fiber Cable . OTDR . SDH Equipment . Sync Equipment .Siemens. DWDM Equipment .Dx -140 Gb/ STM-64 . Router . OMS 1684 / 64 / 54 / 40 Marconi . Cross Connect .16 N 5200 STM N 6500 10 Gg / STM 64 STM-1 9.Nortel 6. Fiber Management System Agilent 4.STM .Nortel. Transport TN1C at BTS STM -1 .Cisco Juniper 8.Network Elements 1. Fibcom 5.6040 16. Corning 2.Nortel HDx -1280 Gb / STM-64 / 80 .STM 64 to STM 4 (16 port STM. & 6130 40 ..1 TN-4X STM 4X & TN 16 X / STM-16X Small mux equivalent to TN1C) N6110 .Dx -140 Gb/ STM-64 ..STM -256 .Datum 7.

Traffic from the other LDCA s (Long Distance Charging Areas) is tran sported on The Collector Ring.Cross connect is connected with more then one links each link having capacity STM -64 i. 7 primary and 14 secondary nodes.e. either on permanent basis or temporary basis for the transf er of information in a cost effective. Provide connections. An ADM has grossly three parts: .g. CSP and FSP networks. The backbone transport provides for connectivity between different LDCAs. Transport which way to send the information how the information is carried Ring Elements and Terminologies In a Ring each node is called an Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM). SDCAs and cities. Physical architecture of the Core Network comprises of two-tier ring network Express Ring & Collector Ring. Routing . Traffi c between major metros and all major node cities is transported on the high capacity trans port path The Express Ring. The ring topology provides necessary protection to traffic i n terms of alternate path in case of breakage of the optical fibre or equipment failure thu s ensuring smooth undisrupted operation of the network. In addition interconnect is extended for other NLD. The functions of the Core-Backbone Network are as follows: . reliable and speedy manner . cross connect Equipment must be capable of controlling all of them simultaneousl y & that capacity is 140 GB (e. The core network comprises fully meshed. A train may be having capacity to carry 1000 passengers but the station should have capacity -much more than that train -to control many trains at a tim e).

. T hese networks are capable of providing both Narrow Band & Broadband services.Interfaces with the OFC Ring From MCN s on the NBB.STM . Chembur). Ring capacity FTTB STM-1.Manages multiplexing & de-multiplexing activities . From MAN (Metro Access Nodes) on Metro Access Rings. BAR . These MAR carry the traffic to over 1100 cities and town of t he country.like state highways emerging fr om the national highways. Aggregate . The BTS covers all the Mobile Stations (MS) within it s radius of coverage. thus providing enormous bandwidth.Interfaces with the non-ring nodes to bring in Traffic . thus providing Wireless Access. At the BAN. we get Metro Access Rings .5 GBps and upgradeable fur ther with little change in the infrastructure. Connection right up to the RTU is -thr ough OFC (this is therefore called Fiber To The Building). we get Buil ding Access Rings (like Main Roads inside a City or Town. Transport element on MAN & BAN is known as ADM.) These BAR connect various Building Access Nodes. The CT s connect several (14 as of today) Remote Terminal Units (RT U s) which in turn provide Fixed Access.STM 1 to STM MAR .g. we have the Central Terminals (CT s) or the Base Transce iver Station (BTS). Payload Manager .STM 4 to STM 16 NBB .64 Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) Link Advantages of Optical Fiber 4 . Nodes on MAR are known as MAN (e. Andheri MIDC. SRM (Pa rel). Tributary . Bandwidth of these MAR are in the range of 625 Mbps 2.

Distance: The extremely low losses of modern telecom grade fiber enable distances of 50-10 0Km between repeaters to be routinely achieved. Capacity/Bandwidth: The information carrying capacity of optical fiber can be enormous. G-652 has ca pacity 2.5Gbps/fiber/wave length. It can provide the equivalent of 30,000 individual te lephone signals of 64kbit/sec and G-655 has capacity 10Gbps/fiber/wavelength (1000GB/sec is now ver y close to being achieved). Security: Optical fiber systems do not radiate any signal, and hence have almost total imm unity to wire tapping . It can be done but is very difficult unless access to splices or connect ors is possible. Immunity to Noise: The glass optical fiber is a dielectric rather than a metal and thus does not ac t as an antenna in the way metal conducting elements do. The fiber will not, therefore suffer from indu ctive interference such as Radio Interference (RFI), Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromag netic Pulse (EMP). This effective immunity to interference makes it possible to use fibers a longside or even on power lines. Long Life: Fiber does not corrode like metal conductors. Light Weight: Optical fiber is remarkably light in weight. A 10Km stand of telecom grade fiber on a shipping spool weighs less than 2kg whereas a 500m reel of co-ax copper cable weighs 30kg . Environmentally Friendly: Manufactured from the most abundant material in the earths crust. Comparatively small amounts of raw material are required therefore energy, transport and process costs are r educed. By using fiber for communications the world s copper reserves are saved for other purposes. Future Proof: Maybe yes - maybe no. It is impossible to know, however the signs are encouragin g. It lasts a

long time we only use a small amount of its theoretical capacity as a result it is probably fair to say that fiber provides our most future proof transmission medium.

Disadvantages: 1. OFC is costlier than Cu-wire. 2. OFC is fragile. 3. OFC are difficult to join. 4. OFC has its own set of losses dispersion, absorption, etc. An optical fiber is made of three sections: . The core that carries the light signals i.e. optic pulse travels in core only . The cladding that keeps the light in the core serves the purpose of Compound wal l . The coating that protects the glass Fiber dimensions are measured in µm. · 1 µm = 0.000001 meters (10-6) · 1 human hair ~ 50 µm Refractive Index (n) · n = c / v · n ~ 1.468 · n (core) > n (cladding) · c = 3 x 108 Meter/second Fiber Geometry Core: The core of an optical fiber is a glass rod - denotes the central part of the fi ber where the majority of the light propagates.

n1 = C / V C = Velocity of light in Vacuum i.e. Coating is made up of PVC material-available in different colours as per ITU cod e. An OFC is just that. Transmission through an OFC is like a light ball traveling down a tunnel. This difference in refractive index allows total internal reflection to oc cur within the fiber core and avoids the entry into the Cladding. 3 x 108 metres per second. The relationship is a function of the sine of the angles. would serve our purpose. Wh en light passes from one medium to another. Total internal reflection is the ph enomenon by which light propagates in optical fiber. . The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given medium. V = Velocity of light in a given medium So. Where n is the refractive index and A the corresponding angles as shown. the angles & refractive indexes of the media determi ned the path that light took. Snell's law is defined as: n1 sinA1 = n2 sinA2.Cladding: The cladding of an optical fiber surrounds the core and has a Refractive Index l ower than that of core. If we get an optical tunnel where once a light pulse enters at one end can only come out at the other end. if the top part of the diagram is CORE & n1 is Refractive Index of the Core material and if the bottom part is Cladding. also known as the Law of Sines (by Descartes). It reflects several times on the wall before r eaching the end of the tunnel. n2 is Refractive Index of the Cladding material.

when he filled a can with water. T hus these rays would bend along with the watery projectile path giving rise to the idea that light co uld travel in a curved path if the phenomenon of TIR is repeated many times. Optical Fibre Specifications . These light rays then ex perience total internal reflection because Refractive Index (n) of water is greater than air. Obviously water s tarted flowing out of the hole forming a curved projectile path. a portion of that light would come out of the hole at the bottom. As Tendell lit a torch at the top of the Can.The phenomenon of total internal reflection was discovered by John Tendel in 185 4. which had a hole at the lowest level.

Optical Spectrum The Optical Spectrum can be divided into three regions: Ultra Violet: .

along a length of fiber.e. Attenuation in fiber optic cabling is usually expressed in decibels per unit len gth of cable (i.e. dB/km) at a specified wavelength. In the old days different cards were available for different frequenc y. Attenuation in fiber optic cabling is usually expressed in decibels per unit len gth of cable (i. Attenuation is one factor which determines the power loss. Attenuation describes how energy is lost or dissipated. . .7 µm) and the shortest microwaves (about 0. Loss is the cost of moving something. dB/km) at a specified wavelength. Attenuation . .That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which the longest wavelength is just below the visible spectrum. like charges or particles or light pulses. Infrared (IR): The region of the electromagnetic spectrum bounded by the long wavelength. Visible Light: Electromagnetic radiation visible to the human eye. extre me of the visible spectrum (about 0. Attenuation is the measure of the reduction in signal magnitude.1 µm). Iout = outgoing intensity (intensity is measured in Watt/m-2) Iin = incoming intensity (Watt/m-2) Sources of Attenuation in Fibers Absorption (proportional to 1 / . Nowadays to generate different wavelengths pluggable lasers of different Frequen cy are available. or loss.) . wavelengths of 400-700 nm. extending from approximately 4 nm to 400 nm. Attenuation = 10 log10 (Iout / Iin) Where.

The peak absorption occurs at approximately 1400nm.4) Scattering is caused by small variations in the density of glass. If a graph of Loss in dB/km is plotted against the wavelength then we observe that. and 1550nm. The fiber exhibits minimum attenuation at wavelength slots.Caused by impurities in the glass. Scattering (proportional to 1 / .. . and any atomic defects in the glass increases dramatically above 1700 nm. Attenuation varies with the wave length of light. second window and third window. Effects of 2 cm radius ben d at three wavelengths. Loss of optica l energy due to imperfections / in homogeneities (localized density variations). And therefore a ct as scattering objects. Scattering and Absorption decides suitability of optical fiber for transmission at specific frequencies only. These are called. 1310nm. Geometric Effects (proportional to .) Bending losses increases with increase in wavelength.

we don't use t he 850 nm any more except for some restricted applications.The second and the third windows are in practical use today. The 850 nm was in use in the past when the Laser Diodes available were of 850 nm only.e. If we needed more vehicles to run simultaneously we will have to add more lanes. Suppose we had a one lane HW. only one vehicle can run at a time. Bending Losses Wavelength Multiplexing Large increase in Bandwidth can be achieved by using a technique called Dense Wa ve Division Multiplexing (DWDM). i. say 4 or 6 lane or we can construct multistory Highway. .

only that we can multiplex many more wavelengths and demultiplex them at the rec eiving end. . Total capacity = 10Gbps x 80 . Good for Long haul applications . The bandwidth per lambda are limited to 2. = L band = Long DWDM Capacity with G 652 & G 655 G 652 . . etc. = 80 Gbps.In the above sketch. each lane is equated with different colour of light (violet . to 1620 .on NBB / NLD routes. This fiber is used for . An d we have 48 cores in one cable and 6 such cables that can be laid in our NBB.City network G 655 . to 1563 . that too in a single fiber of OFC. The resu lt is the same. Good for Short haul applications up to 350 . red. but uses Laser and IR light instead of visible light. As per DWDM technology. orange.5 X 32Gbps. . = C band = Conventional 1570 . blue.1530. . green. DWDM . 1550 nm can support up to 32 Lambda wave lengths for DWDM . = 800Gbps . yellow.) .it becomes one (Multiplexer theory) and when it will come out it becomes 7 colours again.5Gbps. For DWDM total number of wave length supported is 80 Lambda. Total bit rate for 32 Lambda s is 2. DWDM uses the above phenomenon.When seven colours are passed through a triangular prism . Access / SDCA routes . 10 Gbps can be supported per wave length.400Km and Metro regions. Normally we can achieve BW 10 GBps with one wavelength. we can go up to 800 GBps by using 80 Wave length. .

The subtended rings interconnect some of these MCN s and function like the Bypasses. covering 18 telecom circles. To the user it means how much competitive rates she/ he pays for a Local or STD call or on internet how fast is the download of an interesting article or favorite song. It is necessary to monitor the health of su ch a huge network. Like how healthy you are in indicated by how well your heart is functioning and how good is your blood circu lation. Business con ducted in these cities constitutes 80% of India s GDP. This is done by monitoring the health of Dark Fibers by means of Fiber Monitoring System. 227 LDCA. extending wireline connectivity to 138 cities and wireless connectivity in 578 cities. 565 SDCA. Reliance Optical Network International . Th e core rings connect 22 Core MCN s with 17 ILT s at this moment. similarly the health of a telecom network can be measured by how is the reliability of the se transport network is & how much bandwidth these transport network can handle . To the user it translates into how much she/ he pays for a short distance or long distance call or how fast is the download of an int eresting article or favorite song. Like multiple lanes of Highways. It s a mega network of 80.000 km of OFC highwa y connecting 12 rings. Transport network provide bandwidth which decid es how much traffic (read how many calls) can be carried. This module we will see how we live up to that challenge. These are our Life-lines.This is our Reliance India Roadmap.

FLAG North Asian Loop has been designed to support the strong growth in intra-As ia internet traffic and provides intra-regional. FLAG Atlantic-1 is the world's first multi-terabit transoceanic dual cable syste m providing a fully protected city-to-city service between London.000km from the UK to Japan with landing sites in 13 coun tries. It operates a global net work and provides customers with connectivity to most of the major business centres aroun d the world. Seoul.NBB . FLAG Europe-Asia is the world's longest privately funded undersea fibre-optic ca ble system stretching more than 28. Tokyo and Taipei.FLAG Telecom develops and operates advanced fibre-optic global cable systems ove r which it offers a growing range of value-added network services. Network Detail Inter city RIC Nodes / Plants NLD . city-to-city connectivity between Hong Kong . Paris and New York.

5m from the finished grade . Hand holes are spaced 1 km apart .city Interconnection Network : 25. No. Tracer wire for ease of detection of fibre placed above duct .Backbone Network : 55.65m below the ground along the route (Protection against Rodent) . of Ducts in National Backbone: 4/6 HDPE ducts .000 km. Laying of ducts (20 meters from road center) taking care of all future rearrange ments (eg. bridge replacement. Cable slacks have been kept in every manhole (15 meters) and hand hole (10 meter s) from maintenance point of view Switching . Buried at 1. . Cable marker stones placed along the route at every 200 m . Man holes are spaced 4 km apart .) . Road widening.000 km. etc. Standardized location of manholes and hand holes . ILT Switches = 22 ) IS : 206 Preside Server : At Mumbai & Hyderabad Intra . Warning tape placed below 0.000 km MCN : 260 out of which 198 are Maintenance Point ( MSC = 90 + 6 . (Inter city) Total Network : 80. (Intra city) BTS : 7713 MANS : 45 BANS : 670 Wireless : 565 Cities Wireline : 184 Cities .

ad hoc workgroups can be created. R2MFC Registered & Registered Multi Freque ncy Channel.available at STP for Database-passes data / informa tion (details of caller & Receiver party) as & when required by STP. and/or ATM. independent of thei r physical location. Essentially. Switches are intra-network devices designed to increase performance in client/se rver networks by facilitating LAN segmentation.All switches are connected to STP SCP . Switches are used to provide dedicated bandwidth to specific users or serverbased groups of users in Ethernet and Token Ring and/or to transition to higherspeed technologies. In addition. Because switches can be implemented without chang ing adapters. hubs. and changed by software rather than hardwiring. such as FDDI.Switch not only reduces transmission cost but also reduces the complexity of con necting subscribers.. etc. network investments are preserved. . STP . Here subscribers have complete control on information flow to a sub scriber. With switches. cabling. switches fa cilitate the creation and management of virtual LANs. a logical grouping of users. Gigabit Ethernet. multiport br idge that creates separate segments. Fast Ethernet. a LAN switch is a low-latency. In switches connections change from call to call.Switch Control Panel . CCS7 Common Channel Signaling version-7 In Dx connections are made for longer time. Similar concept is further extended to route subscribers traffic to long distance exchan ges by taking calls through exchanges arranged in tandem.Signal Transferring point . managed. Switches can be used to: Interconnect elements of a distributed computing system.

so it s not ideal for backbone implementation. and high performance. However. They are also the easiest to implement and most cost effective. Switched Ethernet and Token Ring . and 16 Mbps technologies respectively. is ideal for connecting servers in workgroups and linking departmen ts to building backbones. are best suited for workgroup and departmental deployment. Fast Ethernet does have distance limitations and lower utilization rate s. since it s based on existing technology and cabling. There are no hard and fast rules on where to switch and what technologies to use . servers. . This backbone is for relatively shorter distances. Fast Ethernet. since they are 10. will provide even faster connectivity at this level and support super-user workgroups. Switching technology has three principal advantages: scalable bandwidth. but there are some generally accepted guidelines to consider. providing higher levels of performance. flexibi lity. with its 1000 Mbps speed. and applications. switches have emerged as the industry s hottes t solution for increasing network bandwidth. and Scale network bandwidth by adding more switched ports. which is 100 Mbps. and reduci ng overall cost of ownership. The common force driving the need for switching is network growth in clients. Gigabit Ethernet. Fast Ethernet is relatively easy t o install and is cost-effective. 4. For all these reasons.Provide high-speed connections to campus backbones and servers.

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