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List of Stock Exchange in India

The list maintained by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) as of 2010.
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Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) United Stock Exchange of India (USE) Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) MCX Stock Exchange (MCX-SX) Over the Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI) Inter-connected Stock Exchange of India (ISE) Ahmedabad Stock Exchange (ASE) Hyderabad Stock Exchange (HSE) Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE) Delhi Stock Exchange (DSE) Bangalore Stock Exchange Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange, Indore Jaipur Stock Exchange (JSE)

Commodity Exchange
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Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) Indian National Multi-Commodity Exchange (NMCE) Commodity Exchange Limited ICEX.

DERIVATIVES MARKET:
With over 25 million shareholders , India has the third largest investor base in the world after USA and Japan. Over 7500 companies are listed on the Indian stock exchanges (more than the number of companies listed in developed markets of Japan, UK, Germany, France, Australia, Switzerland, Canada and Hong Kong.). The Indian capital market is significant in terms of the degree of development, volume of trading, transparency and its tremendous growth potential. Indias market capitalization was the highest among the emerging markets. Total market capitalization of The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), which, as on July 31, 1997, was US$ 175 billion has grown by 37.5% perce nt every twelve months and was over US$ 834 billion as of January, 2007. Bombay Stock Exchanges (BSE), one of the oldest in the world, accounts for the largest number of listed companies transacting their shares on a nationwide online trading system. The t wo major exchanges namely the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) ranked no. 3 & 5 in the world, calculated by the number of daily transactions done on the exchanges. The Total Turnover of Indian Financial Markets crossed US$ 2256 billion in 2006 An increase of 82% from US $ 1237 billion in 2004 in a short span of 2 years only. Turnover in the Spot and Derivatives segment both in NSE & BSE was higher by 45% into 2006 as compared to 2005. With daily average volume of US $ 9.4 billion, the Sensex has posted excellent returns in the recent years. Currently the market cap of the Sensex as on July 4th, 2009 was Rs 48.4 Lakh Crore with a P/E of more than 20.

Derivatives trading in the stock market have been a subject of enthusiasm of research in the field of finance the most desired instruments that allow market participants to manage risk in the modern securities trading are known as derivatives. The derivatives are defined as the future contracts whose value depends upon the unde rlying assets. If derivatives are introduced in the stock market, the underlying asset may be anything as component of stock market like, stock prices or market indices, interest rates, etc. The main logic behind derivatives trading is that derivatives red uce the risk by providing an additional channel to invest with lower trading cost and it facilitates the investors to extend their settlement through the future contracts. It provides extra liquidity in the stock market. Derivatives are assets, which derive their values from an underlying asset. These underlying assets are of various categories like Commodities including grains, coffee beans, etc. Precious metals like gold and silver. Foreign exchange rate. Bonds of different types, including m edium to long-term negotiable debt securities issued by governments, companies, etc. Short-term debt securities such as T-bills. Over-The-Counter (OTC) money market products such as loans or deposits. Equities For example, a dollar forward is a derivative contract, which gives the buyer a right & an obligation to buy dollars at some future date. The prices of the derivatives are driven by the spot prices of these underlying assets. However, the most important use of derivatives is in transferring market risk, called Hedging, which is a protection against losses resulting from unforeseen price or volatility changes. Thus, derivatives are a very important tool of risk management. There are various derivative products traded . They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Forwards Futures Options Swaps

Conclusion: y Derivates market is an innovation to cash market. Approximately its daily turnover reaches to the equal stage of cash market. The average daily turnover of the NSE derivative segments In cash market the profit/loss of the investor depend the market price of the underlying asset. The investor may incur huge profits or he may incur huge profits or he may incur huge loss. But in derivatives segment the investor the investor enjoys huge profits with limited downside. In cash market the investor has to pay the total money, but in derivatives the investor has to pay premiums or margins, which are some percentage of total money.

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Derivatives are mostly used for hedging purpose. In derivative segment the profit/loss of the option writer is purely depend on the fluctuations of the underlying asset

UNDERLYING ASSESTS:
1. The physical and financial asset to which a security holder or a class of security holders has a claim. An analyst may believe that a stock is underpriced on the basis of the value of the firm's underlying assets and the potential earning power of those assets. 2. The asset that underlies and gives value to a security. The underlying asset of a stock option is the stock that the option can be used to purchase. Likewise, the underlying asset of a convertible bond is the stock for which the bond can be exchanged. The market value of a security is directly affected by changes in the value of any underlying asset into which it may be exchanged. Underlying asset is the asset on which the price of a derivative depends. Most traded derivatives (i.e. those traded on exchanges) are settled for cash, not by actual delivery of the underlying. Some derivatives, such as CFDs, do not actually involve even a possible trade in an underlying security. They are simply a contract to exchange cash depending on the underlying. This means that they can use an underlying that cannot itself be delivered (such as an index value, weather conditions etc.)

The working of stock exchanges in India started in 1875. BSE is the oldest stock market in India. The history of Indian stock trading starts with 318 persons taking membership in Native Share and Stock Brokers Association, which we now know by the name Bombay Stock Exchange or BSE in short. In 1965, BSE got permanent recognition from the Government of India. National Stock Exchange comes second to BSE in terms of popularity. BSE and NSE represent themselves as synonyms of Indian stock market. The history of Indian stock market is almost the same as the history of BSE. The 30 stock sensitive index or Sensex was first compiled in 1986. The Sensex is compiled based on the performance of the stocks of 30 financially sound benchmark companies. In 1990 the BSE crossed the 1000 mark for the first time. It crossed 2000, 3000 and 4000 figures in 1992. The reason for such huge surge in the stock market was the liberal financial policies announced by the then financial minister Dr. Man Mohan Singh. The up-beat mood of the market was suddenly lost with Harshad Mehta scam. It came to public knowledge that Mr. Mehta, also known as the big-bull of Indian stock market diverted huge funds from banks through fraudulent means. He played with 270 million shares of about 90 companies. Millions of small-scale investors became victims to the fraud as the Sensex fell flat shedding 570 points. To prevent such frauds, the Government formed The Securities and Exchange Board of India, through an Act in 1992. SEBI is the statutory body that controls and regulates the functioning

of stock exchanges, brokers, sub-brokers, portfolio managers investment advisors etc. SEBI oblige several rigid measures to protect the interest of investors. Now with the inception of online trading and daily settlements the chances for a fraud is nil, says top officials of SEBI. Sensex crossed the 5000 mark in 1999 and the 6000 mark in 2000. The 7000 mark was crossed in June and the 8000 mark on September 8 in 2005. Many foreign institutional investors (FII) are investing in Indian stock markets on a very large scale. The liberal economic policies pursued by successive Governments attracted foreign institutional investors to a large scale. Experts now believe the sensex can soar past 14000 mark before 2010. The unpredictable behavior of the market gave it a tag - 'a volatile market.' The factors that affected the market in the past were good monsoon, BharatiyaJanatha Party's rise to power etc. The result of a cricket match between India and Pakistan also affected the movements in Indian stock market. The National Democratic Alliance led by BJP, during 2004 public elections unsuccessfully tried to ride on the market sentiments to power. NDA was voted out of power and the sensex recorded the biggest fall in a day amidst fears that the CongressCommunist coalition would stall economic reforms. Later prime minister Man Mohan Singh's assurance of 'reforms with a human face' cast off the fears and market reacted sharply to touch the highest ever mark of 8500. India, after United States hosts the largest number of listed companies. Global investors now ardently seek India as their preferred location for investment. Once viewed with skepticism, stock market now appeals to middle class Indians also. Many Indians working in foreign countries now divert their savings to stocks. This recent phenomenon is the result of opening up of online trading and diminished interest rates from banks. The stockbrokers based in India are opening offices in different countries mainly to cater the needs of Non Resident Indians. The time factor also works for the NRIs. They can buy or sell stock online after returning from their work places. The recent incidents that led to growing interest among Indian middle class are the initial public offers announced by Tata Consultancy Services, MarutiUdyog Limited, ONGC and big names like that. Good monsoons always raise the market sentiments. A good monsoon means improved agricultural produce and more spending capacity among rural folk. The bullish run of the stock market can be associated with a steady growth of around 6% in GDP, the growth of Indian companies to MNCs, large potential of growth in the fields of telecommunication, mass media, education, tourism and IT sectors backed by economic reforms ensure that Indian stock market continues its bull run.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/118673

India, after United States hosts the largest number of listed companies. Global investors now ardently seek India as their preferred location for investment. Once viewed with skepticism, stock market now appeals to middle class Indians also. Many Indians working in foreign countries now divert their savings to stocks. This recent phenomenon is the result of opening up of online trading and diminished interest rates from banks. The stockbrokers based in India are opening offices in different countries mainly to cater the needs of Non Resident Indians. The time factor also works for the NRIs. They can buy or sell stock online after returning from their work places.

An investor, today, need not wait, with his fingers crossed, for a fortnight or more, for getting crossed cheques or crisp notes for the sale proceeds of his securities. The trading cycle has been shortened to T+2. This shortening of the cycle has been done in a phased manner but in a rapid succession from T+5 to T+3 to T+2, all in a matter of two years. Another material development, which proved to be of immense relief to the investors, was dematerialisation of the scrips. Now 99% of the scrips in the market are dematerialised. Almost 100% of the trades are in D-mat form. Inconvenience of physical custody and transfer, tedium of intimating change of address and problems of bad delivery, late delivery, non delivery and the risks of forgery and frauds have virtually disappeared or shall I say - have been dematerialised! The benefit is relished but not the cost. We should bear in mind the maxim no cost, no benefit. There is no free lunch in this world. Still, there is no denying the fact that there could be a possibility for reduction in the cost; such possibilities are explored. At the stock exchanges, robust risk management system has been put in place, Value-at-risk margining and exposure limits, on-line monitoring of margins and positions, Clearing Corporation and Settlement Guarantee Fund mechanism for trade settlement all these have made Indian capital market now arguably world class, in terms of transparency, efficiency and safety.