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image into digital information the computer is capable of understanding and displaying. An example of optical readers are mark sense systems for elections where voters mark their choice by filling a rectangle, circle or oval, or by completing an arrow. After the voting a tabulating device reads the votes using "dark mark logic", whereby the computer selects the darkest mark within a given set as the correct choice or vote. Mark sense is also used extensively in such areas as lotteries and multiple choice tests. Barcode readers A (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed barcodes. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones. Additionally, nearly all barcode readers contain decoder circuitry analyzing the barcode's image data provided by the sensor and sending the barcode's content to the scanner's output port. A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by physical contact and swiping past a magnetic reading head.
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, or MICR, is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of cheques. The technology allows computers to read information (such as account numbers) off printed documents. Unlike barcodes or similar technologies, however, MICR codes can be easily read by humans. A point-of-sale (POS) terminal is a computerized replacement for a cash register. Much more complex than the cash registers of even just a few years ago, the POS system can include the ability to record and track customer orders, process credit and debit cards, connect to other systems in a network, and manage inventory. Generally, a POS terminal has as its core a personal computer, which is provided with application-specific programs and I/O devices for the particular environment in which it will serve. A POS system for a restaurant, for example, is likely to have all menu items stored in a database that can be queried for information in a number of ways. POS terminals are used in most industries that have a point of sale such as a service desk, including restaurants, lodging, entertainment, and museums. An automated teller machine (ATM), commonly called a cashpoint and a hole in the wall in UK English after the trademark of the same name, is a computerised telecommunications device that provides the clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a cashier, human clerk or bank teller. ATMs are known by various other names including automatic banking machine, cash machine, and various regional variants derived from trademarks on ATM systems held by particular banks.
Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
Examples of Output Devices of a Computer
The most common computer output device is the monitor or computer screen. Monitors create a visual display from processed data that users can view. They come in a variety of screen sizes and visual resolutions. There are two types of computer monitors, CRT and flat panel. CRT monitors use phosphorescent dots to create the pixels that make up display images. Flat panel monitors usually use LCD or plasma to create output. Light is passed through liquid crystals to create the pixels. All monitors rely on a video card that is located on the computer motherboard or in a special expansion slot. The video card processes the computer data into image details that the monitors can display.
Printers produce a hard copy version of processed data such as documents and photographs. The computer sends the image data to the printer, which then physically recreates the image onto an object. There are three types of computer printers: ink jet, laser and dot matrix. Inkjet printers spray tiny dots of ink on a surface to create an image. Laser printers use toner drums that roll through magnetized pigment and then transfer the pigment to a surface. Dot matrix printers use a print head to imbed images on a surface, using an ink ribbon.
Computers produce audio data that require output devices such as speakers and headphones to deliver the sound to the user. Audio data is created by the computer and then sent to the audio card, which is located in an expansion slot. The card translates the data into audio signals, which are sent to the audio output device.
CD, DVD and floppy disc are output devices that can also be used as storage and input devices. The computer sends data to the disc, where it is embedded and can be later retrieved. Compact disc, or CD, is an optical device that stores audio and visual data in a
digital format. Data is placed on the disc, using a laser writer that embeds the data into the disc's coating. Digital Versatile Disc, or DVD, is an optical device that stores visual data in a media format. DVDs feature a dual coating system that allows audio and visual data to be written at the same time by using a laser. Floppy disc is a magnetic storage device. A layer of magnetized material is placed within a proactive plastic casing. The computer embeds the data into the magnetized material, using a writing head.
Projectors are display devices that project a computer created image. The computer sends the image data to the video card which then sends the video image to the projector. They are typically used for presentations or for viewing videos.
Plotters create a hard copy rendition of a digitally rendered design. The design is sent to the plotter via a graphics card, and creates the design using a pen. Generally used with engineering applications, plotters basically draw an image using a series of straight lines.
Kinds of Monitors 2. CRT Monitors 3. Some computer monitors generate output with the help of cathode ray tubes. This type of device is called the CRT (or, cathode ray tube) monitor. Some computer users prefer this style because it offers a richly colored display and does not break easily. However, CRT monitors can be bulky and take up a lot of desk space, very heavy to carry, and they require a lot of power to run properly. Moreover, the picture screen can distort, display a "flicker effect," or burn out over time. 4. Flatscreen CRT Monitors 5. Basically a CRT monitor with a better picture and a slimmer space-saving form factor. Colors and sharpness may be improved from the basic CRT depending on the resolution of the monitor. 6. LCD Monitors 7. Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor is the latest development in monitor technology. LCD and plasma screen styles are relatively thinner and much lighter than their older
CRT counterparts. They display sharp, excellent images and require less power to run, thus let you save money in energy costs. However, these newer models can be more expensive than traditional computer monitors. LCD screens have been used in laptops for a while but have only recently become popular as desktop monitors.
Kinds of Printers Laser Printer This is the most often purchased printer today. Its high quality print output outfoxes prints from other printer types. The text and graphics are printed with quality result. The reason why there are lots of people who choose lasers despite is comparatively higher price is that it is economical. Its LED technology helps reduce the use of toner from a cartridge. It takes small particles in minimal amount to give out quality prints. Ink jet Printer Before the advent of laser printers, ink jet printers are the most widely used printer type. They are cheaper than any other printer types and produces quality output. However, the only disadvantage is that the printing time would take longer. It is because such kind of printers uses variably-sized droplets of ink that is propelled onto the paper or various print media. This printing process takes time to perform the printing of the material. The advantage of using these printers aside from cheaper price is that they are capable of printing colored documents such as photos and with a glossy finish. Plotters Printer This type of printer is ideal for printing larger drawings. High quality print out is made out of having the pen plotters pen move across the surface of the medium. This is the most unique printer so far invented and available in the market. Thermal Printer This is very common among department stores and malls. Thermal printer are convenient to be used by cashiers because it allows the calculations and giving the print out at the same time in fast manner. Fax machines also have this kind of technology. This, however, works only on papers that are heat sensitive. It operates by having the heated pins pushed against the medium. Dot-matrix Printer Of all the printer types, this is the oldest type. Inspired from typewriter, this printer operates by having its pin strike against the ink ribbon. The print out from dot matrix is easily recognized because of the obvious lines and dots that you can see on the image or character it prints; hence it is called dot-matrix. Despite its obsolescence, dot-matrix printer is still used by some business establishments because its mechanical pressure enables the producing of carbon and carbon-less copies.