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What is Solid Waste

Each household generates garbage or waste day in and day out. Items that we no longer need or do not have any further use for fall in the category of waste Or Solid waste means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply

treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities Solid wastes are any discarded (abandoned or considered waste-like) materials. Solid wastes can be solid, liquid, semi-solid or containerized gaseous material. Or SOLID WASTEIt is non liquid waste arising from domestic, trade, industrial, agricultural, mining, construction activities and from public services. Or Solid waste may be defined as unwanted material disposed by man, which can neither flow into streams nor escapes immediately into the atmosphere. These cause pollution in water, air and soil. Examples of solid wastes:
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waste tires seepage scrap metal latex paints furniture and toys domestic refuse (garbage) discarded appliances and vehicles uncontaminated used oil and anti-freeze empty aerosol cans, paint cans and compressed gas cylinders construction and demolition debris, asbestos

Types of solid waste/


y Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste, b) Industrial waste as hazardous waste, and c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.

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Different Types of Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Industrial Waste Hazardous Waste Hospital Waste Construction and Demolition Waste Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) Agricultural Waste

Municipal solid wasteMunicipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tones of solid waste; in 1997 it was about 48 million tones. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. The existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater. Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminum foils, plastics, and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harm to the environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle. There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate (as illustrated in the table below).

The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerateType of litterApproximate time it takes to degenerate the litterOrganic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc. A week or two.Paper1030 days Cotton cloth 25 monthsWood 1015 yearsWoolen items 1 yearTin, aluminum, and other metal items such as cans 100500 yearsPlastic bags One million years?Glass bottlesundetermined

TYPES OF MUNCIPAL WASTE-

Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper.

Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, etc.

Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, rocks, debris etc. Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Paks, waste plastics such as toys. Domestic hazardous waste ; medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries .

Composition of Municipal Waste Hazardous waste-

Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things such as gases. India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles. Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous. These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants, and mercury, which is used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure. Most Hospitals in India do not have proper disposal facilities for these hazardous wastes. In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, Paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal The main disposal route for hazardous waste is landfill, incineration, and physical or chemical treatment. On the recovery Side, a significant proportion of hazardous waste is recycled or burnt as a fuel.

Hospital waste-

Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals and also in the research activities in these fields as well as in the production and testing of biological. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, Disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. This is in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated n a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments in India are not giving due attention to their waste management. After the notification of the Biomedical Waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998, these establishments are slowly streamlining the process of waste segregation, collection, treatment, and disposal. Many of the larger hospitals have either installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.

Electronic WasteE-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. In developed countries, currently, it equals 1% of total solid waste generation and is expected to grow to 2% by 2010. In USA, it accounts 1% to 3% of the total municipal waste generation. In EU, historically, E-waste is growing three times faster than average annual municipal solid waste generation. A recent source estimates that total amount of E-waste generation in EU ranges from 5 to 7 million tonnes per annum or about 14 to 15 kg per capita and is expected to grow at a rate of 3% to 5% per year. In developing countries, it ranges 0.01% to 1% of the total municipal solid waste generation. In China and India, though annual generation per capita is less than 1 kg, it is growing at an exponential pace. The increasing market penetration in developing countries, replacement market in developed countries and high obsolescence rate make E-waste as one of the fastest waste stream. Environmental issues and trade associated with E-waste at local, trans boundary and international level has driven many countries to introduce interventions.

source of generation
y SOURCES OF SOLID WASTEThere are many sources from which the solid waste comes. All living thing creates waste. In natural systems, trees animals and other organisms contribute to waste. Human creates waste as they alter natural system through extraction, processing and use of natural resources. From the study of various corporations it is clear that each person creates 44 tons of waste per year. Each person generates 90,000 pounds of waste in a lifetime. The sources are as follow1) Municipal:Street sweeping, sewage treatment plant waste, waste from school and other institutions. 2) Domestic:Garbage, rubbish and occasional large waste from house. y y y y y y y y y y y y 3) Commercial:From different stores and offices. 4) Industrial:From manufacturing plants. 5) Mining:From coal mining, stripmining etc. 6) Agricultural:From farms grasslands and gardens.

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Source : New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Significance of solid waste management In communities where appropriate sites are available, sanitary landfills usually provide the most economical option for disposal of no recyclable refuse. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to find sites that offer adequate capacity, accessibility, and environmental conditions. Nevertheless, landfills will always play a key role in solid-waste management. It is not possible to recycle all components of solid waste, and there will always be residues from incineration and other treatment processes that will eventually require disposal underground. In addition, landfills can actually improve poor-quality land. In some communities properly completed landfills are converted into recreational parks. Solid waste management not only comes from industrial units. It also comes from various sources. Every man with the operation of daily domestic work creates solid waste for disposal. A study in united state shows that solid waste per person per day in 1920 is 1.2kg. It increases 2.3kg in 1970 and about 3.6kg in 1980. This shows that solid waste per person is mounting due to number of reasons. Solid waste disposal creates a problem primarily in highly populated areas. The more concentrated the population. The greater the problem:

City Mumbai Thane Hydrabad Delhi

Solid waste generated 6000 tones per day. 700 tones per day. 2000 tones per day. 4000tones per day.

In India, generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial, hazardous waste, biomedical waste have been increasing due to population growth, life style changes and economic development. On the other hand, waste management responses have not kept pace with the increasing quantities of waste resulting in (a) a high proportion of uncollected waste, and (b) poor standards of

transportation, storage, treatment and disposal. The insanitary methods adopted for disposal of solid wastes is a serious health concern with significant environmental, social and health costs associated with it. Open dumping of garbage facilitates the breeding of disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other pests. The poorly maintained landfill sites further, are prone to groundwater contamination because of leachate production. Practically every citizen is now search of clear air and pleasant environment. The land pollution problem has grown enormously in the recent years due to waste dumping civics administration are facing the problem for hygiene disposal waste. Those calls for separate efforts of not only the civics administration but participation of several responsibilities publics groups and industrial lists. As the cities are growing in size and problems seen as the generation of plastic waste, various municipal waste treatment and disposal methods are now being used to try resolving these problems. Garbage generation in household can be recycled and reused to prevent creation of waste at sources and reducing amount of waste thrown into the community dustbins.

ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING:

sanitary landfill, method of controlled disposal of municipal solid waste (refuse) on land. The method was introduced in England in 1912 (where it is called controlled tipping). Waste is deposited in thin layers (up to 1 metre, or 3 feet) and promptly compacted by heavy machinery (e.g., bulldozers); several layers are placed and compacted on top of each other to form a refuse cell (up to 3 metres, or 10 feet, thick). At the end of each day the compacted refuse cell is covered with a layer of compacted soil to prevent odours and windblown debris. All modern landfill sites are carefully selected and prepared (e.g., sealed with impermeable synthetic bottom liners) to prevent pollution of groundwater or other environmental problems. When the landfill is completed, it is capped with a layer of clay or a synthetic liner in order to prevent water from entering. A final topsoil cover is placed, compacted, and graded, and various forms of vegetation may be planted in order to reclaim otherwise useless land e.g., to fill declivities to levels convenient for building parks, golf courses, or other suitable public projects. See also solid-waste management.