# 15.

SAILBOAT GEOMETRY
In this tutorial you will import a STEP file that describes the geometry of a sailboat hull. You will split the hull along the symmetry plane, create a flow volume around the hull, apply size functions that allow the mesh to capture the detail of the hull curvature, create firstheight/aspect-ratio-based 3-D boundary layers around the hull, and use a special operation to pre-mesh and view the 3-D boundary layers. Finally, you will mesh the volume with prism and tetrahedral elements using an algorithm that will automatically apply meshed size functions on the boundary layer caps. The combined use of aspect-ratio-based 3-D boundary layers and automatically applied meshed size functions on the boundary layer caps is especially useful when meshing geometry for external aerodynamics or other flows around bluff objects, such as that illustrated by this tutorial. The combined features aid in capturing near-wall physics while creating a highquality unstructured mesh in the flow volume. In this tutorial you will learn how to:
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Import a STEP file Align volumes Split faces Split volumes and perform Boolean volume subtraction operations Create and apply curvature size functions Mesh faces using a triangular pave meshing scheme Create and view aspect-ratio-based 3-D boundary layers Apply a meshed size function on boundary layer caps Mesh a volume using a tetrahedral meshing scheme Prepare the mesh to be read into FLUENT 5/6

15.1 Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes you have worked through Tutorials 1, 2, 3, and 4.

15.2 Problem Description
Figure 15-1 shows the geometry (courtesy Rhino) to be imported and meshed in this tutorial. This geometry represents a sailboat hull. The purpose of this tutorial is to create a hybrid viscous mesh that can be used to model flow around the hull.

Figure 15-1: Sailboat geometry

15.3 Strategy
In this tutorial, you will create a tetrahedral mesh in a flow volume surrounding a sailboat hull. The geometry will be imported as a STEP file consisting of a single volume in the shape of the full sailboat hull. You will create a rectangular brick flow volume and use a Boolean operation to split the hull along the symmetry plane. Then you will apply curvature size functions to the hull side faces and create triangle face meshes on all of the hull surfaces. Finally, you will apply aspect-ratio-based 3-D boundary layers around the hull, use a GAMBIT function that meshes and displays only the boundary layers, and mesh the volume—employing size functions that are automatically applied on the boundary layer caps—to create a mesh consisting of tetrahedral and wedge elements.

15.4 Procedure
1. Copy the file
path/Fluent.Inc/gambit2.x/help/tutfiles/sailboat-hull.stp (where 2.x is the GAMBIT version number) from the GAMBIT installation

area in the

directory path to your working directory. 2. Start GAMBIT using the session identifier "Sailboat".

Step 1: Select a Solver
1. Choose the solver from the main menu bar: Solver —> FLUENT 5/6 The choice of a solver dictates the options available in various forms (for example, the boundary types available in the Specify Boundary Types form). For some systems, FLUENT 5/6 is the default solver. The currently selected solver is shown at the top of the GAMBIT GUI.

Step 2: Import the STEP File
File —> Import —> STEP... This command sequence opens the Import STEP File form.

1. Click the Browse... button. This action opens the Select File form.

2.stp in the Files list. The Make tolerant option improves geometric connectivity. Click Accept. b) Click Accept in the Select File form. 3. Retain the Make Tolerant option.a) Select sailboat-hull. . The STEP file for the sailboat will be read into GAMBIT (see Figure 15-2).

Create a vertex to be used in aligning the geometry.Figure 15-2: Imported sailboat geometry Step 3: Align the Geometry with the Global Coordinate System The imported geometry is offset slightly from the global coordinate system (c_sys.1). . 1. In this step. you will create a vertex at the origin of the global coordinate system and use the vertex to align the sailboat geometry with the origin. GEOMETRY —> VERTEX —> CREATE REAL VERTEX This command sequence opens the Create Real Vertex form. Doing so will facilitate the volume splitting operation you will use in a later step to create the flow volume.

b) Select the vertex at the tip of the sailboat bow (see Figure 15-3). GAMBIT creates a vertex at the origin (0. Align the sailboat hull with the part of the geometry to be split.a) Click Apply. a) Select the hull geometry in the graphics window and accept the selection. You will now select a vertex on the volume and the vertex with which it will be aligned. 2. GEOMETRY R —> VOLUME —> MOVE/COPY/ALIGN VOLUMES This command sequence opens the Align Volumes form. GAMBIT activates the Translation Vertex Pair list box in the Align Volumes form. . 0. 0) of the global coordinate system (c_sys.1).

1). GAMBIT aligns the geometry with the global coordinate system as shown in Figure 15-4. d) Click Apply. .Figure 15-3: Start and End vertices for the volume alignment c) Select the vertex you created at the origin of the global coordinate system (c_sys.

Figure 15-4: Sailboat geometry aligned with global coordinate system Step 4: Create the Flow Volume In this step. move the brick so that one side passes through the hull along the z-x plane. . you will create a brick around the sailboat geometry. GEOMETRY —> VOLUME —> CREATE VOLUME This command sequence opens the Create Real Brick form. and subtract the sailboat geometry volume from the brick. thereby creating the flow volume. Create a brick surrounding the sailboat geometry. 1.

a) Enter a value of 125 for the Width of the brick. c) Retain the Direction:Centered option. Click the FIT TO WINDOW command button at the top left of the Global Control toolpad to see the brick and sailboat geometry in the graphics window. d) Click Apply. Figure 15-5: Sailboat geometry and flow volume brick . 2. b) Enter 25 for the Depth and 25 for the Height. Figure 15-5 shows the sailboat geometry and flow volume brick.

Move the brick so that one of its vertical faces passes through the center of the sailboat geometry. 0) under Global to move the brick -12.3. 4. a) Select (Shift-left-click) the brick in the graphics window. Click the FIT TO WINDOW command button at the top left of the Global Control toolpad to see the brick and sailboat geometry in the graphics window.5. b) Retain the Move option under Volumes in the Move / Copy Volumes form.5 units in the y direction. d) Enter (0. GEOMETRY R —> VOLUME —> MOVE/COPY/ALIGN VOLUMES This command sequence opens the Move / Copy Volumes form. Note that GAMBIT automatically fills in the values under Local as you enter values under Global. c) Retain the Operation:Translate option. -12. e) Click Apply. .

b) Left-click in the list box to the right of Subtract Volumes to accept the selection and make the Subtract Volumes list box active. . Subtract the sailboat geometry from the brick to create the flow volume.GAMBIT changes the position of the brick as shown in Figure 15-6. Figure 15-6: Repositioned brick and sailboat geometry 5. GEOMETRY —> VOLUME —> BOOLEAN OPERATIONS R This command sequence opens the Subtract Real Volumes form. a) Shift-left-click the brick in the graphics window.

! Alternatively. Selecting the volumes in this order ensures that the sailboat geometry is subtracted from the brick and not vice versa. Figure 15-7: Flow volume Step 5: Split the Sailboat Hull In this step. you could continue to hold down the Shift key and click the right mouse button in the graphics window to accept the selection of the brick and move the focus to the Subtract Volumes list box. c) Select the sailboat geometry. 1. you will create a horizontal face and use it to split the sailboat hull face at its water line. GEOMETRY —> FACE —> CREATE FACE This command sequence opens the Create Real Rectangular Face form. . d) Click Apply. GAMBIT subtracts the sailboat geometry from the brick to create the single flow volume shown in Figure 15-7. Create a real rectangular face to use as a split tool.

b) Enter a value of 25 for the Height of the face. Move the new split-tool face to the water-line height on the hull.a) Enter a value of 60 for the Width of the face. 2. c) Retain the Direction:XY Centered option. d) Click Apply. GEOMETRY —> FACE —> MOVE/COPY/ALIGN FACES This command sequence opens the Move / Copy Faces form. .

-1. e) Click Apply. 0. .54) under Global to move the face -1. GAMBIT locates the split-tool face as shown in Figure 15-8. c) Retain the Operation:Translate option.54 units in the z direction. b) Retain the Move option under Faces in the Move / Copy Faces form.a) Select (Shift-left-click) the split-tool face in the graphics window. d) Enter (0.

Figure 15-8: Repositioned split-tool face 3. . Split the hull face at the water line. GEOMETRY FACES —> FACE —> SPLIT/MERGE/COLLAPSE/SIMPLIFY This command sequence opens the Split Face form.

a) Select (Shift-left-click) the sailboat hull side face in the graphics window (see Figure 15-9). Figure 15-9: Hull face to be split b) Select the Split with:Faces(Real) option. .

d) Select (Shift-left-click) the split-tool face in the graphics window. f) Click Apply. GAMBIT splits the hull side face as shown in Figure 15-10. however. This command sequence opens the Edit Defaults form. you will modify the values of the GAMBIT default variables that controls the "background tree depth". Figure 15-10: Split hull side face Step 6: Specify Size Function Background Tree Depth Now that you have completed creation of the flow volume and hull. . Edit —> Defaults. 1. Modify the size-function background grid tree depth default variable. you will apply size functions to the hull sides to facilitate a good-quality mesh... e) Retain the Connected option. Before creating and applying the size functions.c) Click in the lower Faces list box to make it active.

e) Click the Modify button.a) Select the TOOLS tab. GAMBIT displays the size-function variables for which defaults can be specified. c) Select BGRID_MAX_TREE_DEPTH in the Variable list. The BGRID_MAX_TREE_DEPTH default variable controls the degree of refinement to which the size functions resolve the mesh size variation within the attachment geometry. BGRID_MAX_TREE_DEPTH appears in the text entry box at the bottom of the list and its default value (16) appears in the Value text entry box. . GAMBIT updates the Value of the variable BGRID_MAX_TREE_DEPTH. b) Select the SFUNCTION radio button. Close the Edit Defaults form. d) Enter a value of 30 in the Value text entry box. 2.

They are especially useful when meshing highly curved surfaces. . for which a fixed-size surface mesh might not resolve the curvature adequately. Curvature size functions limit the allowable angle between outward-pointing normals for any two adjacent mesh elements located immediately adjacent to the surface of a source entity. TOOLS —> SIZE FUNCTIONS —> CREATE SIZE FUNCTION This command sequence opens the Create Size Function form. b) On the Source option button.Step 7: Apply a Size Function to the Sides of the Hull In this step. you will apply a curvature size function to the sides of the sailboat hull. 1. a) Select the Type:Curvature option. Create and apply a curvature size function to the hull bottom and side faces. select the Faces option. c) Select the two curved faces at the bottom and side of the hull (see Figure 15-11).

. f) Select the five faces that comprise the entire hull (see Figure 15-12).Figure 15-11: Size function source faces d) On the Attachment option button. select the Faces option. e) Click in the Attachment:Faces list box to make it active.

enter 2. k) Click Apply to create and attach the size function. size text box. 1. h) In the Growth rate text box.Figure 15-12: Size function attachment faces g) In the Angle text box. Step 8: Mesh the Hull Faces In this step. size value (0. Create triangular meshes on the surfaces of the sailboat. . enter 10. j) Retain the default Min. i) In the Max. you will create triangle meshes on the faces of the hull.2. MESH —> FACE —> MESH FACES This command sequence opens the Mesh Faces form.001). enter 1.

GAMBIT meshes the faces as shown in Figure 15-13.a) In the graphics window. . retain the Interval size of 1. d) Under Spacing. select all five faces that comprise the sailboat hull (see Figure 15-12.) e) Click the Apply button at the bottom of the form. above) b) Select the Elements:Tri option. c) Retain the Type:Pave option. (NOTE: The size function applied in the previous step will override the Spacing specifications on the Mesh Faces form.

This command sequence opens the Edit Defaults form. 1. Modify the boundary-layer angle default value. Outer edges of advancing boundary layers are projected to adjacent faces only when the interior angle between the faces is less than or equal to the default value. Edit —> Defaults.. which can lead to complications when attaching 3-D boundary layers to the hull.. . You can avoid the complications by changing the default that controls the angle at which advancing boundary layers are allowed to project to adjacent surfaces.Figure 15-13: Triangle paved mesh on sailboat surface faces Step 9: Set Boundary-Layer Angle Default The bow of the sailboat forms a very large angle with the symmetry face.

Close the Edit Defaults form. b) Select the VERTEX radio button. Step 10: Apply 3-D Boundary Layers to the Hull . e) Click the Modify button. d) Enter a value of 170 in the Value text entry box. MAX_END_DANGLE appears in the space at the bottom of the list and its default value appears in the Value text entry box. 2. The Value of the variable MAX_END_DANGLE is updated in the list. c) Select MAX_END_DANGLE in the Variable list.a) Select the MESH tab.

In this step. just removed from the graphics window. This type of boundary layer is useful for meshing external aerodynamics such as those that are common in aerospace. b) Select the Mesh:Off option near the bottom of the form. Create and apply 3-D boundary layers on the hull faces. marine. a) Click the SPECIFY DISPLAY ATTRIBUTES command button at the bottom of the Global Control toolpad to open the Specify Display Attributes form. Remove the mesh from the display before creating the 3-D boundary layers. The mesh is not deleted. you will attach a first-height/last-aspect-ratio-based boundary layer to the hull. and Close the form. 1. while a specific aspect ratio in the outermost layer allows the growth of high-quality tetrahedral cells from the outer surface of the boundary layer. 2. Removing the mesh display makes it easier to see the edges and faces of the geometry. turbomachinery. c) Click Apply to turn off the mesh display. . A boundary layer with a specific cell height in the first layer allows the capture of near-wall turbulence. MESH —> BOUNDARY LAYER —> CREATE BOUNDARY LAYER This command sequence opens the Create Boundary Layer form. and automotive applications.

. d) Retain the default Last percent value (50). GAMBIT automatically sets the Last percent value to 50. f) Select the Attachment:Faces option and click in the Faces list box to make it active. b) In the First row text box.028. h) Click Apply.a) Under Definition. c) Retain the default Rows value (4). enter 0. select the Algorithm:Aspect ratio (last) option. This defines the height of the first row of elements on the faces. g) Select all five of the hull faces. e) Select the Internal continuity option.

.) Figure 15-14: Projection of 3-D boundary layer onto flow volume face Step 11: View 3-D Boundary Layers GAMBIT includes a function that automatically meshes and displays 3-D boundary layer regions so that you can view the mesh in such regions before meshing the entire volume. MESH —> BOUNDARY LAYER —> VIEW 3D BOUNDARY LAYER This command sequence opens the View 3D Boundary Layers form. you will use the function to examine the meshing regions near the hull. 1. a) In the graphics window. select any of the faces to which the 3-D boundary layer is attached. (NOTE: The figure shows only the projection of the boundary layers onto the symmetry face of the flow volume. In this step.GAMBIT applies 3-D boundary layers to the sailboat hull as shown in Figure 15-14. Create and view the 3-D boundary layer meshes.

and displays the entire mesh in the boundary layer region (see Figure 15-15). GAMBIT meshes the 3-D boundary layer region. For example. You can use the Examine Mesh form to analyze the 3-D boundary layer mesh as you would any volume mesh. you can use the X slider bar to display slices of the mesh aligned with the y-z plane (see Figure 15-16).b) Click Apply. Figure 15-15: 3-D boundary layer mesh display . if you select the Display type:Plane option on the Examine Mesh form. automatically opens the Examine Mesh form.

Mesh the volume with a tetrahedral mesh. you must close the Examine Mesh form before continuing with other GAMBIT operations. 1. The meshed size function on the boundary layer cap grows the mesh from the outer surface of the boundary layer into the volume. . MESH —> VOLUME —> MESH VOLUMES This command sequence opens the Mesh Volumes form. Step 12: Mesh the Flow Volume In this step you will mesh the volume using a tetrahedral meshing algorithm and specify that the GAMBIT applies a meshed size function on the boundary layer cap.Figure 15-16: 3-D boundary layer mesh display—slice in y-z plane ! When you are finished examining the 3-D boundary layer mesh.

GAMBIT activates the Growth rate and Max. specify an Interval size of 5. select the Elements:Tet/Hybrid option and the Type:TGrid option. size (2). c) Select the Meshed S. d) Retain the default Growth rate (1. g) Click Apply. b) Under Scheme. on B.F.a) Select the volume in the graphics window.2). size text boxes.L. f) Under Spacing. e) Retain the default Max. cap option. . See the GAMBIT Modeling Guide for more information on meshing schemes. GAMBIT meshes the flow volume as shown in Figure 15-17.

Click the EXAMINE MESH command button on the Global Control toolpad.Figure 15-17: Mesh of flow volume Step 13: Examine the Mesh 1. . This action opens the Examine Mesh form.

as well. you must click the Update pushbutton located at the bottom of the form. but you must manually specify the display of tetrahedral elements. GAMBIT automatically updates the display. In this case. GAMBIT does not automatically update the graphics display when you open the Examine Mesh form or modify its specifications. To update the graphics display. to view all elements in the mesh. GAMBIT automatically selects the 3-D Element wedge display option. the volume mesh consists of wedge and tetrahedral elements. b) Select the Display Type:Plane option at the top of the form.a) Click Update at the bottom of the Examine Mesh form. Some Examine Mesh operations automatically update the graphics display. GAMBIT displays the Update pushbutton label in red lettering whenever the display needs to be updated to reflect the current Examine Mesh specifications. such as Display Type or Quality Type. . For example. if you select the Display Type:Range option and click one of the histogram bars. The Examine Mesh form allows you to view mesh characteristics for various types of 3-D mesh elements.

respectively. Figure 15-18: Cutting plane (y-z) showing tetrahedral and wedge elements . and use the X and Y slider bars near the bottom of the form to display cutting planes through the mesh in the y-z and z-x directions. Figure 15-18 and Figure 15-19 show y-z and z-x cutting planes through the mesh.c) Click the 3-D Element option tetrahedral button at the top of the form.

Figure 15-19: Cutting plane (z-x) showing tetrahedral elements d) Click the Close button at the bottom of the Examine Mesh form to close the form. File —> Export —> Mesh. This command sequence opens the Export Mesh File form. b) Click Accept on the Export Mesh File form. Export a mesh file for the sailboat flow volume.msh). Save the GAMBIT session and exit GAMBIT.. 2.. The file will be written to your working directory. a) Enter the File Name for the file to be exported (Sailboat. Step 14: Export the Mesh and Save the Session 1. .

a) Click Yes to save the current session and exit GAMBIT.File —> Exit GAMBIT will ask you whether you wish to save the current session before you exit. .