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Gilles Cazelais

We want to solve the recurrence relation an = Aan1 + Ban2 where A and B are real numbers. The solutions depend on the nature of the roots of the characterstic equation s2 As B = 0 (1) We consider three cases for the roots of (1). 1. If we have two distinct real roots s1 and s2 , then an = sn + sn . 1 2 2. If we have exactly one real root s, then an = sn + nsn . 3. If we have two complex conjugate roots in polar form s1 = r and s2 = r(), then an = rn cos(n) + sin(n) . In all cases, the numbers and can be determined if we are given the values of a0 and a1 . Example 1. Consider the recurrence relation an = 5an1 6an2 with initial conditions a0 = 1 and a1 = 4. The characteristic equation is s2 5s + 6 = (s 2)(s 3) = 0. Since the roots are s = 2 and s = 3, any solution of (2) has the form an = 3n + 2n . Therefore, a0 = + = 1 a1 = 3 + 2 = 4. Solving this linear system, we get = 2 and = 1. The solution of (2) with the given initial conditions is then an = 2 3n 2n Example 2. Consider the recurrence relation an = 6an1 9an2 with initial conditions a0 = 4 and a1 = 6. The characteristic equation is s2 6s + 9 = (s 3)2 = 0. (3) (2)

Since s = 3 is the only root, any solution of (3) has the form an = 3n + n3n . Therefore, a0 = = 4 a1 = 3 + 3 = 6. Solving this system, we get = 4 and = 2. The solution of (3) with its initial conditions is then an = 4 3n 2n3n Example 3. Consider the recurrence relation an = 2an1 2an2 with initial conditions a0 = 1 and a1 = 3. The characteristic equation is s2 2s + 2 = (s 1)2 + 1 = 0. We have two complex conjugate roots s1 = 1 + i and s1 = 1 i. In polar form s1 = r with r = and = . Any solution of (4) has the form an = ( 2)n cos(n ) + sin(n ) . Therefore, 4 4 4 a0 = = 1 1 1 a1 = 2 + 2 2 2 (4)

= 3.

Solving this system, we get = 1 and = 2. The solution of (4) with its initial conditions is then an = ( 2)n cos(n ) + 2 sin(n ) 4 4 Example 4. Consider the sequence of Fibonacci numbers that satisfy the recurrence relation fn = fn1 + fn2 with initial conditions f0 = 0 and f1 = 1. The characteristic equation is s2 s 1 = 0. The roots are s = (1 + 5)/2 and s = (1 5)/2. Then, any solution of (5) has the form fn = Therefore, f0 = + = 0 1+ 5 f1 = 2 1 5 2 1+ 5 2

n

(5)

1 5 2

= 1.

Solving this linear system, we get = 1/ 5 and = 1/ 5. Therefore, the Fibonacci numbers are obtained by the following formula, commonly known as Binets formula. 1 fn = 5 1+ 5 2

n

1 5

1 5 2

A recurrence relation of the form an = Aan1 + Ban2 + F (n) for F (n) not identically zero is said to be nonhomogeneous. Its associated homogeneous recurrence relation is an = Aan1 + Ban2 . Theorem 1. If an is a particular solution of the nonhomogeneous recurrence relation an = Aan1 + Ban2 + F (n), then every solution of (6) is of the form

(p) an = a(h) + an , n (p)

(6)

where an

(h)

To apply this theorem, we need to nd a particular solution of (6). This is a dicult problem in general but a standard technique exists for simple types of F (n) such as Polynomial, Exponential, e.g. F (n) = 5n2 2n + 1. e.g. F (n) = 3n . e.g. F (n) = 2n (5n2 + 3n + 1).

Exponential Polynomial,

Theorem 2. Consider the nonhomogeneous recurrence relation an = Aan1 + Ban2 + F (n), where F (n) = tn (Polynomial of degree N ). If t is not a root of s2 As B = 0, then there is a particular solution of the form a(p) = tn (p0 + p1 n + p2 n2 + + pN nN ). n If t is a root of s2 As B = 0 of multiplicity m, then there is a particular solution of the form a(p) = tn nm (p0 + p1 n + p2 n2 + + pN nN ). n Note that if F (n) is simply a polynomial like F (n) = 5n2 2n + 1, then t = 1 in the above theorem. Example 4. Consider the recurrence relation an = 5an1 6an2 + F (n). The characteristic equation of its associated homogeneous equation is s2 5s + 6 = (s 2)(s 3) = 0. 1. If F (n) = 2n2 , then a particular solution has the form an = An2 + Bn + C. 2. If F (n) = 5n (3n2 + 2n + 1), then an = 5n (An2 + Bn + C). 3. If F (n) = 5n , then an = 5n A. 4. If F (n) = 3n , then an = 3n An. 5. If F (n) = 2n (3n + 1), then an = 2n n(An + B). The values of the constants A, B, and C can be found by substituting an in the recurrence relation.

(p) (p) (p) (p) (p) (p)

Example 5. For the recurrence relation an = 6an1 9an2 + F (n), the characteristic equation of its associated homogeneous equation is s2 6s + 9 = (s 3)2 = 0. 1. If F (n) = 3n , then an = 3n An2 . 2. If F (n) = 3n (5n + 1), then an = 3n n2 (An + B). 3. If F (n) = 2n (5n + 1), then an = 2n (An + B). Example 6. For the recurrence relation an = 3an1 2an2 + F (n), the characteristic equation of its associated homogeneous equation is s2 3s + 2 = (s 1)(s 2) = 0. If F (n) = 3n + 1, then a particular solution has the form an = n(An + B). To see this, observe that F (n) = 1n (3n + 1) and s = 1 is a root of multiplicity one of the characteristic equation. Finally, here are two basic recurrence relations. Theorem 3. (Arithmetic sequence) If an = an1 + d and a0 = , then an = dn + . Theorem 4. (Geometric sequence) If an = kan1 and a0 = , then an = k n .

(p) (p) (p) (p)

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