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4.5.

4 Variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) Both the constant speed drive and integrated drive generator are complex and very expensive electromechanical devices. Advances in semiconductor technology has facilitated the development of solid-state products that can convert variable frequencies into .

115/200 V AC, 400 Hz three-phase power supplies. Variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems comprise a generator and power converter. A brushless AC generator is mounted onto the engine accessory gearbox as before; its output voltage

and frequency varies in accordance with engine speed. The gearbox increases the generator speed by a ratio of 1:3, producing a variable output frequency between 1300 and 2500 r.p.m. The three-phase output of VSCF is full-wave rectified to produce a 270 V DC

output. This direct current output is smoothed by large capacitors, fi ltered and fed into an inverter that produces a square wave output. The inverter converts the DC level into a three phase, pulse-width-modulated waveform. This is then converted in the sinusoidal output voltage. These outputs are then converted into AC through electronic circuits. The fi nal output stage is monitored by a current transformer and electromagnetic interferencefi lter ( CT / EMI ). Within the generator control unit ( GCU ) a generator control relay( GCR ) energizes the fi eld. This circuit can be

interrupted by the pilot or automatically under fault conditions. The VSCF generator conversion control unit (GCCU ) can either be integrated with the generator as a single engine mounted device (weighing typically 65 kg) or it can be located in the airframe. The latter arrangement has the advantage of making the engine accessories smaller; this means a lower profi le nacelle . In addition, the electronics can be located in a zone with reduced temperature and vibration.

VSCF systems are more reliable compared with constant speed drive and integrated drive generators since there are fewer moving parts. The VSCF systems moving parts consist of the generators rotor and an oil pump used for cooling. The VSCF can be used for both primary and secondary power supplies; outputs of 110 kVA are achievable. Enabling technology for VSCF are the power transistors and diodes capable of handling currents in excess of 500 A. These diodes and transistors form the core of the rectifier and conversion circuits of the GCCU. The VSCF contains an oil pump mounted on the generator shaft that circulates oil through the system; this oil is passed through a heat exchanger. Oil temperatures and pressures are closely monitored; warnings are given to the crew in the event of malfunctions. Oil level can be checked during ground servicing through a sight glass .