INTRODUCTION: TELECOMMUNICATION The word telecommunication was adapted from the French word telecommunication.

It is a compound of the Greek prefix tale- meaning 'far off', and the Latin communicate, meaning 'to share'. Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In modern times, this process almost always involves the sending of electromagnetic waves by electronic transmitters but in earlier years it may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums or semaphore. Today, telecommunication is widespread and devices that assist the process, such as the television, radio and telephone, are common in many parts of the world. There is also a vast array of networks that connect these devices, including computer networks, public telephone networks, radio networks and television networks. Computer communication across the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging, is just one of many examples of telecommunication. The basic elements of a telecommunication system are:
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a transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal for transmission a transmission medium over which the signal is transmitted a receiver that receives and converts the signal back into usable information

Often telecommunication systems are two-way and devices act as both a transmitter and receiver or transceiver. For example, a mobile phone is a transceiver. Telecommunication over a phone line is called point-to-point communication because it is between one transmitter and one receiver, telecommunication through radio broadcasts is called broadcast communication because it is between one powerful transmitter and numerous receivers. A collection of transmitters, receivers or transceivers that communicate with each other is known as a network. Digital networks may consist of one or more routers that route data to the correct user. An analogue network may consist of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. For both types of network, a repeater may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances. This is to combat attenuation that can render the signal indistinguishable from noise.

HISTORY OF GSM The Group Special Mobile (GSM) was created in 1982 by European Conference of postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) with the objective of developing a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across Europe. Modulation is used to represent a digital message as an analogue waveform. uses phase-shift keying for exchanges between devices. amplitude-shift keying and minimum-shift keying. over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks The growth of cellular telephone systems started in the early 1980s. Bluetooth. Modulation is a key concept in telecommunications and is frequently used to impose the information of one signal on another. GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation. particularly in being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries. By the end of 1993. This is known as keying and several keying techniques exist — these include phase-shift keying. for example. In 1989. frequency-shift keying. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland. .The phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990.

the key advantage of GSM systems has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as the Short Message Service (SMS). enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are four different cell sizes in a GSM network • • • • macro Micro Pico Umbrella cells. Some countries in the Americas (including the United States and Canada) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators.The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Group Special Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. . From the point of view of the consumers. Like other cellular standards GSM allows network operators to offer roaming services which mean subscribers can use their phones all over the world. The advantage for network operators has been the ability to deploy equipment from different vendors because the open standard allows easy inter-operability. GSM is a cellular network. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.

Investment on the inventory has the direct bearing on the profitability if the firm. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a fixed network). This is sometimes also just called the core network. The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet connections). they are typically used in urban areas. In Aircel planning is done for the dependent items as the items are required for the setting up of the tower at different locations and for the maintenance of the existing towers .The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Pico cells are small cells whose diameter is a few dozen meters. However in the last 20 years it has been seen that world class performance of the firm hinges on the firm ability to cut the investment on the inventory to very low level. they are mainly used indoors. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. • • The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers). Manufacturing and several services organisation have significantly invested in the inventory. The network behind the GSM system seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. • All of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services such as voice calls and SMS INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Inventory refers to the ideal resources that can be put to some future use. So that they can provide with the efficient connectivity throughout the whole country FOLLOWING ITEM KEPT IN THE INVENTORY DIFFRENT TYPE OF INVENTORY .

During summer and in winter demand for different equipment increases as the rate of failure of sites is very high in comparison to the rest of the year. Then it takes 30 days to deplete the order . In order to meet such fluctuation we have to manage the inventory so that we can full fill the demand for the various equipments eg. For example aircel may order 60 BTS .SEASONAL INVENTORY Organisation carry inventory to met the fluctuation in demand arising out of seasonality . shelther . Each stage will have the input buffer as well as the output buffer . On the next 30fst day the next order has to arrive and it will be consume over the next 30 day If Q is the order quantity per cycle The average cycle inventory will be = (Q+0)/2 = Q/2 PIPELINE INVENTORY Pipeline inventory pertains to the level of the inventory that organisation carry in the long run due to non zero lead time for order. IDU.microwave antina . One way to simplify the production planning and control is to decouple the successive stage usenig the inventory at some intermediate points. each stage behave idiosyncratically on account of varying process times . down times and resource availability . Therefore planning and control of such multy stage production becomes very complex. If the average consumption per day is 2 BTS. mux(multiplexer) . Output buffer of the preceding stage will become the input buffer for the successive stage. Raw material passes through these stages before it is converted it into the finished goods . transport and recipt of the order from the supplier because of the geographical distance between the buyer and the supplier and the host of . DECOUPLING INVENTORY Manufacturing system typically involves series of production and assembly workstations . CYCLIC INVENTORY It is customary for organisation to order inventory in repeated cycle and consume them over time. DTRU(Dual trans reciver unit) . ODU .

The inventory carried to take care of these delays is called pipeline inventory Average consumption of the BTS is 2 per day . The cost arising out of shortage. It takes three days to reach the order and the hospital will place the order by the end of 27 day so that the order reaches by the end of end of 30th day L = Lead time for the supply X= Mean demand per unit time Pipeline inventory is L*X SAFETY STOCK Organization also have additional investment in the inventory to buffer against uncertainties in demand and supply of raw material and component. • • • The cost of carrying inventory. carrying average inventory will ensure that the demand is measured only 50% of the time ( in the long run) . an additional quantity known as safety stock lead to a lower probability of inventory going out of stock . The cost is classified under in three broad categories. INVENTORY COSTS There are several cost associated with the inventory planning and control. We know from the elementary theory of probability distribution that when demand is stochastic. The cost associated with ordering material and replenishing it in cyclic inventory. Inventory control models should take these into consideration and aim at minimizing sum of all the cost. All cost related to maintaining inventory in organisation will be classified under this. .business process involved in ordering and receiving material . However in order to improve the availability to meet the uncertain demand . There is a time delay between order placement and order recipt . Safety stock only serves to prevent the shortages in the short run. Some time unit cost of item in which the inventory planning is done is also a relevant cost for decision making. Similarly the higher the uncertainty the greater the safety stock.

All these task include man power .INVENTORY . Total demand = D Quantity in the single order = Q Cost of single order = Co Total ordering cost = D/Q*Co COST OF SHORTAGE . resources and time that can be classified under the cost of ordering . Order quantity = Q Unit cost of quantity = Cu Cost associated with carrying inventory =(Q/2*Cu) COST OF ORDERING Replenishment of the cyclic inventory is met by ordering material with the supplier . pilferage damages and waste. The most important cost is the interest for the short term borrowing for the working capital required for inventory investment. Cost of obsolescence. Insurance cost. Software for maintaining the inventory status. The element of storing and warehousing cost include the following • • • • • Investment in the store space and storage and retrieval system.CARRYING COST Organisation need to spend a considerable amount of money to carrying out the inventory. price negotiation . Organisation perform series of task related to ordering material . contracting and purchase order generation follow up and receipt of the material and eventual stocking in the stores after necessary accounting and the verification . The second significant cost relates cost of stores and warehouse and the administrative cost related to maintaining the inventory and accounting for it. this include the search and identification of appropriate sources of supply . Managerial and other administrative manpower to discharge various activity related to stores.

Establishing the same lavel of monitoring and control to all the items may not be practically be feasible . complex and call for lengthy supply identification procedures total cost of carrying .Despite careful planning . For instance an telephone operator such as aircell there are about 10 to 15 items in the store. XYZ CLASSIFICATION The classification is based on the unit cost where as ABC consumption takes into conuption pattern into account . (c) low unit cost (Z class items) . organisation are likely to run out of the stock for several reason . Such event could disrupt the supply chain and have the cascading effect dawn the supply chain . (a) high unit cost (X class of items ) . order quantity and type of inventory control system that needs to be adopted . (b)medium unit cost(Y class item) . Very high value item are “A class item” . There fore the organizations device several way of categorizing the item and adopt that mechanism that have variable lavel of control on different items ABC CLASSIFICATION ABC classification is based on the cost of the items consumed . establishing the reorder point . There could be the sudden surge in demand . delivery schedule are missed . Total cost of inventory = total cost of ordering + inventory Total cost of inventory = (Q/2*CC) + (D/Q*CO) In order to minimise the cost we obtain the most economic order quantity Economic order quantity (EOQ) = (2COD/CC)1/2 SELCTIVE CONTROL OF INVENTORY Managing inventory invariably amounts to handling of large number and the verity of items . leading to the customer dissatisfaction loss of the good will. A very high value item often turn out to be specially made to order . It also cost the additional cost arise out of pushing the order back and rescheduling the system to accommodate these changes . Alternatively the supplier might not have delivered the material as per the schedule or a lot could have been rejected because of the defective component . Medium value item are categorized as “B class” and low value item as “C class” . A vast majority of item will be consumed (albeit in varying rates) and will require the mechanism for monitoring the inventory on hand .

They are brought back from the site and are kept there. Which is future oriented . (a) vital (b) essential (c) desirable . In several cases a vital item for maintenance may not be very expensive .FSN CLASSIFICATION This classification is based on the basis of the movement of inventory. (b) slow moving . SRN STORAGE AREA In this the items which are returned from the site are kept. The items are return from the site are return because of there mal functioning . (a) fast moving . Item that have not been moving for some time incur carrying cost and may call for managerial decision for disposal on the other hand fast moving item can be controlled useing inventory control system . They are stacked in the ware house . for instance vide variety of oil seals are used in the hydraulic system if oil seals not available the entire machine will become in operative . VED CLASSIFICATION This classification is relevant in case of the maintenance items. As per the demand they are supplied to the various sites where new tower are being installed or some repareing work is going on. as apposed to the ABC classification . . (c) non moving . This method of classification of item is ex-post . DEVSION OF WARE HOUSE IN AIRCEL • • • • Main storage area SRN (site return) storage area SRN (site return) damage storage area SRN(site return) ok storage area MAIN STORAGE AREA In this area items which are received from supplier are kept .

1ghz.SRN DAMAGE STORAGE AREA The items which are return from the site are repaired by the engineers’ .5DBI(3G) 2B4P antenna 1.8/2. They are tested again if they are tested ok then they are transferred to the srn ok storage area .1ghz 21DBI 650 vertical(2G)(3G) DB 1. ITEMS IN AIRCEL INVENTORY • BTS indoor S444 (2G) BTS outdoor S444 (2G) RBS 7/8 feed cable for BTS (2G) Antenna 15ghz/. If not performing ok they are kept in the srn damage area. SRN OK STORAGE AREA Items which return from site after testing start performing well are then transferred to the srn ok area and these are used as per the dmand. 4 part 0-10 (3G) • • • • • • • • • • • .3m Antenna 18ghz/1.21 D.xpole.2m Antenna GSM dual pole 18DBI(3G/2G) Antenna GSM dual pole 19.3m Antenna 15ghz/1.8 m Antenna 18ghz/.2 m Antenna 7ghz/1.8 12. 630 .

8 m antenna 1D 2U main chasis For the selective control of the inventory i have made the observation for the period of 30 working days for the no of items consumed during this period on the basis of this observation i have classified inventory into three categories fast moving goods . we will provide the maximum portion of inventory by volume to the fast moving goods and least to the non-moving goods .6 m antenna 18ghz single pole .2 m antenna 7ghz single pole 1.• • • • • • • STM 1 card(3G) 7/8 feedar cable 15ghz single pole . On the basis of above parameters the items are calssified below LIST OF FAST MOVEING ITEMS • • • • • Antenna GSM dual pole 18 DBI (3G/2G) Antenna GSM dual pole 19. slow moving goods and non moving goods in order . 7to 10 items in the months will be fast moving items. • • • • 0 to 3 items in the month will be not moving items .5 DBI (3G) STM 1 card (3G) 7/8 feedar cable 1D 2U main chasis LIST OF SLOW MOVEING ITEMS .6 m antenna 18ghz single pole 1. 4 to 6 items in the month will be slow moving items. Which in turn will reduce the carrying cost of the inventory .

• • • • • • • • Antenna 15 ghz/.2m Antenna 7ghz/1.6 antenna 18ghz single pole 1.3m Antenna 18ghz/1.2m 15ghz single pole .2 m antenna 7ghz single pole 1.3m Antenna 15 ghz/1.8m antenna • LIST OF NOT MOVEING ITEMS • • • BTS indoor S444(2G) BTS outdoor S444(2G) RBS 7/8 feed cable for BTS (2G) .8m Antenna 18ghz/.6 antenna 18ghz single pole .

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