Bismillahi-r-Rahmani-rRahim

ALLAH Beginning With
The Name Of, the tenderly Merciful and Infinitely Loving

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY

All praise flows to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. Felicity belongs to those who are immersed in awe before Allah, and there is no power and no strength except in Allah, the Exalted, the Magnificent. May peace and blessings be showered upon Muhammad, master of the divine knowers, upon the members of his pure household, upon his noble companions, upon his followers, and upon the entire community of believers. May Allah Most High grant us knowledge which is beneficial to us and to you, and may He place us among those who belong entirely to Him, through His exalted grace and His loving favor. His sublime power mercifully extends over all creation.

This book consist of

6 Sections they are on :

1) Aqeeda (Belief) by Imam Ahmed Raza Academy, South Africa www.raza.org.za 2) How to Pray Salaah (Prayer) by Imam Ahmad Raza Institute International , wales , United Kingdom 3) Durood Shareef by Imam Ahmed Raza Academy, South Africa 4) Short Surahs of Holy Quran Shareef with Translations of verses from "Kanzul Imaan" by A'la Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza (alaihir rahmah) 5) What is Prayer? And The Importance of Prayer by Allamah Sayyed Shah Turab ulHaque Qadri 6) Hadith on every aspects of Salaah ( Prayer ) by Imam Mohammed Abu Hamid Al Ghazali Radi Allahu anhu

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SECTION 1 Aqeeda ( Belief )
INDEX ALMIGHTY ALLAH AMBIYA OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH About the Ambiya of Almighty Allah What did the Ambiya of Almighty Allah do Stories of some of the Ambiya of Almighty Allah Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) Building of the Holy Kaaba Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) Other Stories THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) My Duty as a Muslim The People of Arabia Our Nabi Muhammad's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) Family Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as a Merchant Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) gets Married Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is Allah's Messenger, Family and Friends accept Islam, Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) Warns the People, The Muslims and the Kuffar, The Kuffar Harm the Muslims, Muslims live in a Valley, The People of Ta'if, Journey to the Heavens - Mee'raj, The People of Madinatul Munawwarah accept Islam, Plans to Kill our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), The Islamic City of Madinatul Munanawwarah, Musjid-un-Nabawi, The Battle of Badr, A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 3

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Battle of Uhud, The Battle of the Trench, Islam Spreads to other Places, The Holy Kaaba Free from Idols, The People of Makkatul Mukarramah, Last Hajj, Return to Almighty Allah FIQH - JUNIORS (PART 1) BELIEF IN ALMIGHTY ALLAH THE PROPHETS OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH THE BOOKS OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH THE ANGELS (MALAA'IKAH) OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH THE HEREAFTER (AAKHIRAH) THE HOLY QURAN THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT (QIYAAMAH) QUESTIONING IN THE GRAVE (QABR) THE FRIENDS OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH (AWLIYA ALLAH) THE COMPANIONS (SAHABA) OF THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) FIQH - JUNIORS (PART 2) THE FIVE BASIC DUTIES OF A MUSLIM SHAHAADAH - TO DECLARE THE FAITH SALAAH - TO READ THE FIVE DAILY SALAAH ZAKAAH - TO GIVE THE WELFARE DUE TO THE POOR SAUM - FASTING IN THE MONTH OF RAMADAAN HAJJ - PILGRIMAGE TO MAKKATUL MUKARRAMAH FIQH - JUNIORS (PART 3) ALMIGHTY ALLAH GREETINGS HELPING MY BEHAVIOUR SLEEPING CLEANLINESS AADAB OF READING THE HOLY QURAN SOME MAJOR SINS

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ALMIGHTY ALLAH As Salaamu Alaikum My dear brothers and sisters in Islam Today, we are going to learn about our Creator - Almighty Allah. We are also going to learn about our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). What was the first thing that Almighty Allah made? Almighty Allah first made the NUR (Light) of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). What did Almighty Allah make from the NUR of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)? Almighty Allah made everything from the NUR of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Children, Who made the earth? Who made the sun and the sky? Who made the moon and the stars? Who made the mountains? Who made the hills, the trees and the rivers? Who made the birds, the flowers and the insects? Who made the fishes is the sea? ALMIGHTY ALLAH made all of these things. ALMIGHTY ALLAH made all these things from the NUR of Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Do you know who created our parents? Almighty Allah created our parents. Who created us? Almighty Allah created us. Who is Almighty Allah? Almighty Allah is our Creator. Almighty Allah is the Maker of everything.

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AMBIYA OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH ABOUT THE AMBIYA OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH Dear children We will now learn about the Prophets of Almighty Allah. The "Prophets" of Almighty Allah are also called the "Ambiya" of Almighty Allah. They are also called "Nabi." "Ambiya" are the special and chosen people of Almighty Allah. We believe in all the Ambiya of Almighty Allah. Question : Who is Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam)? He was the first man on earth. He was also the first Nabi of Almighty Allah. Question : Who is Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam) to us? He is our father. Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam) is the father of all the people on earth (mankind). Question : How did Almighty Allah make Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam)? Almighty Allah made him from sand and clay and gave him life. Almighty Allah then placed the Nur of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam's) forehead. Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam) did not have a father and a mother. Question : Who is Bibi Hawaa (Alayhis Salaam)? She is the wife of Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam). She was also the first woman on earth. WHAT DID THE AMBIYA OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH DO Question : How did Almighty Allah tell us to worship him? Almighty Allah told us through his Ambiya to worship and obey Him. Question : What did the Ambiya say to us? They told us and showed us how to obey Almighty Allah and to worship Him. Question : What message did the Ambiya teach? They told the people to worship One Allah. They told us not to pray to the stones and trees and other idols. They told the people to do good things. They told us to keep away from bad things. Question : Where did Almighty Allah send His Ambiya to? Almighty Allah sent his Ambiya to every nation on earth. Question : Who is the last Nabi of Almighty Allah? A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 6

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is the last and final Nabi of Almighty Allah. Question : Will there be any Ambiya after our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)? No. There will not be any more Nabis after Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Question : What are names of some of the Ambiya of Almighty Allah? Nabi Nuh (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi Yusuf (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi Musa (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi Yunus (Alayhis Salaam) Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) STORIES OF SOME OF THE AMBIYA OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH Dear Children, Do you like to read stories about the Ambiya of Almighty Allah? Today, we will read about the life of some of the Ambiya of Almighty Allah. A. NABI IBRAHIM (ALAYHIS SALAAM) Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) was known as "KHALIL LULLAH." It means "Friend of Allah." The people in the time of Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) prayed to idols. The idols were made from stone and were of different shapes. The people put the idols in their temple. Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) was very intelligent. He saw the people praying and bowing down to the idols. He knew that what the people were doing was wrong. He saw that the idols could not move or talk. Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) had an idea. He decided to teach the people a lesson. One day, while the people went out of town to celebrate a festival, Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) went to the temple. He saw the idols in the temple. He took an axe and began to break all the idols. He did not break the biggest idol. He left the axe hanging around the neck of the biggest idol. Do you know why he did that? Let us find out. When the people came back from the festival, they saw that their idols were broken. They became very angry. They knew that it was only one person's job! They called Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) and asked him, "Who broke the idols?" He said: "Ask the biggest idol." A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 7

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They said: "But the idols cannot talk?" Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) answered: "Then, why do you worship them? They cannot talk, move or understand anything. Why do you ask them to help you?" The people had no answer. They were sure that Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) broke their idols. They decided to punish Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam). They made a big fire and threw him in. What do you think happened! A miracle happened! The fire did not harm him. Almighty Allah protected him. Almighty Allah commanded the fire to be cool and not burn Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam). The people could not believe what they saw. Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) was Almighty Allah's friend. He believed in Almighty Allah. He knew that Almighty Allah was going to help him. B. NABI ISMA'IL (ALAYHIS SALAAM) Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) went away to another country. He lived in that country for a very long time. He was now an old man. Almighty Allah blessed him with two sons. They were Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) and Nabi Ishaaq (Alayhis Salaam). Almighty Allah also made them His Ambiya. When Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) was 7 years old, Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) had a dream. In his dream, Almighty Allah told him to sacrifice Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) to show how much he loved Almighty Allah. Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) told his son, Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam), about the dream. Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) was not afraid. He said: "O my father, do as Allah has ordered you. Insha-Allah, you will find that I am patient and truthful to Allah." Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) took his son to an open ground. He placed a sharp knife on the throat of his son and closed his eyes. He was ready to cut his son's neck. When Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) opened his eyes he found a ram in the place of his son. The Angels of Almighty Allah put a ram in the place of Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam). Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) was saved! Almighty Allah knew that Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) loved Him. Almighty Allah was testing Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam). Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) passed the test. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Dear Children, every year Muslims celebrate EID-UL-ADHA. We sacrifice an animal. Do you know why do we do this? We do this to think about Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) and his great sacrifice. We too must obey Almighty Allah. Almighty Allah will make us His special friend. C. BUILDING OF THE HOLY KAABA The Holy Kaaba is in Makkatul Mukarramah. Many, many years ago, it was built by Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam) to worship Almighty Allah. Now, Almighty Allah commanded Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) to build the Holy Kaaba again. Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) also helped his father to build the Holy Kaaba. The Holy Kaaba was now ready. Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) found the stone which was brought from Paradise (Jannah) by Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam). He placed this stone in the corner of the Holy Kaaba. This stone is called "HAJRE-ASWAD" or "The Black Stone." Then, Almighty Allah commanded Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) to call the people to Makkatul Mukarramah for Hajj. Many people came to Makkatul Mukarramah for Hajj. They came to the Holy Kaaba to pray to Almighty Allah. Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) and Nabi Isma'il (Alayhis Salaam) told the people: You should obey Almighty Allah. You should be good to other people. You should not pray to idols. After a while, the people forgot these teachings. They tried to change Almighty Allah's Deen, Islam. They began to pray to the idols. They put these idols in the Holy Kaaba. D. NABI 'ISA (ALAYHIS SALAAM) There was once a very holy woman. Her name was Bibi Maryam (radi Allahu anha). An Angel of Almighty Allah came to her and said: "You will have a son very soon." She asked: "How can I have a son? I have no husband." The Angel said: "Allah is very Great. When Allah wishes something, it will happen. You will have a son and his name will be Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam). He will be a great Nabi of Allah." Remember how Nabi Adam (Alayhis Salaam) was made? Almighty Allah made him without a father and a mother. So, it was easy for Almighty Allah to make Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) without a father. Later, Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was born. The people began asking Bibi Maryam (radi Allahu anha): "How did you get the child?" A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 9

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Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was still a baby in the cradle. Almighty Allah gave him powers to speak. He said the people: "I am the servant of Allah. He has made me His Prophet. We must worship Allah and help the poor." Years went by and Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) grew up to be an adult. He received many blessings from Almighty Allah. He performed many miracles. He made birds out of clay and made them fly. He made the blind people see. He cured those who were sick. Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) could also make the dead come alive! He did all this with the Order and Power of Almighty Allah. The people in the time of Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) were called the Bani Isra'el. They were very cruel people. They did not believe in the Message of Almighty Allah. They prayed to the idols. Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) told them to pray to Almighty Allah alone. Many people listened to him and even followed him. Many people said that Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was a son of Almighty Allah. We Muslims do not believe that Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was a son of Almighty Allah. Almighty Allah has no son or daughter. We believe that Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was a Prophet and servant of Almighty Allah. Then, the cruel people tried to kill Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam). Almighty Allah loved his Nabi. Almighty Allah saved him and took him to the Heavens. Nabi 'Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was not crucified (put on a cross) as the Christians say he was! Everything is possible for Almighty Allah. Was it not Almighty Allah who saved Nabi Ibrahim (Alayhis Salaam) from the fire? E. OTHER STORIES Dear Children, There are also very interesting stories about other Ambiya of Almighty Allah. Ask your teacher, parents, brothers or sisters to tell you more stories - about Nabi Nuh (Alayhis Salaam) and the ark that he built; about Nabi Musa (Alayhis Salaam) and Fir'awn; and about Nabi Yunus (Alayhis Salaam) and the whale. Many of these stories are in the Holy Quran. Almighty Allah wants us to learn lessons from these stories. Almighty Allah say in the Holy Quran: "There is a lesson for the men of understanding in their stories." (2:111)

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THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) MY DUTY AS A MUSLIM I am a Muslim. My Deen is Islam. I believe that there is no diety but Almighty Allah. Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is Rasulullah. "Rasulullah" means "Allah's Prophet" or "Allah's Messenger." When we hear or see the name Nabi Muhammad, we say, "sallal laahu alaihi wasallam." That means, "Allah's blessings and peace be upon him." It reminds us to ask Almighty Allah to bless our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Almighty Allah and His Angels bless us when we ask Almighty Allah to bless Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Now, we will read about the life of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). I love my Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He is our Prophet. He brought us the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran is Almighty Allah's last message to the people of the world. I must love those that love Almighty Allah and our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). I must keep away from those who do not love Almighty Allah and our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). We should try to obey Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). When we obey him, we are obeying Almighty Allah. Then Almighty Allah will be happy with us. Almighty Allah will take care of us in this world. And Almighty Allah will reward us in our next life.

My eyes have not seen anyone more handsome than you. nor has any women given birth to anyone more beautiful than you. You have been created free from all faults it is as if you have been created as you desire.
" Hassan Ibn Thabit {Radi'Allahu Anhu} wrote this because of his love for the Messenger of Allah {Sall'Allahu 'Alayhi wa-Sallam} THE PEOPLE OF ARABIA Makkatul Mukarramah is in Arabia. The people of Arabia are called Arabs. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 11

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Most of the Arabs lived in the cities. Others lived in tents in the desert. The Arabs were very cruel people. They cheated. They drank wine and alcohol. They placed bets and gambled. They were not kind to their mothers, daughters and sisters. They even killed their young daughters. They fought wars and killed each other. The Arabs forgot to pray to Almighty Allah. They changed the Holy Kaaba. They put idols in the Holy Kaaba, the House of Almighty Allah. They prayed to the idols. OUR NABI MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM'S) FAMILY Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was born in the city of Makkatul Mukarramah. He was born on Monday, the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) belonged to the Banu Hashim family. He was from the Quraish tribe. His father's name was Sayyiduna Abdullah (radi Allahu anhu). His father passed away before our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was born. His mother, Sayyidah Aamina (radi Allahu anha), passed away when he was six (6) years old. His grandfather, Sayyiduna Abdul Muttalib (radi Allahu anhu), then took care of him. But his grandfather also passed away. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was now eight (8) years old. OUR NABI MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) AS A MERCHANT His uncle, Abu Taalib, now took care of him. Everybody loved our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He was a happy, friendly person. He liked to help other people. He did not use bad words. He did not fight with the other children. Abu Taalib was a merchant. He bought and sold things. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was also a merchant. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was an honest merchant. People trusted him. He always told the truth, so people called him As-Saadiq. "As-Saadiq" means truthful. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 12

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He was also very honest and people trusted him. They called him Al-Amin. "AlAmin" means the person we can trust. OUR NABI MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) GETS MARRIED A lady named Bibi Khadija (Radi Allahu Anha) lived in Makkatul Mukarramah. She was a widow. Her husband passed away. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) did some business for her. She liked his honesty. When our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was 25 years old, he married Bibi Khadija (radi Allahu anha). She was 40 years old. They loved and cared for each other. They had six (6) children. Bibi Khadija (radi Allahu anha) was very rich. She gave all her wealth to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He helped the poor people. He freed many slaves. OUR NABI MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) IS ALLAH'S MESSENGER Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) did not like the evil ways of the Arabs. He wanted the people to know the truth about Almighty Allah. So he started going to a cave to think about things. The cave was called Hira. It was peaceful and quiet in the cave of Hira. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) spent a lot of time in the cave of Hira thinking about Almighty Allah and praying to Almighty Allah. One day, he was in the cave of Hira. Suddenly, the dark cave became full of light. In the light, our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) saw an Angel. The Angel was Sayyiduna Jibra'el (Alayhis Salaam). Sayyiduna Jibra'el (Alayhis Salaam) gave him a message from Almighty Allah. Almighty Allah wanted our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to announce that he is Rasulullah. Almighty Allah wanted him to be His Messenger and invite the people to Islam. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was forty (40) years old. FAMILY AND FRIENDS ACCEPT ISLAM Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) first talked to his family and friends about Islam. He told them: Almighty Allah made me His Rasool, His Prophet. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 13

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I will teach you the Deen of Islam. I will teach you Almighty Allah's Book, the Holy Quran. I will teach you what is right. I will tell you what is wrong. Some of his family and friends believed in him. They became Muslims. A Muslim who saw Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and believed in him is called a Sahabi. "Sahabi" means a friend. When we hear a Sahabi's name, we say, "radi Allahu anhu." It means, "May Allah be pleased with him." OUR NABI MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) WARNS THE PEOPLE Sayyiduna Jibra'el (Alayhis Salaam) came again. "Now Allah wants you to teach Islam to everyone in Makkatul Mukarramah," he told our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) climbed the hill of Safaa. He called all the people. He told them : O People! If I tell you that behind this mountain there is an army that is going to attack you, will you believe me? The people said : We will believe you. You are Al Amin and As Saadiq. He said : Then believe in what I have to say. Almighty Allah has made me His Rasool. Almighty Allah has asked me to teach you about Islam. Do not pray to the idols. Stop your evil ways or Almighty Allah will punish you. You must believe in Almighty Allah. You will die one day. Allah will judge you. But many people in Makkatul Mukarramah did not want to believe in Almighty Allah. They liked to pray to their idols. They were angry so they went away. THE MUSLIMS AND THE KUFFAR Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) taught Islam to everyone who would listen. Many people believed in him. They became Muslims. They became the Sahaba of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 14

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Most of the people of Makkatul Mukarramah did not like his teachings. They did not want to hear about Islam. They did not want to hear the words of the Holy Quran. They remained non-believers. The non-believers are called the "Kuffar." The Kuffar are the enemies of Islam. They are the enemies of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). THE KUFFAR HARM THE MUSLIMS There were many Kuffar in Makkatul Mukarramah. They told our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) not to teach Islam. He warned them about the Day of Judgement. He said : When the heavens will break, and the stars will fall, and the earth will shake, and the mountains will fly into pieces on that day everything will end. The Kuffar did not believe what he said. They laughed at him when he talked. They made fun of him. They threw dirt on him. They tried to hurt him. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) suffered a lot. But he was patient. He knew he was the Prophet of Allah. He kept on teaching Islam. Most of the Sahabah were weak and poor. The Kuffar did not leave the Sahabah. They put the Muslim slaves in chain. They dragged them through the streets. They made them lie on hot sand. They made them sit on burning coal. They kept them without food and water. But the Muslims were patient. They faith remained strong. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) sent some Muslims to another country called Abyssinia. The King of Abyssinia was a Christian. He was a kind man. He protected the Muslims from the Kuffar. MUSLIMS LIVE IN A VALLEY A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat

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The Kuffar were very worried. More and more people were accepting Islam. The Kuffar asked the people of Makkatul Mukarramah to : Stop talking to the Muslims, Stop selling them things, Stop buying from them and Stop giving them things to eat and drink. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) took his family and some other Muslims to live in a valley. No one would talk to them. No one would sell them anything. They had almost no food and water. The Muslims suffered a lot. But they remained firm. The Muslims did not give up. Then at last the Kuffar let the Muslims come out of the valley and go home. THE PEOPLE OF TA'IF Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) went to the city of Ta'if. He wanted to teach Islam to its people. The people of Ta'if were rich and powerful. They believed in idols and loved their evil ways. They did not like the teachings of Islam. They laughed at our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They made fun of him. They threw stones at him and hurt him. They chased him out of the city. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was hurt by the stones. He was bleeding and in pain. But, he was not angry with the people of Taif. He prayed to Almighty Allah to guide the people of Taif to Islam and make them good Muslims. JOURNEY TO THE HEAVENS - MEE'RAJ Almighty Allah invited our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to Heaven. Almighty Allah wanted our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to reach places where nobody has or will ever reach. Allah sent the Angel, Sayyiduna Jibra'el (Alayhis Salaam), to bring our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to Heaven. The journey of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to Heaven is called "MEE'RAJ." Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) rode on Buraaq. The Buraaq was a creature of Heaven. It was like a horse with wings. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) reached Heaven. He saw how beautiful Heaven was. He saw the terrible fire of Hell. He spoke to Almighty Allah. Almighty Allah said : A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 16

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Heaven is for good Muslims. Hell is for the wicked Kuffar. I will give a gift to the Muslims. My gift is Salaah. Through Salaah Muslims can meet me. Then Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) went back home. He told the Muslims about his Mee'raj. They were very happy. The Kuffar did not believe him. THE PEOPLE OF MADINATUL MUNAWWARAH ACCEPT ISLAM For ten years, our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) invited the people of Makkatul Mukarramah to Islam. Madinatul Munawwarah was another city in Arabia. Some of the people from Madinatul Munawwarah came to Makkatul Mukarramah. They listened to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and accepted Islam. He told them : Almighty Allah loves you. You are Allah's Ansaar, the helpers. The people of Madinatul Munawwarah were very happy to hear this. They said: We believe in Almighty Allah. We believe in His Rasool. We are Muslims. We will be Almighty Allah's Ansaar. You are our Prophet. We will help our Muslim brothers. We will work for Islam. They then went back to Madinatul Munawwarah. They told everyone about our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and about Islam. PLANS TO KILL OUR NABI MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) saw the sufferings of the Muslims of Makkatul Mukarramah. He told them: "Go to Madinatul Munawwarah. Live there with your Muslim brothers." Most of the Muslims went to Madinatul Munawwarah. When the Kuffar found out that the Muslims had gone, they became angry. They wanted to kill our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They began making plans. Almighty Allah told our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) about the plans of the Kuffar. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) escaped and went to Madinatul Munawwarah. THE ISLAMIC CITY OF MADINATUL MUNAWWARAH A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat

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The people of Madinatul Munawwarah were very happy to see our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They came out to welcome him. The little boys and girls wore colourful clothes. They sang beautiful songs for him. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked the children: "Do you love me." The children were excited. They said: "Yes, we love you, O Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)!" He said: "And I love you, too." It was the happiest day in their lives! MUSJID-UN-NABAWI Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was now the leader in Madinatul Munawwarah. He made this blessed city into an Islamic City. Here he built a mosque. It was a very simple mosque. This mosque was made of mud and clay. The pillars were made from the trunks of palm trees. The roof of the mosque was made from the leaves of the palm trees. This Musjid was called "Musjid-un-Nabawi" or "The Mosque of the Prophet." THE BATTLE OF BADR The Kuffar in Makkatul Mukarramah were very angry. The leaders of the Kuffar got together. They said: "We have to stop Islam. Let us go to war with the Muslims. We will show the Muslims how strong we are." The first battle with the Kuffar was at a place called Badr. The Muslims were small in number. There were more Kuffar than Muslims. The Muslims were very brave. They were not afraid to fight. The Muslims won the battle. Almighty Allah had helped the Muslims to win the battle. They had trust in Almighty Allah. Many of the Kuffar were killed. Many were caught by the Muslims. THE BATTLE OF UHUD A year later, the Kuffar attacked the Muslims again. This time they had a very big army. This battle was at a place called Uhud, near Madinatul Munawwarah. Many people were killed in the Battle of Uhud. And many others were hurt. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was also hurt in this battle. THE BATTLE OF THE TRENCH Two years later, the Kuffar attacked again. They had an even bigger army. The Muslims dug a big trench around Madinatul Munawwarah. They fought from behind A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 18

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the trench. This war is called the Battle of the Trench. The battle went on for a month. The Muslims kept the Kuffar from crossing the ditch. But no one was winning. Then, one night, Almighty Allah sent a wind. The wind was very strong. It blew the Kuffars tents. It blew away their food. It blew away their camels, their horses and their sheep. The Kuffar were really scared! It was so dark that they could not see. Some of them fought with each other. By morning, they had all run away. The Muslims won the battle! Almighty Allah had seen that they were patient and brave. He helped them against the enemies of Islam. The Muslims thanked Almighty Allah, saying : Almighty Allah is the true Lord, He gave us victory over the Kuffar. ISLAM SPREADS TO OTHER PLACES The Kuffar made peace with our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). There was no more fighting. Some of the Kuffar began to listen to the Message of Islam. More and more people became Muslims. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) sent his Sahaba to many places. He sent them with letters to invite the kings and the tribes to Islam. The letters said : Believe in Almighty Allah. Believe in His Prophet. Accept Islam. Be kind and fair to everyone. Do good deeds. Do not do evil deeds. After death, you will return to Almighty Allah. So fear the Day of Judgement. More and more people came to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They accepted Islam. Islam became stronger day by day. THE HOLY KAABA FREE FROM IDOLS The Kuffar were not happy to see Islam become strong. They did not want peace with our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They wanted to fight again. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) took a big Muslim army and marched towards Makkatul Mukarramah. They stopped outside the city. The Muslims prayed to Almighty Allah to give them victory and bring the Kuffar to Islam. The Muslims caught the leader of the Kuffar. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) forgave him. He became a Muslim. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 19

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The Muslim army now entered Makkatul Mukarramah without a fight. They went to the Holy Kaaba with our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He broke all the idols to pieces. He threw them out of the Holy Kaaba. Once again the Holy Kaaba was the House of Allah. The Muslims were very happy. With Almighty Allah's help, Islam had become very strong. Islam had won! THE PEOPLE OF MAKKATUL MUKARRAMAH The Kuffar came out to see our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They asked him: "What are you going to do with us?" He said: "Go, you all are free. I forgive you. May Almighty Allah also forgive you." The Kuffar could not believe what they heard. Many of the Kuffar saw how kind and merciful our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was. They accepted Islam. They asked our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to forgive them. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said : You are now Muslims. You are now brothers. You are now our family. You are now my own Ummah. I forgive you. Almighty Allah will forgive you. The Muslims will forgive you. He won the city of Makkatul Mukarramah. He won the hearts of the people of Makkatul Mukarramah. LAST HAJJ More and more people came to Madinatul Munawwarah. They all accepted Islam. Almighty Allah told our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that his work was now complete. He had done what Almighty Allah wanted him to do. Now he must return to Almighty Allah. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) went to Makkatul Mukarramah for Hajj. He went with thousands of Muslims. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) spoke to all the Muslims. It was his last big speech. He said: Almighty Allah has chosen Islam as His religion. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 20

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Remember! All human beings are brothers and sisters. We are all the children of Nabi Adam (alayhis salaam). All Muslims are brothers. Be kind to everyone. Do not kill anyone. Follow the Holy Quran and my Example. I have given you the Message of Islam. Tell everyone about Islam. The people said: Insha-Allah, we will. We will do everything that you have told us. We are Muslims. We love Almighty Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). And we will obey Almighty Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). RETURN TO ALMIGHTY ALLAH After Hajj, our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) went back to Madinatul Munawwarah. He then became very ill. The time for our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to meet Almighty Allah had come. He said: "Allah is the Best Friend. Allah is the only True Friend."

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FIQH - PART 1 1. BELIEF IN ALMIGHTY ALLAH 1.1 "Tauheed" means the Oneness of Almighty Allah. 1.2 Tauheed also tells us that everything on this earth is from One Creator, Almighty Allah. 1.3 Bear in mind that Almighty Allah is the All Knowing, All Wise and All Powerful. 1.4 He is Most Merciful and He is with us all the time. He Sees us but we do not see Him. 1.5 Almighty Allah has neither a partner nor a son. He gives us life and takes it away and to Him we shall all return. 1.6 When you read the Kalimah, you must believe in it with all your heart. 1.7 A Muslim must firmly believe that there is only One Almighty Allah. He must clean his heart of all other thoughts. 1.8 If we look at the world, we will see that everything is working or proceeding without any faults. This is because Almighty Allah is in full control of the whole world. 1.9 If there is more than One Almighty Allah, which there can never be, there should be many problems around us. The sun, the moon, the stars and many things of nature will not operate in a proper manner. 1.10 Everything in the world works according to the Commands of Almighty Allah. 1.11 What happens when you believe in One Almighty Allah and believe that He is watching you all the time? A. It creates in you self-respect and confidence. B. It makes you humble and modest. C. It makes you dutiful and upright. D. It makes you brave and courageous. E. It makes you strong and have patience in difficulties. F. It makes you obey the Commands of Almighty Allah. 1.12 We are Almighty Allah's servants, therefore, our actions and our Imaan (Beliefs) must be the same. 2. THE PROPHETS OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH 2.1 Since the beginning of the earth, Almighty Allah sent guidance to people through His special and chosen servants. These special and chosen servants are called "Ambiya" or Prophets. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 22

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 2.2 The Ambiya of Almighty Allah are all "Masoom" or "sinless." This means that they have always been protected by Almighty Allah and they have never committed any sin. 2.3 The message that all the Ambiya of Almighty Allah used to teach was that "There is no god but Almighty Allah." They also commanded the people to "do good and keep away from evil." 2.4 Why has Almighty Allah sent Ambiya? Ambiya have been sent to tell us about the future and to teach us the "Siraatul Mustaqeem" or "The Straight Path." 2.5 Do we need guidance from Almighty Allah? Yes, because we are weak and have no knowledge about the future. 2.6 Almighty Allah has sent His Ambiya to every nation on earth at different times. They were sent to teach us about Almighty Allah and how to worship Him and nobody else. 2.7 According to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), approximately 124 000 Ambiya came to the world. The Holy Quran mentions the names of 25 of the most famous Ambiya, which are: 2.8 As Muslims, we must believe in and respect all the Ambiya of Almighty Allah. 2.9 Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is the last Prophet of Almighty Allah. He is "Habeebullah" or the most beloved creation of Almighty Allah. 2.10 The first Nabi sent to this world was Sayyiduna Adam (alayhis salaam). 2.11 Whenever we take the name of any Nabi or Angel, we must always say or write in full: "ALAYHIS SALAAM" which means "Upon him be Peace." 2.12 After the name of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), we must always say or write in full: "SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM" which means "Peace and Blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him." 2.13 We, as Muslims, are the "Ummah" or "Followers" of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 2.14 Almighty Allah also calls our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) "Rahmatull Lil Aalameen". That means that our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is a Mercy for all people, creatures, and things in the world. 3. THE BOOKS OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH 3.1 All the Ambiya of Almighty Allah were sent with Books of Guidance to teach and educate the people. 3.2 Many Holy Books were sent by Almighty Allah to the world. 3.3 A Muslim believes in all the Books sent by Almighty Allah. 3.4 The four famous Books are:A. TORAH (Old Testament) : sent to Nabi Moosa (alayhis salaam) B. ZABOOR (Book of Psalms) : sent to Nabi Dawood (alayhis salaam) C. INJEEL (New Testament) : sent to Nabi 'Isa (alayhis salaam) D. HOLY QURAN : sent to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) 3.5 The Angel, Sayyiduna Jibra'el (alayhis salaam), used to convey Almighty Allah's Message to the Ambiya. 3.6 The Torah, the Zaboor and the Injeel are still found in the world today, but they have been changed by the Jews and the Christians. 3.7 Nothing has changed in the Holy Quran. It is still the same as it came to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) because Almighty Allah Himself has A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 23

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY promised to protect the Holy Quran. 4. THE ANGELS (MALAA'IKAH) OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH 4.1 Angels are the servants of Almighty Allah. 4.2 They are made from "Noor" or "Light." 4.3 They do not eat, drink or sleep like us. 4.4 They are also "Masoom" or "sinless" like the Ambiya of Almighty Allah. 4.5 They have been given many duties by Almighty Allah. For example:a. causing rain, b. writing our daily actions, c. attending Islamic functions like Zikr, Moulood-un-Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), Urs Shareef, d. sending Durood and Salaams upon our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), e. conveying our Durood and Salaams to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). f. some are in the constant position of Sajdah, Ruku, and Qiyaam and are busy remembering Almighty Allah. 4.6 The Malaa'ikah remember Almighty Allah all the time. 4.7 There are millions of Angels. Only Almighty Allah knows how many Malaa'ikah there are. He has shown their exact numbers to his special servants like the Ambiya (Prophets) and Awliya (Saints) of Almighty Allah. 4.8 There are four famous Angels:4.8.1 Sayyiduna Jibra'el (alayhis salaam) conveys Almighty Allah's Message to the Ambiya of Almighty Allah. 4.8.2 Sayyiduna Izra'el (alayhis salaam) takes away the "Rooh" or life of creatures. 4.8.3 Sayyiduna Mika'el (alayhis salaam) is in charge of food and controlling the seasons. 4.8.4 Sayyiduna Israfeel (alayhis salaam) will blow the "Sur" or "horn" on the Day of Qiyaamah. 4.9 The names of a few more Angels are: 4.9.1 Kiraaman Khaatibeen: These Angels stay in the company of each person and record their deeds. The Angel on the right-hand records the person's good deeds. The Angel on the left-hand records the person's bad deeds. 4.9.2 Munkar and Nakeer: These Angels question a person in the Qabar (Grave). 4.9.3 Shahideen: These Angels spend all their time worshipping and praising Almighty Allah. In fact, every Angel is amongst the Shaahideen because every Angel worships and praises Almighty Allah all the time. 4.9.4 Ridwaan: The gate-keeper of Jannah (Paradise). 4.9.5 Maalik: Is in charge of Jahannam (Hell). 5. THE HEREAFTER (AAKHIRAH) 5.1 It is Fard upon every Muslim to believe in the Hereafter (Aakhirah). 5.2 Our life in this world is a test and only for a short period of time. 5.3 We live in this world to prepare for the Aakhirah. 5.4 We have tests and examinations in the school and in the madressah to see who gets good results and who performs poorly. In like manner, Almighty Allah will put us to the test when the world comes to an end. We will be asked questions about how A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 24

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY we spent our lives, what good deeds did we do and what bad deeds did we commit. If we pass the test and Almighty Allah is pleased with us we will go into Jannah. But if we fail, we will be thrown into the Fire of Jahannam (Hell). 5.5 To prepare ourselves for the Aakhirah we have to obey the Commands of Almighty Allah and our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 5.6 Those people who will go into Jannah will live forever in happiness, while those who are meant to remain in Hell forever, will be surrounded by punishment. 6. THE HOLY QURAN 6.1 The Holy Quran is the Final Book of Almighty Allah sent to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 6.2 The Holy Quran is divided into 30 Paras, 114 Surahs and 6236 Ayahs (Verses). The first Surah is Al Faatiha and the last Surah is An Naas. 6.3 The Holy Quran contains the Laws of Almighty Allah. 6.4 The first verse of the Holy Quran was revealed to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in the Month of Ramadaan. He was in the Cave of Hira on the mountain, Jabel-e-Noor, near Makkatul Mukarramah. 6.5 The first few verses that were revealed were from Surah Alaq. 6.6 The Holy Quran was revealed over a period of 23 years - 13 years in Makkatul Mukarramah, and 10 years in Madinatul Munawwarah. 6.7 The last verse of the Holy Quran was revealed just before our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) could leave this world. 6.8 The Holy Quran is protected by Almighty Allah. 6.9 No person can produce any Sura or verse of the Holy Quran or even match it. 6.10 The Holy Quran is the only Book of Almighty Allah which has been by-hearted by millions of Muslims. It is the most read book in the world. 6.11 There are 14 Sajdah Ayahs in the Holy Quran. If one hears or reads any of these Ayahs, it becomes Waajib (compulsory) upon the person to perform "Sajdah Tilaawah." 6.12 Surahs which have been revealed when our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was living in Makkatul Mukarramah are known as "Makki." Those revealed in Madinatul Munawwarah are known as "Madini." 7. THE DAY OF JUDGMENT (QIYAAMAH) 7.1 Qiyaamah is that day in which everybody and everything will die. At that time only Almighty Allah will be Living. 7.2 Sayyiduna Israfeel (alayhis salaam) will blow the Sur (Horn). The sound will be so loud that everything will fall unconscious and die. After a while, even Sayyiduna Israfeel (alayhis salaam) will fall unconscious and die. 7.3 The Sur (Horn) is a pipe that is shaped like the horn of an animal. 7.4 When will Qiyaamah happen? This is only known to Almighty Allah and what He has shown to His special servants. All we know is that Qiyaamah will fall on the 10th of Muharram and on a Friday or the Day of Jumma. 7.5 Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has also shown us many signs which will occur before Qiyaamah and which will warn us that Qiyaamah is near. Some of these signs are:a. People will commit many sins. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 25

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY b. People will do many Haraam things. c. People will disrespect their parents. d. People will follow the Kuffar more instead of the Muslims. e. People will not be trustworthy. You will not be able to trust people. f. Muslims will not want to give Zakaah. g. Islamic knowledge will become less. h. People will be very greedy and run after the worldly things. i. Song and dance will become more common. j. People will wish to live in big houses and ignore the poor people. k. Foolish people will become leaders. l. There will be many earthquakes and disasters around the world. m. Men will dress like women and women will dress like men. 7.6 When everything and everybody dies, Almighty Allah will make Sayyiduna Israfeel (alayhis salaam) come alive. Sayyiduna Israfeel (alayhis salaam) will blow the Sur again and everybody and everything will once more come to life. 8. QUESTIONING IN THE QABAR (GRAVE) 8.1 A person is asked three (3) question in the Qabar (Grave) which are: (A) MANN RABBUKA (Who is your Lord)? The answer to this question is: ALLAHU RABBI (Almighty Allah is my Lord). (B) MAA DEENUKA (What is your religion)? The answer to this question is: DEENI AL ISLAM (My religion is Islam). (C) MAAZAA TAQOOLU FI HAQQI HAAZAR RAJUL (What did you have to say about this man)? The answer to this question is: HUWA RASOOLULLAH (He is the Prophet of Almighty Allah). 8.2 All these answers will only be given by Muslims. While the Kuffar will not know any of the answers. The Kuffar will answer: "HA HA LAA ADRI" (Ah! What a pity I do not know). 8.3 After these questions have been asked and answered, the Muslims will be rewarded by Almighty Allah, while the Angels of Almighty Allah will arrive to punish the Kuffar. 9. THE FRIENDS OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH (AWLIYA ALLAH) 9.1 Almighty Allah sent His Ambiya (Prophets) to this world and show the people the "Siraatul Mustaqeem" or "The Straight Path." 9.2 Almighty Allah also sends a special group of people whose duties are to guide the Muslims. 9.3 This special group of people are called the "Awliya Allah" or the "Friends of Almighty Allah." 9.4 A "Wali" or "Friend" of Allah strictly follows the Commands of Almighty Allah and lives the life as shown by our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 9.5 The Awliya Allah are protected by Almighty Allah at all times. 9.6 There are many Awliya Allah in the world. Some have passed away while others are still alive. 9.7 Because they are the special friends of Almighty Allah, we must try to follow what they have said, think about them, love and respect them. 9.8 We must also visit the "Mazaars" or "Blessed Qabars" where these Awliya Allah are resting so that we can receive Almighty Allah's blessings. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 26

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 9.9 When you visit a Mazaar you must be at your best behaviour. You must not talk and play inside the Mazaar. 9.10 You should recite the Holy Quran and send the Thawaab to the Wali that is buried there. You can also read the Tasbih, Durood Shareef, Naaths, Zikr and other Duas. 9.11 There are Awliya Allah in nearly every country around the world - Arabia, Syria, Turkey, North Africa, India, Pakistan, China, Russia, and many other countries. 9.12 Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said that: "In Shaam (Syria), there are 40 great Awliya (also known as Abdaal), and it is through the Barakah of these pious people that food and rain is received by all people." 9.13 There are four famous "Silsilas" or "Orders" which we can follow. The names of their leaders are also stated:9.13.1 QAADERIYAH SILSILA: Shaikh Sayed Abdul Qaadir Jilaani (alaihir rahmah). 9.13.2 CHISTIYAH SILSILA: Shaikh Sayed Mo'inuddeen Hassan Sanjari (alaihir rahmah). 9.13.3 NAQSHBANDIYA SILSILA: Shaikh Sayed Bahaa'udeen Naqshbandi (alaihir rahmah). 9.13.4 SUHRWARDIYAH SILSILA: Shaikh Sayed Shahaabudeen Suharwardi (alaihir rahmah). 9.14 In South Africa there are many famous Awliya Allah. To name but a few: 9.14.1 Shaikh Sayed Ahmed Badsha Peer (alaihir rahmah) - Brook Street Cemetery, Durban. 9.14.2 Shaikh Shah Ghoolam Sufi Saheb (alaihir rahmah) - Riverside, Durban. 9.14.3 Shaikh Shah Goolam Hafiz Sufi (Bhai Jaan) (alaihir rahmah) - 45th Cutting, Sherwood, Durban. 9.14.4 Shaikh Yusuf (alaihir rahmah) - Faure, Cape Town. 9.14.5 Shaikh Noor-um-Mubeen (alaihir rahmah) - Cape Town. 9.15 The Awliya have also been given many powers by Almighty Allah. They are able to perform miracles with the permission of Almighty Allah. Such miracles are called "Karaamat." The miracles of Ambiya are called "Mo'jiza." Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said that: "The miracles of Awliya are valid and genuine." 9.16 We should ask Almighty Allah for whatever we desire by using the name of a certain Wali as a "Wasila" or "Medium" so that we will be able to receive Allah's reward. 9.17 If you hear a person speak bad things about a Wali, then you should keep away from that person. We should not show any disrespect towards a Wali. 9.18 On the Day of Qiyaamah, the Awliya Allah will be given a very great position by Almighty Allah. Through the Blessing and Permission of Almighty Allah they will also assist us. 9.19 All the Awliya Allah and Ambiya of Almighty Allah who have left this world are still alive, even though we cannot see them. This is so because Almighty Allah has made it Haraam upon the earth to touch the bodies of His special Servants. 9.20 The work of all the Awliya Allah are still continuing even though some of them have already left this world. The Imam Ahmed Raza Academy is also named after a great Wali whose name is Hadrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Al-Qaderi (alaihir rahmah) who is buried in Bareilly Shareef, India. 10. THE COMPANIONS (SAHABA) OF THE HOLY PROPHET A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 27

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY MUHAMMAD (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) 10.1 The "Sahaba" or "Companions" are those chosen servants of Almighty Allah who saw and believed in our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) with Imaan, served him and stayed with him. 10.2 Speaking about His Sahaba, our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said that: "My Sahaba are like the stars, whichever one you follow, you will be guided." Therefore, it is Fard upon us to love and respect all the Sahaba. 10.3 Some of the most famous Sahaba were Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddique, Sayyiduna Umar Farouk, Sayyiduna Uthman Ghani and Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in). These four Sahaba are also called the "Khulafa-e-Rashideen" or "The Rightly Guided Khulafaa" who ruled the Muslim world after our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) passed away. 10.4 There were also 10 special Sahaba that were told of their position in Jannah (Paradise) by our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). These Sahaba are called the "Asharatul Mubash sharah" or "The Ten Given Good News." 10.5 We must also believe that all the Sahaba are Jannatis. This is so because they loved and respected our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) more than their own lives and sacrificed everything they had for him and for Almighty Allah's Deen. 10.6 You must stay away from those people who speak bad about the Sahaba. 10.7 Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) loved all his Sahaba and we should also love them. 10.8 After our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had left this world, many Sahaba went to various parts of the world to teach Islam to the people who had not yet received the Message of Islam. They did "Tableegh" or "Preaching" among the non-Muslims. 10.9 There was also a special group of Sahaba who used to spend all their time learning about Islam. These Sahaba are called "Ashaabus-Suffa" or "People of the Bench." 10.10 Many Sahaba have also been given special titles. Some of them are:10.10.1 SAYYIDUSH SHUHADAH (Leader of the Shaheeds): Sayyiduna Hamza (radi Allahu anhu), the uncle of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 10.10.2 AS SIDDIQUE (The Truthful): Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu). 10.10.3 AL FAROUQ (The Separator of Truth and Falsehood): Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu). 10.10.4 GHANI (The Generous) and ZUN NOORAIN (The Possessor of Two Lights): Sayyiduna Uthman Ghani (radi Allahu anhu). 10.10.5 ASADULLAH (The Lion of Allah): Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu). 10.10.6 SAIFULLAH (The Sword of Allah): Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). 10.11 We must always make Dua for all the Sahaba. 10.12 The pious wives of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) are called "Ummahaatul Mo'mineen" or "The Mothers of the Muslims."

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FIQH - PART 2 1. SHAHAADAH - TO DECLARE THE FAITH 1.1 The Shahaadah is: "There is no god but Almighty Allah, Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is the Messenger of Almighty Allah." 1.2 It is also called the "Kalimah Tayyibah." 1.3 Shahaadah is the first duty of a Muslim. 1.4 To be a Muslim, one must read and believe in the Shahaadah. 1.5 When we recite the Kalimah, we declare that Almighty Allah is our Maker and our Lord. 1.6 We must do everything that Almighty Allah has commanded us to do. 1.7 It is Almighty Allah who has created us and the entire world. 1.8 We also declare, when we recite the Shahaadah, that our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is our leader and the most perfect example to follow. 1.9 He is the final and greatest Messenger of Almighty Allah. 1.10 We cannot obey Almighty Allah if we do not follow what our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has taught us. 1.11 A Muslim who reads and believes in the Shahaadah must do good deeds and keep away from bad deeds. 2. SALAAH - TO READ THE FIVE DAILY SALAAH The second most important duty of a Muslim is Salaah. Salaah is the five daily prayers which a Muslim must perform. 2.1 Why do we Read Salaah? 2.1.1 Salaah helps us to remember Almighty Allah. 2.1.2 It reminds us that we are Almighty Allah's servants. 2.1.3 Salaah brings us closer to Almighty Allah. 2.1.4 It helps us to obey Almighty Allah. 2.1.5 Salaah helps us to be good Muslims. 2.1.6 Salaah helps us to do good deeds. 2.1.7 It saves us from bad deeds. 2.1.8 Salaah helps us to build up a good character. 2.1.9 You cannot be a proper Muslim if you do not read your Salaah. 2.2 What are the Names of the Five Daily Salaah? The names of the five daily Salaah are: A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 29

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 2.2.1 Fajr Salaah 2.2.2 Zohar Salaah 2.2.3 Asar Salaah 2.2.4 Maghrib Salaah 2.2.5 Esha Salaah 3. ZAKAAH - TO GIVE THE WELFARE DUE TO THE POOR Zakaah is the third pillar of Islam. 3.1 What is Zakaah? 3.1.1 Just as Salaah is an act of Ibaadah (worship), so is Zakaah an act of Ibaadah. 3.1.2 Zakaah is to give part of your wealth to your fellow Muslim brothers and sisters who are poor, needy, hungry and cannot manage. 3.2 Why must we give Zakaah? 3.2.1 The word "Zakaah" means "to clean". Zakaah cleans our wealth and our hearts. 3.2.2 Zakaah makes us think about the poor Muslims. 3.2.3 It prevents us from being greedy and selfish. 3.2.4 When we give Zakaah, we come closer to Almighty Allah. 3.2.5 We remember that all our wealth belongs to Almighty Allah. 3.2.6 It teaches us that money must be used for the good of other Muslims too. 3.2.7 Zakaah brings the rich closer to the poor. 3.3 Who must give Zakaah? 3.3.1 Those Muslims who have more money than they can spend must give Zakaah. 3.3.2 Zakaah is given every year. 4. SAUM - FASTING IN THE MONTH OF RAMADAAN Saum is the fourth pillar of Islam. 4.1 What is Saum? Saum is fasting in the Month of Ramadaan. 4.2 What do we do when we keep Fast? We do not eat or drink during the day. We also be at our best behaviour. 4.3 When does Fasting begin? Fasting begins at daybreak and ends at sunset. We must fast each day in the Month of Ramadaan. 4.4 Why must we keep Fast? 4.4.1 Fasting is a Blessing from Almighty Allah. 4.4.2 It makes us remember Almighty Allah. 4.4.3 It helps to make us better Muslims. 4.4.4 Fasting helps us to think about the poor and hungry people. 4.4.5 Fasting will protect us from the Fire of Hell. 4.5 What else is Special about the Month of Ramadaan? A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 30

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4.5.1 We have a meal before dawn called "Sehri." 4.5.2 We have "Iftaar". Iftaar is to eat when the sun has set. 4.5.3 After the Esha Salaah we read a special Salaah called "Taraweeh Salaah." 4.5.4 "Laylatul Qadr" is a very special night given to us by Almighty Allah. It comes in the Month of Ramadaan. 4.5.5 This is a great night, full of Blessings from Almighty Allah and is better than a thousand months. 4.5.6 Muslims should stay awake the whole night and read special Salaah. 4.5.7 During this night, we must read the Holy Quran and ask forgiveness from Almighty Allah. 4.6 What Festival follows the Month of Ramadaan? 4.6.1 The festival after the Month of Ramadaan is called "Eid-ul-Fitr." 4.6.2 This is a day of great joy and happiness. 4.6.3 We thank Almighty Allah for Blessing us with the Month of Ramadaan. 4.6.4 We ask Almighty Allah to guide us and keep us good Muslims in all the other months of the year. 4.6.5 On Eid day we wear new clothes and go to the masjid. 4.6.6 The children receive presents and gifts from their parents and elders. 4.6.7 On this day, we must also think of the poor and the needy. 4.6.8 We meet and visit friends and relatives. 5. HAJJ - PILGRIMAGE TO MAKKATUL MUKARRAMAH Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. 5.1 What is Hajj? Hajj is to visit the Holy Kaaba in the city of Makkatul Mukarramah. Hajj is to make special Ibaadah. 5.2 When do Muslims go for Hajj? 5.2.1 Muslims go for Hajj during the Islamic Month of Zil Hajj. 5.2.2 Those Muslims who can afford it must go for Hajj at least once in their life-time. 5.3 What does Hajj teach us? 5.3.1 Hajj is an act of Ibaadah and makes us think about Almighty Allah and our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 5.3.2 It teaches us to give up our comforts, our time and our wealth for the sake of Almighty Allah. 5.3.3 During Hajj, Muslims from all over the world meet each other. Hajj teaches us that all Muslims are equal. 5.4 What is "Baitullah"? 5.4.1 The Holy Kaaba is also called "Baitullah" or "The House of Almighty Allah." 5.4.2 Muslims face the Holy Kaaba when they are reading their Salaah. 5.5 Which other city do Muslims visit when on Hajj? 5.5.1 Muslims also visit Madinatul Munawwarah which is the City of our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 5.5.2 They visit Masjid-un-Nabi and send Salaams to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 31

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wasallam). 5.6 When is "Eid-ul-Adha" celebrated? 5.6.1 The festival of "Eid-ul-Adha" is also celebrated during Hajj. 5.6.2 On this day, Muslims all over the world offer "Qurbani" or "Sacrifice" of an animal, which is the Sunnah of Nabi Ebrahim (alayhis salaam) and Nabi Isma'il (alayhis salaam).

FIQH - PART 3 1. ALMIGHTY ALLAH 1.1 Almighty Allah is the Creator 1.1.1 All things have a creator. 1.1.2 Almighty Allah is the Creator of all things. 1.1.3 Almighty Allah created the sun, the moon and the stars. 1.1.4 He made the earth and the sky. 1.1.5 Almighty Allah created the seas and the mountains. 1.1.6 He made the plants and the animals. 1.1.7 Almighty Allah created the fishes and the insects. 1.1.8 Almighty Allah also created the Angels (Malaa'ikah), the Jinns and human beings. 1.2 Almighty Allah is the Helper 1.2.1 Almighty Allah Alone is the True Helper. 1.2.2 Almighty Allah is the Best of Helpers. 1.2.3 We worship only Almighty Allah. 1.2.4 We ask Almighty Allah for help. 1.2.5 If Almighty Allah wants to help us, nobody can defeat us. 1.2.6 We ask Almighty Allah's help by being patient. 1.2.7 We ask Almighty Allah's help through prayer. 1.2.8 If others help us, they are helping us through the Permission of Almighty Allah. 1.3 Almighty Allah is the Protector 1.3.1 Almighty Allah Alone is the True Protector. 1.3.2 He is the Best of Protectors. 1.3.3 If Almighty Allah wishes to protect us, then nobody can harm us. 1.3.4 We must always seek Almighty Allah's protection from harm and from the Shaytaan. 1.3.5 Almighty Allah protects us in different ways. 1.3.6 We must always seek Almighty Allah's protection from evil. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 32

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1.4 Almighty Allah is the Provider 1.4.1 Almighty Allah causes the rain to fall. 1.4.2 He causes plants and fruits to grow. 1.4.3 Almighty Allah created animals for us. The animals provide us with meat, warmth, transport and other benefits. 1.4.4 Almighty Allah provides food and drink for every living thing. 1.4.5 He created for us light and shade. 1.4.6 Almighty Allah gives us power, strength and advantages. 1.4.7 He created for us rest, joy and comfort. 1.4.8 Almighty Allah gave us hearing, sight and speech. 1.4.9 He is the Best of Providers for all His creation. 2. GREETING 2.1 I must be the first to greet. 2.2 If someone greets me, I must reply. 2.3 The young should greet the old first. 2.4 I must greet all Muslims with the proper Islamic greeting. 2.5 I must greet a Muslim even if I do not know that Muslim. 2.6 I must greet as much as possible. 2.7 When I enter a home I must greet everyone. 2.8 Greetings brings peace. 2.9 Greetings brings about love and unity among Muslims. 2.10 When we say "As Salaamu Alaikum" we are also making Dua for the other Muslim. 3. HELPING 3.1 I am a Muslim. 3.2 I must help all people. 3.3 I must help the poor and the needy. 3.4 I must help the weak. 3.5 I must help the sick. 3.6 I must help the old. 3.7 I must help those who are in trouble. 3.8 I must help those who are in difficulty. 3.9 I must help the orphans and the widows. 3.10 I must help the traveller. 3.11 Almighty Allah loves those who are helpful. 4. MY BEHAVIOUR 4.1 I must not be rude. 4.2 I must not use bad languages at any time. 4.3 I must be polite and kind. 4.4 I must observe good manners when I eat. 4.5 I must speak kindly to people. 4.6 Almighty Allah wants us to speak kind and good words. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 33

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 4.7 Bad feelings and fights can be caused if we are rude to others. 4.8 Kindness brings about peace and love. 4.9 Almighty Allah does not love those that are rude. 4.10 I must behave as a good Muslim should wherever I am. 5. SLEEPING 5.1 Before I go to sleep, I must close all the doors, cover all the utensils and put off the lights reading the "Bismillah" each time. 5.2 I must make Wudu (Ablution) before going to sleep. 5.3 I must dust the bed three (3) times. 5.4 While changing my clothes, I must read the "Bismillah." 5.5 I must read the "3 Quls" - Surah Ahad, Surah Falaq and Surah Naas, blow on my palms and rub my whole body three (3) times. 5.6 I must not sleep on my stomach. 5.7 I must sleep on my right-hand side and place my right palm under my right cheek. 5.8 I must read the Dua that I have learnt before sleeping. 5.9 If I awake because of a bad dream, I must read "A'oozobillah." 5.10 If I awake after a good dream, I must say "Alhamdulillah." 5.11 When I awake in the morning, I must read the Dua that I have learnt when awaking. 6. CLEANLINESS 6.1 I must keep my body and my clothes clean. 6.2 I must help to keep the house and toilet clean. 6.3 I must help to keep the garden and the yard clean. 6.4 I must throw dirt into the bin. 6.5 A dirty home breeds germs and causes sickness. 6.6 I must help keep the masjid, school and madressah clean. 6.7 I must not litter the grounds of the madressah and masjid. 6.8 I must not throw dirt in the streets. 6.9 I must help keep parks and public places clean. 6.10 I must not throw dirt from moving cars or buses. 6.10 Almighty Allah loves those who are clean. 7. AADAB OF READING THE HOLY QURAN When you want to read the Holy Quran you must: 7.1 Make Wudu (Ablution). 7.2 Face the Qiblah and sit respectfully. 7.3 Do not face your back to the Holy Quran. 7.4 Do not sit in a place that is higher than the Holy Quran. 7.5 Never place anything on the Holy Quran. 7.6 Before you start to read the Holy Quran read the Durood Shareef 3 times. 7.7 Read the "A'oozobillah" and the "Bismillah." 7.8 Recite the Holy Quran in a sweet voice. Do not sing. 7.9 Honour and respect every word of the Holy Quran. Remember that Almighty Allah is Watching you. He will give you Thawaab (Reward) for A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 34

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY every letter that you read. 7.10 Read every word by careful concentration. Pronounce each letter properly. 7.11 Take your time and read the Holy Quran. Do not rush through the Holy Quran. 7.12 It is Makrooh (a sin) to rush and read the Holy Quran. 7.13 Make it your habit to read the Holy Quran every morning. 7.14 When the Holy Quran is being read, listen carefully to it. It is Haraam to do anything else when the Holy Quran is being read. 7.15 Always handle the Holy Quran with utmost respect. 7.16 Do not keep your Holy Quran in your school bag and then keep your school bag on the floor. 7.17 Hold the Holy Quran with your right hand close to your chest. Do not hold it below your chest. 8. SOME MAJOR SINS 8.1 Associating partners with Almighty Allah. 8.2 Disrespecting the Prophets (Ambiya) of Allah and the Awliya Allah (Saints of Allah). 8.3 Disobedience to parents. 8.4 Murder. 8.5 Taking the property of the orphans and the poor. 8.6 To back-bite and disgrace innocent people. 8.7 To break promises and tell lies. 8.8 To leave out the Faraa'id (Fard) actions. 8.9 To give or take bribery. 8.10 To call a Muslim a Kaafir and to call a Kaafir a Muslim. 8.11 To steal other people's property. 8.12 To give or take interest. 8.13 To rob others. 8.14 To gamble. 8.15 To behave like the non-believers or Kuffar. 8.16 To dance, sing and speak indecently. 8.17 To harm neighbours. 8.18 To have pride, anger and jealously. 8.19 To eat or drink Haraam things. 8.20 To deal in fortune-telling. 8.21 To see evil films and programmes on television and in the cinemas. 8.22 To visit sinful places such as the gambling houses, casinos, Night Clubs and Discotheques, Bars, race courses and restaurants were alcohol is served. 8.23 To attend shows of film-stars, dancing and singing. 8.24 To attend un-Islamic weddings and other functions where many unIslamic practices take place. 8.25 To remove your clothes in front of any person and show parts of your body while you are changing at home, in school or in the public. 8.26 To keep pictures of film actors and actresses, pop stars, sports stars and singers is Haraam.

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SECTION 2

A Muslim’s Guide to Prayer - Salah
By: Tariq Mahmood Nishter Al-Naqshbandi
B.Sc.Hons. MBA. PGCE.

PUBLISHED BY: IMAM AHMAD RAZA INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL 59 Shirley Road Cardiff, South Glamorgan CF23 5HL, Wales, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 029-20497506 - Email: Kalarvi@hotmail.com

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CONTENTS
1. Contents 2. Preface 3. Chapter One: Ibadah & Revelation of Salah to Prophet Muhammad PBUH • • • • • • Ibadah – Worship Revelation of Salah to Prophet Muhammad Pbuh Salah in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith Prophet Pbuh – The Best of Worshippers The Benefits of Salah Pictures of The Rawzah & Masjid-e-Nabawi s.a.w.

4. Chapter Two: Taharah – Purity in Islam • • • • • • • • • • What is Taharah? Types of Impurities/Najasaat The Water – Al-Maa’ Istinja – Cleaning of the Private Parts Wudhu - Ablution What Breaks the Wudhu What does not Break the Wudhu Actions Forbidden Without Wudhu or Tayammum Ghusl – Bath Tayammum – Dry Ablution

5. Chapter Three: Salah – Prayer • • • • • • • • • • • The Names, Times and Rakaats of Daily Salah Witr Salah Sajdah Sahw – Prostration of Forgetfulness/Mistake Actions That Break the Prayer – Mufsidaat-e-Salah Actions Disliked During Prayer – Makroohat-e-Salah Times When Salah is Not To Be Performed Non-Daily Prayers Azaan – The Muslim Call to Prayer The Faraaidh of Salah – Compulsory Parts Photographs of Positions in Prayer for Males & Females The Sunnah Method of Performing the Prayer 38

A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY • Dua and Zikr After Prayer 6. Chapter Four: Prayer Besides the daily Salah & How to Perform Them • • • • • • • The Jumu’ah/Jum’ah – Friday Prayer The Salatul-Eidain –Eid Prayer The Tarawih Prayer The Janazah – Funeral Prayer The Musaafir’s (Traveler’s) Prayer Qaza (Missed) Prayer Mareez’s Prayer – Those Who Are Ill/Disabled

7. Chapter Five: Nafilah Salah (Superogatory/Optional Prayer) • Tahiyyatul-Wudhu • Tahiyyatul-Masjid • Ishraaq • Duha/Chaasht • Awwabeen • Tahajjud • Tasbeeh • Istikhaarah • Taubah • Haajat • Safar • Khauf • Istisqaa • Kusoof • Khusoof 8. Chapter Six: Aadab (Etiquettes/Manners) of The Masjid 9. Chapter Seven: Articles (Kalimaat) of Faith • • • • • • • • • Zikr and articles of Faith Imaan Mufassal - Belief in Detail Imaan Mujmal - Belief in Brief First Kalima Tayyibah (Declaration of Faith) Second Kalimah Shahaadat (Witnessing) Third Kalimah Tamjeed (Glory of Allah) Fourth Kalimah Tawheed (Praise of Allah) Fifth Kalimah Istighfaar (Repenting/asking Allah’s Forgiveness) Sixth Kalimah Radd-e-Kufr (Rejection of Disbelief)

10. Bibliography

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 11. Introduction to the Imam Ahmad Raza Institute Inter.

PREFACE
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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe, peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Beloved, the Final Prophet, Our Master Sayyiduna Muhammad, upon whom be eternal and exalted blessings, and on his Family and on his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.
I pay my infinite praise and thanks to Allah S.W.T. Who has blessed me with the great opportunity to write this book on Salah (Prayer). Although there are some innumerable good books available on Salah, most of them lack detailed information on certain aspects of Taharah, Fiqh (Rules) relating to Salah, etc. Some books are very short and some have many mistakes in them and there are those that have been translated from Urdu/Arabic and written in complicated or confusing English. Therefore, after reading and analysing many books on Salah in the market, I feel it most necessary in writing this book, because I reached the conclusion that a book should be written on this subject in a clear and concise manner, covering detailed aspects of Ibadah, Taharah, Salah and Sunnah Method of Salah, Fiqh of Salah, Aadab of the Masjid, and Articles of Faith, so that both children and adults can easily read and understand what is written. Moreover, beginners who wish to learn about Salah, reverts to Islam and non-Muslims will also find this book useful, as it has been written with them in mind. I have successfully used the material contained in this book on my students, who have found everything most useful and informative in their learning. The majority of the material in the book is based upon the little knowledge that I have derived from my father and classic Hanafi Darse-e-Nizami books such as ‘Munyatul-Musalli’, ‘Noorul-Idhah’, and ‘Qudoori’. Where appropriate, I have indicated sources of other information. I wrote this book originally in 2001 and due to lack of funds it was not published earlier. May Allah SWT accept this humble effort in the service of His Deen, Al-Islam. May Allah shower us with His Mercy and Blessings and inculcate a profound love and respect for the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh), his Family and his Companions, may Allah SWT be pleased with them all. Ameen! 31 January 2004 Cardiff, Wales, UK

CHAPTER ONE: IBADAH (WORSHIP) AND THE REVELATION OF SALAH TO PROPHET MUHAMMAD
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1.

IBADAH

First of all it is important to clarify what is meant by the words ‘SALAH’ (prayer) and ‘IBADAH’ (worship). In the Arabic language, both words Salah and Dua mean to supplicate (to ask for mercy from Allah (God Almighty)), to ask or pray for help from Allah, or to make a humble petition/request from Allah. One must remember that Salah is a part of Ibadah in Islam. In Arabic, the word ‘Ibadah’ has two meanings, a general meaning and an exact or specific meaning. (i) General meaning – in this, Ibadah is whatever Allah has revealed to us in the Holy Qur’an as His laws, command, and rules (e.g. what is Halaal and what is Haraam). Specific meaning – in this, Ibadah is meant for example, Salah (prayer), Zakaat (poor due), Saum (fasting), and Hajj (pilgrimage to the House of Allah in Makkah, Saudi Arabia), and also other worships.

(ii)

2.

THE REVELATION OF SALAH (PRAYER) TO PROPHET MUHAMMAD (P.B.U.H.)

Salah (Prayer) in Islam is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The Five Pillars of Islam are: (1) Shahadah – the Declaration of Faith: “There is no god but Allah, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah”; (2) Salah (prayer); (3) Zakaah (giving money to the poor); (4) Saum (fasting in the Muslim holy Month of Ramadhan); and (5) the Hajj (pilgrimage to the House of Allah in Makkah, once a lifetime). Originally when Islam began, Muslims prayed only twice a day – the Morning Prayer before sunrise and the evening prayer after sunset. Muslims continued praying like this until the event of the Holy Prophet Muhammad’s (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – p.b.u.h.) Night of the Ascension to the Heavens (Lailatul-Isra) occurred, when he and his followers were ordered by Allah to observe the daily five prayers. According to the Hadith – Tradition of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), the Holy Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) describes the story of the Lailatul-Isra as follows in Bukhari, Volume 1, at pages 51-52: “The divine orders for prayer were originally fifty times a day, and as I passed Moses (in heaven during the night journey), he said to me: ‘What hast thou been ordered?’ I replied: ‘Fifty times!’ Then he said: ‘Verily thy people will never be able to bear it.’ I then returned to my Lord and asked for some reduction, and ten prayers were taken off then I pleaded again, and ten more were taken off and so on until at last they were reduced to five times. Then I went to Moses, and he said: ‘How many prayers hast thou been ordered?’ and I replied: ‘Five’ and Moses said: ‘Return to thy Lord and ask for more reduction,’ but I said: ‘I have asked until I am ashamed. I cannot ask Him again.’” Praise is to Allah! Today we Muslims are blessed with only five daily prayers instead of having to pray fifty prayers. This is truly a Blessing and a Mercy from Allah and His Messenger, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.). Allah and His Messengers A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 42

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Prophet Moses and Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon them, knew that praying fifty times a day would indeed be a great burden for the Muslims and it would be impossible for them to observe prayer so many times during the day, despite work, study and many other responsibilities in our worldly life. May Allah the Almighty help us and give us the ability to perform our daily prayers, just as our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and his Companions and Family prayed. Ameen!

3.

SOME VERSES FROM THE HOLY QUR’AN AND THE HADITH OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (P.B.U.H.) ABOUT SALAH & PURITY

VERSES OF THE HOLY QUR’AN
There are many verses of the Holy Qur’an and the Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) that deal with Salah. A few of them are cited here.

“ And establish the Salah (prayer). Surely Salah keeps one away from all dirty and forbidden acts. And that is the greatest Zikr (remembrance) of Allah.” (Surah Al-Ankaboot 29: Verse 45)

“Command your family to observe Salah and observe the same yourself. We do not ask you for sustenance (for you or your family); it is We Who supplies you with provisions. And salvation is only for those who are righteous.” (Surah Taha 20:132)

“And those who are attentive in their Salah, they will dwell in Gardens, honoured.” (Surah Al-Ma’aarij 70:34)

AHADITH (TRADITIONS) ABOUT SALAH
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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY  “Pray as you have seen me praying.” (Hadith in Bukhari)

 The key to Heaven is the prayer. And the key to prayer is cleanliness.” (Hadith in Ahmad)  “Cleanliness is half of faith.” (Hadith in Muslim)

The Order for Performing Obligatory Prayers From A Young Age The Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has taught us that children should begin to pray at a young age as highlighted in this Hadith: “Amr Bin Shuaib reports: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: ‘Command your children to pray as soon as they are seven years old; beat them when they are ten, if they do not pray, then separate their beds.’” [Hadith Books: Abu Dawood, Mishkaat-ul-Masabih] This Hadith of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has instructed us clearly that children should be taught to pray when they are seven years old and when they are ten years old, if they disobey parents in performing the obligatory prayers, then they should be beaten slightly and their beds separated. The Hadith further informs us of the seriousness of prayer in Islam and that we should not neglect prayers at all from childhood to adulthood.

4.

PROPHET MUHAMMAD (p.b.u.h.) - THE BEST OF WORSHIPPERS

Let us now see how Allah’s Final Messenger, the Mercy to the Worlds, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – p.b.u.h.), was the best of worshippers in Ibadah and how he set a beautiful example and way for all mankind to follow in their lives. About the Prophet Muhammad’s (p.b.u.h.) unique conduct Allah the Almighty says in SURAH AL-AHZAB (Chapter 33), Verse 21: “You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) A beautiful pattern of conduct for anyone who looks towards Allah and the Final Day and who engages much in the praise of Allah.”

The Holy Name of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) in Arabic meaning “the praised one” with a globe at the centre, indicating that the whole world and creation is constantly remembering and praising him

What the above verse means is that if we wish to gain the Happiness, Pleasure and Mercy of Allah, then the best way is to follow the ‘Sunnah’, that is, the way, method, A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 44

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY actions and sayings of Rasoolullah, the Messenger of Allah, Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, s.a.w. – may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The above verse (Ayah) was revealed when the Battle of Ahzab occurred, when the Kafirs (Unbelievers) surrounded the City of Medina and threatened to attack it. The Jews of the Bani Quraibah tribe had betrayed the trust, which they had given to Rasoolullah (s.a.w.), and there were other enemy forces inside Medina ready to attack the Muslims. Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) showed the greatest patience, courage, steadfastness, and refused to surrender to the enemy – this is the way that we should follow and adopt in our lives. Because Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) said: “He who does not follow my Sunnah (practice) is not from my Ummah (community).” So if any Muslim does not follow the Sunnah, then he/she can no longer be part of the Muslim Community. Therefore, we should adopt the Sunnah of our Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) in to our lives and also do the ‘Zikr’ (remembrance) of Allah at all times through Ibadah. HADITH IN BUKHARI & MUSLIM – HOW RASOOLULLAH (SAW) PRAYED, REPORTED BY HIS WIFE, HAZRAT AISHA (RA): There are many ‘Ahadith’ (sayings, plural; singular ‘Hadith’) of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) relating to how he and his Companions/Friends (Sahabah) performed the Salah (prayer), especially in the Hadith Books of Bukhari and Muslim. The Messenger of Allah, Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) used to pray the Salat-ul-Tahajjud (Night Vigil Prayer/Qiyam-ul-Layl) between the Isha and Fajr prayers. One man asked Rasoolullah’s (s.a.w.) wife Hazrat Aisha (Radi Allahu anha, r.a. – may Allah be pleased with her): “Tell me something special about the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.)”. She answered: “There was nothing ordinary about him. Everything he did was special. One night he came and lay down beside me. After a while, he said: “Now let me pray to my Sustainer.” Then he stood up in prayer, humbling himself before his Creator with such sincerity that tears rolled down his cheeks to his beard and onto his breast. He then bowed for Ruku and Sajdah and his tears flowed down quickly before and after raising his head from his Sajdah. He continued weeping in this way until Hazrat Bilal (Radi Allahu anhu, r.a. – may Allah be pleased with him) announced the approach of the Fajr Prayer.” I pleaded with him: “O Prophet of Allah! There is no sin against you, as Allah has in His bounty forgiven you.” He replied: “Why should I not be a thankful servant of Allah?” Then he said: “Why should I not be praying like this when Allah has revealed to me these verses: ‘Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the changing of night and day, are signs for the men of understanding, such as those who remember Allah standing, sitting, reclining…’ ” (Surah Ale Imran: Verses 190-200)

5.

RASOOLULLAH’S (S.A.W.) PATIENCE IN PRAYER
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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Rasoolullah (s.a.w) prayed at all times, whether it was the Fardh (obligatory) prayer or the Nafl (extra/superogatory) prayer, doing Istighfar (asking Allah’s pardon), praising and thanking Allah. In Bukhari Shareef, it is reported by Hazrat Aisha (r.a.) that Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) used to pray eleven Rak’ah (units of prayer) at night. In one prostration of each of these Rak’ah, he used to spend in it the time taken to read fifty verses. He used to make the Sujood (prostrations) long begging Allah for His forgiveness and mercy. In Bukhari and Muslim Shareef, it is reported on the authority of Ibn Masood (r.a.) who said: “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) one night and as he continued standing reciting from the Qur’an, I was about to do something evil”. They (Sahabah/Companions) asked him “What was it you wanted to do?” He said: “I was about to leave him standing and sitting down.” Therefore, Hazrat Ibn Masood (r.a.) was not able to perform the Salah in a unique way, as did the Prophet (p.b.u.h.). But out of love, respect and courtesy for his Master, Hazrat Ibn Masood (r.a.) continued with his prayer until it ended.

Exterior views of the Masjid-e-Nabawi (s.a.w.)

Interior view of the Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) Mosque
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The Companions of Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) Emulated their Master in Ibadah The Sahaba Kiraam (r.a.) performed their prayer with great love, humbleness and devotion. They did their utmost to emulate the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) in prayer and remained standing in prayer as long as he did. In Muslim Shareef, it is reported by Hazrat Huzaifah (r.a.): “I prayed one night with Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) who began reading Surah Al-Baqarah in the first Rak’ah. Then he started to read Surah An-Nisa. Then followed by Surah Ale-Imran. Then he performed the Ruku, and spent in it the time which took him the time standing, and then the Sujood, the time spent performing the Ruku.” Hazrat Umar (r.a.) – the Second Caliph, Successor to Rasoolullah (s.a.w.), was stabbed at the end of his rule, which caused his death, was bleeding excessively and would become unconscious. When it was the time for prayer, he would not be neglectful of his duty and performed the prayer even in his poor condition. He said: “There is no part in Islam for the person who omits Salah”. This great example of Hazrat Umar (r.a.) gives us inspiration and strengthens our faith to perform Salah in all conditions of our lives, whether we are in good or poor health, at work or study, and so on. Similarly, if we study the lives of the Pious Personalities in Islam, the Awliyaa Allah (the Friends/beloved of Allah, i.e., the Saints/savants), and Ulema (scholars), we see that they acted completely according to the way of the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of Rasoolullah (s.a.w.). One of our great Sunni Scholars, Mujaddid-e-Deen wa Millah, A’la Hazrat, Maulana Hafiz Qari Sayyed Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi Qadri (Rahmatullahi alaihi (r.a.), may Allah have mercy on his soul - born in 1856, died 1921), attended the Mosque for Salah even when he was extremely ill and asked somebody to carry him to the Mosque. Hence, it can be seen that Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) showed the greatest, the best, and the supreme way of Ibadah for all times, to be emulated by all his followers and for all of mankind to follow.

6.

THE BENEFITS OF SALAH
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It is narrated in the Hadith Books of Ahmad and Abu Dawood that: “Whenever Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w.) faced a serious matter, he hurried to Salah.” This Hadith is quite clear and it sets an example for us that we should turn to prayer whenever we face any difficulty to obtain peace, tranquillity and the guidance of Allah the Almighty. Allama Ibn Qayyim (r.a.) the great scholar of Islam, wrote in his book ‘Zaad AlMa’ad’ (quoted by Anas Al-Gawz in his book ‘Before You Pray’) the many benefits of Salah as follows:

                 

Attracts good livelihood Improves health Prevents harm Keeps away diseases Strengthens the heart Brightens the face Delights the soul Takes away laziness Strengthens and refreshes the organs Replenishes energies Refreshes the heart Nurtures the spirit Enlightens the mind Preserves youthfulness Prevents adversity – punishment Brings the blessings of Allah Drives away Shaitan – the Devil Brings one closer to Allah the Almighty

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Below: The Rawzah of Rasoolullah s.a.w. Inside the Masjid-e-Nabawi (s.a.w.), the grave of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) lies behind the wall indicated by the large circle with a hole. To the right of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) indicated by the small circles, is the grave of the First Caliph of Islam, Sayyiduna Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (r.a.) and next to him is the grave of the Second Caliph, Sayyiduna Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a.)

Another Exterior View of Masjid-e-Nabawi (s.a.w.)

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CHAPTER TWO:

TAHARAH – PURITY IN ISLAM

Before performing the Salah (prayer), Muslims must be completely clean and pure from all impurities (dirtiness). This chapter discusses purity and cleanliness in Islam and how we should keep ourselves clean at all times, especially for Salah. Regarding cleanliness, Allah the Almighty says in the Holy Qur’an: “Surely Allah loves those who turn to Him and those who care for cleanliness.” (Surah Al-Baqarah: Verse 222) About Taharah, Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) said: “Purity is half of faith” “Cleanliness is half of faith.” “The key to Heaven is the prayer. And the key to prayer is cleanliness.” (Muslim) (Muslim) (Ahmad)

1.

WHAT IS TAHARAH?

The word “Taharah” means cleanliness or purification. In Shariah, it refers specifically to one’s body and clothes (and the place where one performs the Salah prayer). Personal hygiene is very important in Islam: a Muslim should always keep him/herself and the clothes clean from impurities such as urine, blood, pus, emetic, prostatic fluid, stool/excrement, etc. When you have reached the age of adolescence you should shave the private parts of the body (i.e. armpits and genital region) to remove impurities and to prevent carrying germs, dirt, etc.

2.

TYPES OF IMPURITIES/DIRTINESS (“NAJASAAT”)

There are basically two types of impurities: (i) Najaasat-e-Hukmiyyah – this is impurity that is not visible to the human naked eye and it consists of two kinds:  Hadath – this is lesser impurity and you have to do the Wudu (Ablution). Examples are: urine, stool, blood, wind, vomiting (mouthful) fainting, intoxication, pus, laughing during Salaat, sleeping with support and lying down, unconsciousness. Akbar – this is greater impurity and you have to do the Ghusal (ritual bath). Examples are: discharge of semen (whether during sleep or not), menstruation, after birth of a baby, and after relations between husband and wife.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY (ii) Najaasat-e-Haqiqi – this is impurity that is visible and apparent to the human eye and it consists of two kinds: Ghalizah – this is heavy impurity that covers the body being half an inch and you have to wash the body and clothes three times each. Examples are: human blood, semen and pus, human urine and excrement, menstrual blood, vomiting, spillage of alcohol on the body or clothes, urine, excrement and blood of animals, ducks and hens droppings, and the saliva of some animals (e.g. dogs). Khafifah – this is light impurity that covers the body or clothes 1/4th and for this too, you must wash the body and clothes three times. Examples are: urine of Halaal (permitted) animals, the droppings of Haraam (prohibited, e.g. birds of prey) animals and the droppings of Halaal birds (i.e. it has a bad smell).

3.
• • • • • • • •

THE WATER – “AL-MAA’U”
Water is of two types: unused (“Ghair Musta’mal”) and used water (“Musta’mal”). Water that is permissible for Wudu and Ghusal are as follows: ocean/sea, river, well, spring, fountain, lake, snow/ice, and rain water. Water must be flowing and running (“Al-Maa’ul-jaari”). If any impurity falls into flowing water then it is still clean except when its condition changes, that is, the colour, taste or smell changes. A water tank measuring 5 by 5 metres length is permissible for use in Wudu and Ghusal as it is regarded as flowing water. If impurity falls into still water in a tank measuring 5 by 5 length, it becomes unclean. Used or “Musta’mal” water cannot be reused for Wudu and Ghusal. When bathing or doing the Wudu, do not splash the water into the water vessel (“Lota”, jug), or the bath/bath tub, as the droplets of water are used water. If used water should fall into the water vessel/bath tub, then you have to refill it and not use that water.

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4.

ISTINJA (CLEANING OF PRIVATE PARTS AFTER GOING TO THE TOILET)

Rules for the toilet/bathroom and Istinja:

• •

Before entering the toilet/bathroom enter with your left foot. It is Mustahab (preferred/desirable) to say this Dua (prayer) before entering the bathroom/toilet: “Bismillahi Allahumma innee aoozubika minal khubusi wal khabaais” (In the Name of Allah, O Allah I seek protection in You from the male and female devils). Do not take Ta’weez (amulets) into the bathroom/toilet unless it is covered up properly, but try to avoid taking it in. Do not do any Zikr (remembrance) of Allah in the bathroom/toilet. Do not stand while urinating. Do not splash urine drops on your body/clothes when urinating and cleaning yourself (if this happens, then you must wash the body three times, and the clothes you must wash and rinse three times). Use tissue and then clean yourself with water (if in a remote place and not in a city, use pebbles, stones or clean soil; you can clean yourself with stones/pebbles alone but using water afterwards is better). Use your left hand to clean yourself (if your left hand is injured then you may use the right hand). Do not face Qibla (direction of Makkah) or to have the back towards it when in the toilet; also not to have your face or back towards the sun or moon. Do not look at your private part and stool or expose/show your private parts in front of people. Do not talk in the toilet unless it is necessary. It is Makrooh Tahrimi (near forbidden) to clean your self with the bones and food of humans and animals. When leaving the toilet/bathroom, step out with the right foot and say this Dua: “Allahumma ghufraanak, alhamdulilla hillazee azhaba annil-azaa wa aafanee.” (O Allah! I ask Your forgiveness, praise be to Allah Who removed from me what was injurious and restored me to soundness).

• • • •

• • • • • •

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5.

WUDU – ABLUTION

FARAAIDH OF WUDU (OBLIGATORY DUTIES) In Wudu it is Fardh (obligatory) to wash four parts of the body once, as stated by Allah the Almighty in the Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Maidah 5,Verse 6: “O you who believe! When you prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) feet to the ankles.” Therefore, it is clear that washing these four parts of the body before Salah is compulsory, especially when there is shortage of water, and then one must wash especially these parts: (a) The face; (b) Both arms from the wrists to the elbows; (c) Masah – wiping the head (one fourth); (d) Both feet up to the ankles. SUNNAH METHOD OF WUDU Sunnah means the way or method of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.). Also, whatever he did and said throughout his lifetime is the best way for us to follow. The Sunnah method of performing the Wudhu is as follows: • Make Niyyah (intention) – say: Ta’awwuz: “Aoozu billahi minash Shaitaanirrajeem” (I seek protection in Allah from the cursed Shaitan) and Bismillah/Tasmiyyah:

“Bismillahir-rahmanir-raheem” (In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful). • Wash both hands three times up to the wrists (right hand and then left hand).

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Wash your mouth and gargle three times – use a Miswaak (wooden stick of the Arak tree), or your right index finger and thumb, or a toothbrush. When fasting do not allow water to reach the throat.

Wash your nose three times by taking water with the right hand and sucking the water into the nostrils, and then clean the nostrils with the left hand thumb, index finger and small finger. N.B. When fasting, ensure that water does not reach above the nasal bone; otherwise the fast will become void.

Wash your face three times, from the forehead to the chin, and from one earlobe to the other earlobe. If you have a beard, you must comb through the beard with your hands to pass water through it. Do not splash the water on the face but spread it over the face. Make sure the face is not dry.

Wash both arms up to the elbows three times (right arm and then left arm).

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Wet your hands, shake off any extra water and then do the Masah (wiping the head) once. This is done by wetting the hands and putting the fingertips together, leaving the index fingers and thumbs separate (do not let your index fingers, thumbs and palms of your hand touch the head. Then you rub the joined three fingers through your hair, starting from the forehead to the back of the head. Then, with your fingers joined together, you rub the sides of the head by bringing the hands forward. Then you clean the inside of the ears with the index fingers and the back of the ears with the thumbs. Lastly, you wipe the nape (back of the neck) with the back of your hands, making sure that you do not wipe the sides of the throat as this is not allowed (its is Makrooh, disliked).

Lastly, wash both feet three times up to the ankles, and make sure you clean between the toes with your left hand (right foot first and then left foot).

Source of Wudhu Pictures: The above pictures have been obtained with permission from Ghulam Sarwar’s book ‘Islam – Beliefs and Teachings’ (1987).

6.

MASAH OF KHUFF (WIPING OVER LEATHER SOCKS)

A ‘Khuff’ (pl. Khuffain; also ‘Moza’) is a special leather sock that extends up to the ankles. Kuffain must be put on after Wudhu. If one is wearing a Khuff, it is permitted to wipe over them with wet fingers instead of washing the feet. If one is in need of Ghusl (bath), then you cannot wipe over the Khuff. You cannot wipe over socks that are made of nylon/wool/cotton, but you have to remove them and wash the feet. A Muqeem (non-traveller) can do Masah of Khuffain and wear them up to 24 hours. A Musaafir (traveller) can wear the Khuffain from the time of doing Wudhu up to 72 hours. If Wudhu breaks then the time has to be counted from that moment onwards. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 55

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY After the periods of 24/72 hours are over, the Khuffain should be taken off and the feet must be washed.

7.

DUAS TO SAY WHEN WASHING PARTS OF YOUR BODY DURING WUDHU

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) taught us to say the following Duas when doing Wudhu (contained in the books of Hadith) – this is optional and not compulsory. These Duas have been quoted from Ahmed Hamoud Al-Maamiry’s book ‘Easy Way to Learn Islam’ (Oman). • Before starting Wudhu and washing the hands:

“Aoozu billahi minash Shaitaanir-rajeem” (I seek protection in Allah from the cursed Shaitan) and “Bismillahir rahmanir-raheem” (In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful). • When washing the mouth and gargling:

“Allahumma asqini minar raheeqil makhtoomi ya Allah” (O my Lord! Give me the drink from the sealed beautiful wine – O Allah). • When washing the nose:

“Allahumma anshiqni min rawaih rahmatika fi jannatika ya Allah” (O my Lord! Let me smell from the perfumes of Your Blessing in Your Heaven – O Allah!). • When washing the face:

“Allahumma bayyidh wajhi binurika yawmah tabyadhu wajoohu ibadikas saaliheen ya Allah” O my Lord! Make my face white with Your Light when the faces of your righteous servants will be whitened – O Allah). • When washing the right arm:

“Allahumma a’atini kitabee biyameeni wa haasibnee hisaaban yaseeran ya Allah” (O my Lord! Give me my account with my right hand, and make my account light – O Allah). • When washing the left arm:

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“Allahumma innee aoozubika an tu’thiyanee kitabiya bishimalee aw min warai zahree ya Allah” (O my Lord! I seek protection in You that You will not give me my account with my left hand or on the rear of my back – O Allah). • When doing the Masah of the head: “Allahumma azillanee bizhilli arshika yawma laa zhilla illa zhilluka” (O Allah! Shelter me with the shelter of Your authority on the Day when there will be no shelter except Yours). • When washing the ears:

“Allahummaj alnee minal-lazeena yastamioonal-qawla fa yattabioona ahsanahu” (O Allah! Include me amongst those who hear words and follow the best thereof). • When rubbing the back (nape) of the neck:

“Allahumma a’atiq raqabatee minan-naari wal-aari wa aoozubika minassalaasili wal-aghlaali” (O Allah! Save my neck from the fire and disgrace and I seek protection from the iron chains and shackles). • When washing both feet:

“Allahumma sabbit qadamayya alal haqqi wad-deeni birahmatika ya arhamarrahimeen” (O Allah! Make my feet firm on righteousness and religion – O the Most merciful). ON FINISHING WUDHU, SAY THESE PRAYERS: SHAHADAH:

“Ash-hadu Allah ilaha illalahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa Rasooluhu” (I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is the Servant and Messenger of Allah). A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 57

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY ALSO:

“Allahummaj-alnee minat-tawwabeena wajalnee minal-mutatahhireen” (O Allah! Make me from those people who repent (ask for forgiveness) and from those who are pure (clean)).

8.

WHAT BREAKS THE WUDHU

The following actions break the Wudhu for which you will have to make fresh Wudhu. • Urine and excrement. • Passing of wind. • Blood, yellow liquid, pus emanating from the body (not phlegm i.e. slimy liquid in the throat). • Laughing during one’s Salaat (prayer). • Mouthful vomiting (blood or food). • Menstruation, discharge of semen, and on childbirth – these would require one to take the Ghusl (bath). • Bleeding of a woman’s uterus. • Sleeping with support and lying down. • Unconsciousness and intoxication.

9.

WHAT DOES NOT BREAK THE WUDU

These actions do not break the Wudhu: • A mother breastfeeding a child. • When one is resting in a sitting position with eyes closed, not asleep and without any support (wall, cushion, etc.). • Having an injection for medical treatment.

10.

ACTIONS FORBIDDEN WITHOUT WUDU OR TAYAMMUM (DRY ABLUTION)

You are not permitted to do any of the following actions without Wudhu and Ghusl (and where appropriate, Tayammum): • Salaat (Wudu/Ghusl/Tayammum required). • Doing the Sajdah of Tilawat (prostration of Qur’an recitation – Wudu/Ghusl/Tayammum required). • Walking around the Holy Kaaba in Makkah (Wudu/Ghusl is necessary for this). • Carrying or touching the Holy Qur’an (Wudu/Ghusl).

11.

GHUSL (BATH)

When one intends to take a bath or shower, the purpose of it should be to cleanse oneself properly from impurities. You should not fill the bath just like some people do and wash yourself in the dirty water. This is not allowed, as you have to use flowing or running water as explained before. If you do need to fill the bath with water for A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 58

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY medical treatment or a similar purpose, then it is permitted. But at the end, you must use clean water to cleanse yourself. You should ensure that when taking a bath or shower, you wet your body completely including all the hairs. Women with plaited hair are excused from opening them and should wet the base of the hair. If it is difficult to wet the base, then the plait should be opened and the hair washed thoroughly. There are two types of Ghusl: (i) ordinary bath/shower; and (ii) ritual bath. FARDH (OBLIGATORY) GHUSL/RITUAL BATH Fardh Ghusl is obligatory after: • A person becomes a Muslim. • Husband and wife relations. • Discharge of semen. • Ending of menstruation. • Death of a person. METHOD OF GHUSL: Obligatory acts for a proper Ghusl: • Rinse the mouth properly and gargle once (when fasting do not swallow the water). • Rinse the nose up to the nasal bone once (when fasting do not let the water reach past the nasal bone). • Wash the whole body properly once including the hair. SUNNAH METHOD OF GHUSL • Say the Niyyah. • Wash your hands up to the wrists three times. • Wash your private parts three times - impurities must be removed from the body. • Do the ablution. • Wash the body completely three times including the hair.

12.

TAYAMMUM – DRY ABLUTION

Tayammum is the method of purification where you use clean, dry soil, earth, or sand in place of the Wudu and Ghusl, for the reasons below:  When water is not available for Wudu/Ghusl  Time is short for Salaat (e.g. especially when it is Fajr and Maghrib prayer and you need to have a ritual bath).  One is injured or has medical treatment for a particular part of the body. THE METHOD FOR TAYAMMUM • • • Say the Niyyah for performing the Tayammum (i.e. Bismillah). Strike both hands on the earth gently with the palms of the hands. Shake off any excess earth by tapping both hands together (with the palms of the hands facing down). 59

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY • • Pass the hands over the face only once as in normal Wudu. Strike both hands on the earth again and rub the arms from the fingertips to the elbows, once, by passing the fingers of the left hand through the fingers of the right hand up to the elbow and then doing the same action for the left arm. Do not leave any spot uncovered with soil.

NOTE: THE SAME ACTIONS THAT BREAK WUDU ALSO BREAK TAYAMMUM. WHEN WATER IS AVAILABLE, AND WHEN ONE BECOMES BETTER AFTER AN INJURY OR ILLNESS, THEN TAYAMMUM CANNOT BE DONE ANY LONGER, YOU HAVE TO USE WATER.

CHAPTER 3: SALAH – PRAYER
After performing the Wudhu and/or purification with Ghusl/Tayammum, you may start the Salah. There are some important ‘Sharaait’ (sing. Shart) conditions (things needed before prayer) that must be met before you pray. The 7 conditions for Salah are as below: • Wudhu • Your clothes are clean • The place of Salah is clean • Correct time for Salah • You are facing the Qibla (direction of Makkah) • Niyyah (intention) for prayer • Takbir-e-Tahreema (saying “Allahu Akbar”). It is important to dress properly before starting the Salah. The ‘Satr’/‘Awrah’ (covering of the body) for males is from the navel (belly button) to just below the knees. Males should cover the head with a skull-cap (“topi”) or any other headgear and t-shirts should not be worn during Salah (except one that is up to the elbow). The Awrah for females is from the head to the ankles without covering the face and hands. Females should cover their heads properly with a long scarf. Both males & females ought to wear clean and appropriate clothes and also clean socks. Note: when women have their menstrual period, they are not permitted to perform the Salah as ordered by Allah in the Holy Qur’an, or to teach it except by way of indicating the letters of words.

1.
• • • • •

THE NAMES, TIMINGS AND RAKAATS OF THE DAILY SALAH
Fajr Zohr Asr Maghrib Isha – early dawn prayer before sunrise – after midday prayer – late afternoon prayer – before sunset prayer – late evening prayer.

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TABLE SHOWING THE RAKAATS (UNITS/PARTS) FOR EACH DAILY PRAYER Name Sunnah Sunnah Fardh Sunnah Nafl Total of Daily GhairMuakkadah Rakaats Muakkadah Rakaats Number Salah Muakkadah Rakaats (Obligatory) Rakaats (Optional/ of Rakaats (Emphasised) After Fardh Voluntary)) Rakaats (not Before Fardh Prayer in Each emphasised) Daily Before Salah Fardh Prayer Fajr --2 2 ----4 Zohr --4 4 2 2 12 Asr 4 --4 ----8 Maghrib ----3 2 2 7 Isha 4 --4 2 2 Nafl 17 +3 Witr +2 Nafl

Chart Showing the Timings of Daily Salah
(Source: Ghulam Sarwar’s book ‘Islam – Beliefs and Teachings’)

Important Note: The Zohr and Asr Salah are performed silently, that is, in these prayers during Jamaat, the Imam does not read out loudly any chapters or verses from the Qur’an. He recites chapters/verses silently and the people behind him should remain silent. When you perform any Salah by yourself, you should read Qur’anic verses in a whispering voice so that you can hear what you are reading.

2.

EXPLANATION OF WORDS
(a) Rakaats – these are units or parts of a prayer; (b) Fardh – means obligatory/compulsory (actions that must be performed, failure do so will result in committing a sin;

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(c) Sunnah Muakkadah – means emphasised/stressed actions (those actions which were performed regularly by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (s.a.w.); (d) Sunnah Ghair-Muakkadah – means not emphasised or stressed, but you must not make a habit of leaving out these actions, especially such Rakaats in Salah (those actions which were sometimes performed by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (s.a.w.), but occasionally he left them out); (e) Qunoot – means obedience and devotion to Allah. This is actually a prayer, Dua-e-Qunoot, that is recited during the Witr Salah; (f) Witr – means odd number and this prayer has 3 Rakaats and is a part of the Isha Salah.

3.

WITR SALAH

This is an important prayer being ‘Wajib’ (essential or necessary – Wajib is a duty less than Fardh). It is performed just like the Maghrib prayer, after the second Rakat you stand up saying “Allahu Akbar” after the reading the Tashahhud up to “Ash-hadu Allah ilaha illallahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluh”. Then you read Surah Al-Fatihah and some verses. After this, you raise your hands up to your ears with Takbir “Allahu Akbar” and then fold your hands below the navel, if a male, or on your chest if a female. Then you read the ‘Dua-e-Qunoot’ (prayer of obeisance – bowing/respect), which is given below. After reading the Dua-e-Qunoot, you say “Allahu Akbar” and then do the Ruku, Qiyaam, Sajdah, Jalsah, read the Tashahhud, Durood, Dua, and Salaam (see the notes in the section ‘The Sunnah Method of Performing the Prayer’).

DUA-E-QUNOOT

The Dua-e-Qunoot is: “Allahumma innaa nastaeenuka wa nastagh-firuka wa nu’minu-bika wa natawakkalu alaika wa nusnee alaikal-khair, wa nashkuruka wa laa nakfuruka wa nakhlau wa natruku manj-yafjuruk, Allahumma iyyaaka na’budu wa laka nusallee wa nasjudu wa ilaika nas’aa wa nahfidu wa narjoo wa rahmataka wa nakhshaa azaabaka inna azaabaka bil-kuffaari mulhiq”

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Translation: “O Allah! We ask You for Your help and ask You for Your forgiveness, and believe in You and put our trust in You, and we praise you in the best way and we thank you and we are not ungrateful to You, and we throw away and leave the person who disobeys You. O Allah! You alone do we worship and to You we pray and do the Sajdah (prostration) and to You we turn to quickly, and we surrender, and hope for Your Mercy and we fear Your punishment. Surely, Your punishment overtakes the unbelievers.”

If you cannot read Dua-e-Qunoot in full, then you may read this Dua:

“Rabbanaa aatinaa fiddunyaa hasanatan wa fil-aakhirati hasanatan wa-qinaa azaaban-naar.” Translation: (O our Lord! We seek goodness from You in this world and the Hereafter and safety from the punishment of Hell). Or this Dua:

“Allahumma innee zalamtu nafsee zulman katheeran wala yaghfiruz-zanooba illaa anta faghfirli maghfiratan min ‘indika warhamnee, innaka anatl-ghafur-urraheem.” Translation: O Allah! I did a grave wrong to myself. And none except You forgive the sins. So grant me forgiveness from Yourself. And take pity on me; You are the most Forgiving, the most Merciful.

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4.

SAJDAH SAHW – PROSTRATION FOR FORGETFULNESS/MISTAKE

Sometimes when we pray, we may commit some mistakes unintentionally by leaving out any Wajib (essential) actions. To rectify any forgetfulness or mistake during Salah it is necessary to do the Sajdah Sahw. Examples of unintentional forgetfulness or mistake in Salah are: forgetting to recite any Surahs or verses, not doing Qiyaam (standing), not completing any Rakaat(s), not doing the Ruku (bowing), not doing the Sajdah, not doing the Qa’dah (sitting after two Rakaats), or repeating actions twice such as Ruku or Sajdah, or reciting the Surah AlFatiha in Tashahhud position, and the Durood Sharif in any Rakaat when you are supposed to be reciting the Al-Fatiha, and so on. When an Imam makes any of these mistakes during Salah, or in the recitation of the Holy Qur’an, it is the duty of the Muqtadis (people following the Imam in prayer) to correct his error by bringing it to his attention by saying “Subhaan-Allah” (Praise be to Allah) or by saying “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is Most Great). This prompting from the Muqtadis will help the Imam to correct the mistake and if an important action has been left out in Salah, then he will do the Sajdah Sahw with his followers. It does not matter if the Muqtadis have committed any mistakes in Salah as they are following the Imam. The Sajdah Sahw is done at the end of the Salah in the last Qa’dah (sitting). After reciting the Tashahhud and the Durood Sharif, the Imam says Salaam to the right side only and then does the Sajdah twice. Then the Imam and his followers complete the prayer by reciting the Tashahhud, Durood Sharif, and Dua and finishing off with saying Salaam to the right and left sides.

5.

MUFSIDAAT–E-SALAH - ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE PRAYER

The following actions are Mufsidaat-e-Salah and can break or vitiate the Salah. If any of the actions below were committed, then you would have to restart the prayer again: • • • • • Laughing/smiling. Talking to someone. Eating and drinking (children - do not have chewing gum in your mouth during prayer!). Saying: “Salaam” or “May Allah have mercy on you”, to someone sneezing during Salah. To turn your body away from the direction of Qiblah.

6.

MAKROOHAAT-E-SALAH – ACTIONS DISLIKED DURING PRAYER

The following actions are disliked during the Salah and you must try to avoid these actions as they will make the Salah defective, but you will not have to repeat the prayer: A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 64

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• • • • • • • • • • • •

Playing with one’s clothes or scratching the body more than twice. Straightening the clothes before doing the Sajdah and after it. A mother breastfeeding her baby. Cracking fingers in prayer. Males praying without a hat and females without a long scarf. Praying with a t-shirt on or having rolled up sleeves above the elbows (rolling the sleeves below the elbow is permitted). Praying with any clothes on that have pictures of animals or humans. Praying when needing to go to the toilet. To look around during prayer. To go ahead of the Imam in prayer. To recite Surahs/verses from the Holy Qur’an in a wrong order. To pray in a room/hall which has pictures of animals and humans.

7.

TIMES WHEN SALAH IS NOT TO BE PERFORMED

The times when it is Makrooh (disliked by the Shariah – Islamic Law) to perform the Salah are as follows. You should not pray during these times at all: • • • • • • • • At the time of sunrise. At sunset. When the sun is at its Zawal (zenith – highest point in the horizon). Between dawn and sunrise (only allowed to pray 15-20 minutes after sunrise). Do not pray any Nafl after Asr Salah and until sunset (except Qaza and Janazah). When the time is short for any Fardh Salah. Do not pray any Nafl when the Imam (leader of congregational prayer) is delivering the Friday Jum’ah Khutba (Sermon) and during the Jum’ah Fardh Salah, and also during the Khutba of Eid Salah. Do not pray any Nafl during the Hajj at Arafaat when Zuhr and Asr Salah are performed together. Also, during the Hajj, do not pray any Nafl between the Maghrib and Isha Salah at Muzdalifah.

8.

NON-DAILY PRAYERS

Apart from the daily prayers mentioned above, Muslims also perform other prayers as follows: 1. 2. JUMU’AH or JUM’AH SALAH – this is performed on the Muslim holy day of Friday with Jamaat (group/congregation); TARAWIH SALAH – this is performed during the Month of Ramadhan when Muslims fast for 29 or 30 days.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 3. 4. 5. EID SALAH – this is performed on the occasions of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ulAzha with Jamaat. JANAZAH SALAH (funeral prayer) – this is performed when a Muslim dies, and then we do the Janazah Salah with Jamaat. NAFILAH or NAFL SALAH (including Sunnah Salah) – this is superogatory/extra Salah that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to perform.

These prayers are explained in more detail in Chapter 4.

9.

AZAAN – THE MUSLIM CALL TO PRAYER

The Azaan is the Muslim Call to Prayer. Muslims do not use a bell just as the Christians do, nor do they use a horn like the Jews for announcing the time of congregational prayer. The Azaan is read out aloud by a person called a Muezzin (one who calls the people to Salah) facing the Qibla and raising his hands to his ears. Before the start of congregational Salah, the Azaan is read out and then the Iqaamah (the second Azaan, meaning standing up for prayer) is read. Here is the Azaan with its Arabic text, transliteration, and translation. It must be read in the order given below and should not be mixed up. When reading the Azaan, the Muezzin should be facing the Qiblah, have his index fingers in his ears, with his the palms of his hands opposite both ears.

TRANSLITERATION and TRANSLATION A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 66

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1. ALLAHU AKBAR – “Allah is the Most Great”

 4 times.

2. ASH-HADU ALLA ILAHA ILL-ALLAH – “I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah”  2 times. 3. ASH-HADU ANNA MUHAMMAD-AR-RASOOLULLAH - “I bear witness that Muhammad (s.a.w.) is the Messenger of Allah”  2 times. 4. HAYYA ALAS-SALAH – “Come to Prayer” 5. HAYYA ALAL-FALAH – “Come to Success” 6. ALLAHU AKBAR – “Allah is the Most Great”  2 times.  2 times.  2 times.  once.

7. LAA ILAHA ILL-ALLAH – “There is no god but Allah” Important Note:

When reading the Azaan at the time of Fajr Prayer, also add these words “AS-SALAATU KHAIRUN-MINAN-NAWM” (Salah is better than sleep) after saying be read twice. “HAYYA ALAL-FALAH” – to

THE IQAMAH/TAKBIR
After the Muezzin has read the Azaan, he should say the Iqaamah/Takbir by reading all the words of the Azaan, but adding the words “QAD QAAMATIS-SALAH” (“Prayer has certainly begun”) twice after the words “HAYYA ALAL-FALAH”.

THE IJABAH
When the Muezzin is calling the Azaan and when the Iqamah is being read, the people in the Jamaat should repeat the words of both the Azaan and Iqamah quietly. Repetition of such words and answering the words of Azan and Takbir is called ‘Ijabah’. In the Azaan, after hearing the words “Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah” twice, one should kiss his/her thumbs and then put the nails of the thumbs on his/her A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 67

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY eyes in love and respect of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.). After doing this, first of all, one should say “Sallal-laahu alaika yaa Rasoolullah (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon you O Rasoolullah). Then one should say “Qurratu ainee bika ya Rasoolullah” and “Allahumma matti’nee bis-sam’i wal-basr”. If you say these words, Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) will come to your help/intercession and you will never loose your eyesight with the Grace of Allah. In the Iqamah/Takbir, on hearing the words “Hayya alal-falah” twice, one should say: “La hawla wala quwwata illah billahil-aliyyil-azeem” (There is no power and might except from Allah. The Most High, The Great). In the Fajr Azaan, after hearing the words “Assalaatu khairun-minan-nawm” twice, one should say “Sadaqta wa bararta” (You have spoken the truth and done good). In the Iqamah/Takbir, after hearing the words “Qad qaamatis-salah” twice, one should say “Aqaamah-allahu wa adaamaha” (May Allah establish it and keep it forever).

DUA AFTER AZAAN

“Allahumma rabba haazihid-da’wati-taammati wasalatil-qaaimati aati Muhammadanil-waseelata wal-fadhilata wad-darajatar-rafeeata wabath’hu maqamam-Mahmooda nillazee wa atthahu warzuqnaa shafa’atahu yawmalqiyaamati innaka la tukhliful-mee’aad. Birahmatika yaa arhamar-raahimeen”.

“O Allah! Lord of this perfect call and of this standing prayer, grant our leader Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w.) his Waseelah (a special place in Paradise) and Fadheelah A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 68

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY (excellence) and the highest rank, and make him stand at the Maqaam-e-Mahmood (the praiseworthy place) which You have promised him, and make him our intercessor on the Day of Judgement. Surely You do not go back on Your promise. Have Mercy on us, for You are the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful!”

10.

THE FARAIDH OF SALAH - COMPULSORY PARTS

In order to perform the Salah properly, it is compulsory to do the following seven actions in Salah: 1. To say the FIRST TAKBIR – TAKBIR-E-TAHREEMA: “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the Most Great). When saying this Takbir, males should raise their hands with palms facing the Qibla up to the ears; females should raise their hands up to their shoulders. Once you say the Takbir, you cannot eat, drink, sleep, talk, etc. during the Salah (i.e. daily/routine actions). To do the QIYAAM – standing up straight for Salah, facing the Qiblah, males having the hands below the navel, and females having their hands on their chest (see photos of prayer positions). To do the QIRAAT (recitation/reading) of some verses (Ayaat) or a chapter (Surah) from the Holy Qur’an. The recitation should be at least three verses or one long verse equivalent to three verses. To do the RUKU (bowing in the knee position). When doing the Ruku, you should have your back straight, hold your knees with your hands spread out on them, keeping your legs straight, and looking down at your feet. To do the SAJDAH (prostration on the floor). When doing the Sajdah, keep your hands, nose, forehead, the knees, and the toes of the feet touching the floor and not to raise any of these five parts of the body from the floor, otherwise your prayer will be broken and nullified. Females do the Sajdah by laying their arms flat on the floor facing the Qiblah and keeping them close to the chest. They should not raise their backs like males and should keep their feet facing the right side (see pictures 15 and 16). To do the QA’DAH AKHIRA (last sitting position in Tashahhud after completion of all Rakaats). Males should sit by keeping the right foot 69

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY upright (with all the toes touching the floor) and sit by keeping the buttocks on the left foot. Females to sit with the buttocks placed on the feet facing the right side.
7.

To complete the Salah by saying SALAAM (“Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah”) to the right and left side of body.

PHOTOGRAPHS OF POSITIONS IN PRAYER FOR MALES & FEMALES
Below are some of the different positions in prayer that should be done properly by males and females. The Author’s children Salma Mahmood (age 11 years) and Amjad Mahmood (age 13 years) show the various positions in prayer for males and females as follows.

MALE SALAH POSITIONS
Photo 1: Takbir-e-Tahrima (“Allahu Akbar”)

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Amjad is facing the Qibla and raises his hands up to his ears and says the Takbir. He is looking down at the place where he will put his forehead when doing the Sajdah. Also there should be a gap of four fingers between the feet.

Photo 2: Qiyaam (Standing):
Here Amjad has put his hands below the navel. The right hand is placed on the left hand’s wrist clasped, with three fingers on the top (index finger and middle finger, and third finger), and the right hand’s thumb and small finger below the left hand’s wrist.

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Photo 3: Ruku (Amjad is holding his knees, with head and back straight, he is looking down at his feet)

Photo 4: Ruku - hands are placed on the knees

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Photo 5: Qawmah (standing after Ruku)

Here Amjad keeps his hands by his sides and is looking down at the place of Sajdah.

Photo 6: Sajdah
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In this position the hands are kept flat on the floor opposite the ears with the fingers closed. The arms are spread out and do not touch the floor.

Photo 7: Sajdah (rear view)

See how the feet are kept standing up during the Sajdah.

Photo 8: Jalsah (sitting after Sajdah)
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In this position, Amjad has placed his hands just above the knees, with the right foot kept standing and he sits on the left foot, which faces the right side.

Photo 9: Jalsah (view from behind)

Photo 10: Salam
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Amjad saying Salam, “Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah” to the right and left sides, finally completes the prayer.

FEMALE SALAH POSITIONS
Photo 11: Takbir-e-Tahrima (“Allahu Akbar”)

Here Salma is raising her hands up to her shoulders and says the Takbir (normally this is done by keeping the hands under the Hijab/veil/cloak). She is also looking down at the place where she will put her forehead when doing the Sajdah. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 76

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Photo 12: Qiyaam (Standing)

In this picture Salma has put her right hand over the left hand and she has placed both hands on her chest. Only females do this and not males.

Photo 13: Ruku (Salma is holding her knees, with head and back slightly bent, she is looking down at her feet)

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Photo 14: Qawmah (Standing after Ruku)

Salma is standing straight with her hands by her sides and looking at the point where she will put her forehead.

Photo 15: Sajdah (Prostration)
Now Salma is doing the Sajdah and she has the feet facing to the right with her elbows flat on the floor. She does not have the feet standing up like males.

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Photo 16: Jalsah (Sitting after Sajdah)

In the Jalsah position, Salma is looking down in front of her (place of putting the forehead), she has put her hands on top of the knees and has kept both feet facing to the right.

Photo 17: Dua

In this picture Salma is showing how to do the Dua (Supplication). She has joined her hands together to make a cup shape with the hands opposite the shoulders, with the hands covered. If you pray at home you can uncover your hands when doing the Dua.

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Photo 18: Anisa (8 years) and As’ad (5 years) show how to pray together

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11.

THE SUNNAH METHOD OF PERFORMING THE PRAYER AND ZIKR DURING SALAH (WHAT TO READ DURING THE PRAYERS)

The meaning of ‘Zikr’ is the remembrance of Allah by saying the Sifaat-e-Allah – the Ninety-nine Holy Names and Attributes of Allah, Hamd - praising Allah, recitation of the Holy Qur’an, and through other Ibadah (worships) such as Salah, Zakaat, Saum, Hajj, and so on. Here, Zikr refers to what you read in Arabic text during the Salah. HOW TO PERFORM THE PRAYERS ACCORDING TO THE HANAFI SCHOOL OF ISLAMIC LAW There are some important rules to be observed when the Jamaat/congregational prayer is being performed. The Imam and the Muqtadis (people in Jamaat) read the

Ta’awwuz,

“Aoozu billahi minash Shaitaanir-

rajeem” and Bismillah, “Bismillahir rahmanir-raheem” silently. Then the Imam recites Surah Al-Fatiha (Opening Chapter) from the Holy Qur’an, and then any other Surah. The people behind the Imam do not have to read anything and must listen quietly to the Imam’s recitation, as the Imam’s reading is considered to be the peoples’ reading as well. 1. After doing the Wudhu, face the Qibla (direction of Makkah). Also make sure when you pray alone, that you place an object called a ‘Sutra’ (e.g. a chair) in front of you, where you will do the Sajdah before starting the prayer, so that anyone who passes by will go outside the Sutra. When you pray with an Imam, he and other Muqtadis will be your Sutra, but the Imam should have a Sutra in front of him.

2. Say the Niyyah (intention – “what you want to do” in the mind, you can also say it quietly) of the Salah you are performing: You can make the Niyyah of any Salah in any language that you speak. You can do the Niyyah like this, for example: “I intend to perform the Fajr prayer (say the name of the Salah), with 2 Rakaat Fardh (say the number of Rakaats of any prayer – Sunnah or Fardh), for the sake of Allah, I am facing the Holy Kaaba, Allahu Akbar”. If you are praying any Fardh prayer in Jamaat, you should say that you are praying behind the Imam and to include in the Niyyah “…for the sake of Allah, behind this Imam, I am facing the Holy Kaaba, Allahu Akbar”. If the Imam is leading the prayer of males and females, then he should make the Niyyah for both genders in all Jamaat prayers. 3. Say Takbeer-e-Tahrima: “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is Most Great) - males should raise their hands with the palms facing the Qibla up to the ears; females should raise their hands up to their shoulders.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 8. Then, males put your hands below the navel. Females put your hands on the chest (right hand on top of left hand). Males should put their right hand on the left hand and clasp (hold) your left hand’s wrist, with three fingers on the top (index finger, middle and fourth finger), and the right hand’s thumb and small finger below the left hand’s wrist (see photos 2 & 12). 9. Read the Sanaa:

“Subhanak-Allah humma wabi hamdika watabaraka kasmuka wata aala jadduka wa jalla thanauka walaa ilaha ghairuk” (All Glory be to You O Allah! Praise is to You; Blessed is Your Name and Exalted is Your Majesty; there is none worthy of worship except You). 10. Read the Ta’awwuz:

“Aoozu billahi minash Shaitaanir-rajeem” (I seek protection with Allah from the cursed Shaitan) And the Bismillah/Tasmiyyah:

“Bismillahir rahmanir-raheem” (In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful). 11. Then read Surah Al-Fatiha from the Holy Qur’an:

“Al-hamdu lillahi rabbil-aalameen, ar-rahma nir-raheem, maaliki yawmiddeen, iyyaaka na’budu wa iyyaaka nastaeen, ihdinas-siraatal mustaqeem, siraatallazeena anamta alaihim, ghairil maghdoobi alahim wa ladhaaleen. Ameen.”

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Translation of Al-Fatihah: All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Universe, the Most Kind, Most Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgement. You alone we worship and from You alone we ask for help. Guide us on the straight path, the path of those who You have favoured, not the path of those who earned Your anger, nor the path of those who went astray. Ameen (So let it be O Allah)]. 12. Next read any Surah or verses from the Holy Qur’an: Example, Surah Ikhlaas (Purity):

“Qul huwallahu ahad, Allahus-samad, lam yalid, wa lam yoolad, wa lam yakullahu kufuwan ahad” (Say, He is Allah, The One. Allah is above and all things depend on Allah. He does not beget, nor is He begotten. And there is none like Him). 13. Then say Takbir “Allahu Akbar” and go into Ruku, saying Tasbeeh (praise):

“Subhaana rabbiyal-azeem” (Glory be to my Lord the Greatest), 3,5, or 7 times. 14. Then stand up in Qiyaam position and saying Tasmeeh (listening):

“Sami Allahu liman hamidah” (Allah listens to him who has praised Him). When you pray in congregation/Jamaat, only the Imam should say Tasmeeh loudly. If you pray by yourself you can say Tasmeeh. In Qiyaam position, stand straight and keep your hands by the sides of your body. 15. After Tasmeeh, say Tahmeed (praise):

“Allahumma Rabbana walakal hamd” (Our Lord! All praise is due to You Alone). In Jamaat prayer, the Imam and the congregation read the Tahmeed silently.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 16. To say Allahu Akbar and go into Sajdah (prostration), saying Tasbeeh (praise):

“Subhaana rabbiyal aala” (Glory to my Lord, the Most High), 3,5, or 7 times. Before going into Sajdah, your hands should be placed on your knees whilst bending down, keeping your feet standing up with the toes firmly flat on the ground, with the knees first touching the floor, then the hands, then the nose, and lastly, the forehead touching the floor. The arms should be raised up and not touching the sides of your body, nor should you put your arms flat on the floor. 17. Then go into Jalsa (sitting position) saying “Allahu Akbar”. Males should sit by keeping the right foot upright (with all the toes touching the floor) and sit by keeping the buttocks on the left foot. Females to sit with the buttocks placed on the feet facing the right side. Both males and females should keep the hands just above the knees facing the Qibla, with the finger separated and with the fingertips slightly bent over the knees. Do Sajdah again as in number (12) above, with Takbir “Allahu Akbar”. Then get up in the Qiyaam position and read Bismillah, Surah Fatihah, and any other Surahs or verses, as in numbers (6), (7), and (8) above. Then say Takbir “Allahu Akbar” and go into Ruku, saying Tasbeeh (praise): “Subhaana rabbiyal-azeem” (Glory be to my Lord the Greatest), 3,5, or 7 times. Then stand up in Qiyaam position and saying Tasmeeh (listening): “Sami Allahu liman hamidah” (Allah listens to him who has praised Him). After Tasmeeh, say Tahmeed (praise): “Rabbana lakal hamd” (Our Lord! All praise is due to You Alone). Then say “Allahu Akbar” and go into Sajdah (prostration), saying Tasbeeh (praise): “Subhaana rabbiyal aala” (Glory to my Lord, the Most High), 3,5, or 7 times. Then go into Jalsa (sitting position) saying “Allahu Akbar”. Again say “Allahu Akbar” and go into Sajdah (prostration), saying Tasbeeh (praise): “Subhaana rabbiyal aala” (Glory to my Lord, the Most High), 3,5, or 7 times.

18. 19.

20.

21. 22. 23.

24. 25.

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26.

Now, read Tashahhud (testifying):

“Attahiyyaatu lillahi wass-salawaatu wath-thayyibaatu, assalamu alaika ayyuhannabiyyu wa rahamtullahi wa barakaatuhu, as-salaamu alainaa wa alaa ibaadilla hiss-saaliheen, ash-hadu allaa ilaha illallahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluh.” (All respect, worship and all glory is due to Allah alone. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the Mercy and Blessings of Allah be upon you. Peace be on us and on those who are the righteous servants of Allah. I testify that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah, and I testify that Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) is His Servant and Messenger). Note: when you read the words “ash-hadu al-laa ilaha illalahu”, and come up to the word “laa” in the Tashahhud, whilst keeping the right hand on the knee, you should make a circle with the thumb and middle finger, and also making a circle with the finger next to it, and the small finger of the right hand. Then raise the index finder up as you say “laa” and drop the finger when you reach the word “illallah”. Why you do this is because you are stressing that “there is none worthy of worship except Allah”. 27. After Tashahhud, if you have to complete 3 or 4 Rakaats, then you must get up after saying the words in Tashahhud “ash-hadu allaa ilaha illallahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluh”. If you are performing a 2 Rakat prayer, then you must complete the prayer as below – steps 23 to 26.

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28.

Now read Durood Shareef (Salaam/greetings to the Holy Prophet s.a.w.):

“Allahumma salli alaa Muhammadin wa alaa aali Muhammadin kamaa sallaita alaa Ibraheema wa alaa aali Ibraheema innaka hameedun majeed” (O Allah! Shower Your Blessings on Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) just as You showered Your Blessings on Ibraheem (alaihis-salaam) and the family of Ibraheem (alaihis-salaam). Certainly, You alone are worthy of praise and are Glorious).

“Allahumma baarik alaa Muhammadin wa alaa aali Muhammadin, kamaa baarakta alaa Ibraheema wa alaa aali Ibraheema innaka hameedun majeed” (O Allah! Bless Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) just as You Blessed Ibraheem (alaihis-salaam) and the family of Ibraheem (alaihis-salaam). Certainly, You alone are worthy of praise and are Glorious).

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29.

Then say the Dua

“Rabbij-alnee muqeemas-salaati wa min zurriyyatee, rabbanaa wata qabbal duaa, rabbanagh-fir-lee wali waali dayya wa lil mu’mineena yawma yaqoomul hisaab” (O my Lord! Make my children and myself regular in Salah. O our Lord! Accept my prayer. O our Lord! Forgive me. Forgive my parents and all other Muslims on the Day of Judgement”).

Or this Dua:

30.

Tasleem (Salaam): Finally, complete the Salah by saying Salaam to your right and left:

“Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullah” (May the Peace and Mercy of Allah be upon you) This is the correct way to perform Salah. When you are performing the Friday Jum’ah Prayer, the Fardh of Eid Prayer, the Tarawih Prayer, any Nafl Prayer, except the Janazah Prayer, you perform all these prayers in the manner described above (steps 126. The way of praying the Jum’ah, Tarawih, Eid, Janazah is explained in Chapter 4 and Nafl Salah is described in Chapter 5.

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12.

DUA AND ZIKR AFTER PRAYER

It is ‘Masnoon’ (acts shown by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) – according to his Sunnah/practice) to say any Dua and to do any Zikr after completing one’s Salah. Allah has declared and commanded us in the Holy Qur’an in 4/103:

“When you have finished the prayer, remember Allah”. You can read any Duas from the Holy Qur’an and the Ahadith of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (s.a.w.). It is also the Sunnah of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (s.a.w.) to do the ‘Istighfar’ (asking Allah’s forgiveness) three times after each Salah, then

to read the Kalima/Article of Faith “La ilaaha illallah” three times, and also to read the ‘Tasbeehat-e-Fatima’ - the Tasbeeh Zikr of Hazrat Fatima AlZahra, may Allah be pleased with her, by counting on a prayer bead (Tasbih) or on one’s fingers saying: “Subhaan-Allah” (Glory be to Allah) 33 times, “Allahu

“Alhamdu-lillah” (Praise be to Allah) 33 times, and Akbar” (Allah is Most Great) 34 times.

Here are a two Duas that can be learnt easily (one should try to learn as many Duas as possible): (1)

“Allahumma antas-salaamu wa minkas-salaamu wa ilaika yarjius-salaam, hayyinaa rabbanaa bis-salaami wa adkhilnaa daaras-salaam, tabaarakta rabbanaa wata aalaita yaa zal-jalaali wal-ikraam”. (O Allah! You are the Giver of Peace, and peace is from You and Peace returns to You. O our Lord! Keep us alive in Peace and enter us in to the House of Peace. You are the Most Blessed and the Most Powerful and the Most Great.) (2)

“Rabbanaa aatinaa fiddunyaa hasanatan wa fil-aakhirati hasanatan waqinaa azaaban-naar”. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 88

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(O our Lord! We seek goodness from You in this world and the Hereafter and safety from the punishment of Hell).

CHAPTER 4: PRAYERS BESIDES THE DAILY SALAH & AND HOW TO PERFORM THEM

1.

THE JUMUAH/JUM’AH (FRIDAY) PRAYER

The Friday Jumuah/Jum’ah Salah is Fardh (obligatory) on all adult Muslims, who are free, of good health, of good mind, and is not a traveller. Although it is not obligatory on Muslim Women, they are permitted to attend this prayer at the Masjid (Mosque). The condition is that they wear proper ‘Hijab’ (covering of the head and body), a separate room with Wudhu facility is available, and that there is a separate entrance and exit door for them, so that men cannot look at women. There are some conditions for offering the Friday Prayer as follows: • • • • • The Jumuah Salah is lead by an Imam in Jamaat (congregation), you cannot perform it by yourself. In order to perform the Jumuah Salah, it is necessary to have at least four people to form the Jamaat including the Imam. To give a Khutba (sermon) first and then to offer the Fardh prayer with Jamaat. The Jumuah Salah must be offered in a city or a town. The Jumuah Salah cannot be offered in a village. If a village is regarded as having a central status with the facilities of a town, then you can perform the Jumuah Salah in it. Not to pray the Jumuah Salah a small Masjid – it must be in a Markazi (central) Masjid. To perform the Jumuah Salah at the time of Zohr. To perform the Jumuah Salah in public, with permission and where everyone can attend the prayer easily.

• • •

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HOW TO PERFORM THE JUMUAH PRAYER The Imam first of all sits on the Minbar (Pulpit) and the Muezzin calls the Azaan. Then the Imam delivers his speech or Khutba (sermon) in the community language (understandable to everybody in the Jamaat). Then the congregation offers four Rakaats of Sunnah Muakkadah individually. Then the Azaan is read before the Imam gives his ‘Khutba-e-Masnoonah’ in Arabic (everybody should listen to the Khutba quietly and not offer any Nafl prayer). Then the 2 Fardh of Jumuah Salah is performed in congregation after Iqamah/Takbir. Once the 2 Fardh are completed, the Imam recites Duas. Then the Muqtadis (people following the Imam) can complete their Sunnah prayers by themselves and after that, they are free to go about their business. Note: The Jumuah Salah is offered in Jamaat at the time of Zuhr Salah. During the Jumuah Salah you do not perform the 4 Fardh Rakaats of Zuhr prayer; instead, the 2 Fardh Rakaat are prayed in place of the 4 Fardh of Zuhr. The other Rakaats of Zuhr are offered as normal in Zuhr prayer. If you miss the Friday Prayer, then you cannot repeat by doing ‘Qaza’(atonement), instead you will have to pray Zuhr Salah. Summary of Jumuah Salah:  Azaan is read to announce the time of Jumuah and Khutba whilst the Imam is present.  Imam does a speech in the community language.  Offer the 4 Rakaat of Sunnah Muakkadah by yourself.  Azaan is read before Khutba.  Imam then reads the Khutba in Arabic in two parts.  2 Fardh of Jumuah Salah offered with the Imam.  4 Sunnah Muakkadah (by yourself).  2 Sunnah Muakkadah (by yourself)  2 Nafl (by yourself)  Salah ends with Dua.

31.

THE SALATUL-EIDAIN – EID PRAYER

The Eid Salah is performed in Jamaat on the Eidain (two Eids): Eid-ul-Fitr (after the Islamic month of Ramadan, on completing their one month of fasting), and on the Eidul-Azha (after the Hajj in the Month of Zul-Hajj). These are moments of great celebration and remembrance for Muslims, when they praise and thank Allah the Almighty by offering Eid Salah with Jamaat. On the occasions of Eid, Muslims attend to their personal hygiene according to the Sunnah, which they do regularly, by having the hair cut (males), cutting the nails, taking a bath/shower, doing Miswaak (brushing A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 90

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY the teeth with a toothbrush or the twig of the Arak tree), apply perfume, wear their best clothes, and have some sweet food. How to Pray the Salat-ul-Eidain Salat-ul-Eidain is performed in a manner similar to the Jumuah Salah with a Khutba and 2 Rakaats of prayer. There is no Azaan or Iqaamah for the Eid Salah. In the Eid Salah you perform with Jamaat the 2 Rakaats of either Eid-ul-Fitr or Eid-ul-Azhaa first. Then the Imam reads the Khutba in Arabic and after that, the prayer ends with Dua. In 2 Rakaats of Eid Prayer, you have six extra Takbir (Allahu Akbar) to say, three in the first Rakat and three in the second Rakaat. The method of praying Eid Salah is thus: 1. 2. 3. The Imam says the Takbeer-e-Tahrima (first Takbir) loudly and the people in the Jamaat also say this silently by raising the hands to the ears. Then you fold the hands and read the Sanaa (“Subhaanak-Allahumma wabi hamdika….” Next, the Imam says out three Takbir loudly with short pauses, and the Muqtadis (followers) should also say it, but silently. After each Takbir, the Imam and Muqtadis both raise their hands to the ears and drop them by their sides. After the third Takbir, the Imam and Muqtadis fold their hands. Then the Imam recites Surah Al-Fatihah and any verses and the Muqtadis should listen to the Imam’s recitation. After this, the Imam and followers do the Ruku and Sujood as in the daily prayers, and then get up to complete the second Rakat. In the second Rakat, the Imam again recites Surah Al-Fatihah and any verses. After the recitation of Al-Fatiha and verses, the Imam says three Takbir loudly, raising the hands to the ears, and dropping them to the sides. The Muqtadis should do the same. After the third Takbir, the Imam will say the fourth Takbir for the Ruku and instead of folding the hands, you should go straight into the Ruku position, then do the Sajdah, and complete the prayer as normal with Tashahhud, Durood, and Dua. Finally, the Imam will finish off the Eid Salah by reading the Khutba in Arabic and ending with Duas.

4.

5. 6.

7.

Takbir of Eid When setting off to the Masjid for Eid Salah, it is Sunnah to go by foot and to return home by another way, and also to repeat the words of Eid Takbeer: “Allaahu akbar Allaahu akbar, laa ilaah illallahu wallaahu akbar, allaahu akbar wa lillaahil-hamd” Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, there is no god but Allah, and Allah is the Greatest, and all praise is for Allah alone. Remember that in the Month of Zul-Hajj, this Takbir called ‘Takbir-e-Tashreek’ should be read out loudly three times, but once is essential, after the Fajr Salah on the 9th Zul-Hajj and up to the Asr Salah on the 13th of Zul-Hajj (the days of Ayyam-e-Tashreek). A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 91

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3.

THE TARAWIH PRAYER

Tarawih Salah, being Sunnah Muakkadah, is performed in Jamaat during the Month of Ramadhan. It is offered at the time of the Isha Salah, after the completing the prayers of 4 Fardh, 2 Sunnah and 2 Nafl, but before the Witr. During the Tarawih Salah, it is the intention of the Imam/Hafiz/Qari to complete the recitation of the Holy Qur’an over 29 or 30 days of Ramadhan. HOW TO PERFORM THE TARAWIH SALAH The Tarawih Salah consists of 20 Rakaats and it is offered in 2 Rakaats and prayed just like the 2 Rakaat of Sunnah or Nafl prayer. After every four Rakaats, the Imam and Muqtadis take a short rest in between the Tarawih prayer and recite the Tasbeeh of Tarawih (see overleaf). Remember that if you miss the 4 Fardh of Isha you cannot start the Tarawih prayer. You would have to pray the 4 Fardh alone or pray in Jamaat with some other person at a place separate from where the Tarawih Jamaat is being performed. Also, note that in Ramadhan, the Witr Salah is offered in Jamaat, so if you miss the Fardh of Isha, then you have to pray both the Fardh and Witr alone (or pray in Jamaat with another person and away from the actual Tarawih Jamaat). TASBEEH TARAWIH The Tasbeeh Tarawih should be learnt and memorised. Usually, in many Mosques, a chart containing the Tasbeeh Tarawih is displayed on the wall for the benefit of those who do not know the Tasbeeh and this is helpful to such people.

“Subhaana zil-mulki wal-malakoot, subhaanazil-izzi wal-azmati wal-heibati walqudrati wal-kibriyaai wal-jabaroot, subhaanal malikil hayyillazee laa yanaamu wa laa yamootu, subboohun quddoosun rabbunaa wa rabbul malaaikati warrooh, Allahumma ajirnaa minannari, yaa mujeeru, yaa mujeeru. Ass-salaatu wassalaamu alaa Sayyidana Rasoolullah.” A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 92

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Translation of Tasbeeh Tarawih: (Glory be to Him, to Whom belongs the Kingdom and the Sovereignty. Glory be to Him to Whom belongs all honour and all the bounty and all awe and all greatness and all power, and all dignity and all authority. Glory be to Him Who is the King, Everliving, Who does not sleep and death does not overtakes Him. He is the Absolutely Pure, the All-Holy. He is our Lord as well as the Lord of the Angels, and the Lord of the Spirits. O Allah! Protect us from the Fire of Hell. O Protector! O Protector! Peace and Salaam be upon our Master Rasoolullah, Hazrat Muhammad, Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).

4.

THE JANAZA (FUNERAL) PRAYER

When a Muslim dies a Janazah Salah (Funeral Prayer) is performed before burying him/her. The Imam and a few people offer the Janazah Salah (but even one person apart from the Imam would be sufficient for fulfilling this duty). Holding a Jamaat is not required for Janazah Salah. Janazah Salah is called ‘Fardh-e-Kifaayah’, which means that some Muslims from the community should offer this prayer. If some people cannot attend the prayer, then they will be excused or free from this responsibility – ‘Bari-uz-Zimmah’. Whereas, if nobody offers the prayer, then the Muslims living in the town will be sinful in neglecting their obligatory duty. The prayer should not be offered in a Masjid unless under extreme difficulties. Janazah Salah cannot be performed for a group of people such as: • A highway robber that dies when robbing somebody. • A murderer. • A person who has committed suicide. • A person who has murdered his parents. • A person who dies whilst fighting with an Imam or Scholar of Islam. • A child born dead. For these people, you cannot wash their bodies or do the Janazah for them but to throw their bodies in a grave. If a ‘Shaheed’ (Martyr) has died fighting in Jihad his body will not be washed. He will be given the greatest respect by offering a proper Janazah Salah and a burial. When there a number of Martyrs (Shuhadaa), then one Janazah Salah will be sufficient for them, although separate prayers can be offered for them. How to Pray Janazah Salah There is no Azaan, Iqaamah, or any Rakaats, Ruku or Sujood in the Janazah Salah. First of all, the Imam and the people in the congregation should ensure that the washed body of the dead person (deceased) is present, as you cannot do the Janazah Salah without the body. The Imam should ensure that an odd number of ‘Saff’ (rows/lines) are made by the Muqtadis (people praying behind the Imam) – 3, 5, 7, etc. number of rows. The body of the deceased should be placed at the front where the Imam usually stands to lead the prayer. The Imam should stand near the deceased’s chest. The body should be placed in such a way that the head is at the right side and the feet facing to one’s left side. It is Mustahab (preferred) that the deceased’s head is turned towards the Qibla. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 93

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY When the body is present, and the Imam and his Muqtadis have made the Saff in odd numbers, then the Janazah Salaat can begin.

1.

The Niyyah (intention) for the prayer is: “I intend to pray Janazah Salah with four Takbirs, Sanaa (Praise) is for Allah, Durood for Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), and Dua for the deceased, behind this Imam, I am facing the Qibla, Allahu Akbar.” Then the Imam says “Allahu Akbar” aloud and folds his hands below the navel - the Muqtadis should do also say the Takbir silently and fold their hands in the proper manner. Then you recite the Sanaa silently with the Imam: “Subhanak-Allah humma wabi hamdika watabaraka kasmuka wata aala jadduka wa jalla thanauka walaa ilaha ghairuk” (All Glory be to You O Allah! Praise be to You; Blessed is Your Name and Exalted is Your Majesty; there is none worthy of worship except You). Next, the Imam will say the first extra Takbir “Allahu Akbar” – keeping your hands folded, you also say the Takbir. Then, after the Imam’s second Takbir, you recite Durood on the Prophet (p.b.u.h.): “Allahumma salli alaa Muhammadin wa alaa aali Muhammadin kamaa sallaita alaa Ibraheema wa alaa aali Ibraheema innaka hameedun majeed” “Allahumma baarik alaa Muhammadin wa alaa aali Muhammadin, kamaa baarakta alaa Ibraheema wa alaa aali Ibraheema innaka hameedun majeed”

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Then after the Imam’s third Takbir, you recite the Dua for the deceased – see below for the Duas for adults and children. Finally, the Imam says the fourth Takbir and Salaam: “Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullai wa baraktaatuh.” (May the peace and mercy of Allah be upon you).

7.

After the Janazah Salah, the Saff (rows) are broken up, the Jamaat (congregation) do the Zikr of Shahadah – “Laa ilaaha illallah”, and the Imam prays with the people for the deceased. The Fatiha is recited with Surah Al-Ikhlas, for the ‘Isaal-e-Sawaab’ (i.e. sending of rewards) of the deceased. This benefits the dead person very much. We also convey our Ta’ziyyah (condolences, sorrow and support of comfort) to the relatives of the deceased, as it is the Sunnah of Rasoolullah (s.a.w.). However, the relatives of the deceased must not moan, wail, scream, or tear their clothes, because it is Haraam/forbidden and contrary to the Shariah.

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DUA FOR AN ADULT MALE/FEMALE MUSLIM This is the Dua for an adult Muslim whether a male or a female:

“Allahummagh-firli hayyinaa wa mayyitinaa wa shaahidinaa wa ghaaibinaa wa sagheerina wa kabeerinaa wa zakarinaa wa unsaanaa, Allahumma man ahyaitahu minnaa, fa-ahyihi alal-islaam, wa man tawaffaitahu fatawaffahu alal-eemaan. Allahumma la tahrimnaa ajrahu wala taftina ba’dahu.” O Allah! Forgive our living and our dead, our present and our absent, our young and our old, and our males and our females. O Allah! Give to those of us who are living the ability to live in the practice of Islam, and bless those from us who meet with death in a condition of Iman (faith). O Allah! Do not deprive us of his reward and do not make us fall into trial after him. DUA FOR A BOY

“Allahummaj-alhu lanaa faratan waj-alhu lanaa ajran wa zukhran waj-alhu lanaa shaafian wa mushaffa’a.” (O Allah! Make him our forerunner, and make him for us a reward and a treasure, and make him for us a pleader and an intercessor, and accept his pleading.” DUA FOR A GIRL

“Allahummaj-alha lanaa faratan waj-alha lanaa ajran wa zukhran waj-alha lanaa shaafian wa mushaffa’ah.”

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5.

THE MUSAAFIR’S (TRAVELLER’S) PRAYER

A Musaafir (Traveller) is a person who has left his normal place of residence and has set off on a journey of at least 48 miles from his home and has the intention of being away from home for up to 3 days and less than 15 days. If some Muslim goes travels on a journey of 48 miles or more, then he has to reduce the number of the Fardh Rakaats of the Zohr, Asr and Isha prayers to 2 Rakaats, this is called “Qasr”. For example, in the Zohr, Asr, and Isha prayers, where you would perform any four Sunnah or Fardh prayer, you would have to reduce them to 2 Rakaats. The Fajr, Maghrib, Witr and the Sunnah and Nafl prayers will remain the same. You are a traveller as long as you stay away from home and do not stay anywhere for longer than 15 days; otherwise you have to offer complete prayers.

Some Rules (Musaafir’s Prayer):
Niyyah of Salah Where you do the intention of any Salah and wish to do Qasr, then you must say in the Niyyah the word Qasr after the name of the prayer and the number of Rakaats. If by mistake you say 4 Rakaats instead of 2, and when you sit in Qa’dah (after 2 nd Sajdah), then you should get up and complete another 2 Rakaats and then do the Sajdah-e-Sahw (prostration of forgetfulness). In this case you will have performed the first two Rakaats properly for the Salah and your other two Rakaats will become Nafl or extra. If you intentionally make the Niyyah of 4 Rakaats rather than two, then it will be a sin and you must repent to Allah for forgiveness by doing Istighfaar, and then repeat the Niyyah again. Praying Behind A Resident Imam (Muqeem) If a traveller prayers behind a resident Imam (i.e. the town where the Imam lives is not your home), then you would have to complete four Rakaats behind him and you do not do Qasr. Traveller Leading The Prayer Where a traveller becomes the Imam and leads the Salah of his fellow travellers, then he would do Qasr of Rakaats. If a traveller becomes the Imam of those who are resident in a town, then he would only have to perform two Rakaats and the congregation would have to complete four Rakaats. The traveller will sit for Tashahhud and finish the prayer after two Rakaats, whereas the congregation would get up and complete another two Rakaats (and not to recite Surah Al-Fatihah and any other Surah in the remaining two Rakaats, but to keep silent for as long as Fatihah is usually read and then complete the prayer as normal). But the traveller must inform the people that he is a Musaafir and that he has to do Qasr of prayer.

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Travelling From One City to Another If a traveller intends to travel from one city to another and has the intention of staying there less than 15 days then he should do Qasr of Fardh Salah. If he stays for more than 15 days then he will have to perform the prayers fully and not do Qasr. If you miss your prayer during a journey then you have to repeat them as Qasr and Qaza at your destination and conversely, if you miss prayers at home, you must offer them during the journey. When travelling by car, or coach, etc., and it is the time of Salah, it is better to stop the car or the coach at a service, and then to perform the prayer. If you fear that the time of Salah will finish by the time you reach a service or your destination, then you can pray in the car, coach or train, by sitting on the seats and only doing the movements of Rukuh and Sujood with your head. This is permitted in Islam because it is a natural way of life that makes everything possible and easy for humans.

6.

QAZA (MISSED) PRAYER

When any Salah is performed after the appointed times it is called Qaza Salah (Qaza means to compensate or make good, or repeat in the case of Salah). Missing the prayers without any good reasons according to the Islamic Law is a major sin. A person who misses a prayer, either whilst travelling or due to some other valid reason, has to perform the Qaza prayer of the missed prayer(s) and repent to Allah. The Qaza prayer can be offered at any time but not during the Makrooh (odious) times (e.g. sunrise, sunset or declining of the sun). Before one offers the Qaza prayer(s), he/she must offer the Adaa prayer (prayer on time) and then the Qaza. But if there is a short time left for the Adaa Salah, then it is necessary to offer the Adaa Salah first and then to offer the Qaza. You must remember that Qaza prayer should be performed in order, for instance, Fajr, Zohr, Asr, Maghrib, and finally Isha. If the Fajr prayer is missed, then you have to do the Qaza of the Fajr Sunnah and Fardh after sunrise before midday, and only Qaza of the Fajr Fardh after midday. If you have missed the Jumuah/Friday Salah, then you cannot do it as Qaza; instead you have to offer the Zohr Salaat as Qaza.

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7.

MAREEZ’S PRAYER – THOSE WHO ARE ILL/DISABLED

Islam is the ‘Deen’ (way of life) and the religion of ‘Fitrah’ (nature). If a person is severely ill, injured or is disabled, then Islam has permitted him/her to pray to Allah the Almighty in whatever manner possible whether standing, sitting, or lying down. The correct form of Salah has been described in Chapter 4. If a person cannot perform a prayer by doing the Ruku, Sujood and other movements, then one can do it by standing alone. You would have to do the movements of the Salah such as the Ruku and Sujood by moving your head by ‘Ishara’ (gestures) just like the actual Ruku and Sujood actions. When you have reached the position of Tashahhud, you would keep your hands by your sides and complete the prayer as normal up to the Salaam.

Mareez’s Prayer - Further Points
Similarly, if a person cannot do any movements due to an injury to his/her head, then you would do the movements of Ruku and Sujood by Ishara with your eyes if possible, by indicating the actions of Ruku and Sujood by lowering and raising the eyes, and sitting down or standing, whichever is convenient. Where a person cannot even perform the Salah in a standing position, then it is permitted to do it by sitting on a chair or on the floor. If somebody cannot perform the Salah either by standing or sitting, because he/she is severely ill, paralysed or has injuries, then it is permitted to do the prayer by lying down on the floor or on a bed with the face and legs in the direction of the Qiblah. Praise is to Allah, Who has made it easy for us to perform the Salah in these ways!

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CHAPTER 5: NAFILAH SALAH
In this chapter, we have given a short description of the different types of Nafilah Salah. Besides the 5-times Daily Prayers, the Jumuah, Janazah, and Eidain prayers, Muslims also perform other prayers that are superogatory/optional/extra, called ‘Nafl’ or ‘Nafilah Salah’. These are prayers that were performed by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and his Companions regularly but were not made obligatory for his followers. If we perform these Nafilah Salah, then we shall gain the blessings and mercy of Allah in addition to the obligatory prayers. If you wish to perform any of these prayers then do not forget to say the Niyyah (intention) for them. It is also important to perform these prayers regularly, particularly where the prayers of Istikharah, Haajat and Taubah are concerned.

Tahiyyatul-Wudhu
This is a 2 Rakaat prayer performed after completing the Wudu (ablution). The reward for this prayer is that you will be granted entry to Jannah (Heaven) and all your previous sins will be forgiven.

Tahiyyatul-Masjid
This is a 2 or 4 Rakaats prayer performed after entering a Masjid and before sitting down.

Ishraaq
This is a 2 Rakaats prayer. After the Fajr prayer you should do the Zikr (remembrance of Allah), and about twenty minutes after sunrise, you can perform this prayer until the sun has reached a considerable height. This prayer has many rewards and you will gain the reward of performing one Hajj and Umrah.

Duha/Chaasht
This prayer is very special and it consists of a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 12 Rakaats. This prayer can be performed when the sun has brightened up and until Zawaal. The person who performs this prayer constantly will have all his/her sins forgiven by Allah and a palace of gold will be built for him/her in Jannah.

Awwabeen
This is a prayer that consists of 6 to 20 Rakaats and is prayed after the Maghrib Salah, the reward for it being equal to 12 years of Nafl prayer.

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Tahajjud – Night Vigil Prayer
This prayer has a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 12 Rakaats and is performed sometime after the Isha Salah, when one gets up from sleep to pray the Tahajjud. There are many rewards for this prayer including bringing the person nearer to Allah, protects him/her from sins and diseases, you will enter Jannah with giving Muhasabah (account, answering to Allah’s questions), and if prayed regularly, you will be given robes of Heaven to wear and a winged horse that will take you wherever you wish.

Tasbeeh – Prayer of Praising Allah
This prayer has 4 Rakaats and may be performed at any time and including the Makrooh (disliked) times. There are great rewards for this prayer, especially that all your past, present and future sins will be forgiven, whether small or big, intentional or unintentional. How to Perform the Tasbeeh Salah

(1) Say Takbir and then recite the Thana. (2) Then say this Tasbeeh 15 times: “Subhaan-Allahi wal-hamdu lillahi
wa laa ilaaha illallahu wallahu Akbar” (Glory be to Allah and all Praise be to Allah. There is no god but Allah. Allah is the Greatest).

(3) Then recite the Ta’awwuz (Aoozu-billahi minash-shaitan-nirrajeem) and
Tasmiyyah (Bismillahir-rahman-irraheem).

(4) Recite Surah Fatiha (Alhamdu lillahi rabbil-aalameen…) and another
Surah, and then say the Tasbeeh again 10 times.

(5) Next go into Ruku and after saying the Tasbeeh of Ruku, say the
Tasbeeh 10 times.

(6) Then stand up in Qiyam from Ruku and say the Tasbeeh 10 times. (7) Next do first Sajdah and after saying the Tasbeeh, say the Tasbeeh 10
times.

(8) Now say Takbir and in Jalsah (sitting position) say Tasbeeh 10 times. (9) Go into second Sajdah, and after Tasbeeh, say Tasbeeh 10 times.
(10) Now after saying Takbir stand up for second Rakat and say Tasbeeh 15 times before reciting the Fatiha. (11) Now continue as step (4) above to step (9) and until you complete four A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 100

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Rakaats and then finish with Tashahhud, Durood, and Dua.
Note: You will have read Kalimah 75 times in each Rakaat and 300 times in all four Rakaats. It is desirable to recite these Surahs in each Rakaat in this order: Al-Thakathur, Al-Asr, Al-Kafiroon, and AlIkhlaas. A Hafiz-e-Qur’an ought to recite Surahs Al-Hadeed, Al-Hashr, As-Saff, and At-Taghaabun.

Istikhaarah – Prayer for Guidance from Allah
Istikhaarah means seeking or asking good/guidance from Allah. If you want to make an important decision but are you are not sure about it, then you turn to Allah for guidance, as only He knows what is best for you. This is a 2 Rakaats prayer and it is performed just before going to sleep. How to perform Istikhaarah (1) In the first Rakat, recite the Thana, Ta’awwuz, Tasmiyyah, Surah Al-Fatiha, and Surah Al-Kafiroon (Qul Yaa Ayyuhal-kafiroon…). (2) In the second Rakat, recite after Surah Al-Fatiha, Surah Al-Ikhlaas (Qul Huwal laahu ahad…), and then complete the prayer as normal.

(3) After the prayer, facing the Qiblah, ask Allah the Almighty for
forgiveness by reciting Istighfaar (“Astaghfir-ullah” – O Allah forgive me) as many times possible and then send Durood on the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.).

(4) Then recite this Istikhaarah Dua:

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Transliteration: “Allahumma innee astakheeruka bi-ilmika wa astaqdiruka bi-qudratika wa as’aluka min fadlikal azeem. Fa innaka taqdiru wa laa aqdiru wa ta’lamu wa laa a’alamu wa anta allaamul-ghuyoob. Allahumma in kunta ta’alamu anna haazalamra khairullee fi deeni wa ma’aa shee wa aaqibatee amree wa aajilee amree wa aajilihee faqdurhu lee wa yassirhu lee summa baariklee feehi. Allahumma in kunta ta’lamu anna haazal-amra sharrul-lee fi deenee wa ma’aashee wa a’aqibatee amree wa aajilee amree wa aajilihee fasrifhu annee wasrifnee anhu waqdur-liyal-khaira haiesu kaana summa ardinee bihi.” Translation: “O Allah! I ask you for the good with Your Knowledge, and I request to have power through Your Power, and I ask You for Your Bounty, because You have Power and I do not have it and You are All-Knowing while I do not have any, and You know best the invisible. O Allah! If You know this thing (which I intend doing) is good for my faith, for my livelihood and for the ultimate consequences, here and in the hereafter, of my affairs, then appoint it for me and make it easy for me and make it a blessing for me. O Allah! If You know that this thing is bad for my faith, for my livelihood, and for the final consequences, here and in the Hereafter, of my affairs, then turn me away from it, and appoint for me the good wherever it may be and, then make me pleased with it.”

(5) When you reach the words “Haazal-amr”, you should make Niyyah or
say the matter for which you are making the Istikhaarah. (6) Lastly, recite the Durood and go to bed in the condition of Wudhu, if possible facing Qiblah.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Results: If you see a dream in which you see something white or green then it means that what you intend to do is good for you. Conversely, if you see something red or black then you should keep away from your decision or action. Also, if you are inclined towards doing your intention, this is sign that the action is good for you. It is best to offer this prayer several times until you get a clear guidance.

Taubah – Prayer of Repentance/Forgiveness
This prayer has 2 Rakaats and it is performed when you commit a sin. If you perform this prayer sincerely Allah will forgive your sins, Insha-Allah.

Haajat – Prayer of Need
This prayer consists of 2 Rakaats and it is performed when you are in a difficulty or in need of something Halaal (permitted). Insha-Allah, after performing this prayer, your needs will be fulfilled.

How to Perform Salat-ul-Haajat
First of all, you perform Salat-ul-Haajat as a normal 2 Rakaat prayer, and then do Zikr and recite Durood. There are two or three Duas that you can read but here is a short and comprehensive one for recitation. The Dua for Salat-ul-Haajat is as follows:

“Allahumma innee asaluka wa ata-wajjahu ilaika bi-nabiyyika Muhammadin-nabiyyirrahmah (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam). Yaa Rasoolallahi (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam). Innee qad tawaj-jahtu bika ilaa rabbee fee haajatee haazihi lituqdaa lee. Allahumma fashaf-fi’hu fiyya.” Translation: O Allah! I beg of You and turn to You through Your Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) who is a merciful Prophet. O Prophet of Allah! I have turned my attention to my Rabb (Lord) through you for this need so that it may be fulfilled. O Allah! Accept this intercession on my behalf.

Safar – Prayer for Travelling
This prayer has 2 Rakaats and it is said before setting off on a journey and 2 Rakaats in a Masjid before returning home. With the Grace of Allah your journey will be completed safely and easily.

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Khauf – Prayer of Fear
This is also a 2 Rakaat prayer. When you fear something, such as an earthquake, famine, drought, etc, perform this prayer because Allah will bless you with peace and tranquillity.

Istisqaa – Prayer for Rain
Whenever drought occurs where you live or anywhere on the earth, then perform 2 Rakaats of Salatul-Istisqaa with Jamaat. Insha-Allah there will be plenty rainfall.

Kusoof – Prayer on Seeing Eclipse of Sun
When the eclipse of the sun occurs then you ought to perform 2 Rakaats of Kusoof prayer.

Khusoof – Prayer on Seeing Eclipse of Moon
When the eclipse of the moon occurs then you ought to perform 2 Rakaats of Khusoof prayer.

CHAPTER 6: AADAB (ETIQUETTES/MANNERS) OF THE MOSQUE
When you enter the Masjid, you must respect its sanctity and sacredness by observing certain rules as follows. These rules for the respect of the Masjid are for both males and females, and are especially aimed at children. Please abide by these rules. 1. DRESS PROPERLY FOR THE MASJID (MOSQUE): • Males: cover your heads, no t-shirts to be worn as a habit in the Masjid (if shirt etc is not available, then the arms can be bare up to the elbows) • Females: cover your heads with a long scarf • Males & females: wear clean and appropriate clothes; also wear clean socks & shoes. BEFORE ENTERING THE MASJID: • Say the Dua: “Bismillaahi Allahumma salli ala Muhammad, Allahummaftahli abwaaba rahmatika.” (In the Name of Allah, O Allah! Bestow blessings on Sayyiduna Muhammad (s.a.w.), O Allah! Open for me the doors of Your Mercy.) • 3. Enter with the right foot in the door.

2.

WHEN INSIDE THE MASJID: • Walk quietly and in humility • No running • No shouting or making any noise (e.g. laughing loudly) 104

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY • • 4. Sit down quietly for the Salah (prayer) or for your class Do not talk about useless things, worldly matters and gossip (talk about Islam/religious affairs and your lessons only).

DURING THE SALAH: • Do not look around, do not talk, whisper, laugh, push/nudge anyone (because your Salah will be broken and you will have to start again). DURING YOUR CLASS LESSONS: • At the beginning of the class, say Salaam (“Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu”) to your Ustaz (teacher), any elders, and your class mates • Respect your Ustaz and elders in the Masjid and obey what they say • Do not cause disturbance or talk to each other when your Ustaz is teaching • Respect each other: do not swear, abuse, insult or joke at each other. AFTER YOUR LESSONS HAVE ENDED: • Tidy up the class room, prayer area, and pick up any litter and put in the bin • Straighten up the tables and chairs and put away any books in the book shelves • Say Salaam to your Ustaz and class mates • Learn your daily lessons at home. THE MASJID TOILET AND WUDHU PLACE: • Wear slippers in the toilets – do not go bare-footed • Do not cause any mess in the toilet/Wudhu area - clean up after use • Do Istinja properly in the toilet & keep your clothes clean • Do Wudhu properly in the Wudhu area • Do not waste water in the toilet or Wudhu area • Switch off lights in the toilet/Wudhu area after use – make sure that there is nobody in the toilet or Wudhu areas. WHEN LEAVING THE MASJID: • Say Salaam to your Ustaz, friends, and elders in the Masjid • Tidy up the class rooms, pick up any rubbish and put in the bin • Switch off any lights that are on before going out of the Masjid • Before going out of the Masjid, put your left foot out of the door, and then say the Dua: “Allahumma innee asaluka min fadhlika wa rahmatika”. (O Allah! I seek from You, Your Grace and Your Mercy)

5.

6.

7.

8.

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CHAPTER 7: ARTICLES (KALIMAAT) OF FAITH
As Muslims we constantly do the Zikr (remembrance) of Allah and make our Iman (faith/belief) stronger by reciting the Holy Names of Allah. The following Articles of Faith are learnt and recited by Muslims from an early age and read throughout one’s life as an important part of their Iman.

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Islamic Calligraphy (writing) of the Article of Faith/Shahadah forming the shape of a man in Salah position: “La ilaaha illalahu Muhammadur-Rasoolullahi” There is no god but Allah, Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) is the Messenger of Allah

Article of Faith/Shahadah Imaan Mufassal (Belief in Detail)

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Aamantu billahi wa malaaikatihi wa kutubihi wa rusulihi walyawmil aakhiri wal qadri khairihi wa sharrihi minal-laahi ta’aala wal ba’thi ba’dal mawt. “I believe in Allah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last day and in the fact that everything, good or bad is decided by Allah the Almighty, and in the Life after Death.”

Imaan Mujmal (Belief in Brief)

Aamanti billahi kama huwa bi asmaaihi wa sifaatihi wa qabiltu jameea ahkaamihi iqraarun billisaani wa tasdeequn bil-qalb. “I believe in Allah (as He is) with all His Names and Attributes and I accept all His Commands, by pledging to do them with my tongue and confirm them with all my heart.”

THE ARTICLES OF FAITH
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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY There are six Articles of Faith (Kalmimaat) and these should be learnt by heart and recited regularly.

1.

First Kalimah Tayyab (Sanctity/Holiness)

Laa ilaaha illallahu Muhammadur Rasoolullah “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah.”

2.

Second Kalimah Shahaadat (Witnessing/Evidence)

Ashhadu allaa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu laa shareeka lahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluhu “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, He is alone, He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His servant and Messenger.”

3.

Third Kalimah Tamjeed (Glory of Allah)

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Subhaan allahi walhamdu lillaahi wa laa ilaaha illallahu wallahu akbar wala hawla wala quwwata illa billaahil aliyyil azeem. “Glory be to Allah, All Praise be to Allah, there is none worthy of worship besides Allah and Allah is the Greatest. There is no power and might except from Allah, the Most High, the Great.”

4.

Fourth Kalimah Tawheed (Praise of Unity/Oneness)

Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu laa shareeka lahu lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayyullaa yamootu abadan abada, zul-jalali wal-ikraam, biyadihil-khairbi yadihil-khair, wa huwa alaa kulli shai’in qadeer “There is none worthy of worship besides Allah Who is alone. He has no partner. For Him is the Kingdom, and for Him is all praise. He gives life and causes death and He is ever-living and never dies. In His hand is all good and He has power over everything.”

5.

Fifth Kalimah Istighfaar (Repenting)

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Astaghfirulaallaha rabbee min kulli zanmbin aznabtuhu amadan aw khata’an sirran aw alaa niyyatan wa atoobu ilaihi minaz zanmbillazee a’lamu wa minaz zambillazee laa a’lamu innaka anta allamul ghuyoobi wa sattaarral uyoobi wa ghaffaaruz zunoobi wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa billahil aliyyil azeem. “I seek forgiveness of Allah, my Lord, of all sins and mistakes, done intentionally or un-intentionally, secretly or openly. And I repent to Him for sins I know of and also sins that I am ignorant of, indeed You are the Knower of all of the unseen, the Coverer of human weaknesses and the Forgiver of sins, and I have no power to save myself from sinning and no power to do good but with the help of Allah, the Most High, the Most Elevated.”

6.

Sixth Kalimah Radd-I-Kufr (Rejection of Disbelief)

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Allahumma innee aoozubika min an ushrika bika shai’an wa ana a’lamu bihi wa astaghfiruka limaa laa a’lamu bihi tubtu anhu wa tabarra’tu minal kufri wash-shirki wal kizbi wal gheebati wal bida’ti wan nameemati wal fawaahishi wal buhtaani wal ma’aasee kullihaa wa aslamtu wa aqoolu laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur Rasoolullahi (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam). “O Allah! I seek protection with You from intentionally associating any partner with You, I beg Your forgiveness for the sins I am not aware of. I repent for it and make myself free of disbelief and polytheism [making any partner for Allah], telling lies and backbiting and all the sins. I accept Islam and believe and declare that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) is the Messenger of Allah.”

Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
“May the Peace, Blessings and Mercy of Allah be upon you” ~~~ I pay my infinite Hamd (praise) and thanks to Allahu Ta'ala, Who has blessed me with this task of writing this book. May Allah accept this humble effort in the propagation of the Deen of Islam and guide all Muslims and non-Muslims to unity in Islam. Ameen!

BIBLIOGRAPHY & FURTHER READING
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THE HOLY QUR’AN
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf: The Holy Qur’an – Text, Translation and Commentary, New Revised Edition 1989, Amana Corporation, Maryland, USA.

BOOKS OF HADITH
1. 2. 3. 4. Abu Dawood Ahmad Bukhari Muslim.

BOOKS OF FIQH:
1. 2. 3. Noorul-Izah, by Allama Hasan Bin Ammar Bin Ali Bin Yousuf Al-Wafaii AlSharanbalani (r.a.) Mukhtasar Al-Qudoori, by Allama Abul-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Jaafar Ibn Hamdan Al-Qudoori Al-Baghdadi (r.a.) Munyatul-Musalli, By Allama Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Bin Ibrahim (r.a.)

BOOKS
AbdullahAl-Gawz, Anas Bin Abdul Hameed (1995) Before You Pray, Maktaba Darus-Salam, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Al-Amriki, Maulana Yusuf Talal Ali (1985) The Essential Hanafi Handbook of Fiqh, A Translation of Qazi Thanaa Ullah Panipati’s (r.a.) ‘Ma La Budd Minhu’ (That From Which There is No Escape), Kazi Publications, Lahore, Pakistan. Al-Maamiry, Ahmaed Hamoud, Easy Way to Learn and Practice Islam, No.15, The Centre of Islamic Research, Department of Admonition & Islamic Research, Sultanate of Oman, UAE. Okarvi, Allamah Kaukab Noorani (1998) Azaan and Durood Shareef, English Translation by S.G. Khawajah, Zia-ul-Qur’an Publications, Lahore, Pakistan. Okarvi, Maulana Muhammad Shafi, Namaaz Mutarjam Ma’a Zuroori Masaail (Urdu), Madina Publishing Company, Karachi, Pakistan.

Okarvi, Maulana Muhammad Shafi (1992) Salaat (Namaaz), English Translation by M.A. Qadri, Zia-ul-Qur’an Publications, Lahore, Pakistan.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Shams-ud-Din, Maulana Amjad: Qanoon-e-Shariat – Rules of Islamic Law Volume 1, The Sunni Foundation, Bradford, UK. Sarwar, Ghulam, (1987) Islam – Beliefs & Teachings, The Muslim Educational Trust, London, UK. Sarwar, Ghulam, (2000) The Children’s Book of Salah, The Muslim Educational Trust, London, UK.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE IMAM AHMAD RAZA INSTITUTE INTERNATIONL
The Author established the IMAM AHMAD RAZA INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL (IARII) in Bradford in May 1995, under the guidance of Hadhrat Allama Abu Al-Mahmood Nishter, the former Imam and Khatib of Jamia Masjid Hanafia, Bradford (UK). This new organisation were established as a response to the religious problems created by some local and national religious organisations in the field of their so-called propagation (tabligh) of Islam amongst Muslims and non-Muslims. Moreover, it was felt necessary to set up IARII as a counter to those people/organisations who distort and spread false beliefs contrary to the teachings of Islam and the doctrines and practices of the AHL AL-SUNNAH WAL JAMA'AT (the Majority Group) in Islam to Muslims and others, such as Qadianis, Bahais, and other groups. The Imam Ahmad Raza Institute International was formed in memory of the GREAT MUJADDID (Islamic Revivalist) OF THIS ERA, A'LA HAZRAT IMAM SHAH AHMAD RAZA KHAN BREILVI AL-QADRI (R.A. – born 1856, died 1921), and is a minaret of light which guides the Muslim Ummah and is vanishing the darkness of western ideologies, apostasy and atheism. Some brief objectives of the Imam Ahmad Raza Institute International and its Youth Section are: 1. Belief in and propagation of ISLAM, by following the HOLY QUR'AN and the SUNNAH of the HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD (pbuh). 2. LOVE, ASSOCIATION and VENERATION of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), his Family and his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them). 3. VENERATION of the PROPHETS OF ALLAH, the SCHOLARS OF ISLAM and the AWLIYAA (saints). 4. To protect and propagate the True Beliefs of Islam (Sunni Aqida) amongst the Muslims and to carry out missionary work amongst the non-Muslim community. 5. To spread the teachings of Islam as propagated by Imam Ahmad Raza Breilvi Al-Qadri (r.a.). 6. To conduct research in the different areas of the Islamic sciences and to prepare and publish literature on the great personalities of Islam for the Muslim youth, adults and non-Muslims including newsletter/magazine, research material, books, etc. 7. The organisation of Islamic Education including: study circles, lectures, debates, conferences, camps, Zikr meetings (remembrance of Allah) and other activities. 8. To Unite Muslims according to the Principles of the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah on the platform of the AHL AL-SUNNAH WAL JAMA'AH (Sunnis). 9. Organising those who are willing to strive for the establishment of an Islamic Society. 10. The formation of an Inter-faith Dialogue to facilitate better understanding of comparative religion and to foster unity and co-operation between members of different religions. Everyone is encouraged to participate in our work by affiliating himself or herself to the Imam Ahmad Raza Institute International. Contact this address for any correspondence: Sahibzada Tariq Mahmood Nishter Naqshbandi, Founder & Director, IMAM AHMAD RAZA INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL, 59 Shirley Road Cardiff, South Glamorgan CF23 5HL, Wales, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 029-20497506 - Email: Kalarvi@hotmail.com

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THE AUTHOR
Tariq Mahmood Nishter, the son of Allama Abul-Mahmood Nishter Sahib (a renown Alim – scholar), was born in Pakistan in 1967 and settled in the UK with his parents in 1974. He graduated from the University of Hull with honours in Business Management and received an MBA in Business Administration and also the PGCE (FE), a post-graduate teaching qualification, both from the University of Wales. The Author has studied Darse-Nizami (Alim Course) books from his father and is still continuing his higher religious studies abroad. After completing his MBA, the Author pursued his ambition to establish himself in business or employment in companies and spent some time in various work environments. He felt that this was not really meant for him and that his real talents and purpose lay in devoting himself to the propagation of Islam, the original path of his forefathers. Over the years since 1984, the Author has been very active in Islam work, studying Islam and comparative religion, doing Da’wah - talking to non-Muslims about Islam, holding exhibitions at the libraries and Islamic programmes at Mosques, writing Islamic literature, working as an Imam/Teacher in some Islamic organisations and also at HMP Parc (Wales). The Author’s literary works include the following (most of them are yet to be published):
       Milad-un-Nabi (s.a.w.) – Birth Celebration of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) References From The Scriptures of Major Religions About the Coming of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) Jesus (p.b.u.h.) – A Prophet of Islam The Status of An Imam A Muslim’s Guide to Prayer – Salah Fasting In Islam Aids - An Islamic Perspective (first published by the Author in 1988)

The Author has written numerous articles and pamphlets on numerous topics for children and adults, all may be obtained by post from the contact address.

SECTION 3
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SALAWAAT - DUROOD SHAREEF
What is Durood Sharif and The Importance Of Durood Sharif .
Divine blessings on Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is the highest and the most meritorious act in our Deen. This “Divine Blessings” is called Durood Shareef. When Almighty Allah sends Durood and Salaams upon Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), He is actually blessing him. When the Malaa’ikah and the Muslims send Durood and Salaams to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), they are actually showing Almighty Allah their respect for the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).Muslims hope that, through the blessings of the Durood and Salaams, Almighty Allah will forgive them of their sins and increase their status in this world and in the Aakirah. The Malaa’ikah hope that Almighty Allah will increase their status. Durood is a sure means of Allah Ta’ala granting blessings, peace, prosperity and favours of great magnitude on one who recites Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). The reciter of Durood Shareef receives all the benefits in this world and utmost gain in the next world with addition to the love of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).The invocation of Blessings on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is styled in Arabic as “Salawat”, in Persian as “Durood”, and in Urdu as “Salawat-o-Salaam”. The regular recitation of Durood Shareef on Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) lifts up our hearts on to a plane of comprehension where we gaze in our new found peace and moral armour. The reciter of Durood Shareef will, after some time, come to realise by himself that it is the spontaneous outpouring of his heart before the Great Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Islam, whose love and attachment is needed to get all the present day problems solved and obtain mercy in the next world. The more Durood Shareef we recite, the greater the gain and benefit will be achieved in both the worlds. Sayyiduna Shaikh-e-Akbar Mo’inuddin ibn Arabi (radi Allahu anhu) has stated that, “Those who claim to love and revere the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) should increase their recital of the Durood Shareef in patience and perseverance until, through the mercy of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), they have the opportunity of witnessing his blessed countenance”.
The special and exclusive aspect of this prayer is that Durood Shareef is immediately accepted by Allah Ta’ala. No one can doubt its acceptance, as Durood Shareef is being recited by Allah Ta’ala too. Not only this, but He has revealed this secret in the Holy Quran by saying:

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“Have I not exalted thy name.” Muslims are a very fortunate people. Allah Ta’ala chose for them the name of Islam as a religion, declared to be comprehensive and final for mankind. The person chose to deliver this message in this specific form and extra-ordinary style of love and hope was the most beloved of Allah Ta’ala and became the Light of Divinity to be shed upon the entire universe. This Light devastated all the domains of darkness and depression. By reciting Durood Shareef (Salawat) we invite Light and drive away all darkness from our inner soul. Our mind becomes soft and love saturated. If there is softness in everything, it tends beauty to it. People become ugly owing to lack of this essential beauty of the inner part of the mind. This ugliness cannot be glossed over by any amount of cosmetics. It is the Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which works wonders.

In the same manner, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) taught us Durood Shareef to attain salvation, perfect peace and maximum gain in this world as well as the next. The soul is the soil where the faith of Allah is to be implanted firmly and faithfully which requires continuous recitation of Durood Shareef to thrive and flourish. We have been told by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that Durood Shareef is itself Light and when Light enters the soul every aspiration is achieved and every goal is won. Nothing remains thereafter to worry about. Human spirit today is depressed everywhere and mankind has come to the edge of destruction, decay and devastation. Everyone is engulfed in untold miseries and tragedies of a very great magnitude. Troubles and tortures, pain, poverty, hunger, illhealth, frustrations and accidents have broken the back of a human being. All this can evaporate with the recitation of Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who has clearly proclaimed that Durood Shareef is the panacea of all ills and that if any one comes across a calamity he should recite Durood Shareef in the maximum number. Allah Ta’ala has promised that if anyone recites Durood only once, He showers ten blessings on the reciter immediately. It is narrated that once Sayyiduna Musa (alaihis salaam) walked a very long distance in the desert during summer at noon. He fainted due to thirst and hunger. After a while, when he regained his consciousness, Allah Ta’ala sent Sayyiduna Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to go and inquire from Sayyiduna Musa (alaihis salaam) if he was thirsty or not. Sayyiduna Musa (alaihis salaam) replied that he was thirsty. Allah Ta’ala told him that the thirst on the Day of Judgement will be a million times more than what Sayyiduna Moosa (alaihis salaam) experienced. Sayyiduna Musa (alaihis salaam) was told that if he wished to get rid of that thirst on the hottest Day of Judgement, he would have to do one thing. When Sayyiduna Musa (alaihis salaam) enquired as to what should be done, Allah Ta’ala told him that he should recite Durood Shareef in abundance on His last Prophet, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Sayyiduna Musa (alaihis salaam) thanked Allah Ta’ala and immediately began reciting Durood Shareef on the Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). From the above fact it is quite clear that Allah Ta’ala has given orders even to his Ambiya to recite Salawat on the last and final Prophet of Islam, and that Durood Shareef is not only panacea and a solution to the ills of this world but in the next too. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 118

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY In another story, it is narrated that when Sayyiduna Adam (alaihis salaam) saw Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) he wanted to be close to her, but Allah Ta’ala sent Sayyiduna Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to stop him. Allah Ta’ala told him that if he wanted to take Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) as his wife, he should first pay Mahr (dowry). On his inquiry as to what the Mahr was, Allah Ta’ala told Sayyiduna Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to inform him that the best way of paying the dowry is for him to recite Durood Shareef 3 times on His last Prophet, Sayyiduna Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Sayyiduna Adam (alaihis salaam) did so, Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) was granted to him as his legal and legitimate wife. The highest blessings which Islam has conferred on man is the concept of Tauheed or Unity of Allah in its purest form. This has been furnished to mankind through Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the last of the Prophets. It is a cardinal duty of every Muslim man and woman, young and old to entertain the highest respect, regard, love and esteem for the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his family. It should be clear that obedience to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is always to be charged with intense love and highest regard for him, for it is through love and esteem that truth can be comprehended and communion with the Creator can be vouch-safed. In fact, love is the motive force, reverence dissolves and implicit obedience to the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which is the natural outcome. It is therefore incumbent on those who love him, to pray to Allah Ta’ala and His Angels in wishing for him peace according to the Divine Command. This will reshape the life which is otherwise infested with turmoil. The reciter will get countless and matchless benefits in both the Worlds and can claim to be the lover of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).As Muslims we should recite Durood Shareef in the Arabic language. Islam seeks to create a unified outlook and it is in the Arabic language alone which welds all Muslims into one great brotherhood. Besides, Arabic is the language of Heaven, it is the language of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), it is the language of the Angels and it is the language of Sayyiduna AbuBakr, Sayyiduna Umar, Sayyiduna Uthman and Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhuma).The daily recitation of Durood Shareef has a tremendous effect on the human head, heart, mind and person. It purifies thoughts and intensifies actions. It makes passages for perfect peace and personal satisfaction.

Respect that should be accorded when reciting the Durood Sharif.
1. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Without doubt, there is an Angel of Almighty Allah whom Allah has given power to listen to the voices of all the people. Whenever any person reads the Durood Shareef, this Angel delivers the Durood Shareef to me. I then plead to Almighty Allah for the person to receive ten blessings for reading a single Durood Shareef”. (Jami’us Sagheer) How should one recite the Durood Shareef? What should be the persons condition and the conditions of his environment? The following points should be taken into account when reciting Durood Shareef:1. It should be read with utmost humility and respect. 2. The clothes of the reciter should be clean and free from all impurity.

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3. The place where the Durood Shareef is to be read should be clean. 4. It is more superior to be in a state of Wudhu while reciting the Durood Shareef. 5. It is better to sit in the Tashahudd position as you would sit when in Salaah and recite the Durood Shareef with concentration and the respect due to it. 6. It is preferable to face Madinatul Munawwarah. 7. If possible, one should have sweet fragrance around the place. 8. The reciter should try and understand the meaning of the Durood Shareef. 9. One should possess a clean and untainted intention. One should read with the sole intention of pleasing Almighty Allah and Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 10. The person should not be involved in worldly talks. 11. A person should try his level best to follow the example or Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 12. When reading Durood Shareef, you should try and imagine that you are sitting in the august presence of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Utmost respect and reverence should be displayed. 13. Whenever one hears or recites the Durood Shareef, it should be read and written in full. It is also preferable to kiss one’s thumb and rub them over one’s eyes when hearing the name of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 14. When the reading of the Durood Shareef is completed one should praise Allah Ta’ala that he has given you the opportunity of reading such a great Zikr as the Durood Shareef. 15. Whenever one takes the name of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), one should use titles of respect and reverence. 16. As an advantage one should count on one’s fingers as Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) often encouraged this practice because on the Day of Qiyamah those same fingers will bear witness at the time when they are questioned. 17. Recite Durood Shareef wherever you are (not in the bathroom or toilet) and during any occasion.

The Excellence in reciting the Durood Sharif upon the Holy Prohet Muhammad Mustafa(Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam) as explained in the Holy Quran Sharif and Ahadith Sharif.
The message of Allah Ta’ala to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has come down to us in the form of the Holy Quran and the teachings of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) have reached us in the form of the Ahadith. Let us see what both the Holy Quran and Ahadith say about Durood Shareef (Salawat): Almighty Allah says: “Surely Allah and His Angels send blessings on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). O you who believe! Send Blessings (Durood) and Salutations (Salaams) on the Prophet with worthy Salutation”. (Surah alAhzab: 56)In this verse of the Holy Quran, Almighty Allah, His Malaa’ikah and the Muslims have been mentioned as sending Durood upon Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY So, Durood Shareef is actually “a Du’a in praise of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).” Sayyiduna Anas (radi Allahu anhu) narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who reads a single Durood upon me, Almighty Allah blesses him ten times, ten of his sins are forgiven, and he is increased ten times in stages (internally). (Mishkaat) Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Ma’sud (radi Allahu anhu) also narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “On the Day of Qiyamah, the closest to me from among the people will be those who have read the most amount of Durood Shareef”. (Tirmidhi) It is now evident that the recitation of Durood Shareef (Salawat) is in perfect obedience to the Divine Command and in complete conformity with the teachings of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Islam. There is no scope to choose anything else when we have with us the words of Allah Ta’ala and His Apostle, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

WHO’S BODY CANNOT BE EATEN BY THE SOIL?
The Prophets(Alayhi sallam’s), the Awliya (Friends of Allah Ta’ala), the Shuhada (Martyrs), a Hafiz of the Quran who also acts upon the instructions of the Holy Quran, a person who has never committed a sin and those who pray the Durood Shareef at all times, their bodies are not eaten by the soil. Those who say that the Prophet’s(Alayhi sallam’s) bodies “have died and eaten by the soil” is a misguided person, from the wrong sect, or an evil and an insulting person.

Collection of Durood Sharif / Various Durood Sharif
Durood Shareef are equivalent and give full benefits, but some selected and very promptly accepted and favoured Durood Shareefs are the following:1. DUROOD-E-IBRAHIMI

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ALLAHUMMA SALLI ALA MUHAMMADIW WA ALA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMAA SALLAITA ALA IBRAHIMA WA ALA AALI IBRAHIMA INNAKA HAMIDUM MAJID. ALLAHUMMA BAARIK ALA MUHAMMADIW WA ALA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMAA BAARAKTA ALA IBRAHIMA WA ALA AALI IBRAHIMA INNAKA HAMIDUM MAJID.

“O Allah, let Your Blessings come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious”. The famous companion of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), Hadrat Ka’ab bin Ujrah (radi Allahu anhu), narrates that once it was enquired from Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as to how blessings should be sent to him. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) replied that the blessings be said in the manner (it has been mentioned) above, that is, Durood-e-Ibrahimi. 2. DUROOD-E-RAZAWIYYA

SALLAL LAAHU ALAN NABIYIL UMMIYI WA AALIHI SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM. SALAATAW WAS SALAAMAN ALAIKA YA RASOOLALLAH.

The above Durood Shareef should be read 100 times after every Salaah if possible. Especially after Jummah Salaah, the men should stand together facing Medina Shareef and recite this Durood Shareef with absolute respect. The following benefits are derived from reciting Durood-e- Radawiyya: 1. The reciter is blessed with 300 Mercies of Almighty Allah. 2. Allah Almighty sends peace on him 2 000 times. 3. 5 000 good deeds are written in his Naama-e-Amaal. 4. 5 000 of his sins are forgiven. 5. His status is eleated by 5 000 times. 6. It will be written on his forehead that he is not a Hypocrite. 7. It will be written on his forehead that he is free from the Fire of Jahannum. 8. On the Day of Qayamah, he will be amongst the Shuhadaa (Martyrs). 9. He will gain Barakah in his wealth. 10. There will be Barakah in his children. 11. He will be strong over his enemies. 12. People will have love in their hearts for him. 13. He will see the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in his dream. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 122

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 14. He will leave this world with Imaan. 15. On the Day of Qiyaamah, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) will shake hands with him. 16. The intercession of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) will be compulsory on him. 17. Almighty Allah will be pleased with him in such a way that he will never be displeased. 26. DUROOD DIDAAR-E-MUSTAPHA

ALLAHUMMA SALLI WASALLIM WA BAARIK ALA SAYYIDINA WA MAULANA MUHAMMADININ NABIYYIL UMMIYIL HABEEBIL AALIL QADRIL AZEEMIL JAAHI WA ALA AHLIHI WA SAHBIHI WASALLIM. “O Allah! Send your Mercy and Blessings upon our master Muhammad who is the beloved and most exalted, and upon his Companions and family.”

The pious people and the Awliya Allah said that whoever recites this Durood Shareef regularly every Thursday night, at least once, then at the time of his or her death, he or she will see the blessed countenance of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and when he or she enters the grave, that person will make the Ziarat of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They will see Rasool-e-Paak (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) with his own blessed hands taking him or her in their Qabr.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 27. DUROOD SALAATUL SA’AADAT

ALLAHUMMA SALLI ALA SAYYIDINA WA MAULANA MUHAMMADIN ADADA MAA FI ‘ILMI LAAHI SALAATAN DAAA IMATAM BI DAWAMI MULKILLAH.

“O Allah! Send Your Mercy and Blessings upon our master Muhammad the number which is in the Knowledge of Allah and mercy forever”. Hazrat Sayed Ali bin Yusuf Madani (radi Allahu anhu), Sheik-ul-Dala’il, narrated from Imam Suyuti (radi Allahu anhu) that he who recites this Durood Shareef once gets the Sawaab of 600 000 Durood Shareefs. He who recites this Durood Shareef everyday one thousand times, will be blessed in both worlds, this world and the Aakirah. 28. DUROOD-E-ISME AZAM

ALLAHU RABBU MUHAMMADIN SALLA ALAIHI WASALLAMA, IBBADU MUHAMMADIN SALLA ALAIHI WASALLAMA.

NAHNU

“Allah is the Lord of Muhammad, mercy and blessings upon him. We are the slaves of Muhammad, may mercy and blessings be upon him and Salaams”. One should make it a habit to recite this Durood Shareef for at least one hundred times daily so that one will be able to see the results of the recitation in this world and in the Hereafter. You will be prosperous and you will never be overcome by your enemies.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY 29. DUROOD: VIRTUES OF 1000 DAYS

ALLAHUMMA SALLI ALA SAYYIDINA WA MAULANA MUHAMMADIW WA ALA AALI SAYYIDINA WA MAULANA MUHAMMADIN KAMA TUHIBBU WA TARDALAHU.

“O Allah! Send Your Mercy and Blessings upon our master Muhammad and upon the family of our master as You love and like for him”. That person who recites the above Durood Shareef once will be fortunate to be rewarded with virtuous deeds for 1 000 days. Several Angels of Allah Ta’ala keep on writing good deeds for 1 000 days in the person’s mark sheet.

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SECTION 4
HOLY QURAN SHAREEF’s SHORT SURAHS
Translations of verses from "Kanzul Imaan" by A'la Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza (alaihir rahmah) SURAH FATEHA ; SURAH IKHLAAS ; SURAH KAUSAR ; SURAH NAAS ; SURAH FALAQ ; SURAH LAHAB ; SURAH NASR ; SURAH KAAFIROON ; SURAH MA'OON ; SURAH QURAISH ; SURAH FEEL ; SURAH ASR ; SURAH TAKATHUR ; SURAH QADR ; SURAH INSHIRAH ; SURAH DHUHA ; SURAH THEEN

SURAH FATEHA 1. All Praise is for Almighty Allah, Lord of all the Worlds. 2. The Most Affectionate, the Merciful. 3. Master of the Day of Judgement. 4. We worship You alone, and beg You alone for help. 5. Guide us in the Straight Path. 6. The path of those whom You favoured. 7. Not of those who have earned Your anger and nor of those who have astray. Surah Fateha means "The Opening". It is the beautiful opening of the Book of Allah Ta'ala. It is also known as "Umm al-Kitab" (Mother of the Book), "al-Hamd" (the Praise) and "al-Asas" (the Foundation). An Angel once told the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that it is a light that has never been given to any other Prophet before him. It is the main Du'a of the Muslims, and Muslims should recite it in every Rakaah of Salaah. This Surah is placed at the beginning of the Holy Quran. It is actually a prayer. Allah Ta'ala is Kind, Merciful, Good to us, and for Him is all our praise. He is our Master and King. We shall stand before Him on the Day of Judgement with our actions, good and bad. This Surah teaches us how to speak to Allah Ta'ala. He is the only One we worship and ask for help. We ask Him for help with the Wasila (means of approaching Allah's Court) of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). We ask Allah Ta'ala to guide us both in this world and the next. We ask Allah Ta'ala to keep us on the path of those pious people whom He is pleased with. We ask Him not to make us follow those people with whom He is angry, nor those who mislead us, making us confused and lost. The other names of Surah Fateha are: Faatehatul Kitaab (Opening Chapter of the Book); Ummul Quran (Mother of the Quran); Suratul Kanz (Chapter of the Treasure); Kaafiyah (Abundant); Waafiyah (Complete); Shaafiyah (Healing); Shifa (Cure); Noor A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 126

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(Light); etc. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It contains 7 Ayahs, 27 words and 140 harf (letters).

SURAH IKHLAAS 1. Say you: He is Allah, the One. 2. Allah the Independent, Carefree. 3. He does not give birth, He was not born. 4. And nor anyone is equal to Him. Surah al-Ikhlas is one of the most important Surahs of the Holy Quran because it tells us about what we should believe about Allah Ta'ala. Al-Ikhlas means "The Purity of Faith". When the Makkans, the Jews and the Christians asked the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) about Allah Ta'ala, he used to answer them with this Surah. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) used to recite this Surah often in his Salaah. He also said that by reciting this Surah a Muslim will be in love with Almighty Allah. This Surah tells us that Allah Ta'ala is the One and Only. He is not in need of anything. Allah Ta'ala does not depend on anyone but all things depend on Him. He has no son. He has no father. He is so near to us that it is He Who always cares for us. There is no person like Him. Allah resembles none and nobody resembles Him. There is none equal to Almighty Allah. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that Surah al-Ikhlas is equal to onethird of the Holy Quran, and that we should recite it often. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 4 Ayahs, 15 words and 47 letters (harf).

SURAH KAUSAR 1. O beloved! Undoubtedly, We have bestowed you abundance of good. 2. Therefore, offer Prayer to your Lord, and do the Sacrifice. 3. Undoubtedly, one who is your enemy, he is cut off from every good. Al-Kausar is the name of a fountain in Jannah (Paradise). Almighty Allah has given the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) this fountain. Al-Kausar means "The Abundance". Surah al-Kausar tells us that Almighty Allah gave the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) good things in abundance and excellences to which there are no limit. This Surah tells us about our Nabi Muhammad’s (salllal laahu alaihi wasallam) high status. Some leaders of the Quraish made fun of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) when his young son, Hazrat Qasim (radi Allahu anhu), passed away saying that he no longer had any sons to carry on his name and that he would be forgotten after he passes away. Allah Ta'ala promises with this Surah that the A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 127

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memory of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) would continue forever and that all those who are his enemies will be forgotten. It is true that all our Nabi Muhammad’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) enemies have been forgotten. All their riches and sons have been forgotten. Today, millions of Muslims remember our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in all parts of the world. They send blessings on him and his family millions of times each day. The enemies of Islam have been asked many times by Allah Ta’ala to get together and produce one Surah like this smallest Surah Kausar. They could not even produce a small Surah like this or change it. This Surah was revealed to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) while he was in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 3 Ayahs, 10 words and 42 letters (harf).

SURAH NAAS AND SURAH FALAQ The following last two Suras of the Holy Quran were revealed together. These Surahs were revealed to the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) during a time when his health was slightly affected by witchcraft or black magic. There was a Jew called Labid who got hold of the Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) blessed hair and put a spell on it. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) became very sick. After a few days Hazrat Jibra’eel (alaihis salaam) came to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and told him that a Jew had made Jaa'doo (cast a spell) on him and had buried the Jaa'doo items under a stone in a certain well. Our Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi sallam) sent Hazrat Ali (radi allahu anhu) to remove the Jaa'doo items. Hazrat Ali (radi Allahu anhu) went immediately to that well and emptied the water from it. He found the stone and lifted it. Underneath the stone was a bag made of date palm fibres and in it was the blessed hair of our Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He also found a few teeth of the blessed comb of Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and a line or a string of a bow on which was tied eleven knots. There was also a puppet made of wax in which there were 11 needles. The Jaa'doo items were brought to our Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Almighty Allah then revealed these two Surahs together to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Surah Falaq had five Ayahs and Surah Naas had six Ayahs, altogether counting eleven. When our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) read all the eleven Ayahs, all the knots were opened one by one. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was cured. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) urged Muslims to recite these two Surahs as often as possible. It will protect us from the evil works of devils, Jinn or magic. It will protect us from hatred and jealousy. When anyone speaks ill about you, when you are feeling sad or unable to concentrate in your Salaah, then you must recite these two Surahs. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 128

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SURAH NAAS 1. Say you: I come in the refuge of the Lord of all mankind. 2. King of all mankind. 3. God of all mankind. 4. From the evil of him who whispers evil thoughts in the heart and slips away. 5. Those who whisper in the hearts of mankind. 6. Jinn and men. An-Naas means "The People". Surah an-Naas teaches us to place our trust in Allah Ta'ala. It teaches us to seek Allah's protection against things that might affect us. We should not place our trust in man. Allah Ta'ala is our King or Ruler. The Surah warns us against the secret whispers of evil inside our hearts. It also warns us about the evil that may come from other men or invisible spirits. As long as we put ourselves in Allah's protection and we trust in Allah Ta'ala, evil will not be able to affect us. This Surah was revealed in Madinatul Munawwarah. It has 6 Ayahs, 20 words and 79 letters (harf). SURAH FALAQ 1. Say you: I seek refuge with the Lord of Day break. 2. From the evil of all creatures. 3. And from the evil of the darkening one when it sets. 4. And from the evil of those women who blow in the knots. 5. And from the evil of the jealous when he is jealous of me. Surah al-Falaq (The Dawn) teaches us to seek shelter in Allah Ta'ala from every kind of evil of nature. It teaches us to seek Allah's protection from all dark and evil plottings. This Surah also tells us that those who are sincere worshippers of Allah Ta’ala must be careful of the envious people who are the worst of peoples. This Surah was revealed in Madinatul Munawwarah. It has 5 Ayahs, 23 words and 74 letters (harf).

SURAH LAHAB 1. Perished be the two hands of Abu Lahab and he is already perished. 2. His wealth and what he earned availed him not. 3. Now he enters into a blazing fire. 4. And his wife too; carrier of firewood on her head. 5. There is a rope of palm fibre in her neck. This Surah is also called al-Masad (The Palm Leaf). Abu Lahab was the son of Hazrat Abdul Mutallib (radi Allahu anhu). Therefore, he was the Holy Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) own uncle, but he was an enemy of Islam. His original name was Abdul Uz'zaa, but he was called Abu Lahab because he was fair in complexion and handsome. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 129

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Abu Lahab and his wife did many terrible things to the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his Companions throughout their lives. Abu Lahab's wife, Umme Jameel, used to get up very early in the morning to collect thorns to put in front of the Holy Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) house. One day she was carrying a bundle of wood on her head. She was tired so she sat down on a rock to take a breath. Allah Ta'ala commanded an Angel to pull the bundle of wood from behind her. The bundle of wood fell off her and the rope got caught around her neck, killing her. In this Surah, Allah Ta'ala says that Abu Lahab will be put into the Fire of Hell and his wife will have a rope of palm fibre around her neck. This Surah teaches us that those who hate our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) will be punished by Allah Ta’ala. Allah Ta’ala does not tolerate a slightest hate against His most respected Prophet. Imaan means to have true love for our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 5 Ayahs, 20 words and 77 letters (harf).

SURAH NASR 1. When the Help of Allah and Victory come. 2. And you see men entering the religion of Allah in troops. 3. Then praising Allah glorify Him and beg His Forgiveness: Undoubtedly, He is most Accepting Repentance. Surah an-Nasr (The Help) was a sign from Allah Ta’ala that the Holy Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) work had been completed. Islam had spread beyond Makkah and Madina. By now thousands and thousands of people had accepted Islam. Many tribes also came to accept Islam at the blessed hands of the beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). His mission was successful. This Surah teaches us that Allah Ta’ala helps and gives victory to Muslims if they remain steadfast. Whenever a person is successful in any work, no matter how much he sacrificed and how much good he has done, he must never forget to remain humble before Allah Ta'ala, the Creator of the Universe. Muslims must pray to Allah Ta’ala and beg forgiveness from Him daily. As an example for us, our Nabi Muhammad made Tauba (Allah’s forgiveness) 70 times a day although he was, so that we too will follow his teachings. This Surah was revealed in Madinatul Munawwarah. It has 3 Ayahs, 17 words and 77 letters (harf).

SURAH KAAFIROON 1. Say you: O unbelievers! A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 130

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2. I worship not that you worship. 3. And nor you worship what I worship. 4. And I shall not worship what you worshipped. 5. And nor you shall worship what I worship. 6. For you, your religion, and for me my religion. The Makkans wanted to make deals with the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to change the religion of Islam so that they will find it easier to follow. In one of the deals some people said that they will worship Allah Ta'ala only for one year if the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) would worship their idols the next year, and they could continue to take turns year after year. So Allah Ta'ala revealed Surah al-Kaafiroon (The Unbelievers) to make it clear to the Quraish that it was not possible. Our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) recited this Surah openly in public at every place to tell the Kufaar that the Muslims and the Kaafirs were not going to compromise as both their religions were not the same. This Surah also tells us how to speak to the unbelievers. If a person does not accept Islam after it has been explained to him, we should not argue with that person, but simply say: "You follow your way, I will follow mine." The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that we must recite this Surah before going to sleep at night to protect us from unbelief. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 6 Ayahs, 26 words and 94 letters (harf).

SURAH MA'OON 1. Well you see him who denies the Judgement. 2. Then he is the one who drives away the orphan. 3. And does not urge the feeding of the poor. 4. Then woe to those prayer performers, 5. Who are heedless of their prayers. 6. Those who make a show of it. 7. And refuse to give articles of use. The title of this Surah means “The Basic Necessities”. In this Surah, Allah Ta'ala condemns people who only pay attention to the act of Salaah, but do not worry about nor take care of the orphans and the poors. These people do not want to help others. This Surah also warns against being forgetful of one's prayers by not praying regularly or on time. Some people only pray so that others will say that he or she is very religious. The Holy Quran says that such people only pray to show people and warns such people. People who refuse to do even simple things for others are really hardhearted and stingy. This Surah teaches us to help our fellow Muslim brothers in need. It is our duty to help the deprived, poor, orphans, the needy, etc. If we do not help them then Allah Ta’ala will be displeased with us. This Surah was revealed to our Nabi Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 131

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Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 7 Ayahs, 25 words and 125 letters (harf).

SURAH QURAISH 1. Because the Quraish were made to benefit. 2. He made them benefit in their journeys of both winter and summer. 3. They should therefore worship the Lord of this House. 4. Who gave them food in hunger, and bestowed them security from a big fear. Surah al-Quraish means “The Quraish Tribe.” The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) belonged to the Quraish Tribe. The Quraish earned their living by trading with their neighbours. In the winter they sent trade caravans Southeast, to Yemen, to buy spices and other goods. In the summer they sold these goods to the people of the north, Shaam (Syria), from whom they bought many food products. The Quraish became very respected and protected wherever they went as they were also in charge of the Holy Kaaba. The Quraish were also well recognised because they defeated Abraha, the Christian leader who tried to destroy the Holy Kaaba. The Quraish had become used to their comfortable position and never having to worry about their food and safety. In this Surah, Allah Ta'ala tells that they should worship Him, the Lord of the Kaaba, rather than the idols which they have put in and around the Holy Kaaba. They should thank Allah Ta'ala for providing for all their needs. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 4 Ayahs, 17 words and 73 letters (harf).

SURAH FEEL 1. O beloved! Have you not seen how your Lord dealth with the men of the Elephant? 2. Did He not cause their devise to be ruined. 3. And He sent against them flocks of bird. 4. Striking them with stones made of baked clay, 5. And thus made them like broken straw eaten up. Surah al-Feel (The Elephant) tells us about how Allah Ta'ala destroyed the army that came to destroy the Holy Kaaba. Abraha, a powerful Christian leader, built a grand Church in San’aa but the Yamanite Arabs did not worship the idols placed in his Church. The Arabs had their own idols in the Holy Kaaba which they worshipped. Abraha was bent on destroying the Holy Kaaba, so he marched to Makkah with sixty thousand men and several huge elephants, to destroy the Holy Kaaba. The army was too great for the people of Makkah to fight so they went and hid in the mountains and caves around Makkah. As Abraha's army came near Makkah, the head elephant stopped and refused to fight in the war. Then Allah Ta'ala destroyed the enemies with a flock of birds which attacked them with stones of clay. These clay pebbles pierced through the bodies of Abraha’s warriors along with their elephants and horses. They began to bleed heavily and they died in a short time. The Holy Kaaba and Makkah were left unharmed. When Abraha and his A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 132

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army came to destroy the Holy Kaaba the people of Makkah prayed to Allah Ta’ala for help and protection. This Surah was a reminder to the Quraish that they must worship the One and only Allah who is the Lord of the Kaaba. They should think about how Allah Ta'ala destroyed Abraha and his army and should also not oppose Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). This Surah assures Muslims that Allah Ta’ala can protect any of His Signs by any of His creatures. If a small community of steadfast Muslims depend on Allah Ta’ala, He will be able to destroy any super power with His tiny creatures to protect these faithful Muslims. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 5 Ayahs, 20 words and 96 letters (harf).

SURAH ASR 1. By the time of the beloved (Prophet). 2. Undoubtedly, man is necessarily in loss. 3. But those who believed, and did good deeds, and joined one another to accept truth, and counselled one another to be steadfast. Surah al-Asr (The Passing Time) summarises in a few words the main themes of the Holy Quran. This Surah says that we will be losers if we do not make the most of our time by filling it with good deeds. It is these good deeds that will help us in the Hereafter. Those who do not believe in Allah and do not do good deeds, or spent their lives in lies and hypocrisy, will one day lose all that they worked for. Those who do not struggle to establish or fight for the truth will end up being losers. We must have faith and always try to do our best. We must encourage each other - our family, friends, and neighbours - to strive for what is good and true and have patience to be successful. This Surah teaches us that we must have four basic characteristics: 1. Our belief must be perfect. We must not have wrong beliefs, 2. We must perform pious deeds as taught by Allah Ta’ala and His beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), 3. We must encourage others to follow the truth, and 4. We must enjoin others to be patient and steadfast. It is said that when the Sahabas met, they would recite this Surah before parting each other's company. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 3 Ayahs, 14 words and 68 letters (harf).

SURAH TAKATHUR A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 133

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1. The piling of more wealth has kept you heedless. 2. Till you saw your graves. 3. Yes, soon you will come to know. 4. Again, yes, soon you will come to know. 5. Yes, if you had known with knowledge of certainty, you would not have loved wealth. 6. Undoubtedly, you shall necessarily, see Hell. 7. Then again, undoubtedly, you shall necessarily see it with the eye of certainty. 8. Then, undoubtedly, you shall surely be asked about the favours. Surah at-Takathur (The Piling of Wealth) is a warning to people who spend much of their time trying to make more money and collect more material possessions for the sake of being richer or more important. Such people want to be better than other people in something. The Holy Quran says that such people will find out the truth in the grave. None will carry anything in the grave and no riches will work after death. The only thing that will be of use in the Aakirah (Hereafter) will be the good deeds. People will be thrown in the Hell and will be questioned for what they have been doing. We will be questioned in the Aakirah about everything (favours) which Allah Ta'ala has given us and what we have done with it (our wealth, health, food, clothing, talents and abilities, etc.) The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) lived a very simple life and we should do the same. This Surah was revealed to the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 8 Ayahs, 28 words and 120 letters (harf).

SURAH QADR 1. Undoubtedly, We sent it down in the blessed and valuable Night. 2. And what do you know, what the blessed Night is? 3. The blessed and valuable night is better than a thousand months. 4. Therein descend Angels and Jibra’eel (the Spirit) by the command of their Lord for every affair. 5. That is all peace till the rising of the dawn. Surah Qadr (The Power) tells us about Laylatul-Qadr or the Night of Power. It is during this night that the Holy Quran was sent down from the Preserved Tablet to the lowest Heaven. It is also the night that Hazrat Jibra'eel (alaihis salaam) appeared to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in the cave with the first revelation of the Holy Quran (al-Alaq 96: 1-5) Laylatul-Qadr falls on one of the odd-numbered nights of the last ten days of the month of Ramadaan (i.e., the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th). During these last ten days, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his Companions used to spend all their time in the mosque in seclusion (I'tikaf), praying and reading the Holy Quran, and waiting for this special night on which the Angels come down to earth with Allah Ta'ala's commands. It is said that if a person is awake on this night and asks Allah Ta'ala for something, He will give it to him. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 5 Ayahs, 30 words and 112 A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 134

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letters (harf).

SURAH INSHIRAH 1. Have We not expanded your chest? 2. And removed from you your burden. 3. Which had broken your back? 4. And We have exalted for you your remembrance. 5. Therefore, surely there is ease with hardship. 6. Undoubtedly, there is ease with hardship. 7. So when you are free after prayer, then strive hard in invocation. 8. And attend to your Lord only. Surah Inshirah (The Expansion) was revealed during the very early days of the Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) mission. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had been very troubled in his early years by the terrible things which went on in Makkan society: young girls were buried alive, poor people were exploited or abused by the rich, and wars were fought between tribes, killing innocent people. The Arabs began worshipping idols instead of the One Allah. All these things were a great burden or weight upon the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). When Hazrat Jibra'eel (alaihis salaam) came to him with Allah's Word, it was a great means of comfort and easing his burden. After reminding Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Allah Ta'ala's great favours upon him, the Surah goes on to say that Almighty Allah always sends some relief along with or after every difficulty. We should continue to strive to perform our worship even after Allah Ta'ala has eased our load with His Mercy. Many people are very active in praying when they are in trouble but when everything is going well they forget Allah Ta'ala. When our duties have been performed, we should spend time in the evening and night hours with our Lord, in worship. The verse "And We have exalted for you your remembrance" was a prophecy of the future. It promises the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that his status will be famous among the people and will continue to achieve fame. This proved to be true, as he was the first Prophet in history to achieve complete success during his lifetime. There is no moment in which the blessed Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is not mentioned somewhere in the world - either in the Shahdah, calling the Adhan, performing the Salaah, giving the Khutbah, reciting the Salaat and Salaam, or making Du'a. This is Allah Ta'la's special favour to him as His final Messenger and beloved servant. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 8 Ayahs, 27 words and 103 letters (harf).

SURAH DHUHA 1. By the growing brightness of the morning. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 135

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2. And by the night when it covers. 3. Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor He was disgust. 4. And undoubtedly, the following one is better for you than the preceding one. 5. And soon your Lord shall give you so much that you will be satisfied. 6. Did He not find you an orphan, then give you shelter? 7. And He found you drowned in His Love, therefore gave way unto Him. 8. And He found you needy so He enriched you. 9. So put not pressure over orphan. 10. And chide not the beggar. 11. And publicize well the favours of your Lord. Surah ad-Dhuha (The Morning Light) was revealed during the early days of the Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) mission. In this period he was worried and Hazrat Jibra'eel (alaihis salaam) did not come with any Revelations for some time. The unbelievers of Makkah started to tease the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), saying that his Lord had abandoned him. Allah Ta’ala assures the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that He can never leave him being His most perfect model for humanity. Allah Ta’ala being the Most Merciful can never be Angry with His great Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who is also “Rahmatul-lil-Aalameen” (Mercy unto Mankind). Allah Ta’ala also assures the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that every tomorrow of his is better than today, meaning that the Holy Prophet’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) status will ever increase till he occupies the highest seat of Maqaam-e-Mahmood in the Aakirah. So, the first section begins by assuring him that everything would turn out well in the end. Many scholars have translated verse 7 saying that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was astray and Allah Ta’ala showed him the right way. (Allah forbid!) All the Prophets and Messengers of Allah Ta’ala are righteous, pious and on the straight path, being innocent by birth. The Holy Prophet who is the Imaam of all the Prophets (alaihimus salaam) was never astray or wrongly wandering or the one who lost his way. The second section reminds Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that Allah Ta'ala had helped him out of many troubles before. The beloved Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was burdened by the death of his father, mother and grandfather in his early childhood; Allah Ta'ala provided for him through the care of his uncle and later through his marriage to the wealthy widow, Hazrat Khatija (radi Allahu anha), his first wife. From a difficult beginning Allah Ta'ala raised him to a position of fame. In this Surah, Allah Ta'ala was instructing Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and all the Believers to be very careful of their treatment of those more unfortunate than themselves. The Prophet's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) life was the best example of good treatment for us to follow. Gratefulness to Allah Ta’ala is a must for everyone. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 11 Ayahs, 40 words and 172 letters (harf).

SURAH THEEN A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 136

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1. By the Fig and the Olive. 2. And by Mount Sinai. 3. And by this City of Security. 4. Undoubtedly, we have made man in the fairest stature. 5. Then We restored him the lowest of the low. 6. But those who believed and did good deeds, for them is a never -ending reward. 7. What then now causes you to lie about the Judgement? 8. Is not Allah the Greatest of all Rulers? Surah Theen (The Fig) begins with an oath on the fig, the olive, Mount Sinai and on the City of Makkah. Allah Ta'ala says that He created humans in the best of forms, and then reduced him to the lowest of the low - except those who believe and do good. Allah Ta'ala had honoured Hazrat Adam (alaihis salaam) and his children above all creatures, giving humans the possibility of reaching a height above the Angels, through obedience. The people who believe and act righteous are entitled to the highest credit from Allah Ta’ala. They will receive unlimited rewards. On the other hand, people who ignore their higher nature can come down to a level of behaviour much worse than the most savage animals. The Surah ends by asking: what could make people deny the final Judgement? People who do the worst crimes are never caught, and many people who do the best throughout their lives are never rewarded. It is Allah Ta'ala who will hand out the true and exact Justice to His creatures in the end. This Surah was revealed in Makkatul Mukarramah. It has 8 Ayahs, 34 words and 105 letters (harf).

SECTION 5
WHAT IS SALAAT (PRAYER)? A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 137

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Prayer is: The coolness of the eyes of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) A pillar of religion The key to paradise The spiritual ascent of the faithful believer. The greater Jihad (holy war) A sign of faith Light of the heart The radiance of the face The nourishment of the soul. The Prayer is: A cause of blessings in the house A cause of abundance in provision Cure for ailments of the body and soul A light in the gloom of the grave A canopy in the hot sun on the Day of Resurrection The Prayer is: An entertainer of the heart amidst the fear of the grave A swift carrier across the thin bridge on the Day of Resurrection A means of attaining forgiveness from sins A barrier between hell and the offerer of Prayers A repeller of the devil A bestower of Allah's proximity and His favour. After proper acceptance of faith and its inherent beliefs, i.e. the recitation of the Pure Words (Kalemah Tayyebah), the most important duty is that of offering the Prayer. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 138

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has stated: "The first duty that Allah, the Supreme, has ordained upon my nation is that of offering Prayer, and indeed Prayer is the first thing that will be taken account of on the Day of Resurrection." It is also reported in the Hadith that, "Whoever keeps the Prayer established, has kept his religion established - and whoever leaves Prayer has demolished religion". It is reported by Syedna Abu Hurairah (may Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Allah the Supreme states, 'O the son of Adam! Free yourself for My worship, I shall fill your heart with content - and if you do not do so, I shall make you busy in several affairs but not remove your poverty.' " (Mishkaat ul Masabeeh, Ibn Majah) "Be content with five things before (the advent of) the other five: Youth before old age, good health before sickness, prosperity before poverty, spare time before indulgence in affairs, and life before death." (Hadith reported in Tirmizi) Regrettably, the Muslims of this age have forgotten Prayer. Most people simply do not have the time for it, whereas some people do offer their Prayers but do not know the proper way of offering it. It is imperative to learn the correct way of offering the Prayer, and to offer all the 5 Obligatory Prayers with the congregation. This concise book attempts to highlight the importance, excellence, mode and rules of Prayer from the Holy Qur'an, Hadith, books of Hanafi Jurisprudence, Fatawa Razvia and Bahaare Shariat. May Allah grant all Muslims the guidance to seek religious knowledge and to act upon it - Aameen (and through the supplications of the Holy Prophet - peace and blessings be upon him).

THE IMPORTANCE OF PRAYER (SALAAT) The importance of establishing Prayer has been mentioned in the Holy Qur'an and Hadith, on several occasions:Allah the Supreme states in the Holy Qur’an: “And keep the Prayer established, and pay the charity, and bow your heads with those who bow (in Prayer).”(Surah Baqarah) On another occasion, it is stated: “Guard all your Prayers, and the middle Prayer; and stand with reverence before Allah.” (Surah Baqarah) On yet another occasion, it is stated: “And keep the Prayer established at the two ends of the day and in some parts of the night.” (Surah Hud) The "two ends of the day" mean the morning and evening. The time before noon is classified as morning and the time after it is classified as evening. The Morning Prayer is the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer, and the Prayers of the evening are the Afternoon (Zohr) and the Evening (Asr) Prayers. The Prayers for the night are the Sunset (Maghrib) and the Night (Isha) Prayers. (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfan) A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 139

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Holy Qur'an classifies Prayer as an act that is opposite to the habits of polytheists. It states, “Inclining towards Him - and fear Him, and keep the Prayer established, and never be of the polytheists.” (Surah Ruum) In other words, not offering the Prayer is to be like the polytheists. This is further confirmed by the words of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) "The entity that lies between a bondman and disbelief, is the abandonment of Prayer." (Saheeh Muslim) The Holy Qur'an warns those who abandon Prayer, in the following words: “And after them came the unworthy successors who squandered Prayer and pursued their own desires, so they will soon encounter the forest of Gai in hell.” (Surah Maryam) “Gai” is a well in the lowest part of hell, in which accumulates the pus of its inhabitants. It is also mentioned that “Gai” is the hottest and deepest part of hell. This is the well which Allah opens up whenever the heat of hell lessens, causing the fire of hell to rage again. This well is the destination of those who abandon Prayer – and adulterers, drunkards, usurers and those who hurt their parents. The Holy Qur'an has mentioned a trait of the hypocrites, that they are lazy in offering Prayers, and that they deem it to be a burden. It therefore states: “Undoubtedly the hypocrites, in their fancy, seek to deceive Allah whereas He will extinguish them while making them oblivious; and when they stand up for Prayer, they do it unwillingly and for others to see, and they do not remember Allah except a little.” (Surah Nisaa) The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said the following about the hypocrites: “The most burdensome Prayers for the hypocrites are the Night Prayer and the Dawn Prayer. If they were to know the blessings they have in store, they would have come to them, even slithering.” (Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim) The Holy Qur'an also explains that offering the Prayer is not at all a burden for those who believe in Allah and the Last Day. It says: “And seek help in patience and Prayer; and truly it is hard except for those who prostrate before Me with sincerity - Who know that they have to meet their Lord, and that it is to Him they are to return.” (Surah Baqarah) We therefore know from the Holy Qur'an, and from the Hadith, that it is obligatory on all Muslims to offer Prayers 5 times daily. To be lazy in Prayer, and especially not to offer the Night and Dawn Prayers, are the traits of hypocrites. We also know that not offering Prayer is the way of the disbelievers - this is why the Sahabah (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) did not deem the abandonment of any deed as disbelief, except the abandonment of Prayer. The importance of Prayer can be gauged from the fact that it has been emphasised right from childhood. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Command your children to pray when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (Prayer) when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep) separately. The Sin Of Letting The Prayer Lapse. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 140

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Whoever lets the Prayer lapse, and then offers it after its due time, will burn in hell for not praying on time, for a period of one "Haqab".” One "Haqab" equals 80 years, and one year has 360 days, and the Day of Resurrection will equal a thousand years. Which means that one who lets just one Prayer lapse, will burn in hell for a period of 28,800,000 years! (May Allah protect us - Aameen). Allamah Amjad Ali Aazmi (may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that abandoning Prayer is terrible in itself, but see what Allah the Supreme says about those who let it lapse: “So “vail” (or ruin) is to those offerers of Prayer - Those who are neglectful of their Prayer.” (Surah Maoon) “Vail” is the name of a dreadful valley in hell, from which hell also seeks refuge. This will be the destination of those who let their Prayers lapse. (Bahaare Shariat) The Blessings Of Prayer The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If there was a river at the door of anyone of you and he took a bath in it five times a day, would you notice any dirt on him?" The Companions said: “Not a trace of dirt would be left." The Prophet added, "That is the example of the five Prayers with which Allah annuls evil deeds." (Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim) Here “evil deeds” mean the lesser sins. The cardinal sins are forgiven only after repentance and giving the people their due rights. It is recorded in Mishkaat Shareef that once during the winter season, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) caught hold of a tree branch and shook it, causing its leaves to fall. He then said: “When a Muslim offers Prayer, seeking Allah's pleasure, his sins fall off like these leaves did." The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has also said: “For the one who is regular in his Prayer, the Prayer will become a light, a guide and the cause of his salvation on the Day of Resurrection. Whereas the one who is not regular in his Prayers, will not have any light, guide or salvation - and on the Day of Resurrection, he will be along with Qaroon, Firaun, Hamaan, Ubai bin Khalaf” - i.e. with the major infidels. (Mishkaat) Another blessing of Prayer is that all hardships are resolved through it, and the offerer gains solace from it. Hazrat Huzaifah (may Allah be well pleased with him) says that whenever the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was faced with any difficulty, he used to turn his attention towards Prayer. (Abu Dawood)

The Excellence Of Offering Prayer In Congregation (With Jamaat)

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “The Prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the Prayer offered by a person alone." (Bukhari & Muslim) The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) found some people absenting themselves from certain Prayers and he said: “I intend to order someone to lead people in Prayer, and then go to the persons who do not join the (congregational) Prayer and then order their houses to be burnt by the bundles of fuel. If one amongst them were to know that he would find a fat fleshy bone he would attend the Night Prayer.” (Muslim & Abu Dawood) Abu Huraira (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “A man's Prayer in congregation is more valuable by twenty degrees and some above them as compared with his Prayer in his house and his market, for when he performs ablution doing it well, then goes out to the mosque, and he is impelled (to do so) only by (the love of congregational) Prayer, he has no other objective before him but Prayer. He does not take a step without being raised a degree for it and having a sin remitted for it, till he enters the mosque, and when he is busy in Prayer after having entered the mosque, the angels continue to invoke blessing on him as long as he is in his place of worship saying: O Allah, show him mercy, and pardon him! Accept his repentance (and the angels continue this supplication for him) so long as he does not do any harm in it, or as long as his ablution is not broken.” (Saheeh Muslim) Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If anyone hears him who makes the call to Prayer and is not prevented from joining the congregation by any excuse (he was asked what an excuse consisted of and replied that it was fear or illness) the Prayer he offers will not be accepted from him.” (Abu Dawood) If the one who misses the congregational Prayer knew what reward lay in it for him, he would come to it slithering. (Tibrani) The Importance Of Reverence And Humility The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) states: “Worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot do this, then you must at least be certain that He is looking at you." (Saheeh Bukhari) The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) states: “Whoever offers all his Prayers on time after a perfect ablution, stands with humility and reverence, prostrates and bows with calm, and offers the entire Prayer in good manner - so that Prayer becomes a radiating one and prays for him thus: O the offerer of Prayer! May Allah guard you the way you have guarded me. And as regards the one who offers the Prayer poorly - that is without proper ablution, and not even prostrating and bowing correctly then the Prayer curses him thus: May Allah ruin you the way you have ruined me. Then the Prayer is folded and thrown back at his face like a used (dirty) cloth.” (Tibrani). The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) once said: “The worst thief is one who steals during the Prayer.” The companions therefore asked "O the Messenger of A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 142

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Allah! How does he steal in Prayer?” He answered "He does not prostrate or bow correctly." (Musnad Imaam Ahmed & Tibrani) In yet another Hadith, glad tidings of salvation have been given to those who regularly offer their Prayers with humility and reverence. (Abu Dawood). Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) states: "The reverent ones are those who fear Allah and offer their Prayers with calm." It is clear from the above that Prayer must be offered with reverence, humility and calm, keeping in mind all its requirements. Prayer Makes One Pious Allah the Supreme states in the Holy Qur’an: “O dear Prophet (Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him), recite from the Book which has been sent down to you, and establish the Prayer; indeed the Prayer stops from indecency and evil; and indeed the remembrance of Allah is the greatest; and Allah knows all what you do.” (Surah Ankabut) The above verse reveals that Prayer stops from indecency and evil matters - which means that if one offers the Prayer regularly and properly, he shuns indecent matters in due course, and becomes pious. A young man from the Ansar used to pray along with the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), and was simultaneously also given to involving himself in cardinal sins. The matter was reported to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who said: “His Prayer will some day prevent him from these evil acts". Very soon, he therefore repented and his state became better. Hazrat Anas (may Allah be well pleased with him) said: “If the Prayer does not prevent one from indecency and evil, then that is not Prayer." (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfaan)

Being Certain That The Prayer Has Been Accepted Do not ever get distracted by the worldly affairs that come to mind while offering Prayer. Rather do not care about them, and pay attention to the meanings of the words that are being said during the Prayer. Some people question as to how they can be sure whether Allah has accepted the Prayer that they have offered. As an answer, just reflect upon the following Hadith: "Allah will deal with His bondman on the Day of Resurrection in the same manner as the bondman had thought about his Lord". It is therefore imperative, along with the fear of Allah, to have the good belief that our worship has been accepted. Scholars say that if you have offered the Dawn Prayer and then later offered the Afternoon Prayer, then be well convinced that Allah has accepted your Dawn Prayer. Further, when you have offered the Evening Prayer, be convinced that the Afternoon A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 143

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Prayer has been accepted. Similarly, after each Prayer, be sure that the previous Prayer has been accepted - because if Allah had not accepted your Dawn Prayer, he would not guide you to offer the Afternoon Prayer. The Beneficent Lord's guidance to you to offer the next Prayer is a proof of His having accepted your previous one.

The Prayers Of The Pious Every Prayer should be offered like a person who is certain that it is the last Prayer of his life. Hazrat Hatim Balkhi (may Allah have mercy upon him) was once questioned as to how he offered his Prayers. He answered, "When it is time for Prayer, I do a proper ablution and stand calmly on the prayer-mat. I imagine that the Holy Kaaba is in front of me, Paradise on my right, hell on my left, and that I am standing on the thin bridge (of the Day of Resurrection) - and that the angel of death is above me and that this is the last Prayer of my life. Then with utmost humility I proclaim "Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest)" and keeping the meanings in mind, I recite the Holy Qur'an - and with extreme reverence and humility I complete the Prayers. I then hope that Allah will accept it by His mercy, and fear that it may be rejected because of the shortcomings of my deeds." Such is the Prayer of the Friends of Allah! May Allah guide us to follow the footsteps of His friends. Aameen.

SECTION 6
PRAYER Prayer is the pillar of religion and safeguard and root of religious belief the chief of religious actions. The chapter is divided into seven sections. SECTION 1 EXCELLENCE OF PRAYER

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EXCELLENCE OF AZAN: The Prophet said : Three persons will remain on the Resurection Day on the mountain of black musk. They will have no fear of account and they will have no anxiety till they become free from what is near men. (1) One who recites the Quran to seek the pleasure of God and leads the prayer of the people who remain pleased with him. (2) One who proclaims Azan in a mosque for pleasure of God and call the people towards the path of God. (3) One who is given trouble in the world regarding his livelihood but does not give up the actions of the next world in searching it. The Prophet said : If a man, jinn or anything hears the Azan of a Muazzen, he will testify for him on the Resurrection day. The Prophet said : The hand of the Merciful remains on the head of a Muazzen till he finishes his Azan. God says : If a man calls towards God and does good, who is better than him in preaching ? This was 'revealed regarding a Muazzen. The "Prophet said When you hear Azan, say what Muazzen says. Say at the time of Haia-alas-salat "There is no might; and strength except through God." When he says : prayer has begun, say 'May God establish the prayer and keep its tongue so long as the heaven and earth exist. When at the time of Fajr prayer it is recited 'prayer is better then sleep', say 'you have spoken the truth, you have spoken good and given admonition,' Say when the Azan is finished : 0 God, Lord of this perfect invitation and ever living prayer, grant position, means and honour to Muhammad and raise him up to the of glory which Thou hast promised him." EXCELLENCE OF COMPUSLORY PRAYER God says: Prayer is compulsory on the believers at the appointed times. The Prophet said : God has made compulsory for His servants prayer for five times. If a man observes them and does not leave anything out of their duties, there is'covenant for him from God that He will admit him in paradise. If a man does not observe them, there is no covenant from God for him. If He wishes, He may punish him and if He wishes, He may admit him in paradise. The Prophet said : Prayer five times is like a flowing canal of pure water by the side of one's houes. He takes bath five times daily in it. Will you see any impurity in his body ? They said : No. The Prophet said : As water removes impurities, so prayer for five times removes sins. The Prophet said: Prayer for five times expiates the sins of a man till he does not commit major sins. The Prophet said : The distinction between us and the hypocrites is our presence at morning and night prayers and their absence at these two prayers. The Prophet said : If a man meets God after destroying his prayer. God will not look towards his virtues. The Prophet said : Prayer is the pillar of religion. He who gives it up destroys the pillar. The Prophet was once asked : Which action is best ? He said : To pray at the appointed times. The Prophet said : If a man protects his prayer for five times with full ablution and at appointed times, these will be proof and light for him on the Resurrection Day. He who destroys his prayer will rise with Pharaoh and Haman. The Prophet said: Prayer is a key to paradise. He said : God has not made anything compulsory dear to Him for this servants after Tauhid than prayer. Had there been anything better than it, he would have fixed it for the angels. They took from Him the organs of prayer. Some make bow, some prostrate, some stand, some sit. The Prophet said : He who gives up prayer intentionally becomes an infidel. In other words, he becomes near coming out of faith as his. firm tie becomes loose and his pillar falls down just as when a man comes near a town it is said that he has reached the town and entered it. The Prophet said : He who give up prayer intentionally, becomes free from the convenant of Muhammad. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah, enjoin on the members of your family to pray as you can't conceive wherefrom God will supply you provision. EXCELLENCE OF FULFILLING THE DUTIES OF PRAYER: The Prophet said: Compulsory prayer is like a scale. He who measures out in full takes full. The Prophet said : If two men of my followers stand in prayer, it seems that their

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prostrations are the same but the spirit of their prayer is like the distance of the heaven and earth. He hinted at their God-fear. The Prophet said God will not look to a man on the Resurection Day who does not make his backbone erect between his bow and prostration. The Prophet said : If a man turns his face towards another direction in prayer, God will turn his face in to that of an ass. The Prophet said : If a man says prayer at its appointed time, establishes ablution, makes his bow and prostration perfect and has got God fear, it will become bright and rise upwards and say : May God guard you as you have guarded me. If a man does not pray at its appointed time, does not make ablution well and does not make perfect his ruku and prostration and God fear, it will become dark and rise upwards and say : May God destroy you as you have destroyed me. God will keep it folded as old cloth is kept folded. The Prophet said : The word thief applies to one who steals in prayer. EXCELLENCE OF PRAYING IN CONGERGATION The Prophet said : The rewards of a prayer in congregation is twenty seven times more than the prayer said alone. The Prophet did not see once some persons joining prayer in congregation and said : I wished that I should give order to some one to lead the prayer and oppose those who have not joined in prayer and burn their houses. In another narration : I oppose those persons who do not pray in congregation and order that their houses should be burnt with fuel. If a man among them had known what rewards there are in night prayer, he would have surely been present at night prayer. There is in Hadis : He who remains at night prayer. There is in Hadis : He who remains at night prayer prayed as it were half the night. He who remains present in the morning prayer prayed as it were the whole night. The Prophet said : He who prays a prayer in congregation fills up his neck with divine service. Hazrat Sayeed-b-Musayyeb said : I reached the mosque before Azan for 20 years consequitively. The sage Waseh said : I want three things in the world (1) such a .brother who will keep me straight if I become crooked, (2) such livelihood as can be earned without begging and (3) such a prayer in congregation of which the faults are forgiven to me and excellence is written for me. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : He who does not respond to Azan does not hope for good and no good is expected from him. The Prophet said : If a man prays in congregation for forty days and does and lose even Takbir, God writes for him two salvation-(1) one salvation from hypocrisy and another from Hell. EXCELLENCE OF PROSTRATION: The Prophet said There is nothing except secret prostration which can take one near God. The Prophet said : There is no such Muslim whom God does not give a rank in lieu of his one prostration and remove one sin from him. A man asked the Prophet : Pray that I may be included within the party of your intercession so that He may give me mercy of your intercession in paradise. The Prophet said One who prostrates will gain the nearness of God, as God says Prostrate and seek nearness. God says : There are signs in their foreheads as an effect of prostration. It is said that this sign is effected as a result of dust that is attached to forehead at the time prostration. Some say that it is the light of God-fear as it is expressed outwardly from a secret place. This is the correct view. Some say that it is the light that will be seen on their forehead on the Resurrection Day on account of ablution. The Prophet said When a man prostrates, the devil goes away from him weeping and saying : Also ! he has been ordered to prostrate and he has prostrated. So there is Paradise for him. I have been ordered to prostrate but as I have disobeyed it, there is Hell for me. It is narrated that the Caliph Abdul Aziz used not to make prostration except on the ground. Hazrat Abu HUrairah said Prostration takes a servant near God and he makes invocation at that time. EXCELLENCE OF GOD FEAR: God says : Pray to remember Me. God says : Don't be

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one of the heedless. God says : Don't come near prayer when you are intoxicated till you donot understand what you say. Some say that intoxication means a great anxiety. Some say that it means attachment to the world. There are many worshippers who do not drink wine but they ,don't know what they say in prayer. The Prophet said : If a man prays two rakats without any thought of the world therein, his past sins are forgiven. The Prophet said : Prayer is the embodiment of modesty, humility, entreaties, repentance, raising of hands and utterance of words "0 God, 0 God" He who does not do it, is a cheat. There is in earlier scriptures that God said : I don't accept the prayer of every one. I accept the prayer of one who humbles himself before My glory, does not take boast in doing My service and gives food for My sake to the hungry and the poor. I have made prayer compulsory, ordered for Haj and Tawaf for My remembrance. If you have got no fear of God in your mind, what is the value of your Zikr ? The Prophet said When you pray, pray in such a manner that you are bidding farewell. He said : Fear God, He will teach you. God says : Fear God and know that you must meet Him. The Prophet said : He who does not restrain himself from indecency and evil deeds in prayer keeps away God. Prayer is monazat or invocation. How can it be with heedlessness ? Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet used to talk with us and we also used to talk with him. When the time for prayer came, he did not as it were recognise us and we also did not recognise him, as we remained busy in declaring the glory of God. The Prophet said : God does not respond prayer of a man who does not observe it with his mind and body. When the Prophet Abraham stood in prayer, the voice of his mind could have been heard from a distance of two miles. When the sage Sayeed Tanukhi prayed, his two eyes used to shed tears which flowed down, his beard. The Prophet once saw a man in prayers sporting with his beard and said : If he and his mind had God fear, his organs also would have Godfear. It is narrated of Moslem-b-Yasar that whenever he wished to pray, he used to say to his family members : You hold conversation, I will not hear you. It is said that when he was praying in the congregational mosque,one corner of the mosque once suddenly fell down for which the people gathered there, but he could not know it till he finished his prayer. When the time of prayer came, the heart of Hazrat Ali used to tremble and his colour became changed. He was questioned : 0 Commander of the faithful, what has happened to you ? He said : It is time of trust of God which was entrusted to the heavens, earth and mountains but they became fearful of it and refused to bear it, but I am bearing it when it has come to me. When Hazrat Jainal Abedin, son of Hazrat Hussain, performed ablution, his colour turned place. His family members asked him. What troubles you at the time of ablution? He said Don't you see before whom I am going to stand ? Hazrat Daud used to say in his Monazat:0 my Lord, who lives in your house and from whom you accept prayer ? God revealed to him : The man who lives in My house and from whom I accept prayer is one who humbles himself before My glory, passes his life in My remembrance, controls his passion for My sake, entertains a stranger and shows kindness to the aggrieved. His light will sparkle like the rays of the sun in the sky. I respond to him if he calls me. If he invoke Me. I accept it. I give him patience in his ignorance, remembrance in his carelessness and light in his pride. His simile among the people is the smile of Ferdous in high gardens. His river does not become dry and his face does not become changed. Once Hatem Asem was asked about prayer and he said When the time of prayer comes, I make full ablution, come to the praying place and wait there till my neighbours come there. Then I stand for prayer, face the Ka'ba with Bridge under my feet, Paradise by me right side and Hell by my left side, angel of death behind me and think that this is my last prayer. Then I stand between fear and hope, recite Takbir, make Ruk'u with humility, prostrate with fear and sit on my left waist and spead my sole of feet and keep my right side on my toes. I don't know whether my prayer has been accepted or not.

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EXCELLENCE OF MOSQUE AND PRAYING PLACE God says: Those who have got faith in God and the next world inhabit God's mosques. The Prophet said : If a man constructs a mosque for God, He constructs for him a place in Paradise. The Prophet said : If a man loves mosque, God loves him. He said: When one of you enters a mosque, let him pray two rak'ats before he sits. He said : There is no prayer for mosque except in mosque. He said : Angels like one of you until he keeps seated in his praying place. They say : 0 God, send blessings on him. 0 God, have mercy on him, forgive him till he keeps his ablution or gets out of mosque. The Prophet said : There will be some people among my followers who will come to mosque and sit in groups. They will like to talk of this world and its matters. Don't sit with them. God has got no necessity of them. He said God said in some of His books : Mosques are my houses in the world and My neighbours are those people in them who are habituated to go there. Good news is for one who keeps his house pure and then meets Me in My house. He said : When you find a man visiting mosque always, bear witness that he has got faith. He said : Random talks in mosque consumes virtues as animals eat grass. Hazrat Anas said : If a man gives a light in a mosque, angels and the bearers of the Thone seek forgiveness for him till the light exists in the mosque. Hazrat Ali said : When a man dies, praying cloth in the world and his good deeds raised high in the sky weep for him. Then he said : The heaven and earth did not weep for them and wait for them. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The word weeps for him for forty days. SECTION 2 OPEN ACTIONS IN PRAYER After the removal of the impurities of body, place, cloth and places of shame, make ablution facing the Ka'ba and keep some open space between the two feet. Keep your head erect or bend a little and close the eyes. if you cast ,your look, cast it to your place of prostration. Then make niyyat, then raise both the hands up to the ears uttering Allhaho Akbar - God is greatest. There after recite the formula : Glory to Thee, 0 God, there is Thy priase and blessed is Thy name, exalted is Thy Majesty and there is no deity besides Thee. I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil and I begin in the name of God, the most Compassionate the most Merciful. Then recite the opening chapter of the Quran and then at least three verses of the Quran. Then saying God is greatest; bow down and recite three times 'Glory to my Lord the Great' and then fall in prostration on the ground and recite three times 'Glory to my Lord, the Great, Then sit down and then again fall prostrate and recite the formula as above mentioned and then stand erect. Thus finish one unit of prayer. Then praying another unit in this manner, sit and recite: All invocations are for God and all services and pure things. Peace be on thee 0 Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessing. Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no deity but God that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger. Then if you do not pray four such units make the following invocation 0 God, make Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad successful as Thou didst make successful Abraham and his followers, for surely Thou art the praised, mighty. 0 God, bless Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad as Thou did bless Abraham and the followers of Abraham. Surely Thou at the praised, the mighty. They close up the service followed by an innovation of your choice. SECTION 3 INTERNAL CONDITIONS Prayer should be observed with humility of mind.. God says 'Pray to remember Me.'

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Presence of mind is opposed to absence of mind or heedlessness. If one is heedless throughout his prayer, how can he say prayer with the purpose of remembering God ? God says : Don't be of the heedless. He says: 'Prayer is modesty and humility.' Therein there is injunctions, prohibitions and. blocks. The Prophet said : If a man does not refrain from thought of absence and evil things, it does not add to it but distance,' There are two kinds of prayer of a heedless man. The Prophet said : There are many praying men who do not gain anything in their prayer except fatigue and efforts. The prayer of a heedless man has been spoken there. The Prophet said : Nothing is written for a praying man except what he understands in his prayer. Its speciality is that there are entreaties and seekings to God in prayer. Monazat with inattention is not considered as Monazat. There are God's remembrance in prayer, Quran reading, bow, prostration, standing and sitting. God's remembrance means prayer and Monazat to Him. Without them, it ends in voice and tongue. The object of fasting is to bring under control belly and sexual passion, or else it ends in depriving this body from food and drink. Body is tried by the troubles of pilgrimage. Troubles are given to mind if Zakat is paid out of wealth and thus mind is tried. There is no don't that the object of these religious acts is to remember God. If that object is not attained, there is no use in prayer, as it is very easy to move the tongue with inattention. The object of word is to talk and it does not occur except in mind. It does not exist in mind without humility of spirit and presence of mind. If you recite in prayer : Show us the right path, and if you are inattentive at that time, it is only the movement of your tongue and nothing else. The object of Quran reading and God's remembrance is to praise and glorify God and to entreat Him and invoke Him with humility of spirit, but if his mind remains absent at that time and does not know that He is present with whom he is speaking, it must be understood that his tongue moves only owing to habit but he is far away from the object of prayer to enliven God's remembrance and with that to make firm the tie of faith. Sifiyan Saori said : The prayer of one who has got no God-fear becomes void. Hasan Basari said : The prayer which is not said with attention hastens towards punishment. The Prophet said : There are many praying men whose prayers are written to the extent of one sixth or one tenth. In other words, the portion of prayer which is said with attention is only written. The sage Abdul Wahed said : The portion of prayer which is said with humidity of mind is accepted. This is the consensus of opinion of the sages. In short, earnestness of mind is the life of prayer. LIFE OF PRAYER AND ITS INTERNAL CONDITION There are many works signifying the life of prayer, humility of mind, understanding what is said, honour, hope and shame. (1) The meaning of humility or presence of mind is that the action and word must be the same in mind and there should be no other thought therein. When there is no other thing in mind which is concentrated only to one thing, there is earnestness or presence of mind. (2) When mind is not present in prayer, it does not remain idle and is concentrated to the thoughts of the worldly affairs with which it is immediately concerned. So there must be firm belief that prayer is a stepping stone to the next world which is everlasting. Presence of mind is gained only when it is realised and the world is considered as a merely temporary abode and insignificant. (2) To understand the meaning of words uttered and to engage intellect to understand their meanings. The medicine of removing various thoughts that come in mind in prayers is to cut the root or to remove the reasons which cause different thoughts. He who loves a thing remembers that thing. For this reason, he who loves things other than God is not free from diverse thoughts in prayer. (3) Honour of God is a condition of mind. It rises out of acquaintance of two things. The first thing is the knowledge of the glory of God. This is the root of faith,

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because the mind of one who does not firmly believe in His glory, is not given encouragement to honour Him. The second thing is to think 142 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I oneself helpless and insignificant. From the knowledge of these two things, helplessness, modesty and fear of God arise and as a result honour for God arises in mind. (4) Fear of God is a condition of mind which rises out of knowledge of God's power and His rewards and punishments. You must have knowledge that if God would have destroyed all past and present, nothing of His sovereignty would have reduced. It is to be seen along with that whatever dangers and difficulties God gave to His Prophet and friends, these are different from those on kinds, rulers and emperors. The more the knowledge about God, the more would be the fear of God.* (5) Hope in God rises out of firm faith in the following matters-knowledge of God's mercy and gifts, knowledge of His creation and remembrance of Paradise through prayer. (6) Shame arises out of knowledge of neglect in divine service and inability to fight for God. Human mind becomes humble in proportion of certainty of faith. For this reason Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet talked with us and we also talked with him but when the time of prayer came, he could not recognise us and we did not recognise him. It is narrated that God said to Moses : 0 Moses, when you want to remember Me, remember Me in such a way that your limbs tremble and that you hold Me dear at the time of remembrance and rest satisfied. When you remember Me, keep your tongue behind your mind. When you stand before Me, stand before Me with fearful mind like the meanest slave and speak with Me with the tongue of a truthful man. God revealed to him : Tell your disobedient followers to remember Me. I took oath upon Myself that I shall remember one who remembers Me. When Abraham stood for prayer, voice of his heart was heard from a distance of two miles..An individual will be forgiven in the next world according to the qualities of his mind and not of his body. Nobody will get salvation except one who comes with a sound mind. PROFITABLE MEDICINE FOR MAKING MIND HUMBLE Know, 0 dear reader, that a believer will declare God's glory and fear Him, hope in Him and be ashamed to Him for his sins. After his faith, a believer will not be free from these conditions.Although the strength of his mind will be according to the strength of his faith, yet there is no other cause except the following ones for the absence of his mind, random thoughts, heedness, absence of mind in Mozazat and absent-minded ness in prayer. This heedlessness in prayer arises out of engagement of mind in various thought. The medicine of keeping the mind present is to remove all thoughts and primarily to remove the root of these thoughts. There are two bases of this root and the external root. EXTERNAL ROOT: Thought catches what the ear hears or the eye sees and mind turns towards that thought. This causes to produce other thoughts. So the root of thought is eye and then the root of one thought is another thought. He whose niyyat is fine and aim high cannot be diverted by what occurs in his organs or limbs, but he who is weak falls a prey to it. Its medicine is to cut off these roots and to shut up the eyes, to pray in a dark room, not to keep anything in front which may attract attention and not to pray in a decorated place or a decorated and painted praying cloth. For this reason the sages used to do divine service in dark, narrow and unaspious rooms. INTERNAL ROOT is very difficult. The thoughts of worldly matters are not confined

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to one subject. It goes from one thought to another. If they shut up their eyes, it does not do them any benefit. The way to remove them is to take one's mind to understand what is recited in prayer and to stick to it after giving up all other thoughts. The Prophet once told Osman-b-Ali Shaiba: I forgot to tell you to cover the screens of variegated colours in the room, because there should remain nothing in the house which can divert attention from prayer. If the rise of thoughts is not stopped by this method, then there is another easy method to prevent it. That is to cut off the root cause of the disease. It has been narrated that Abu Zaham presented a valuable dress of variegated colours to the Holy Prophet. He put on it and said prayer. Afterwards he took it off and said : Take if to Abu Zaham as it has diverted my attention from prayer. The Prophet had a ring of gold in his hand before it was unlawful. He threw it away when he was on the pulpit and said : My sight has fallen on it. It is said that Hazrat Abu Tallaha once prayed in his own garden which pleased him so much that he forgot how many rak'ats he prayed. He mentioned it to the Prophet and said : 0 Prophet of God, I wish to gift this garden. The Prophet said : Give it to whom you like. Once a man was praying in his garden in which dates were hanging. It pleased him so much that he forgot how many rak'ats he prayed. He mentioned it to Hazrat Osman who said : Spend it in the way of God. Hazrat Osman purchased it for fifty thousand coins. Thus they used to cut off the root of their thoughts and expiated the loss in prayers. This is the medicine for cutting the root of the disease of mind. To bring sexual passion under temporary control is not so benefiting. Its root must be cut as it baffles the whole prayer. The following illustration is given. In a certain tree numerous sparrows used to make tremendous noise as they had their nests in it. A traveler began to drive them away being disgusted with their noise. They fled away for the time being but came again to make greater noise. It he wants to get himself relieved of the noise permanently, he should cut the tree. The sparrows will make noise till the tree lasts. Similarly attachment to a thing may temporarily be removed from mind, but it will come again and disturb the mind. Attachment to the world is the root of all thoughts, the primary cause of all losses. If one wants a peaceful mind in prayer, he should cut off all attachments of the world. If one is engaged in worldly matters, he should not expect to get taste in invocations. MEANING OF DIFFERENT ITEMS OF PRAYER'AZAN': When you hear the call to prayer, think of the general call on the Resurrection day and look to your external and internal matters when replying and make haste. Those who respond in haste to this call, will get reply°with mercy on that fearful day. So keep your mind on Azan. MEANING OF CLEANLINESS: When you make your praying cloth pure and clean and your body clean of impurities, don't be indifferent to make your mind pure. Make it pure of impure ideas and thoughts as far as possible, Repent for what you have failed to do and determine not to do it in future. So make your heart pure as it is the object of sight of your Lord. Meaning of covering private parts. The meaning of covering private parts is to cover your private parts from the sight of men. God looks to your heart. So cover the faults of your heart and know that it is not secret from the sight of God. Your repentance, shame and fear will expiate it. Stand before God just like a fugitive slave who returned to his master being repentant with humility of spirit and bent down head. MEANING OF FACING THE KA'BA: The meaning of turning your face towards the Ka'ba is to turn your mind towards God after taking it off from all directions and all evil thoughts. Move the external organs to move your secret mind and keep them under control of mind. Keep the face of your mind towards God along with the face of your body. The Prophet said : When a man stands iri prayer and directs his

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hope, face and mind towards God, he comes out of his prayer as on the day his mother gave birth to him. MEANING OF STANDING IN PRAYER: Its external meaning is to stand before God with body and mind. You shall ` bend down your head which is higher than your other limbs. The meaning of this bending down of your head is to bend down your. mind free from all self-conceit and pride. Know that you are standing before the mighty and greatest Emperor. You fear king but you don't fear God although He is fit to be feared most. For this reason Hazrat Abu Bakr asked the Prophet : How should we be shameful to God ? He said : You should be shameful to God just as you become shameful to see the most God-fearing man among you. MEANING OF NIYYAT: Promise firmly that you will respond to God's orders through prayer, make it perfect and make niyyat sincerely for Him and keep an eye with whom you are speaking secretly, how you talk and for what matter. At this time your head should perspire, your limbs should tremble and the colour of your face should become changed. MEANING OF TAKBIR: When your tongue utter Takbir, let not your mind speak falsehood. Your mind should correspond with your tongue in declaring Him to be the greatest. If you have got in mind something which is greater than God, God will attest that you area liar. MEANING OF OPENING DOS: 'I turn my face towards the Creator of heavens and earth.' To turn face towards the Ka'ba means to turn it towards God. God exists every where and so to turn towards the Ka'ba means to turn towards the only object of your life, towards the Almighty after giving up all things. When you recite 'I am not of the polytheists,' your mind harbours then secret shirk as God says : If any body wishes to meet with his Lord, let him do good deeds and do not set up any partner in His divine service: This was revealed with respect to a person who wants divine service and also the praise of men. So take care of this shirk. When you utter-'My life and my death are for God', know then that this condition is of the slave who safeguard the existence of his master in lieu of his existence. When you utter-'I seek refuge to God,' you should give up your low desires and temptations. You should then take firm resolution to take refuge to the fort of God giving up the fort of the devil. The Prophet said God said 'There no deity but God' is My fort. He who enters My fort is safe from My punishment. God protects one who has got no deity but God. He who takes his low desires as his deity lives in the fort of the devil and not in the fort of God. MEANING OF QURAN READING: Regarding this matter, men are of three classes(1) he who moves his tongue but his mind is heedless, (2) he who moves his tongue and his mind follows his tongue, this is the rank of the fortunate, (3) he whose tongue is directed first towards understanding the meaning and then his minds take his tongue as its servant. Tongue will give expression of mind. MEANING OF OTHER ITEMS: When you utter-'I begin in the name of the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful', seek first the favour of God. When you say 'Thou are the Lord of Judgment day,' understand then that there is no sovereignty except His sovereignty and fear His judgment. Express your helplessness by saying "Thee do we worship' and understand that religious acts do not become easy except with His assistance. It is said that when Zan:ah-b-Auf finished reciting 'when the trumpet will be blown, he fell down senseless and died. When Ibrahim Nahhyi heard this verse, 'when the sky will be rent asunder' he began to tremble seriously. So read the Quran slowly

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and attentively so that it becomes easy to understand. The Prophet said : God remains with the praying man till he does not look to and fro. As it is your duty to protect your head and eyes, so it is compulsory on you to restrain your mind in prayer from thoughts other than God. When you look towards any other thing, remember then that God sees your condition. If you are absent minded at the time of monazat, it is very bad. Keep the fear of God within your mind. Hazrat Abu Bakr used to stand in prayer just like a statue. Some used to remain in Ruku like a motionless stone, so mush so that birds sat on his head. The Prophet said : Pray as if it is your farewell prayer, having in mind fear and shame owing to defects in prayers. and fear that your prayer may not be accepted and that it may be thrown on your face with your express and secret sins. There is in Hadis that when a man stands in prayer, God lifts up the screen between Him and His servant and faces him. The angels climb upon his two shouldes and pray in horizon along with him and says 'Ameen' along with his invocation. They spread virtues over the scalp of his head. from above the horizon. A proclaimer Proclaims: If this invoker had known to whom he is invoking, he would not have looked to and fro. The doors of heaven are opened up for aa praying man and God takes pride before His angels for the praying man. So the doors of heaven are opened up for him and the face of God comes before his face. In other words, his Kashf is opened. There is written in the Torah : 0 son of Adam don't be baffled to stand up before Me in prayer in weeping state, because then I come near your mind and you also see My light unseen. He said: The softness, weeping and victory which a praying man feels in his mind, bespeak of the advent of God in his mind. When His nearness is not the nearness of space, there is no meaning of it except the nearness of mercy, guidance and removal of evils. God says : Those believers got salvation who fear God in their prayers. Then He praised them with their speciality of prayer. It is connected with God fear. Then he described the qualities of those who got salvation through prayer, as God says Those who guard their prayers, Then He says : They will inherit the garden of Ferdous. They will abide therein. If tongue is moved with inattention, can this reward be achieved ? The praying one will inherit the gardens, they will directly see divine light and they will enjoy the happiness of nearness. STORIES OF THE PRAYERS OF GOD-FEARING MEN Know, 0 dear readers, that God-fear is the result of real faith and belief. He who has keen given it, fears God in and out of prayer, when he remains alone and even at the time of calls of nature, because he who fears God knows it well that He knows the condition of mind and his sins and faults. Fear grows in the mind of one who knows this and it is not limited only in prayer. It is narrated that a sage did not raise up his head for forty years being ashamed and fearful of God. The saint Rabi-b-Khasem used to close up his eyes so tightly that the people would think that he was blind. He used to go to the house of Ibn Masud for twenty years. Whenever his female slave saw him, she used to say to her master. Your blind friend has come. At this Hazrat Ibn . Masud used to laugh. Whenever he used to knock at the door, the female slave would come to him and see him with closed eyes. Hazrat Ibn Masud told him : Give good news to those who are humble By God. Had the Prophet seen you he would have surely been pleased with you. One day he went with Ibn Masud to the shop of a blacksmith. When he saw him blowing and fire coming out, he at once fell down senseless. Ibn Masud sat near his head up to the prayer time but still he did not regain his senses. Then he bore him to his house and he did not recover sense till his prayer for five times passed away. Ibn Masud sat by his head and said : By God this is real God-fear. The saint Rubi said : I did not observe such prayer in which I had other thing in mind except what I uttered and what was said to me. Hazrat Amer-b-Abdullah

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feared God in prayer verymuch. When he prayed, his daughter beat drum and the women of the house hold conversation but he did not hear them. One day he was told : Does your mind think any matter in prayer ? He said, Yes, it thinks about its stay before God and going from this world into another world, He was told : Do you see what we generally see about the affairs of the world ? He said : I consider it better that my teeth should go from one side to another than what you see. This is not attention in prayer. Moslem-b-Yasar was one of them, it is said that while he was one day praying within a mosque, one of its corners fell down but he did not come to know of it. The limb of a certain pious man was damaged and it required operation but it was not at all possible. Some said : When he prays, he will not be able to feel its pangs, Accordingly the limb was operated while he was engaged in prayer. Some said : Prayer belongs to the next world. When you enter prayer, go out of the world. Hazrat Abu Darda said : It is the rule of religion that when a man goes to prayer, he should perform all his necessary things,. so that his mind becomes free from thoughts. The Prophet said: The prayer of a man is not written except its one third, half, one-fourth, one fifth, one sixth or one tenth. Hesaid:Whatissaid inprayerwithunderstandingisonly written for him, Hazrat Omar once said from his pulpit : The head of two sides of a man becomes grey, yet he does notobserve prayer for pleasure of God. He was asked: How does it occur ? He said: His Godfear, modestyand his self-surrender for God do not become perfect. Abid Ahiya was onceasked: Whatis the meaning of heedlessness in prayer ? He said : One commits mistakes in his prayer and does not know how many rak'ats he has prayed. The sage Hasan Basari said in its explanation : He forgets the time of prayer. Jesus Christ said : God says : My servant gets salvation by observing compulsory duties, but he gains My nearness by doing optional duties. The Prophet said: God says : My servant will not get salvation till he fulfills the compulsoryluties. SECTION 4 IMAMATE There are six duties of Imam before prayer. (1) He shall' not be an Imam of people unless they give consent to it. If they differ, an Imam would be elected by a majority. If the minority are religious and good, their opinion should be followed. There is in Hadis : The prayer of three persons will not go up beyond their heads (1) a fugitive slave, (2) a woman whose husband is displeased with her, and (3) an Imam with whom his people are dis-satisfied. The Imam is a guarantee for his followers, (2) When a man is given option between Azan and Imamate, he should prefer Imamate as the office of an Imam ii better than that of a Muazzem. Some say that Azan is better as there are many merits of Azan. The Prophet said : An Imam is a surety for his followers and Muazzen is an object of trust. He said : The Imam is an object of trust. When he bends down, the followers bend down and when he prostrates, they prostrate. He said : When he fulfills the prayer, it is for him and for them also. If there is defect in it, it goes against him and against them also. For, this reason, the Prophet said : 0 God, show the straight path to the Imams and forgive the Muazzens. The Prophet said: Paradise becomes sure for one without account who is Imam for seven years. He who proclaims Azan for forty years 'will enter into Paradise without account. The Prophet, Hazrats Abu Bakr and Omar used to fix salary for an Imam. The Prophet said. One day of a just ruler is better than divine service for seventy years. The Prophet said : Your Imams are your intercessors. He said : Your Imam are representatives of God on your behalf. If you wish to purify your prayer, place in front the best man among you. Some earlier sages said : There is no better man after the Prophet than the learned except the praying Imams, as they stand between God and His servants, some with Prophethood, some with learning and

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some with prayer, the pillar of religion. By this proof, the companions elected Abu Bakr as their Imam. They then said : We have considered that prayer is a pillar of religion on whom the Prophet was pleased for this pillar. They did not select Bilal as the Prophet selected him for Azan. It is reported that a man asked the Prophet: Give me clue to such an action which will lead me to Paradise. He said : Be Muazzen. He said : I can't do it. he said : Then be Imam. He said: 1 can't do it He said : Then pray behind an Imam. (3) The Imam shall observe the times of prayers and shall pray for pleasure of God in their earliest times. The Prophet said : The Imam who prays at the last time of a prayer, does not miss it, but what he misses in its earliest time is better than the world and its treasures. It is not good to delay prayer in expectation of a greater number of men. One day, there was some delay for the morning prayer on the part of the Prophet when he was in a journey. The companions did not wait for the Prophet when he made delay in making ablution. The Prophet then said : You have done better. Do it always. (4) Act as an Imam for the sake of God and fulfill with good manners the trust of God in the other conditions of prayer and act as an Imam with sincere intention and don't take for it remuneration. The Prophet said Osman-b-Affan : Appoint such a Muazzen who will not take remuneration for his Azan. Azan guides to the path of prayer and it is better not to receive its remuneration. Hazrat Sufiyan said : Pray behind a religious or irreligious man except behind habitual drunkard, or cursed man, or one disobedient to parents, or an invocator or a fugitive slave. (5) Don't utter Takbir till row is arranged straight and look to right and left. The Prophet said : A Muazzen should wait between Azan and Aqamat for so long as an eater eats or a man passes calls of nature. So he prohibited to retain urine and stool. He ordered to finish dinners for peace of mind before Isha prayer. (6) An Iman shall raise his voice in the time of Takbir Tahrima and other Takbirs as well but a follower will utter it in a low voice. The Imam has got three duties at the time of Quran reading in prayer. (1) He should recite the opening Doa and Aauzobillah in silent voice and recite loudly the Fateha and Suras in congregational prayer of Fajr, Isha and Magrib. One should do it even at the time when he prays alone. When he recites Ameen with voice, the followers will recite it loudly. MERITS OF JUMMA PRAYER Know, 0 dear readers, that Jumma day is a holy day. God, honoured Islam therewith and gave glory to. the Muslims. God says : When there is Azan for prayer on the Jumma day, run towards remembrance of God and give up buy and sale. The Prophet said : God has made compulsory on you on this day of mine and in this place of mine. The Prophet said : If a man loses three Jumas without any excuse, God puts a seal in his mind. In another narration :'He throws Islam on his back. The Prophet said : Gebriel came to me with a clean mirror in his hand and said This is Jumma. God has made it obligatory on you, so that it may be a festival for you and after you for you followers. I said : What good there is for us in it ? He said : You have got an suspicious time in it. If a man seeks anything to God at this time, God has promised that He will give it to him. If he is deprived of that, many additional things are given to him in that connection. If any man wants to save himself from any evil on that day, God saves him from a greater calamity or a like calamity which has been decreed on him. Jumma day is the best day to us and we shall call it on the Resurrection day as the day of grace. I asked him : What object is there in calling it as the day of grace ? He said: Your God has made a valley in paradise made of white musk. When the Jumma day comes, God descends on His Throne in Illyyin and sheds His lusture and they look on towards His august face. The Prophet said : The sun rose for the first time on the best Jumma day and Hazrat Adam was created on that day. He entered Paradise first on that day and he was thrown in to this world on that day and his pensance was accepted on that

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day. He died on this day and Resurrection will take place on this day. This day is a day of blessing to God. The heavens and angels have been given names on this day. There is a Hadis that God will release six lacs of men from Hell on this day. The Prophet said : When the Jumma day is safe, all the days remain safe. He said : If a man dies on the Jumma day or night, the rewards of one martyrdom are written for him and the punishment of grave is forgiven. CONDITIONS OF JUMMA PRAYER Ten rules should be observed on the Jumma day. (1) It is better to prepare for the Jumma day from Thursday. After Asr of Thursday, turn attention to invocation, seeking forgiveness and Tasbih as the merits of this time are equal to those of the auspicious unknown time of Friday, (2) Make your clothes clean on this day, use scent and keep your mind free from anxieties so that you may rise up with a free mind on Friday morning. Try to fast on this day as there is a great merit in it. Pass Thursday night by reading the Quran and praying. The Prophet said : God shows mercy on the man who rises in the morning and awakes others, takes bath and causes the baths of others (3) Take bath 'in the morning of Friday. The Prophet said : It is obligatory on every mature man to take bath on Friday. He said : Let one who attends Jumma take bath. he said : Let one male or female who attends Jumma prayer take bath. (4) If is commendable to take recourse to beauty on this day to take fine dress, to be pure and to use scent. Regarding purity, cleanse your teeth, cut your hairs; slipyour mustache and -do everything necessary for purity. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: If a man manicures nails on the Jumma day, God takes out disease therefrom and gives him cure therein. Regarding dress, wear white dress as it is dear to God. To use turban is commendable. The Prophet said: God and His angels bless those who wear turban on the Jumma day. (5) It is commendable to go to the congregational mosque. in the morning. The Prophet said: He who goes to Jumma in the early part gets rewards of the sacrifice of a camel and he who goes at the second time gets the rewards of the sacrifice of a cow and he who goes at the third time gets the reward of the sacrifice of a goat and he who goes at the fourth time gets the reward of the sacrifice of a cock. He who goes at the fifth stage gets the reward of the charity, of an egg. When the Imam gets up for khutba, record is folded up and pen is lifted up. The angels gather together wear the pulpit and hear the Zikr of God. The Prophet said: There are three things. If the people had known what good there is therein, they would have come to search it like a camel-Azan, first row and going to the congregational mosque at dawn. In the first century, the pathway became full of men from early hours up to dawn. The prophet used to come out with light and the mosque became filled up with men like the day of I'd. It became obsolete afterwards. It is said that the innovation of giving up the practice of going to the mosque at dawn first entered into Islam. It is a matter of regret that the Jews and the Christians go to their synayogues and churches at dawn on Saturday and Sunday respectively and the worldly people go to markets for buy and sale at dawn but those who seek the next world cannot go to mosque at dawn. (6) Ranks of entering a mosque: Nobody should go to the front row of the mosque crossing the necks of men. The Prophet said: On the resurrect on day such a person will be made a bridge and the people would tread over him. Once when the Prophet was reciting khutba, he noticed that a man was advancing towards the front row after crossing over the necks of man. After finishing prayer, the Prophet called him and said: 0 such a person, what prevented you to pray Jumma with me today. He said: 0 Prophet of God, I prayed with you. The Prophet said: Have I not found you to cross over the necks of men? He hinted by this that his action has become void. In another narration, the Prophet said to him: What prevented you to pray with me? He said: 0 Prophet of God, have you not seen me? The Prophet said: I have seen you coming late and giving trouble to the people present. In

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other words you have delayed to come at dawn and have given trouble to those present. (7) Don't go to the mosque by the front of a praying man, keep wall or pillar or stick in front when praying so that the people may not pass by your front. The Prophet said: His waiting for 40 years is better than his going by the front of men. The Prophet said: It is better for any man to be powdered to earth to be blown off by air like refuges than to cross the front of a praying man. (8) Try to take seat in the first row. There is in Hadis: If a man takes bath and tells another to take bath, if a man rises early and makes another awake early and goes near the Imam and hears, the sins which he has committed between two Jumma and additional three days become expiration for him. (9) Prayer should be stopped at the time when the Imam gets upon the pulpit. The prophet said: If a man says to another at the time when the Imam delivers address 'Be silent', he holds useless talk. The Jumma of one who holds useless talk is not performed. (10) Follow the Imam in Jumma. When the jumma is finished, recite before talk the chapters 'Alham do Lillah' seven times, 'Ikhlas' seven times., 'Falaq' seven times and Nas seven times. A certain sage said: He who does this remains safe,up to the next Jumma from the devil. GOOD DEEDS ON JUMMA DAY (1) Be present at the assembly of learning at dawn or after prayer. There is ahadis that to remain present in an assembly of learning is better than optional prayer of one thousand rak'ats. (2) To medidate well for the auspicious moment. There is in an well known Hadis: There is a time on Jumma day in which a Muslim is granted what he seeks. There is in another Hadis: He who prays does not lose it. There is difference of opinion about this auspicious moment. Some say it is at the time of sun-rise. Some say it is after noon, some say, it is at the time of Azan. Some say it is when the Imam gets upon his pulpit and begins his address. Some say it is at the last time of Asr prayer. Some say it spreads for the day like the Blessed night. So one who seeks it should remain in meditation throughout the day. Some say it is intermingled with every time of Jumma day. This is the correct view. This is supported by the following Hadis: There is a day among your days when your Lord gives out breath. Be prepared for that day. This is Jumma day among the days. (3) It is commendable to recite Darud this day on the Prophet. The Prophet said: If a man sends Darud to me eighty times on Jumma day, God forgives his minor faults for eighty years, He was asked: 0 Prophet of God, what is Darud upon you? He said: Say: 0 God, bless Muhammad, Thy servant, Thy Prophet and Thy Apostle, the illiterate Prophet. (4) Recite the Quran more in this day specially chapter Qahaf. The Prophet said: If a man recites the chapter Qahaf on the Jumma day or night, he is given such light which is visible from Mecca and his sins are forgiven up to the next Jumma and the merits of three days in addition are given to him and seventy thousand angels bless him till dawn. He is saved from diseases, pains of stomach, pleurisy, tuberculosis and the trials of Dajjal. (5) It is commendable to recite Darud at the time of entering mosque and not to sit till one prays four rakats reciting therein Ikhlas fifty times in each rakat. The Prophet said: He who prays such, will not die till he is shown his place in paradise. (6) It is commendable to give charities on Juman day. The merits are increased manifold. (7) Keep yourself engaged in divine service for the whole Jumma day after giving up worldly duties. SECTION 6

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PRAYERS OTHER THAN OBLIGATORY PRAYERS There are three kinds of other prayers - Sunnat, Mustahab (commendable) and Nafi (optional). Sunnat prayer is such prayer which the Prophet observed for all times, such as the prayers after obligatory prayers. Mustahab prayer is such prayer of which the excellence has been described by Hadis and which the Prophet did not observe always. Nafl prayer is such prayer which does not fall within the first two categories. What a man prays willingly for pleasure of God other than the above prayers is optional. SUNNAT PRAYER: There are eight Sunnat prayers among which five are said along with five times of prayer and, three in addition - forenoon prayer, Tahajjud prayer and prayer between Magrib and Isha. (1) Two rakat sunnat before Fajr prayer. The Prophet said: Two rak'ats of Sunnat prayer before Fajr is better than the world and what is in it. (2) Six rak'ats of Sunnat prayers of Zuhr-four rak'ats before it and two after it. The Prophet said: He who prays four rak'ats after declining of the sun and makes Ruku and prostration well and recites the Quran well, seventy thousand angels pray.for him and seek forgiveness for him up to night. The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats daily besides the obligatory prayers, a building will be built for him in Paradise - two'rak'ats before Fajar, 4 rakats before Zuhr and two rak'ats before Asr and two rakats after Magrib. (3) Four rak'ats before Asr. The Prophet said: 0 God, have mercy on the man who prays four rak'ats before Asr. (4) Two rak'ats after magrib. (5) Four rak'ats after Isha. Hazrat Ayesha reported that the Prophet used to go to bed after praying 4 rak'ats after Isha. Many learned men said after collecting all traditions that there are seventeen rak'ats of Sunnat prayers - two rak'ats before Fajr, four rak'ats before Zuhr and two rak'ats after it, four rak'ats before Asr, two rak'ats after Magrib and three rak'ats after Isha. (6) Bitr prayer: Hazrat Anas said: The Prophet used to pray three rak'ats of Bitr after Isha reciting therein 'Sabbehesme Rubbihil Ala' in the first rak'at, Kaferun in the second raka't and Ikhlas in the third rakat. (7) Forenoon prayer. It is up to eight rak'ats. Hazrat Ayesha said that the Prophet used to pray four rak'ats in the forenoon and sometimes increased it. (8) Prayer between Magrib and Isha. The Prophet said: There are six rakat prayers between Magrib and Isha of which the merits are great. The Prophet said that this prayer is included with the prayer of Awabin. OPTIONAL PRAYERS IN WEEKLY DAYS SUNDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays four rak'ats on Sunday and recitesa in each rak'ats the opening chapter and Amaner Rasul, innumerable merits are written for him like the number of Christian males and females. The Prophet said: Proclaim the unity of God by many prayers on Sunday as God is one and there is no partner for him.

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MONDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays two rak'ats in the early part of Monday reciting Fateha once in each rak'at, Ayatul Kursi once, Ikhlas once, Nas once, Falaq once and then after salam Istigfar twelve times and Darud twelve times, God forgives all his sins. The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats on Monday and recites in each rak'at Sura Fateha and Ayatul Kursi and when he finishes prayer recites Ikhlas 12 times and Istigfar 12 times, he will be said on the Resurrection day: 0 son of so and so, rise up and take rewards from God. The first reward that willbe rewarded to him is one thousand dresses, one throne on his head and he will be said: Enter Paradise. One lac angels will greet him and each angel will have one present and they will accompany him and they will carry him to one thousand palaces of light. TUESDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays ten rak'ats in the early part of Tuesday with Fateha and Ayatul Qursi and Ikhlas three times in each rak'at, his faults will not be written for seventy days. If he dies on the last day, he dies a martyr and his sins for seventy, years will be forgiven. WEDNESDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats after rising on Wednesday and recites in each rak'at Fateha and Ayatul Qursi once and Ikhlas three times, Nas and Falaq. each three times,' a proclaimer will proclaim near the Throne, 0 servant of God, your actions have been accepted and your future sins forgiven. Punishment of the Resurrection day will be lifted up from you and you will be given the actions of a Prophet on that day. THURSDAY: The Prophet said: If a man recites between Juhr and Asr two rak'ats with fateha and Ayatul Qursi in the first rak'at one hundred times, Fateha and Ikhlas in the second rak'at one hundred times and Darud one hundred times, God will reward him with fasting of Rajab, Shaban and Ramzan,the rewards of one Haj and innumertable virtues will be written for him. FRIDAY: The Prophet said: There is a prayer on the Jumma day. When the sun rises up to one bow's distance or more and if a . believing man makes full ablution and prays two rak'ats with faithand hoping for reward, God writes for him two hundred virtues and effaces from him two hundred sins. If a man prays four rak'ats, God will open for him in Paradise 800 doors and forgive all his sins. If a man prays 12 rakats, 1200 merits will be written for him and 1200 sins will be effaced from him and there will be for him 1200 doors in Paradise. The Prophet said: If a man on Jumma day enters the mosque and prays four rak'ats after Jumma prayer with Fateha 50 times and Ikhlas 50 times in each rak'at, he will not die till he sees his place in paradise or it is shown' to him. SATURDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays four rak'ats on Saturday with Fateha once and Ikhlas three times and then Ayatul Qursi in each rakat, God will write for him for every word one Haj and one Umrah and one year's fasting and prayer for each word and he will reside with the Prophets and martyrs under the Throne of God. OPTIONAL PRAYERS IN WEEKLY NIGHTS SUNDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: If a man prays 20 rak'ats in the night of Sunday with Fatiha and Ikhlas 50 times, Nas and Falaq once in each rak'at and recites Istigfar one hundred times and recites Istigfar for himself and his parents and Darud one hundred times and takes refer to God by realizing himself from his own strength and then says: I bear witness that there is no deity but God and I bear witness that Adam is the chosen one of God and His natural creation, that Abraham is His friend, Moses is Kalimulla, Jesus is the Spirit of God and Muhammad is the friend of God, he will get merits as innumerable as the persons

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who made calumny against God before and who did not make calumny and on the Resurrection day he will be raised along with the believers and it will be the duty of God to admit him in Paradise along with the Prophets. MONDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: If a man prays 4 rakat in the night of Monday with Fatiha and Ikhlas ten times in the first rakat, Fatiha and Ikhlas twenty times in the second rak'at, Fatiha and Ikhlas thirty times in the third rak'at and Fatiha and Ikhlas forty times in the fourth rak'at and then returns salam and afterwards recites Ikhlas 75 times and seeks Istigfar for himself and his parents 75 times and then prays for his needs to God, He accepts his invocation. TUESDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays two rak'ats therein with chapters Fatiha and Ikhlas 15 times, Nas 15 times, Falaq 15 times, Ayatul Qursi 11 times, Istigfar 15 times, will get ample rewards. The Prophet said: He who prays in Tuesday night two rak'ats with Fateha in each rak'at followed by chapter Ikhlas seven times, God will release him from Hell and it will be for him on the Resurrection day guide and proof. WEDNESDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays two rak'ats in Wednesday night with Fatiha and Falaq ten times in the first rak'at and Fatiha and Nas ten times in the second rak'at and then after finishing it reads Istigfar ten times and then Darud ten times, seventy thous-and angels come down for him from every heaven and write for him rewards upto the Resurrection Day. THURSDAY NIGHT. The Prophet said : He who prays two rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with Fatiha and Ayatul Qursi five times, Falaq five times, Nas five times and after prayer Istigfar 15 times and bestows them for his parents, obeys his duties towards his parents although he was disobedient to them before. God gives him what He gives to the siddiqs and martyrs. FRIDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays 12 rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with Fatiha and Ikhlas 11 times, prays as it were for 12 years for the nights and fasted for the days.1he prophet said: Send many Daruds in Jumma day and night. SATURDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays 12 rak'ats between Magrib and Isha, a mansion is built for him in Paradise, he gets rewards of charity to each male and female, gets release from the Jews and it becomes the duty of God to forgive him. OPTIONAL ANNUAL PRAYERS Such, prayers are four - (1) Prayers of two I'ds or festivals, (2) Tarawih prayers, (3) Prayer in Rajab, and (4) Prayer in Shaban. (2) PRAYER OF TWO I'DS: They are Sunnat Muaqqadah and there are several duties in them. Take bath in the morning of I'd day, take dresses and use scents. Go by one way and return by another. The Prophet used to observe it. He used to order the servants, slaves and women to come out for prayers on these days. It is better to pray I'd prayers in open fields except Mecca and Baitul Muqaddas. The time runs from sun-rise to sun decline at noon. The time for animal sacrifice on Idul Azha runs from after the prayer to the end of the 13th day of Zilhaj. I'd charity is to be given before prayer. The form of prayer runs as follows. The Imam will pray two rak'ats with six Takbirs in addition, three in the first rak'at and three in the second. The Imam will then deliver sermon and then make Monazat, (2) TARAWITH PRAYER: It consists of twenty rak'ats. It maybe said also in

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congregation. The Holy Prophet sometimes prayed it alone and sometimes in congregation. He said; I fear this prayer may be imposed on you as a compulsory duty. It was Hazrat Omar who directed the Muslims to observe it in congregation. The Prophet said: As it is more meritorious to observe compulsory prayer in mosque than in houses, so it is more meritorious to observe optional prayers in houses than in mosques. The Prophet said: The merits of one rak'at prayer in this mosque of mine is one thousand times greater than observing it in other mosques and the merits of one rak'at of prayer in the mosque of the Ka'ba is better than one thousand times than observing it in my mosque. The prayer of one who prays in a corner of his house and knows nobody than God is better than all these prayers. It is better however to pray Tarawih in congregation as Hazrat Omar did it. (3) PRAYER IN RAJAB: The Prophet said: One who fasts five days in Rajab, prays twelve rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with a unit of two rak'ats (which certain formalities as prescribed), his invocation is accepted. (4) PRAYER IN SHABAN: It is observed in the night of the 15th Shaban. There are one hundred rak'ats of prayer with a unit of two rak'ats. The earlier sages used to observe this prayer. FOURTH KIND OF OPTIONAL PRAYERS These prayers are connected with causes and they are nine in number (1) Prayer of solar and (2) lunar eclipses, (3) prayer for rain, (4) funeral prayer (5) prayer for entering into mosque, (6) prayer of ablution, (7) two rakats between Azan and Aqamat,. (8) two rak'ats at the time of coming out of house for journey and two rak'ats at the time of entry into house after journey and (9) prayer for seeking good called Istakhara prayer. PRAYER FOR SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSE: The Prophet said: Solar and lunar eclipses are two signs out of the signs of God. They do not occur for birth or death of anybody. When you see it, turn towards the remembrance of God and prayer. He said it when his son Ibrahim died and people ascribed it to the above ' cause. PRAYER FOR RAIN: The Prophet used to observe this prayer coming out in the open field when there was drought and want of rain for a continued long time. This should be preceded by fast for three days and then on the fourth day prayer be said in the open field in congregation for rain with the greatest humility of spirit and earnestness of mind and then invocation should be made in the following manner: 0 God, Thou hast commanded us to invoke Thee and Thou hast promised us to accept it. We have indeed invoked Thee as Thou hast commanded us. So accept our invocation as Thou hast promised us. 0 God, shower blessing on us with Thy forgiveness and accept our invocation by sending us rain and giving us ample provision. FUNERAL PRAYER: This prayer is Farze Kefaya or binding on community as a whole. It is optional only for one who is exempted owing to the presence of some members of the community. in the prayer. The Prophet said: It forty Muslims who do not set up partnership with God attend the funeral prayer of a Muslim, God accepts their intercession for him. Follow the bier after prayer up to the grave and recite the following after entering in the grave-yard. Peace be on you, 0 the inmates of these house of the believers and Muslims. May God show mercy on those who have gone before and who have come latter. We shall reach you if God wills. Then standing by the side of the grave of the person just buried, recite the following: 0 God, Thy servant has returned to Thee. Be kind to him and show him mercy. 0 God, remove the earth from his two sides and open the doors of heaven

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for his soul and accept it with good acceptance. 0 God, if he is a virtuous man, increase his virtues manifold and if he is a sinner, forgive him. PRAYER AFTER ENTRY INTO MOSQUE: It is two rakats or more and prayer after ablution is also two rak'ats. The Prophet said: I saw Bilal in Paradise and asked him: For what action have you entered Paradise before me? He said: I know nothing except the fact that I prayed two rak'ats after every ablution. At the time of coming out of the house and entering it after journey, pray two rak'ats. The Prophet said: Pray two rak'ats when you go out of your house so that you may be saved from the harms of going out. The Prophet said: When any special work is not begun with the name of God, it goes without blessing; ISTAKHARAH PRAYER: This prayer is said before an action is undertaken to know whether it will be good or bad. It is of two rak'ats with Chapter Kaferun in the first rak'at ;and chapter Ikhlas in the second and at the end with the following invocation: 0 God, I wish to know its good or bad with the help of Thy knowledge and I pray for strength from Thee and I pray for Thy abundant mercy, as Thou knowest and I don't know and Thou knowest the unseen. 0 God, if Thou knowest that this affair will be for my worldly or next worldly good and for the result of my affairs sooner or latter, give strength to me, give me blessing therein and then make it easy for me. If Thou knowest that this affair of mine will be bad for me for my world, next world and the result of my affairs sooner or latter, turn me from it and it from me. Thou art powerful over all things. The Prophet said: If any man among you proposes to do a thing, let him pray two rak'ats, name the project and invoke with the above invocation. (8) PRAYER FOR NECESSITY: If a matter becomes necessary for his religion or for his world, let him pray twelve rak'ats for fulfillment of his necessity with Ayatul Qursi and Ikhlas in each rak'at and at the end of the prayer of two rak'ats, let him invoke as prescribed. (9) PRAYER FOR TASBIH: It is also called Doa, Masurah. The Prophet said to Hazrat Abbas: Shall I not make gift to you? Shall I not show kindness on you? Shall I not love you with such a thing which, if you do, will be a cause for God to forgive your past and future sins, old and new sins, open and secret evils? Pray four'rak'ats (as prescribed). ZAKAT God placed Zakat next to prayer and it is the second pillar of Islam out of five pillars. God says: Keep up prayer and pay Zakat. The Prophet said: Islam is founded on five pillars - (1) There is no deity but God and Muhammad is His servant and messenger, and to bear witness to this formula, (2) to keep up prayers, (3) to pay Zakat, (4) to fast and (5) to make pilgrimage. The punishment of those who do not pay Zakat has been mentioned in this verse: 'Give good news of grievous punishment to those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend in the way of God.' To spend means here to pay the compulsory duty of Zakat. Ahnaf-b-Qais said: We were with a party of the Quraish. Hazrat Abu Zarr, while passing by that way said: Give good news to those who hoard up wealth that such firm impressions will be put on their backs which will come out after piercing their sides, that such firm impressions will be put on their forehead that it will come out of their forehead. Abu Zarr said: I came to the Prophet who was then seated in the shade of the Ka'ba. He said to me: By the Lord of the Ka'ba, they are undone. I asked: Who are they? He said: Those who increase their wealth and not those who spend in this way, in their fronts, in their backs, in their right sides, in their left sides, but their numbers are few. Those who have got camels, cattle, sheeps and goats and who

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do not pay their Zakat will meet with these animals in huge forms on the Resurrection Day. They will attack them with their horns and will tread upon them by their hoofs. If one party go away, another party will come. This will continue till the people are brought for judgment. This punishment has been described by Sahihs Bakhari and Muslim.

GLOSSARY For easier comprehension, please read and understand the meanings of the following words, which are oft repeated in this book. Aqeeda – Belief Salawaat – Durood Shareef Salaat or Namaaz - The customary Prayer of Muslims. Imaam - Leader of the congregation in Prayer. Azaan - The call to Prayer Muazzin - One who announces the “Azaan” Iqamah - Announcement that the congregational Prayer has been established. Khutbah - The sermon. Niyah - Intention. Farz - Obligatory. Wajib - Essential, mandatory. Sunnah - The tradition of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Muakkadah - Emphasised. Ghair Muakkadah - Non-emphasised. Nafil - Voluntary or additional. Wuzu - Ablution (with water.) Ghusl - A bath (with water) Masah - To stroke (wipe) or rub gently over. Miswaak - A small branch or stem, used for brushing teeth.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Khilaal - Act of removing dirt or particles (e.g. stuck between teeth, toes) Tayammum - An alternate to ablution / bath, by using soil or like matter. Makrooh - An act that is disliked / disapproved. Kalemah - Any meaningful phrase. Tayyeb or Tayyebah - Pure Janabah - State of greater impurity due to sexual defilement. Mustahab - Recommended, better Makrooh - Tahreemi An act that is strongly disliked, close to forbidden. Haraam - Forbidden / prohibited. Rakaat - A single round / cycle of all bodily actions within a Prayer. Taawuz - Seeking Allah’s refuge Tasmiyah - Reciting Bismillah Shareef Tasmeey - A remembrance during Prayer, while rising from the bow. Tasbeeh - A remembrance proclaiming Allah’s purity. Dua - Supplication. Tahmeed -. A remembrance praising Allah.

THE PURE WORDS (KALEMAATE TAYYEBAAT)

The Concise Faith (Imaaan Mujmal) A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 164

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Aamantu Billahe kama huwa be-Asmaaehi wa sifaatehi wa qabiltu jameeya ahkaamehi iqraarun billisaani wa tasdeequn bil-qalb “I accept faith in Allah - the way He is as per His names and His attributes – and I accept all His commands with verbal acknowledgement and heart’s testimony.”

The Descriptive Faith (Imaan Mufassal) Aamantu Billahe wa malaaekatehi wa kutubehi wa rusulehi wa alyawme al-aakheri wa al-qadre khayrehi wa sharrehi min-Allahe Ta’ala wa al-ba’se ba’d al-mawt. “I accept faith in Allah, and His angels, and His books, and His apostles, and the last day (of resurrection), and the fact that good and evil destiny is from Allah the Supreme, and in resurrection after death.”

The First Declaration - of Purity (Kalemah Tayyeb) La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah “There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah.”

The Second Declaration – of Testimony (Kalemah Shahadah) Ash-hadu alaa ilaaha Ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah – wa ash-hadu anna Muhammedan abduhoo wa Rasooluh. “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, He is One, He has no partner – and I also bear witness that Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) is His bondman and His Messenger.”

The Third Declaration – of Honoring (Kalemah Tamjeed) Subhaanallahe walHamdu lillahe wa laa ilaaha ill-Allahu wAllahu akbar; wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah –ilAliy-ilAzeem “Allah is Pure, and all praise is for Allah, and there is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, and Allah is Most Great; and the power to resist evil and the strength to do good is only from Allah, the Supreme, the Greatest.”

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY The Fourth Declaration – of Oneness (Kalemah Tawheed) La ilaaha ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah – lah-ulMulk wa lah-ulHamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayy ul-laa yamootu abadan abadaa; zulJalaale wal-Ikraame ; beyadehil-Khair; wa huwa alaa kulle shaeyin qadeer. “There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, He is One, He has no partner – for Him is the kingdom and all praise – it is He Who gives life and it is He Who gives death, and He is Alive by Himself, He will never ever die; the Owner of great majesty and superiority; in His Hands lies all goodness and He is Able to do all things.”

The Fifth Declaration – of seeking Forgiveness (Kalemah Isteghfaar) Astaghferullaha rabbee min kulle zambin aznabtuhoo amadan aw khata-an sirran aw alaniyatan wa atoobu ilayhe min-azzambi-llazzee aalamu wa min-azzambi-llazzee laa aalamu innaka allaam-ulghuyoobe wa sattaar-uluyoobe wa ghaffaar-uzzunoobe wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah-ilAliy-ilAzeem. “I seek forgiveness from Allah my Lord, for all my sins which I committed purposely or by mistake, secretly or openly – I incline in repentance towards Him – and also for the sins I know and the sins I do not know; O Allah! Indeed You are All Knowing of all the secrets, and it is You Who hides the shortcomings and You Who forgives the sins and the power to resist evil and the strength to do good is only from Allah, the Supreme, the Greatest.”

The Sixth Declaration – rejecting disbelief (Kalemah Radd-e Kufr) Allahumma Innee aoozubeka min an ushreka beka shay-an wa ana aalamu behi wa astaghferuka lemaa laa aalamu behi tubtu anhu wa tabarra’tu minal-Kufre washshirke wal-Kizbe wal-geebate wal-bidate wan-nameemate wal-fawaheshe walbuhtaane wal-maaasee kullehaa wa aslamtu wa aqoolu La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah “O Allah! I seek Your refuge from knowingly associating anyone with You and I seek Your forgiveness from unknowingly associating (anyone with You) and I repent from it – and I am unconcerned with disbelief, association, falsehood, backbiting, innovating, spreading spite, lewdness, slander and all sins – and have accepted Islam and I declare that “There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah’ ”

SOME SUNNAH SUPPLICATIONS The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Supplication is the core of worship.” The author’s book named “Masnoon Dua-en” (Sunnah Supplications) is a A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 166

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY collection of 180 such supplications plus other remembrances (azkaar) and has been published several times. Below listed are a few such supplications – for more, please refer to the above-named collection.

The Morning and Evening Supplication Bismillah-illazee laa yadurru ma-Ismehee shay-un fil-arde wa laa fi-ssamaae wa huwa-sSameey-ulAleem With Allah’s name (I witness the morning / evening) – with Whose name nothing in the earth nor in the sky can cause any harm – and He only is the All-Hearing, the AllKnowing.

When entering one’s home Allaahumma innee as-aluka khair-alMawlije wa khair-alMakhrije - Bismillahe wa lajjenaa wa alallahe rabbenaa tawakkalnaa “O Allah! I seek goodness from you for entering into and exiting from the house; we enter with the name of Allah, and have relied only upon Allah the Supreme, our Lord.”

When stepping out of one's home: Bismillaahe tawakkaltu alallaahe wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaah. “With Allah’s name (I go forth), I put my trust in Allah, and the power to resist evil and the strength to do good is only from Allah, the Supreme, the Greatest.”

When entering a mosque: Bismillaahe was-salaatu was-Salaamu alaa Rasoolillaah – rabbigfirlee zunoobee waftah lee abwaaba rahmateka “With Allah’s name (I enter the mosque) and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! Open for me the gates of Your mercy.”

When stepping out of a mosque: Bismillaahi was-salaatu was-Salaamu alaa Rasoolillaah - Allaahumma inee as-aluka min fadleka. A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 167

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY “With Allah’s name (I exit from the mosque) and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! I seek from You Your grace.” . While performing Ablution Allaahummaghfirlee zambee wa wassey lee fee daaree wa baarek lee fee rizqee. “O Allah! Forgive me my sins and bestow spaciousness and improvement in my house, and bestow abundance in my livelihood.” Before beginning a meal Bismillah-illazee laa yadurru ma-Ismehee shay-un fil-arde wa laa fi-ssamaae yaa Hayyu yaa Qayyoom “With Allah’s name (I begin my meal) – with Whose name nothing in the earth nor in the sky can cause any harm. O the Eternally Alive, the Sustainer.” Bismillaahi wa alaa barkatillah “With Allah’s name, and with abundance from Allah (I begin my meal).” Upon finishing the meal: Alhamdu lillaahillazee, atamanaa wa saqaanaa wa jaalanaa min-almuslimeen. “All praise is for Allah who fed us and gave us drink and made us Muslims.” (Tirmizi)

If one forgets to say Bismillah before beginning the meal Bismillaahi awwalahoo wa aakherahoo “With Allah’s name, in the beginning and also at the end.” (Tirmizi)

Upon going to bed Allaahumma bismeka amootu wa ahyaa. O Allah! Upon Your name only will I die and live! (Bukhari)

Upon getting up from sleep: A Muslim’s Guide to Aqeeda Salaah & Salawaat 168

IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY Alhamdu lillaahillazee ahyaanaa bada maa amaatanaa wa ilayhin-nushoor “All praise is for Allah who gave us life after death (sleep), and it is to Him we have to return.”

Before entering the toilet: Allahumma innee aoozu bika minal khubusi wal khabaa-es. "O Allah! I seek refuge with You from all wicked male and female jinns."

Upon coming out of the toilet: Gufranaka - AlHamdu lillaahillazee azhaba annil azaa wa aafaanee. "All praise is due to Allah alone, who has removed the distress from me and given me comfort." When removing one’s clothes Recite “Bismillah” Shareef when taking off the clothes, as this creates a veil from humans and devils.

When putting on a new dress: AlHamdu lillaahil-lazee kasaanee maa uwaariya bihi auraatee wa atajam-malu bihi fee hayaatee. "All praise is due to Allah, who has clothed me so that I may hide my nakedness and so that I may adorn myself while I am alive."

On looking into the mirror: AIlaahumma hassanta khalqee fa hassin khuluqee. "O Allah! You have made me good-looking; make my characater good too."

When seated on a mount or a vehicle:

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY AlHamdu lillah - Subhaanallazee sakh-khara lanaa haaza wa maa kun-naa lahoo muqrineena wa innaa ilaa rabbenaa lamunqaliboon. "All Praise is for Allah - Pure is He Who has put this (mount) in our control whereas we could not have subjugated it, and indeed we are to return to our Lord."

When visiting a market: Laa ilaaha Ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah – lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayyul-laa yamootu beyadehil-Khair; wa huwa alaa kulle shaeyin qadeer. “There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, He is One, He has no partner – for Him is the kingdom and all praise – it is He Who gives life and it is He Who gives death, and He is Alive by Himself, He will never die; in His Hands lies all goodness and He is Able to do all things.”

When in fear or anxiety: Hasbun-Allahu wa neamal wakeel “Allah is Sufficient for us, and what an excellent Trustee He is!”

To remove the effect of evil eyes: Aoozu be-kalemaat-illahe-ttaamate min kulle shaytaani-wwahaammatin wa min kulle ayni-llaammah. I seek refuge through the entire words of Allah from the evil of every devil, and every harmful animal and every harmful eye. To free oneself from pain: The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If a patient puts the hand at the place of pain and recites “Bismillah” thrice and then recites the following supplication 7 times, the pain will, Allah willing, go away.” (Saheeh Muslim) Aoozu be-izzatillahe wa qudratehi min sharre maa ajedu wa uhaaziru. I seek refuge of Allah the Supreme’s Honour and Power from the evil of the suffering I am experiencing and I seek refuge from this suffering.

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IMAM AHMED RAZA ACADEMY For abandunce in provisions and repayment of debt: Allahumma akfenee be-halaaleka an haraameka wa agninee be-fadleka amman sewaka. O Allah! Suffice me with lawful provision and save me from the forbidden, and by Your Munificence make me independent of everyone except You.

For freedom from sorrow and for the attainment of blessings: The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Sending blessings (upon me) removes sorrow and annuls sins.” (Tirmizi Shareef) “Whoever sends one blessing upon me – Allah sends ten blessings upon him.” (Saheeh Muslim) SallAllahu alanabbiyy-illummiyye wa aalehi sallAllahu alayhe wa sallam salaata-wwasalaaman alayka yaa RasoolAllah. “Allahs’s blessings be upon the untaught Herald of the Hidden and his progeny, Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him – blessings and peace be upon you, O the Messenger of Allah!” All Praise to Allah the Supreme, and abundant blessings and peace be upon His Messenger Mohammed, the leader of the creation. WOH DAHAN JIS KI HAR BAAT WAHIYE KHUDA CHASHMAE ILMO HIKMAT PE LAKHON SALAAM the blessed mouth whose each word was a revelation from ALLAH a million salutations on the fountain of knowledge and wisdom by AlaHazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan (alaih Rehma)

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