Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Release 4.6C HELP.PPPI Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) SAP AG Copyright © Copyright 2001 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Microsoft®, WINDOWS®, NT®, EXCEL®, Word®, PowerPoint® and SQL Server® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM®, DB2®, OS/2®, DB2/6000®, Parallel Sysplex®, MVS/ESA®, RS/6000®, AIX®, S/390®, AS/400®, OS/390®, and OS/400® are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. ORACLE® is a registered trademark of ORACLE Corporation. INFORMIX®-OnLine for SAP and Informix® Dynamic Server Informix Software Incorporated. 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All other products mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. 2 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Icons Icon Meaning Caution Example Note Recommendation Syntax April 2001 3 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) SAP AG Contents Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) .............................................................................8 Process Order................................................................................................................................ 9 Data Flow During Process Manufacturing................................................................................ 10 Process Order Management....................................................................................................... 11 Order Processing ........................................................................................................................ 14 Order Closing .............................................................................................................................. 15 Creating Process Orders ............................................................................................................ 16 Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe ....................................................... 18 Production Version Selection ................................................................................................... 20 Selecting Production Versions Manually ............................................................................ 22 Selecting a Master Recipe ....................................................................................................... 23 Parameters in Customizing................................................................................................. 24 Validity of the Recipe .......................................................................................................... 25 Automatic Master Recipe Selection.................................................................................... 26 Selection Priorities ......................................................................................................... 27 Example: Selection Priorities.................................................................................... 28 Automatic Batch Creation ........................................................................................................ 29 Operation Overview ................................................................................................................. 30 Changing Operation/Phase Data ............................................................................................. 31 Changing Process Instructions ................................................................................................ 32 Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics......................................................... 33 Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe ............................... 35 Creating Process Orders Without a Material and With a Master Recipe............................... 37 Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval ......................................................................... 38 Converting Planned Orders Collectively .................................................................................. 41 Converting Planned Orders Individually................................................................................... 43 Partially Converting Planned Orders ........................................................................................ 44 Scheduling ................................................................................................................................... 46 Scheduling Types........................................................................................................................ 47 Scheduling Parameters in Customizing ................................................................................... 48 Changing the Scheduled Dates Manually................................................................................. 49 Order Floats ................................................................................................................................. 50 How the Control Key Influences Scheduling............................................................................ 51 Scheduling Phases ..................................................................................................................... 52 Scheduling Rules ........................................................................................................................ 53 Secondary Resource Scheduling .............................................................................................. 54 Midpoint Scheduling and Capacity Scheduling ....................................................................... 56 Capacity Requirements .............................................................................................................. 57 Scheduling Log and Results ...................................................................................................... 58 Scheduling and Scheduling Results on the Screen ................................................................ 59 Material List Components .......................................................................................................... 60 Data from the Material List ......................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Process Order for a Material without a Material List ............................................ 63 4 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Entering or Changing Material Components in the Material List ........................................... 64 Component Detail Screens......................................................................................................... 65 Assigning Components ............................................................................................................ 68 Creating Components .............................................................................................................. 69 Reassigning Components ........................................................................................................ 70 Sorting Components ................................................................................................................ 71 Filtering Components ............................................................................................................... 72 Deleting Components............................................................................................................... 73 Classifying Material List Components...................................................................................... 74 Example: Batch Splitting .......................................................................................................... 75 Material Quantity Calculation..................................................................................................... 76 Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation..................................................................... 79 Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities................................................. 83 Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data ........................................................................ 86 Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches............................... 91 Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities .................................................... 94 Defining Material Quantity Calculation..................................................................................... 98 Performing Material Quantity Calculations............................................................................. 101 Displaying and Printing Formula Overviews .......................................................................... 102 Checking the Availability of Material....................................................................................... 103 Checking Group ........................................................................................................................ 105 Check Rule ................................................................................................................................. 107 How is the Availability of Materials Determined? .................................................................. 108 At What Level is the Availability Check Carried Out? ........................................................... 109 Checking the Availability of the Materials in an Order.......................................................... 110 When is the Availability Checked?......................................................................................... 111 Collective Availability Checks ................................................................................................. 113 Carrying Out Availability Checks ............................................................................................ 114 Checking Collective Availability Online.................................................................................. 115 Preliminary Costing .................................................................................................................. 116 Cost Elements ........................................................................................................................... 117 Planned Costs for Components............................................................................................... 118 Planned Costs for Materials Manufactured In-House ............................................................ 119 Planned Costs for Materials Procured Externally .................................................................. 120 Manufacturing Costs .............................................................................................................. 121 Planned Costs for Production ................................................................................................ 122 Planned Costs for Internal Activity ......................................................................................... 123 Setting up a Quantity Structure ............................................................................................... 124 Overhead Costs......................................................................................................................... 125 Overhead Groups ...................................................................................................................... 126 Releasing Process Orders........................................................................................................ 127 Releasing Process Orders........................................................................................................ 128 How to Release Operations and Phases................................................................................. 129 Collective Release of Process Orders .................................................................................... 130 Actual and Planned Data after Order Release........................................................................ 131 Deviation Recording ................................................................................................................. 132 Inspection Lots/Inspection Characteristics............................................................................ 133 How to Create Inspection Lots................................................................................................. 134 April 2001 5 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) SAP AG How to Delete Inspection Lots ................................................................................................. 136 Partial Lot Creation from the Process Order.......................................................................... 137 Creating Inspection Characteristics........................................................................................ 138 How to Delete Operations With Inspection Characteristics ................................................... 139 Printing ....................................................................................................................................... 140 Printing Shop Floor Papers...................................................................................................... 141 External Processing.................................................................................................................. 143 Goods Movements .................................................................................................................... 145 Planned Withdrawal of Material Components ........................................................................ 146 Unplanned Withdrawal of Components for an Order ............................................................ 148 Delivery to the Warehouse ....................................................................................................... 149 Automatic Goods Receipt ........................................................................................................ 150 What Checks are Carried Out During a Goods Receipt? ...................................................... 151 Delivery to Stock: Costs ........................................................................................................... 152 Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Material Master................................................................. 153 Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Order ................................................................................. 154 How to Post a Goods Receipt .................................................................................................. 155 Completion Confirmations in Process Orders ....................................................................... 156 Which Objects Can Be Confirmed?......................................................................................... 157 What Data Can You Confirm? .................................................................................................. 158 Fixed Parameters in Completion Confirmations.................................................................... 159 Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations ............................................................... 160 Entering Completion Confirmations ....................................................................................... 161 How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level .......................................................................... 163 How to Enter Confirmations at Order Level ........................................................................... 165 Entering Collective Confirmations.......................................................................................... 166 Goods Movements and Confirmations ................................................................................... 168 Reworking Goods Movements ............................................................................................... 170 How to Rework Goods Movements .................................................................................. 171 Reworking Actual Costs ........................................................................................................... 172 How to Redetermine Actual Costs ......................................................................................... 173 Running Confirmation Processes Separately ........................................................................ 174 Canceling Completion Confirmations..................................................................................... 175 How to Cancel a Completion Confirmation ............................................................................ 176 How to Display Canceled Confirmations................................................................................ 177 Decoupling of Confirmation Processes.................................................................................. 178 Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation ................................... 180 Example: Background Processing ......................................................................................... 181 Processing Predefined Confirmation Processes.................................................................... 182 Order Settlement ....................................................................................................................... 183 Order Closing ............................................................................................................................ 184 Technical Completion of Process Orders............................................................................... 185 Business Closing of Process Orders...................................................................................... 187 Archiving .................................................................................................................................... 189 Mass Processing ....................................................................................................................... 190 Status.......................................................................................................................................... 191 System/User Statuses............................................................................................................... 192 6 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Display Status ........................................................................................................................ 193 Status in Process Orders ......................................................................................................... 194 Business Transactions ............................................................................................................. 196 What is a Status Profile? .......................................................................................................... 197 What is a Selection Profile? ..................................................................................................... 199 Co-Products ............................................................................................................................... 200 Process Orders with Co-Products: Prerequisites ................................................................. 201 Co-Products: Costs................................................................................................................... 202 Co-Products: Using a Source Structure ................................................................................. 203 Information Systems................................................................................................................. 204 Order Information System ........................................................................................................ 205 Search Optimization............................................................................................................... 206 Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing............................................................... 207 Object Overview..................................................................................................................... 209 Object Detail List .................................................................................................................... 211 Collective Availability Checks................................................................................................. 213 April 2001 7 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Purpose Process orders are the main element used for the detailed planning and execution of process manufacturing. A process order describes the production of batches (materials) in a production run or the rendering of services. It is generated from the master recipe and contains all the information specified during process planning. You use a process order to plan the quantities, dates, and resources of the manufacturing process, to control process order execution, and to define rules for the account assignment and settlement of the costs incurred. In PP-PI, process orders perform the same function as production orders in PP. Implementation Considerations Install this component in process manufacturing companies. Integration If you want to Plan material usage during the process Plan how the resources are to be used during the process Plan the external processing of steps in the process Plan quality inspections during production Provide data for process control Prepare cost determination using the master recipe Then you must install the component Material Master (LO-MD) Resources (PP-PI-MD) Purchasing (MM-PUR) Quality Planning (QM-PT) Process Management (PP-PI-PMA) Controlling Features This component comprises all functions for order processing [Page 13] and order closing [Page 15]. 8 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Process Order Process Order Definition Manufacturing order used in process industries. Use Process orders are used for the production of materials or for rendering of services in a specific quantity on a specific date. They enable the planning of resources, control of process order management, and specify the rules for account assignment and order settlement. Structure A process order consists of operations, each of which is carried out at a primary resource. An operation is subdivided into phases. A phase is an independent process step that contains the detailed description of a part of the entire manufacturing process. Phases are carried out at the primary resource of their superior operation. The way phases are related to each other specifies the sequence of the manufacturing process. Phase relationships can be sequential, parallel, or overlapping. Several materials required for the execution of a specific process step can be planned for an operation or phase. A phase contains standard values for activities. These values serve to calculate dates, capacity requirements, and costs. Several secondary resources can be planned for operations and phases in addition to the primary resource. A phase contains a number of process instructions that convey information relevant to process control. Integration A process order can be based on a master recipe [Ext.]. A process order can be created from a planned order. During order processing, the process instructions of a phase are transferred to the control recipe destination that requires the information for process control. An inspection lot for inspection during production can be created when a process order is released. April 2001 9 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Data Flow During Process Manufacturing SAP AG Data Flow During Process Manufacturing Production rqmts Production rqmts Planned order Planned order PP Materials Materials • Material master • BOM Resources Resources • Proc. units • Personnel Master recipe Master recipe Manual Process order Process order PP-PI MM Process data documenProcess data documentation and evaluation tation and evaluation Process management Process management QM Process Process messages messages Control recipe: Control recipe: Proc. instructions Proc. instructions • Automatic • Manual ctrl (PI sheet) Process control sys./ Process control sys./ PI sheet PI sheet Process control level A production process is triggered by existing production requirements. During material requirements planning, production requirements are converted into planned orders defining the planned basic dates and production quantities. During process planning, planned orders are converted into process orders. The basic dates and production quantities are copied from the planned order. The actual production dates are calculated using the basic dates. You can also create a process order manually. A process order provides a detailed description of the actual production of one or more materials in one production run. A master recipe is used as the basis for a process order. It defines, for example, the planned resources and material components. After a process order has been released for production, the process instructions maintained in the order are bundled into control recipes during process management. The control recipes are either transferred to a process control system via a specific interface or they are displayed in natural language in the form of a process instruction sheet (PI sheet) which can be maintained by the line operator. In return, process management receives process messages from the process control level and transfers them to different destinations. For instance, it is possible to record actual values of the process to functions for process data documentation and evaluation, post material consumptions or production yields as goods movements, and transfer quality data to results recording of Quality Management. 10 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Process Order Management Process Order Management The procedure involved in process order management can be divided into the following steps: • • • Process planning Process order execution/process management Order closing Archiving / Deleting Process data documentation Process order settlement Proc. order Operations Production rqmts Process order creation eröffnung Scheduling Cap. rqmts plan. Goods receipts Proc. mess. for diff. destinations In-process quality inspections Order confirmations Phases Process instructions Costs Resource allocations Material components Relationships Relationships Material availability check Release of process order Creating & downloading control recipes Material withdrawals Process planning comprises all activities that are performed during the creation and release of a process order. Important steps in process planning are: • • • • • Order creation Scheduling Capacity requirements planning Material availability check Order release The release of the process order represents the end of process planning and is the prerequisite for carrying out the business functions for process order execution and process management. In process management the process instructions maintained in the order are bundled into control recipes. The control recipes are either transferred to a process control system via a specific interface or they are displayed in natural language in the form of a PI sheet which can be maintained by the line operator. Process order execution comprises: • Withdrawal of required material components from the warehouse April 2001 11 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Process Order Management • • • • Confirmations on the order processing status In-process quality inspections for the inspection lot Goods receipt from production SAP AG Sending of actual process data to different destinations using process messages, for example for documentation or evaluation purposes In PP-PI, the activities of order execution are carried out using process messages. In return to the transfer of control recipes, process management receives process messages from the process control level and passes them on to different destinations. Order closing comprises the following activities: • • • Process order settlement Process data documentation Reorganization of process orders (archiving and deleting) 12 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) April 2001 13 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Processing SAP AG Order Processing Order processing comprises the central processing steps involved in the life cycle of a process order. Process planning comprising • Process order creation − − − − • Selecting a master recipe Creating reservations or copying them from planned orders Calculating planned costs Creating capacity requirements for the resources Scheduling Starting with the basic order dates, the system automatically schedules the process order when you create it. In addition, it can later be rescheduled automatically or manually whenever changes relevant to scheduling have been made. • Release of process order Process order execution and process management • • • Creating and downloading control recipes (optional) Printing shop floor documents Carrying out material withdrawals Withdrawing material components required in the manufacturing process in the form of goods issues from the warehouse. • • • Recording confirmations Carrying out in-process quality inspections (optional) Posting goods receipts Delivering the manufactured product to the warehouse by posting a goods receipt. You only create control recipes during process order execution if you want to use PI sheets and/or process control systems. In this case, you must also select the corresponding components from Process Management. If you also want to carry out in-process quality inspections for your orders, you must select the relevant components from Quality Management. 14 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Closing Order Closing Order closing comprises the following steps carried out at the end of the life cycle of a process order: • • Process order settlement Archiving of process orders To be able to settle a process order, you must choose the special functions for process manufacturing within Product Cost Controlling. April 2001 15 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders SAP AG Creating Process Orders Use You can create process orders in the following ways: • As a rule, process orders are created when planned orders [Ext.] are converted in requirements planning. This process is the same as when you create a process order manually with a reference to a material. Certain data is already specified in the planned order (material, quantity, basic dates, possibly the master recipe, …). A distinction is made between the following: − − − • − − − − − Collective conversion [Page 41] (n planned orders Individual conversion [Page 43] (1 planned order Partial conversion [Page 44] (1 planned order n process orders) 1 process order) n process orders) You can also create a process order manually: With reference to a material and master recipe [Page 18] With reference to a material but without a master recipe [Page 35] With an approved master recipe [Page 38] Without reference to a material but using a master recipe [Page 37] With a reference. Here you can select an object by choosing Continue (settlement rule, operations, material, relationships, process instructions) or by entering a sales order. Features When a planned order is converted to a process order • • • The material to be produced, the order quantity, and the order dates are copied from the planned order The secondary requirements of the components are converted to reservations A planning file entry is generated when changing the requirement quantity or basic dates from the planned order, which triggers a regenerative planning of the material and its components during the next requirements planning run. The partially converted planned order is fixed, which means it is not changed again in a requirements planning run. Its secondary requirements are reduced in accordance with the converted partial quantity The planned order still exists until the Delete planned order indicator is set: − − This occurs automatically as soon as the planned order quantity is completely covered by process orders You can set it if you do not want to convert the planned order anymore (independent of the planned order quantity that is still open). When a planned order is partially converted to a process order • • 16 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders • The production version that is valid for the original planned order quantity is always used if the master recipe selection for the process order to be created is controlled by a production version. A master recipe - even an approved one, if required - is usually selected (see Automatic Master Recipe Selection [Page 26]) and serves as the reference for the process order. The operation, phase, and resource data are copied from it, as well as the components in the material list. Automatic batch creation [Page 29] is possible for the material to be produced. When a process order is actually created (manually or by conversion) • • April 2001 17 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe SAP AG Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe 1. Choose Logistics → Production - process → Process order and then Process order → Create → With material. The Create Process Order: Initial Screen appears. 2. Enter the following data: – The material number of the material in your master recipe; Automatic batch creation [Page 29] can be carried out for the material you want to produce. The plant in which the material is to be produced (production plant) The plant in which the goods receipt takes place for the material produced (planning plant). You must only make an entry here if the planning plant is different to the production plant. The process order type (this controls, for example, whether an internal or external number range is to be used) If you enter an order type that requires internal number assignment, the system automatically assigns a number when you save the process order. If you have selected an order type that requires external number assignment, you must also enter an order number in the Process order field. The Create Process Order: Header - General Data screen appears. 4. Enter the following data: – Total qty: Here, you specify the quantity you want to produce. The unit of measure you specified in the material master record is used. If you want to base your process order on a master recipe, make sure that the total quantity you enter in this screen is within the material quantity range specified in your master recipe. Otherwise, the system cannot find the specific recipe you want to use. – – – – 3. Choose Continue. If you have predefined a fixed lot size in the material master record of the material you want to produce (MRP1 screen), the system proposes the lot size in this field. – Order start date or Order finish date: Depending on the scheduling type, you must specify either the order start date or the order finish date, or both. For example: If you want to schedule forwards, specify the order start date. If you want to schedule backwards, enter the order finish date. If you do not want to schedule your order, specify both the order start date and the order finish date. Process orders are generally scheduled backwards. 18 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe – Scheduling Type: Here, you enter a key that specifies how the order is to be scheduled. The system proposes the value that has been defined in the scheduling parameters for the selected order type in Customizing. SchedMargin key OR Float before production, Float after production and Release period The floats before and after production and the release period are specified via the scheduling margin key: If you specify a scheduling margin key, the system fills these fields automatically. If you do not specify a scheduling margin key, you can enter a float before production, a float after production, and the release period with the corresponding number of days. – – Priority: You can allocate a level of priority to the order. However, this field is only used for information purposes and does not influence processing of the order. 5. If you have only created one production version for the material you want to produce, choose Continue. If the validity period and the lot-size range of the production version match those of the allocated master recipe and alternative BOM, the data is copied from the master recipe to the process order. If you have created more than one production versions, there are several different ways to choose a production version (see Production Version Selection [Page 20]). 6. If necessary, also enter a long text by choosing 7. Choose Operations. . Save the text and choose Back. The operation overview [Page 30] appears. 8. If you do not want to change the data that was copied from the master recipe or the bill of material, save the process order now. For information on how to change the data now or later, see Changing Operation/Phase Data [Page 31]. April 2001 19 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Production Version Selection SAP AG Production Version Selection Use When you create an order, you select a Production Version [Ext.] to determine a suitable recipe along with the corresponding material list. Which production version is used, can be controlled in different settings. If you create a process order without a production version, the system does not copy the formulas for material quantity calculation. Prerequisites Suitable production versions have been created in the master recipe or material master record (see Maintaining Production Versions [Ext.]). Features You can specify that the production version is selected: • • Automatically or manually Depending on a quota arrangement Activities You control production version selection as follows: Automatic/Manual Selection In Customizing for Process Orders (section Define order-type dependent parameters, Production version field), you determine whether the production version is selected automatically or manually. As a prerequisite, the following settings must have been made for selecting alternative BOMs (material master, MRP4 view, Selection method field): • Selection by production version In this case, the system uses the alternative BOM that is defined in the valid production version. The lot-size range and the validity period of the production version apply. Selection only by production version In this case, the system uses the alternative BOM that is defined in the valid production version. The lot-size range and the validity period of the production version apply. If no production version is found, the system cannot create a production order or a process order. • Selection According to Quota Arrangement To (automatically) select a production version depending on a quota arrangement, you: • • Maintain the data on the quota arrangement in Customizing for Process Orders (section Operations, Quota Arrangement): number range, quota arrangement usage Enter a quota arrangement usage in the material master record of the material you want to produce that includes production or process orders (MRP2 view, Quota arr. usage 20 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Production Version Selection field) and choose Selection only by production version as the selection method (MRP4 view, Selection method field) • Maintain the quota arrangement for the material (Logistics → Production - process → Process order and then Environment → Master data → Maintain quotas). Enter the following data: − − − E (internal procurement) as the procurement type (column P) E (in-house production) as the special procurement type (column S) The production version. Make sure that it is also valid for the quota arrangement period. If you use possible entries help to select the production version, make sure to delete the value entered in the PPI field (plant from which the material is procured) afterwards. The quota for the usage of this production version If required, a maximum quantity: the production version is not used once this quantity has been reached If required, a priority: the system only uses the production version for which the lowest value not equal to zero has been specified (highest priority = 1). If you also entered a maximum quantity, the system uses the production version with the next priority once this quantity has been reached. − − − For more information about quota arrangements, see • • • • • Maintaining a Quota Arrangement [Ext.] Determining the Source under a Quota Arrangement [Ext.] Revision of Quota Arrangement [Ext.] Monitoring Quota Arrangements [Ext.] Co-Products: Special Features When you create a process order, the system selects the following production versions in the sequence specified below, provided that the quota arrangement does not define the sequence: 1. All valid production versions for the material, including those in which the material is used as a co-product in a BOM item 2. If the Co-product indicator has been set for the material in the material master, all valid production versions for other materials whose BOM contains the co-product as a BOM item. However, these production versions cannot automatically be copied to the process order. They are not taken into account in material requirements planning, product costing, and repetitive manufacturing. April 2001 21 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Selecting Production Versions Manually SAP AG Selecting Production Versions Manually Prerequisites If you always want to manually select one production version from several possible versions when you create an order, you must define this in Customizing for Process Orders (section Define order-type dependent parameters, Production version field). Procedure If several production versions with overlapping lot-size ranges and validity periods have been created for the material, you can select a production version after you have entered the required data on the Create Process Order: Header screen (see Creating Process Orders with Material and Master Recipe [Page 18]). To select a production version, proceed as follows: 1. If manual selection of production versions has been defined in Customizing, the list containing available production versions is displayed directly. If only one production version exists, the system copies it directly instead of displaying it first. If automatic selection of production versions has been defined in Customizing, choose Production version to display the list of available versions. If required, you can choose Versions: overview to display a list containing all production versions for the material you selected. 2. On the Select Production Version for Material screen, select the production version you want to use. 3. Choose Choose to copy it to the process order. If the settings in Customizing or the production version itself prevent the system from creating a process order for the data you have entered, the system displays a log. If you do not want to select a production version, you must cancel order creation. 22 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Selecting a Master Recipe Selecting a Master Recipe A master recipe is used to specify the operations and phases required in a production process. When you create a process order, the system selects a master recipe. The individual operations and phases of the master recipe, as well as the material list and other recipe data, are taken over into the process order. In special cases, you may want to create a process order without using a master recipe. This may be the case, for example, if you want to create an order for unplanned rework. In Customizing, you can specify whether a master recipe has to be selected as well as which criteria should be used in the selection process. April 2001 23 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Parameters in Customizing SAP AG Parameters in Customizing You can determine in Customizing: • • • whether a master recipe has to be selected whether selection should be carried out manually or automatically search criteria priorities, such as status of a master recipe 24 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Validity of the Recipe Validity of the Recipe In order for a master recipe to be selected for a process order, the recipe, as a rule, must have the status Released (depends on your chosen settings in Customizing). In addition, the system only considers for selection recipes that match up with the data you have specified in your process order. 1. The total quantity you have specified in your process order must lie within the charge quantity range you specified in your master recipe. If the system cannot select a recipe, it reselects without using the charge quantity. 2. The order dates you have entered in the process order must be valid for the master recipe you want to select. For example: – – if you enter the order start date, the system uses this date as the transfer date of the master recipe. if you enter the order finish date, the system calculates the transfer date of the recipe by subtracting the in-house production time independent of the order quantity defined in the material master from the order finish date. Manual or Automatic Selection In the case of manual selection, the system selects all master recipes for this material which are valid on the transfer date. You can select the required master recipe from the list. In the case of automatic selection, the system attempts to select a master recipe according to the specified criteria. If, however, the system cannot select a master recipe automatically, it will list all the master recipes available for your material. You can then select the required master recipe from this list. April 2001 25 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Automatic Master Recipe Selection SAP AG Automatic Master Recipe Selection When you create a process order with a material, you enter a material, the quantity of the material to be produced and a basic order date. During automatic selection of a master recipe to match this data, the system attempts to select according to the following criteria: 1. Material: The system first searches for all master recipes available for this material. 2. Quantity: The system then searches for all master recipes which have a charge quantity range that corresponds to the specified order quantity. If there are no recipes with a suitable range, the system continues its search without taking charge quantity ranges into account. 3. Order dates: The system then calculates the date on which the master recipe must be transferred into the order. Please see Validity of the Recipe [Page 25] in this documentation. 4. Production version: The system searches for production versions valid for this material at this date. Please see Selecting a Production Version [Page 22] in this documentation. For information on the sequence, refer to the log ‘Read master recipe’. 26 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Selection Priorities Selection Priorities You may find that several master recipes meet all the selection criteria for automatic recipe selection. In this case, you can specify certain priorities in Customizing, according to which the system can then select a specific master recipe. You can set priorities in Customizing for the following entries: • • • For the task list type (master recipe = 2) For the usage (such as production) For the status of the master recipe (such as released) Example: Selection Priorities [Page 28] April 2001 27 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Selection Priorities SAP AG Example: Selection Priorities You can determine the following priorities in Customizing for plant 1 and order type PI01: Task list type Usage 1. Master recipe Production 2. Master recipe Production Status Released Created 3. Master recipe General maintenance Created In this example, the system first searches for a master recipe with the usage Production and the status released. If a master recipe matching these criteria does not exist, the system searches for a master recipe with the usage Production and the status created. If no master recipes match these criteria, the system then searches for a master recipe with the usage General maintenance and the status created. 28 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Automatic Batch Creation Automatic Batch Creation Use You use this function to create a batch for the material to be manufactured. Features You can make the following settings in Customizing (production scheduling profile): • • • No automatic batch creation in the process order Automatic batch creation on order creation Automatic batch creation on order release In Customizing for Batch Management, you can configure the system so that batch numbers are assigned automatically. If you do not do this, the system will ask to assign batch numbers automatically when you create and/or release the order. April 2001 29 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Operation Overview SAP AG Operation Overview This screen contains the operations and phases the system has copied from the master recipe and scheduled for the process order. The following information is provided: • • • • • • • • The operation number (This number determines the sequence in which the operations are processed.) The phase number of existing phases The number of the superior operation for each phase The resource that is to be used for carrying out the operation The control key. It determines how the operation/phase is to be treated (for example, whether the phase must be reported, whether it can be printed, etc.). The standard text key of the operation/phase if it has been defined for the operation description The long text indicator which specifies whether a long text exists A short description of the operation/phase If you choose menu options Goto → 2-line operation overview to access the operation overview, the following additional information is displayed: • • • • The order start and finish dates The current status of the operation or phase (for example, whether the operation has been created or is already released) Whether material components are assigned to the operation/phase Whether at least one secondary resource is assigned to the operation/phase 30 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Changing Operation/Phase Data Changing Operation/Phase Data Use In the operation overview, you can change operation/phase data both in the create mode and change mode. Procedure 1. Choose Operations. The operation overview appears. 2. Depending on the data you want to change, select the operations and/or phases to be processed, and choose a processing type: If you want to maintain general data maintain standard values maintain user fields maintain secondary resources maintain relationships maintain material allocations maintain process instructions [Page 32] assign values to process instruction characteristics [Page 33] Choose Operation → Operation details and then choose the corresponding tab page Operation → Secondary resources Operation → Relationships Operation → Material assignments Process inst. (only for phases). Process inst. (only for phases), -select the process instruction characteristics and choose Process instructions → PI characteristic or PI assistant. From the Operation Overview screen, you can also access the corresponding detail screens for changing the material list or material quantity calculation [Ext.] (via Materials to the material list and from there via to material quantity calculation). April 2001 31 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Changing Process Instructions SAP AG Changing Process Instructions Process instructions are copied from the master recipe and displayed on the Process Instruction Overview screen when you create a process order. You can • • add/delete process instructions add/delete process instruction characteristics for process instructions You maintain process instructions in exactly the same way as during master recipe maintenance. For more information, see Process Control Data. In addition, you can create process instructions manually if they contain process-specific data that cannot be transferred to the process instruction automatically. For more information,see Maintaining Process Instructions on the Charateristic Overview [Ext.]. Creating Process Orders 32 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics In Customizing, you define process instruction characteristics for process instruction categories. You can assign values to process instruction characteristics: • • • in Customizing in the master recipe in the process order As a prerequiste for the creation of control recipes values must have been assigned to all process instruction characteristics. These can be classified as follows: • • process instruction characteristics that are not defined for automatic value assignment and for which you have to enter values manually process instruction characteristics that are defined for automatic value assignment, where - you can initiate the value assignment in the process order (function Assign values autom.) - you can enter the values manually in the process order (even after the function Assign values autom. has been executed, for ex. to change generated values) - during control recipe creation, the system automatically assigns values to all those characteristics that have not been assigned values as mentioned above To assign values to process instruction characteristics in the process order, proceed as follows: 1. Select the desired phases in the operation overview and choose Goto → PI overview. 2. Select the desired process instruction characteristics in the process instruction overview and choose Goto → PIC overview. 3. Assign values to the process instruction characteristics as follows : • Characteristics with indicator T (for value assignment with long text, X in column T) : i) ii) iii) • • Select the characteristic. Choose Edit → Long text. Enter the long text and save it. Characteristics without indicator T : Enter the desired value in the field Characteristic value. Characteristics with indicator A (defined for automatic value assignment, X in column A) : – – – Enter the desired value in the field Characteristic value (= manual value assignment); or select the characteristics and choose Edit → Assign values autom.; or do not assign a value at all. April 2001 33 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics SAP AG Use field help for information on the logic used for the automatic value assignment (in column A for the desired process instruction characteristic). When the control recipe is created, values are assigned automatically only to those process instruction characteristics defined for automatic value assignment to which no values have been assigned so far. If necessary, you can also change values (exception: process instruction characteristics for which a change has been excluded during Customizing, for example, the order number) or delete values. To delete a value, select the desired process instruction characteristic and choose Edit → Delete values. In addition to this, you can add further process instruction characteristics in the process instruction characteristic overview. You add process instructions characteristics in the same way as during master recipe maintenance. For more information, see Maintaining Process Instructions on the Characteristic Overview [Ext.]. 34 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe Use You can create a process order without a master recipe if, for example, you want to produce one specific material in one specific process. Prerequisites If you specifically do not want to use a master recipe when you create a process order, you can set the respective parameters in Customizing. These parameters specify how the system is to proceed if no master recipes exist for the material. If the parameters specify that recipe selection is not required, the system creates a process order in which it automatically creates one operation. It proceeds as follows: • • If default values are maintained for the automatic generation of an operation, the system uses these values to automatically create an operation in the order. If no default values are entered in Customizing, the system creates one operation, with control key 0001 and operation number 0010. If you do want to use a master recipe when you create a process order, but recipe selection is not possible even if the parameters specify that recipe selection is required, the system issues a termination message, and you must restart order creation. You can restart the master recipe selection process at any time prior to the release of the process order. Procedure 1. Choose Logistics → Production - process → Process order → Process order → Create → With material. The Create Process Orders: Initial Screen appears. 2. Enter your material number, plant (production and/or planning plant), and process order type. Choose Continue. The Create Process Order: Header - General Data screen appears. 3. Enter the total quantity of material, which in this case is not dependent on a pre-specified quantity. Also enter the order dates and the scheduling type and choose Continue. A dialog box appears informing you that no material lists exist for this material. 4. The dialog box asks if you want to use a different material list.You have two choices: − − If you choose Yes, you must enter a material for which a material list already exists. The system then uses this material list for the process order. If you choose No, an operation is generated for the order (operation 0010). Materials to enter the components for your process order. 5. Choose April 2001 35 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe SAP AG 36 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders Without a Material and With a Master Recipe Creating Process Orders Without a Material and With a Master Recipe Use You can create a process order without a material and with a master recipe. You do this, for example: • • If you want to use a process order for a reworking procedure If you want to use a cleanout recipe Procedure 1. Choose Logistics → Production process → Process order → Process order → Create → Without material. The Create Process Order: Initial Screen appears. 2. You must enter the following in this screen: Recipe group: Enter the name of the recipe group you want to use in this process order. Recipe: Enter the number of your recipe in this group. Plant: This is the plant in which your order will be processed. Process order type: Enter the order type, which defines internal or external number assignment. 3. Choose Continue. 4. Make the same entries as described under Creating a Process Order With a Material. Once you have created the process order, the system will copy all the data from your master recipe, but not the material list. April 2001 37 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval SAP AG Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval Use For production in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), process orders must be approved before production. You can do this in the following ways: • • Create with approved master data (see below) Individual approval Integration Master data is approved in engineering change management. You therefore require the Engineering Change Management (LO-ECH) component to do this. Prerequisites You make the following settings for order types to specify that an order must be created with approved master data (see Customizing for the Process Order, Order-Dependent Parameters, Mast. data tab page): • For master recipe selection: − − • Must be used with master recipe, automatic selection Must be used with master recipe, manual selection The Approval required indicator is set. For collective orders, you must also make these settings for the order types of subordinate orders. Features Master Data Selection When you create a process order requiring approval, the master data selection procedure is the same as for orders that do not require approval. Checking the Approval The system then checks whether the master data has been approved. Before the process order can accept the master data on which it is based (recipe, BOM, production version) as approved, the following prerequisites must be met: • • The master recipe used must have the change rule with an engineering change order without change type or an engineering change order with change type. The recipe or one of its subordinate objects (for example, phase, secondary resource) and the corresponding production version have been changed with at least one engineering change request. The BOM can, but does not have to be processed with an engineering change request. For each of the objects mentioned above, the engineering change request whose due date is the closest before the process order creation date must be released. • 38 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval • • Neither locked material components nor parts to be discontinued may be used. For planned orders, no changed to the material list may be made. For more information on the approval procedure for master recipe changes, see Engineering Change Management and Recipe Approval [Ext.]. If you manufacture in compliance with GMP, note the following: The approval procedure is not supported for BOMs of phantom assemblies. Further Processing If the prerequisites are not met, • The system statuses APNG (Approval not granted) and APRS (Approval withdrawn) are set. They do not allow the release of the order. The reasons for not approving or withdrawing the approval are documented in the log. An individual approval is required for the order. The system statuses APG (Approval granted) and APRC (Based on approved recipe) are set. For the most part, only changes to MRP data in the order are allowed. Individually, the following data can still be changed: − − − − − • Order dates Settlement rules Order quantity: The quantity can only vary within the charge quantity range defined for the recipe. Resources: You can use the Resource selection function to assign resources that meet the resource selection requirements for an operation. Batches: Batches can be assigned for material components that are subject to batch management. • • • If the prerequisites are met, A withdrawal of the approval is possible, if required (for example, for major changes). After making the changes, an individual approval must be given for the order. Exceptions when Approving Collective Orders Each order in a collective order is checked individually and approved independently of the other orders. If, for example, approval is denied for a subordinate order, approval is not withdrawn automatically for the higher-level order or the collection as a whole. For each non-approved order in the collective order, an individual approval is required to meet the prerequisites. The collective order cannot be released until all orders have been approved. April 2001 39 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval SAP AG Activities Create process orders that require approval: Follow the steps outlined in Creating Process Orders with Material and Master Recipe [Page 18]. Display log on withdrawal of approval: Goto → Logs → For reading master data. Withdrawal of approval: Process order → Functions → Approval → Withdraw approval (Individual) Approval: Process order → Functions → Approval → Individual approval 40 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Converting Planned Orders Collectively Converting Planned Orders Collectively Use If several planned orders exist in the same plant, you can simultaneously convert them into process orders via collective conversion. This is what is usually done in integrated production planning and control. Procedure 1. Choose Process order → Create → With planned orders. The Collective Conversion of Planned Orders: Initial Screen appears. 2. Enter the planning plant, the MRP area and the MRP controller of the process orders you want to convert. Enter the process order type with which the process orders are to be created. The selection criteria opening date (from - to), material, and sales order are also available. If you select without a planning plant, the MRP controller you enter cannot be checked. In this case the system will warn you. In the Material field you can search with any character string (for example, A*, for all materials starting with the letter A). If you want to limit the selection of the planned orders to be converted according to your opening date, you can also enter an interval in the Opening date range fields. If an opening horizon is already defined in your user master record (parameter IDs, AEV, and AEB), the values are automatically suggested by the system. 3. Choose Continue. The system lists all planned orders that correspond to the selection criteria you entered. You can display a planned order by double-clicking it (number of the planned order in the Planned order column). 4. Select the planned orders you want to convert. Alternatively, you can delete planned orders you do not want to convert from the list by choosing . You can then choose to select and convert the remaining planned orders together. In the list of the selected planned orders, you can call up dependent objects by doubleclicking a planned order or material. 5. If necessary, change the order type of the selected planned orders. If you specify an order type which requires external number assignment for a planned order, you must enter an order number for the order. 6. Choose Convert. The system converts all selected planned orders. A log is created for each planned order for which the conversion is called up. You call up this log by choosing in the Result column. April 2001 41 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Converting Planned Orders Collectively SAP AG You can make a new selection of planned orders at any time. To do this, display the selection area with Selection parameter on/off, enter the selection criteria and choose . Only planned orders which allow in-house production are proposed for selection. To convert planned orders into requisitions, choose Logistics → Production - process → MRP → Planned order → Convert pur. req. → Collect. conversion. 42 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Converting Planned Orders Individually Converting Planned Orders Individually Prerequisite The Conversion indicator must be set for the planned order you want to convert. The material must allow in-house production. Procedure Choose Logistics → Production - Process. 1. Choose Process order → Create → With a planned order. The Create Process Order: Initial Screen appears. 2. Enter the planned order number as well as the order type of the process order you want to create. 3. If the order type you have entered requires external number assignment, you must also enter the number of the process order you want to create in the Process order field. Choose Continue. The system copies all the data contained in the planned order, such as order quantity and order dates. When the system selects a valid master recipe, all the recipe data, such as operations and phases, resources and material list components are copied into the process order. 4. Check the data copied from the planned order and change it if necessary. 5. Save the process order. April 2001 43 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Partially Converting Planned Orders SAP AG Partially Converting Planned Orders Use Use this procedure if you want to process a planned order in partial quantities. A process order is generated for each partial quantity. Procedure You can call up the function for partial conversion from various locations in the system. 1. Depending on where you are in the system, choose in the following ways: If you are … In the SAP menu Choose Logistics → Production - Process → Process Order → Create with a Planned Order. Set the Partial conversion and choose Continue. A planned order by double-clicking it in the Additional Data for MRP Elements dialog box, and choose →SubProcOrd. A planned order by double-clicking it in the Additional Data for MRP Elements dialog box, and choose →SubProcOrd. Planned order → Convert to proc. order. → Individual conversion, set the Partial conv. indicator, and choose Continue. . In the stock/requirements list In the MRP list In material requirements planning 2. If you want to carry out several partial conversions, choose 3. Enter the quantities and dates. For the conversion, the system uses the scheduling type defined in Customizing for the order type (and plant) entered. However, you can change it in the individual orders after the conversion. 4. Choose Generate. The system generates one process order per line. Since these process orders are not yet saved, they are given temporary order numbers (for example, %0000000001). As soon as a partial quantity is converted to a process order, the corresponding line on the screen cannot be deleted. To delete, you must cancel the transaction and carry out a new partial conversion. 5. If you want to make further changes in an order, select the line and choose Goto → Process order. The Create Process Order: Header screen appears. After you have made the changes, choose Back to return to the screen with the partial quantities. 6. Choose Save. Result The system saves the process orders. 44 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Partially Converting Planned Orders A planned order that was partially converted is fixed. A fixed planned order is not changed in an MRP run. Its secondary requirements are reduced in accordance with the partial quantity entered. If the total of the process order quantities created is smaller than the planned order quantity and the Delete planned order indicator is not set, the planned order quantity is reduced accordingly. If you do not want to convert any more planned orders, irrespective of the planned order quantity still open, set the Delete planned order indicator. If the total of the process order quantity created is greater or equal to the planned order quantity, the planned order is deleted. If the master recipe selection for the process order to be created is controlled via a production version, the system always uses the production version that is valid for the original planned order quantity for a partial conversion. April 2001 45 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling SAP AG Scheduling Use In order processing, the scheduling function calculates the production dates and capacity requirements for all operations within a process order. The scheduling process starts with the basic order dates (basic start and basic finish). The system either takes the basic order dates from the planned order, or you enter them manually on the header screen of the process order. A process order is always scheduled automatically when it is created. In Customizing, you can specify whether you also want the order to be automatically rescheduled before saving whenever you make changes that are relevant to scheduling. 46 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling Types Scheduling Types You can schedule a process order using the following scheduling types: • Forward scheduling: If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, the system schedules forwards starting from the order start date. If you enter the order start date, the system calculates the scheduled start and finish dates. If you enter the order start and finish dates, the system calculates the scheduled start and finish dates. • Backward scheduling: If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, the system schedules backwards starting from the order finish date. If you enter the order finish date, the system calculates the scheduled start and finish dates. If you enter the order finish and start dates, the system calculates the scheduled start and finish dates. • Scheduling to current date: If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, the system takes the current date as the order start date and schedules forwards. You then enter the order finish date and the system calculates the scheduled start and finish dates. • Only capacity requirements: If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, you will have to enter both the start and finish dates of the order. The system then calculates the scheduled start and finish dates. The individual operations are not scheduled. The system calculates the scheduled start and the scheduled finish of the order by adding the float before production to the order start date and subtracting the float after production from the order finish date. It then writes the scheduled start and finish date into each of the operations. April 2001 47 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling Parameters in Customizing SAP AG Scheduling Parameters in Customizing Scheduling parameters are entered in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations → Scheduling → Define Scheduling Parameters) for each order type, plant and production scheduler (specified in the material master). Parameters that influence the scheduling of a process order are described below. Scheduling Type The scheduling type [Page 47] determines how scheduling is carried out (for example, backwards). When you create a process order, the scheduling type is proposed on the order header screen. You can, however, overwrite this scheduling type in individual process orders. Current Date Scheduling In Customizing, you can specify that an order is to be rescheduled as soon as it is delayed by a certain number of days. If the order start date lies further in the past than the specified number of days, the system will automatically carry out current date scheduling during the next scheduling run. Current date scheduling is forward scheduling, starting from the current date, which is reduced as much as possible (see Reduction Measures [Ext.]). Rescheduling You can specify that a process order is to be rescheduled when you save it (Schedule automatically indicator). If changes are made to the order that are relevant to scheduling and this indicator is not set, the order is given status NTER (date not current). 48 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Changing the Scheduled Dates Manually Changing the Scheduled Dates Manually You can change the scheduled start and finish of the order manually (Header → Change in Dates → Scheduled dates) • • If you entered the scheduled start date manually in forward scheduling, the system uses this date as the fixed starting point for scheduling the order. If you enter the scheduled finish date manually, the system uses this date as the fixed starting point for scheduling the order. In both cases, you can overwrite the dates manually, and enter a different scheduling type. You can then reschedule by calling up the function Process order → Functions → Schedule. April 2001 49 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Floats SAP AG Order Floats Since malfunctions can never be completely avoided in the process flow, the system takes certain time-related floats (before and after production) in account when scheduling an order. The float before production fulfills two functions: • • It can neutralize delays during the staging of ingredients. It offers you the option of shifting production dates towards the present if capacity bottlenecks occur at any of the resources involved. In this way, the float before production can also be used for capacity leveling as a float before and after production. The float after production is used to neutralize unforeseen malfunctions in the production process so that these do not shift the scheduled finish of the order. The float before production and the float after production are defined for each material via a scheduling margin key. This scheduling margin key, which is predefined in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations → Scheduling → Define Scheduling Margin Key), is copied automatically from the material master when you create an order. However the times can be changed in the order. The system calculates the scheduled start of the order by adding the float before production to the order start date. It calculates the scheduled finish of the order by subtracting the float after production from the order finish date. The system subtracts the number of days defined in the release period from the scheduled start of the order, thus calculating the release date of the order. 50 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How the Control Key Influences Scheduling How the Control Key Influences Scheduling The control key of the operation influences scheduling in the following way: • • If, according to its control key, an operation is scheduled, the system calculates the duration and the dates of the individual operations. If, according to its control key, an operation is not scheduled, the system assumes that all the operations have a duration of 0. April 2001 51 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling Phases SAP AG Scheduling Phases The duration of operations is defined by the duration of the individual phases. The scheduling function calculates the duration of each phase. Each phase is scheduled using the scheduling formula stored in the resource data. A phase network is scheduled and the phase order dates are carried over to the operation. The start time of the first phase plus the finish time of the last phase is the start and finish of the operation. If you have entered the default values of phases in the master recipe, the system uses this data to schedule (using the order dates in the initial screen). If one phase of an operation is relevant for scheduling, the whole operation must be relevant for scheduling. If the operation is relevant for scheduling, then at least one phase must also be relevant for scheduling. If the scheduling indicator is flagged in the control key, the operation or phase is relevant for scheduling. The duration of the superior operation is defined by the duration of the individual phases. You create temporal relationships between phases by maintaining their relationships. You can also maintain relationships between phases of different process orders. 52 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling Rules Scheduling Rules Working/Operating Time The working/operating time specifies when work can be carried out. The calendar used for scheduling distinguishes between workdays and non-working days. You can define a working/operating time in the system by specifying the start and end of shifts as well as the breaks for each workday. The following rules apply: • • If the unit of the phase duration is smaller than the unit day, the working/operating time per working day applies. If the unit of the individual phase is greater than or equal to the working day, the phases are scheduled to the day on the basis of the calendar used for scheduling. Additionally, there are specific rules for date determination (see the Date section in Date Determination at Operation Level [Ext.]) when times are exactly at work start, work finish, or midnight. April 2001 53 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Secondary Resource Scheduling SAP AG Secondary Resource Scheduling Use The system uses this function in master recipe or process order scheduling to determine the start or finish dates of the secondary resources. Prerequisites • You have chosen a scheduling type that allows secondary resource scheduling (see Scheduling Type [Ext.]). Secondary resources are not scheduled in scheduling types with the Only capacity requirements indicator. The scheduled start and finish dates of the recipe or order are used for these resources. • A control key has been assigned to the secondary resource in which the Scheduling indicator has been set (see Control Key [Ext.]). If the Scheduling indicator has not been set in the control key, the system uses the dates of the superior operation or phase for the secondary resource. Features The system uses the following data to determine the secondary resource dates: • • The dates of the superior phase or operation The offset between the start and finish dates of the phase/operation and the secondary resources, which has been defined in the detail data of the secondary resource (see Definition of Earliest and Latest Dates [Ext.]) A positive offset is added to the corresponding phase or operation date, that is, the secondary resource date is after the reference date A negative offset is subtracted from the corresponding phase or operation date, that is, the secondary resource date is before the reference date The following rules apply in secondary resource scheduling: • • If no offsets have been defined for a secondary resource, the system uses the relevant phase or operation date as the secondary resource date. The following graphic illustrates secondary resource scheduling. 54 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Secondary Resource Scheduling 13:00 ... 13:15 13:30 13:45 14:00 14:15 14:30 14:45 15:00 15:15 15:30 15:45 Ph. 11 Ph. 12 Ph. 13, ED Ph. 13, LD Ph. Ph. 21 Ph. 22 Ph. 23 SR. 10, ED SR. 10, LD SR. SR. 20 OS = 5min OS = 5min OF = 5min OF = 5min OS = 0 OS = 0 OF = 0 OF = 0 Key: Ph SR = Phase = Secondary resource ED LD = Earliest date = Latest date OS OF = Offset to start = Offset to finish April 2001 55 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Midpoint Scheduling and Capacity Scheduling SAP AG Midpoint Scheduling and Capacity Scheduling In capacity scheduling, the system takes work breaks into account. Starting from a selected point in time, forward or backward scheduling can be carried out. Secondary resources are also scheduled according to capacity availability provided that they have the necessary control key. 56 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Capacity Requirements Capacity Requirements Capacity Requirements of an Operation Operations have capacity requirements with a value of 0. The operations are not scheduled, as scheduling is carried out implicitly via the phases. The value is calculated at scheduling. The dates of calculated capacity requirements correspond to the dates of the operation. April 2001 57 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling Log and Results SAP AG Scheduling Log and Results For every scheduling run, the system creates a scheduling log in the process order. The log records all the information which is information on scheduling. If, for example, data relevant to scheduling is not maintained in a resource or in an operation, the scheduling run is not interrupted. Instead, the information is gathered in the form of messages in the scheduling log. The scheduling log is used to: • • collect messages issued by the system during the scheduling run sort and group together the system messages according to certain criteria. In Customizing, you can define control parameters which specify whether the scheduling log is automatically displayed after each scheduling run, or whether it has to be called up via the menu. 58 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Scheduling and Scheduling Results on the Screen Scheduling and Scheduling Results on the Screen This section describes how to call up the function Scheduling and how to display the scheduling results on the screen. Calling up Scheduling To call up scheduling, proceed as follows: 1. Call up a process order (only in create or change mode). 2. Select the menu options Process order → Functions → Schedule. The system schedules the process order and creates a scheduling log. Scheduling Results You can call up the scheduling log, proceed as follows: Select Goto → Logs → For scheduling. The system displays an overview of the messages collected. Date/Quantity Overview Via the header screen Date/quantity overview, you can display the release, start and finish dates of the process orders as well as of the planned order, if you have converted a planned order. Detail Screen of Operation Dates To display the dates of the individual operations and phases, proceed as follows: 1. In the Operation overview screen, flag the operation or phase whose dates you want to display. 2. Select the menu options Operation → Overview of dates. The system displays a detail screen showing the dates (and times) of the operations and phases you have selected. April 2001 59 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material List Components SAP AG Material List Components Use When you create a process order, you need to specify the components required for production in the order. If the relevant data is already contained in the master data, it is automatically transferred into the process order. 60 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Data from the Material List Data from the Material List Data from the Material List If a material list exists for the material to be produced, the material list components are automatically taken over into the process order as components. The following information is also taken over for each component: • Item category: The item category determines how the component is dealt with in the order. Examples are: – “L”: Item kept in stock For items with this category, the system creates a reservation when creating the order. – “R”: Variable-sized item This category specifies that the component is kept in stock and that variable sizes are maintained for the component. – “N”: Item not kept in stock The system creates a requisition when creating the order for components in this category. – – “T”: Text item This item category does not refer to materials. The item only contains text. “D”: Document item With this item category, you can enter different document types. Items with category “D” or “TI” are not taken over into the process order. • • Costing relevancy indicator (CR): This indicator specifies that the component is fully relevant to costing. Bulk material indicator (BM): If the material is marked as bulk material, it is not issued from stock for the order, but is provided at the resource. A bulk material item is only listed for information purposes. It is not relevant for material requirements planning or costing. Backflushing (BF): This indicator specifies that the material component is backflushed. This means that the withdrawal of the material is not posted until the corresponding operation is confirmed. Co-product (CO): This indicator specifies that the component is a co-product. You can only specify a material as a co-product if it has been set up in the material master as such. Coproducts must be entered in the material list with a negative quantity. Item type is “L”. • • Data from the Master Recipe If a master recipe exists for the material to be produced, components can be assigned to specific operations/phases in the recipe, or assigned components can be changed. April 2001 61 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Data from the Material List SAP AG 62 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating a Process Order for a Material without a Material List Creating a Process Order for a Material without a Material List Use If you create a process order for a material without a material list, a dialog box will appear informing you that no material list exists for this material and asking if you want to use a different material list, for example, for another material. If you select Yes, the system will ask you to enter a material with a material list. If you select No, the system will create the order without a material list. However, you can branch to the material list after the order has been created and enter a new material list there. April 2001 63 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Entering or Changing Material Components in the Material List SAP AG Entering or Changing Material Components in the Material List Whether your material has a material list or not, you can enter or change material components in the Material list screen of the process order. You can allocate, create, change or delete components in the order as long as the system statuses “created” or “released” are active. You should, however, note the following: • • You cannot change the item category of a component once it has been created in the order. If you delete a component which is allocated to a released operation, the system continues to display the component in the order. However, you can no longer enter data for the component. The status “deletion indicator” is activated in the component. You can change component data both in create and change mode. The following detail screens exist for components: • • • • General data Co-product Purchasing data Text item To change component allocation to operations or phases, proceed as follows: 1. Select the component whose allocation you want to change. 2. Now select the menu options Edit → Reallocate. 3. The system displays a pop-up Reallocate, in which you can change the allocation of the component from one operation or phase to another. You can display a list of all the operations and phases contained in your process order by clicking on Operation list. 64 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Component Detail Screens Component Detail Screens You can branch to any of the screens described in this section by selecting a component in the Material list and selecting Component → . General Data This screen contains the following data: Component data: Material: The number of the material component you have selected. Item: Item number of the component in your material list. Item category: Such as stock item or non-stock item. Status: Component status, such as Released. Storage location: Storage location of material. Batch: If the component is subject to batch management, you can enter the number here. Plant: Plant in which your material component is stored. Requirement date: Date by which the requested quantity of material is needed. Sort string: String that can be defined for sorting components in the display. Revision level: Indicates the change status of an object. You can assign the revision level to a change with reference to a change number. Quantity data: Requirements quantity: This is the amount you require of the individual component in order to produce the order quantity. Unit of measure: This is the unit of measure in which stock of this material is managed. Committed quantity: This is the quantity confirmed in the availability check. Issue quantity: This is the component quantity already issued from stock for the order. Final issue: This indicator is set automatically for a goods movement when the total reserved quantity has been withdrawn or delivered. Co-product: Indicator showing that this material component is a co-product. Co-Product - Item Data With co-product manufacturing, you can show the common production of different materials within one process order. This means that an order for several co-products describes the common production as well as specifying the common materials for the process. Within a process order manufacturing co-products, these can be assigned to the operation or the phase in which they are processed. The costs of an order are collected for the entire process and then can be distributed to the various co-products using an equivalence number or a percentage entry. April 2001 65 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Component Detail Screens SAP AG Process materials represent a material type for which no updating of inventory quantities or costs is required. Process materials are used as “starting points” for master recipes and process order in the production of co-products. You will only be able to branch to the co-product screens if your component is marked as a coproduct, both in the material master and in the material list. In addition to the general data, this screen shows: • Order item data: Quantity: Quantity of a co-product produced using this order. Valuation type: This key uniquely identifies stocks of a material subject to split valuation. The valuation category determines which valuation types are permissible for a material. GR quantity: This is the quantity of goods received for the order item. • Tolerance data: Underdelivery/overdelivery tolerance: This is the percentage by which an underdelivery or overdelivery of this component will be accepted. You can select the Unlimited field if this percentage value is unlimited. • Control data: Quality inspection: This indicator shows that the component is subject to quality inspection and that the goods receipt is posted to QM stock. Delivery completed: If this indicator is set, no further goods receipts are expected for this order item. GR processing time: This is the goods receipt processing time in days. • Goods receipt data: Storage location: The location to which the component is posted. Batch: If the co-product is subject to batch management, you can enter an existing batch number or create a batch master record. Distribution: This is the distribution key for MRP. • Delivery data: Goods recipient: You can enter the recipient for whom the material is destined here. Unloading point: The point (such as a dock) where the material is unloaded. Co-Product - Settlement Rule On this screen, you maintain the settlement rule. When a process order is settled, the actual costs incurred for the order are settled to one or more receiver cost-objects (such as to the account for the material produced or to a sales order). Offsetting entries are generated automatically to credit the process order. On this screen, you can enter the cost receivers to which you want to distribute the costs of production. The cost receiver can, for example, be a material or a cost center. Under Receiver no., you enter the name of the settlement receiver, such as the name of the material. 66 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Component Detail Screens You can either apportion the costs to the various settlement receivers using a percentage, or by entering an equivalence number. The costs of the order are then distributed proportionately to the settlement receivers. Purchasing Data You can only call up this screen for components with item category “N” (non-stock item). You use this screen to maintain data for external procurement. Item Text This screen is only relevant for components with the item category “T”. On this screen, you can enter general data for the component, as well as a descriptive text for the item. April 2001 67 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Assigning Components SAP AG Assigning Components You can assign components to any operation or phase. You can assign components either • • in the master recipe or in the process order itself. All components which have not been assigned to a particular operation or phase in the master recipe are automatically assigned to the first operation in the order at the time of order creation. You can, however, change the assignment of components by reassigning them to different components (see section Reassigning Components [Page 70]). 68 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Components Creating Components To create a component in the material list of your process order, proceed as follows: 1. Call up the Material list screen and enter the following data for your component: – – – – material number requirements quantity unit of measure item category 2. Press Enter. If the system requires further information, it will branch automatically to the respective screen, where you can enter the data. For example, if you enter a nonstock component, you automatically branch to the Purchasing data screen. 3. The system will then display a pop-up in which you need to enter the operation or phase to which you want to allocate this component. You can click on Operation list to display all the operations and phases. April 2001 69 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Reassigning Components SAP AG Reassigning Components To reassign components, proceed as follows: 1. Select the component that you want to reassign and click on Edit → Reassign in the Material list screen. 2. A dialog box containing two fields appears: – – the operation or phase to which the component is currently assigned an input field in which you can enter the new operation or phase. You can display a list of all operations and phases by clicking on Operation list. 3. Press Continue. 70 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Sorting Components Sorting Components You can sort components in the material list according to various different sort criteria. Proceed as follows: 1. Choose Edit → Sort in the Material list screen. 2. The system displays a pop-up containing all the possible sort criteria. You can choose a criterion and click on Copy. Now select Close to close the window. 3. In the remaining pop-up, click on Copy to have the system sort according to your chosen criterion. 4. Once the system has finished sorting the components, you return to the Material list screen, which now lists the items sorted according to your selected criterion. April 2001 71 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Filtering Components SAP AG Filtering Components You can filter components according to certain criteria. When you filter the components, the system displays only the components which meet the entered criteria. Selection criteria might be, for example: • • • missing part item category backflushing Proceed as follows to filter components: 1. Select Edit → Filter in the Material list screen. 2. The system displays a pop-up in which you select New selection to display all the possible filter options. 3. You can now choose a criterion according to which you want to filter your components. Click on Copy and then Close to close the window. 4. In the remaining pop-up, click on Copy to have the system filter according to your chosen criterion. 5. The system now displays a pop-up in which you have to enter additional data. For example, if you have chosen BOM item as your filter criterion, you will have to enter the numbers of the BOM items in this screen and then select Filter. 6. The system filters your components and returns to the Material list screen. 72 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Deleting Components Deleting Components To delete components, proceed as follows: 1. In the Material list screen, select the component you want to delete and choose the menu options Edit → Delete. 2. The system deletes the selected components. If the process order has already been released, the deletion indicator is set for the component. April 2001 73 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Classifying Material List Components SAP AG Classifying Material List Components On the Material list screen, you can classify the individual material components in your material list. Classifying the individual components has two purposes: 1. Material quantity calculation: When you classify a component in the material list, you use the class type 022 (or 23, depending on the batch level) for batch classification. From a logical point of view, you would assign the same class to this component as you have assigned in the material or batch master. You can now assign values to the characteristics of this class. The system uses these values for the purposes of material quantity calculation in the calculation sheet. 2. Batch determination You can classify a component that is subject to handling in batches for the purposes of batch determination. Use the same class you use for the material for the component. You can also split batches in process orders. For more information, see the R/3 Library LO - Batch Management under Batch Determination [Ext.]. Matchcode Selection You can also select the batch number via a matchcode selection directly in the Batch field. In this case, you can select by batch class. The Classification screen of the process order appears. If you wish, you can assign a further value to your class. If you choose Find object, the system displays the batches that match your criteria. You can then select the desired batch and return to the Material list screen, where your batch number is now entered. If you need to select more than one batch, you must enter the component a corresponding number of times in the material list. For each entry, you need to enter a separate batch number from the list of available batches. 74 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Batch Splitting Example: Batch Splitting For a particular reservation, you require 100 L of the material component solution. The material solution is classified as active batch of the class type 022 or 023. The characteristic active ingredient, with an interval value of 60 -90, is assigned to the class active batch. At goods receipt, you have classified all batches of solution as follows: The characteristic Active substance ingredient has an interval value of 60 - 90. You have three batches of solution, which have been inspected by Quality Management. The values for these batches are as follows: Batch 1: Active substance ingredient: 70 Batch 2: Active substance ingredient: 60 Batch 3: Active substance ingredient: 89 Quantity of batch: 50 L Quantity of batch: 20 L Quantity of batch: 35 L You can select all the batches you need that correspond to your desired criteria, and make up the quantity of 100 L that you require for your reservation. The indicator S in the Material list screen shows whether a batch split is possible for the component you have marked. Batch Determination Screen You call up the Batch processing screen by marking a component and choosing Material → Batch management → Trigger batch det. components → Batch processing in the material list. The following is displayed on this screen: • • Requirements quantity This is the total quantity you require for your order Open quantity This is the remaining quantity you still require April 2001 75 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation SAP AG Material Quantity Calculation Use You use this function for a production version [Ext.] of a master recipe or a process order to visually reproduce the dependencies between the following values: • • • • Quantity and properties of a product, such as the active ingredient proportion Quantity and properties of material components, that is, material items and their batches Operation and phase quantities The scrap to be expected for an operation or phase You need this function to adjust the quantities defined in the bill of material (BOM), master recipe, or process order in the following cases: • • To calculate the component quantities if they are not proportional to the product quantity or if different active ingredient concentrations of batches must be taken into account To calculate the product quantity, that is, the base quantity of the master recipe or the order quantity if it must be adjusted to modified component quantities. This may be the case if, for example, a batch of a component is always used up completely. To calculate the expected phase scrap if you want it to be displayed in the phase data in the order (Quantities/Activities screen) and make it available for planned/actual evaluations carried out in the Logistics Information System To calculate operation and phase quantities if they are not identical to the product quantity. You may want to do this, for example, if you must take the quantity difference caused by the scrap produced into account. • • Integration You enter the formulas for material quantity calculation in the master recipe or process order. If required, you transfer the formula results from the recipe to the BOM. Material quantity calculation is always performed during further processing when you use the production version to select a recipe and BOM and then carry out scheduling. This means that it is performed, for example, when you create a process order, convert planned orders, or during product costing, but not when you carry out material requirements planning without a detailed plan. In material requirements planning and product costing, material quantity calculation is used to calculate the material and operation quantities that are, for example, necessary for reservations or direct cost statements. In the process order, material quantity calculation determines the order-specific quantities. The formulas for the calculation are taken from the master recipe. However, you can change them in the order and start the calculation again, if, for example, the basis for the calculation has changed due to batch determination. The quantities calculated in this way are used as the basis for reservations, scheduling, capacity requirements planning, and costing. 76 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation Prerequisites • • • To be able to use material quantity calculation in a master recipe, you must have defined a production version for the master recipe. To transfer the data from material quantity calculation from a master recipe to the process order, you must create the process order with the corresponding production version. To transfer the scrap calculated in material quantity calculation to the corresponding phase in the process order, you must have activated scrap management in the parameters of the relevant order type (see Customizing for Process Orders). Features Formula Definition You can use the following functions in material quantity calculation to define formulas: • • The common arithmetical operators and functions as well as references to quantities and material properties (see Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation [Page 79]) Functions that you can use to perform material quantity calculation based on batch data (see Material Quantity Calculation with Batch Data [Page 86]) This function enables you, for example, to use material quantity calculation together with active ingredient management of the Batch Management component to plan the quantity structure of your orders on the basis of exact active ingredient quantities. Important Information about Value Processing Depending on the type of value to be calculated, also bear in mind the following: • • The formulas for the product and component quantities may not mutually refer to each other. If you have planned a scrap quantity for a product in the material master record or the order header, the system automatically increases the product and component quantities during quantity calculation without formulas. If you have planned a scrap quantity for a component in the material master record, the BOM, or the material list of the process order, the system automatically increases the component quantity during quantity calculation without formulas. If you perform quantity calculation with formulas, the system does not automatically take the planned scrap quantity into account. If required, you must explicitly include it in the formula. • The scrap quantity calculated for a phase does not automatically reduce the succeeding phase quantities. However, you can use the formulas of the operation and phase quantities to visually reproduce the quantity difference caused by the scrap produced. In collective orders, material quantity calculation is only supported within the leading order. Header quantities and component quantities of subordinate orders are calculated in proportion to the product quantity. For this reason, do not enter formulas for: − − Directly-produced components of the leading order Materials or phases of subordinate orders • April 2001 77 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation SAP AG Performing Material Quantity Calculation You can start material quantity calculation as follows during production planning: • Automatically together with functions during which scheduling is carried out (see Integration above) Material quantity calculation calculates component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which a formula has been defined. Product quantity calculation is not carried out during automatic material quantity calculation. Component quantities for which no formulas are defined have already been calculated in proportion to the product quantity (for example, during order release or BOM explosion). • Manually in the master recipe or process order Here you decide whether the product quantity is calculated in addition to the component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities. When you carry out product quantity calculation, the system automatically recalculates the component quantities with a formula afterwards. Note, however, that component quantities without a formula are not adjusted to the modified product quantity. Activities • • Defining Material Quantity Calculation [Ext.] Performing Material Quantity Calculations [Ext.] 78 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation Use You can use the following functions in material quantity calculation whenever you do not need to access batch data for the calculation. If you must take the values of batches into account in a calculation, you can also use the functions described in Material Quantity Calculation with Batch Data [Page 86]. Prerequisites • • • To be able to use material quantity calculation in a master recipe, you must have defined a production version for the master recipe. To transfer the data from material quantity calculation from a master recipe to the process order, you must create the process order with the corresponding production version. For you to be able to take material properties into account in material quantity calculation, the following requirements must be met: − − − It must be possible to enter the property as a numeric value. You must classify the material master record or the BOM item with a class of class type Batch. You must assign the property as a characteristic to this class and assign a value to it in the material master record or the material list as well as in the material list of the process order. Features The data of all materials, operations, and phases that are used in the master recipe or process order are available in material quantity calculation. When you call up material quantity calculation, you are given the following: • • • The planned quantity for each operation as well as a field for any interim results The planned quantity for each phase, a field for the scrap to be expected, and a field for any interim results The planned quantity for each material, all numerical material properties as well as a field for any interim results For materials for which you use batch determination, you are given the following in material quantity calculation: − − A line containing the original quantity of the material item for the totals record (line 4 of the example below) A line containing the transferred batch quantity for each batch (lines 5 to 7 of the example below) For material properties, you are given: − In the master recipe, the value from the BOM or, if this value is missing, the value from the material master record April 2001 79 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation − SAP AG In the process order, the value from the material list of the order or, after the batch determination, the value of the batches used If multiple values or value ranges have been defined, the system uses the lowest value. After you have carried out batch determination, the planned value from the material list is normally still displayed in the totals record. If, however, no unit has been assigned to the characteristic, the system displays the sum of all batch values instead. Example: Data of Material Quantity Calculation Line Description Type Item 1 XYZ MT 2 ..Create mix. OP 3 .-Charge mat. OP 4 ….ABC MT 5 …. BA:ABC1 MT 6 …. BA:ABC2 MT 7 …. BA:ABC3 MT Key: MT OP BA 0000 0110 0110 0010 0010 0010 0010 Sign 1:Qty 100.000 100.000 100.000 93.000 UM 2:Charact. 1 UM L L L L 70.00 % 90.00 % 80.00 % 70.00 % 3:Scrap UM 4:Interim res. 40.000 L 50.000 L 3.000 L Material Operation or phase Batch You can enter formulas for the following fields: • • • • The quantity fields of the materials as long as batch determination has not been carried out The quantity fields of the operations The quantity and scrap fields of the phases The Interim results field of materials, operations, and phases This field does not directly influence the quantity structure of an order. Its value can, however, be used to calculate the remaining quantities. You can use the following operands to define your formulas: • Number constants, such as: –5; 3.1416; 1.3E12 The system expects the decimal point or the sign defined for decimal expressions in your user defaults. • References to quantity, scrap, and characteristic fields and interim results Note that the system does not take the unit of measure of referred values into account. Percentages, for example, are treated like absolute values during the calculation. References are displayed as follows in the formula: [,] In the graphic above: – [001,001] refers to the quantity field of product XYZ 80 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation – [004,002] refers to the characteristic field of component ABC In addition, you can use the operators or functions listed below: Operator + * / DIV MOD Meaning Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Division using integers; not intended for negative numbers Remainder after division (modulo function); not intended for negative numbers 10 DIV 3 = 3 10 MOD 3 = 1 Example Function ** IF…THEN… ELSE Meaning Exponentiation Returns the following value: – – If the statement after IF is true, the value of the expression after THEN If the statement after IF is false, the value of the expression after ELSE Example 3**3 = 27 IF (2<3) THEN (5*6) ELSE (57) = 30 IF NOT … Returns the following value: THEN…ELSE – If the statement after IF NOT is false, the value of the expression after THEN – ABS ROUND TRUNC SQRT EXP LOG SIN COS TAN If the statement after IF NOT is true, the value of the expression after ELSE IF (2<3) THEN (5*6) ELSE (57) = -2 Absolute value Round to nearest integer Integral amount of a number; not intended for negative numbers Square root Power to base e Logarithm to base e Sine Cosine Tangent ABS(-2) = 2 ROUND(1,8) = 2 TRUNC(1,8) = 1 SQRT(144) = 12 EXP(1) = 2.7182746352 LOG(2.7182746352) = 1 SIN(0) = 0 COS(0) = 1 TAN(1) ≈ 1.55741 April 2001 81 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation SAP AG Example Calculating Header and Component Quantities [Page 83] 82 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities Scenario You want to make fruit juice from fruit premix, water, sugar, and lemon juice and fill it in 20-liter containers. Remaining quantities smaller than 20 liters are directed to a collecting tank. For shelf life reasons, you do not want to make a batch split for the fruit premix. Instead, you want to use one tank and thus a complete batch for the production. For this reason, you must match up the product quantity and all other component quantities with the actual fruit premix quantity. Realization Entries in the Master Recipe and Bill of Material (BOM) In the BOM, you enter the required component quantities with reference to a base quantity of the material Fruit juice. These quantities are transferred to the Material Quantity Calculation screen in the master recipe. The following data is displayed, for example: Line Description Type MT OP OP MT MT MT MT OP MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0020 0030 0040 0210 0050 Sign 1:Qty 100.000 100.000 100.000 70.000 25.000 3.000 UM L L L L L L 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. 4 ….Fruit premix 5 ….Water 6 ….Lemon juice 7 ….Sugar 18 ..- Discharge 19 ….Container 9.000 KG 100.000 L 5.000 PC Calculating the Product Quantity The product quantity in the order is determined by the available fruit premix quantity. For this reason, the system must calculate the fruit juice quantity as follows: Fruit juice qty = Fruit premix quantity / 0.7 You therefore enter the following formula for the fruit juice: [004,001] / 0,7 Calculating the Component Quantities If you want the system to recalculate the component quantities after calculating the fruit juice quantity, you must enter formulas for them. The quantity of water, lemon juice, and sugar can be calculated in proportion to the fruit juice quantity. This means that you must enter the following formulas: • • For the water: [001,001] * 0,25 For the lemon juice: April 2001 83 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities [001,001] * 0,03 • For the sugar: [001,001] * 0,09 SAP AG Only whole numbers make sense for the containers. Since you direct remaining quantities into containers, the system must first calculate the number of containers in proportion to the fruit juice quantity and then round it down to whole numbers. The following applies: No. of containers = Fruit juice qty DIV Maximum qty of container This means, you must enter the following formula: [001,001] DIV 20 Process During Order Processing In the order, the material data is processed as follows: 1. You create a process order for an order quantity or fruit juice quantity of 300 l for example. 2. The system calculates the following: − − The required fruit premix quantity in proportion to the fruit juice quantity The required quantity of water, lemon juice, and sugar as well as the number of containers required based on the formula As a result, the following data is displayed: Line Description Type MT OP OP MT MT MT MT OP MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0020 0030 0040 0210 0050 Sign 1:Qty 300.000 300.000 300.000 210.000 75.000 9.000 UM L L L L L L 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. 4 ….Fruit premix 5 ….Water 6 ….Lemon juice 7 ….Sugar 18 ..- Charge 19 ….Container 27.000 KG 300.000 L 15.000 PC 3. You carry out batch determination for the Fruit premix component. You use the batch that has the earliest expiration date and a quantity of 175 l. In the totals record of the material component, you use the batch quantity 175 l as the original quantity and set the requirement quantity to 0. 4. You manually start product quantity calculation. The system makes the following adjustments one after another: a. It calculates the fruit juice quantity. As specified in the formula, it uses the totals record for the fruit premix and thus the updated original quantity for this. b. It updates the quantity of water, sugar, and lemon juice as well as the number of containers using the formulas. The following data is displayed: 84 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities Line 2 3 4 5 6 Description ..Create mix. ..-Charge mat. ….Fruit premix ….BA:Premix1 ….Water Type MT OP OP MT MT MT MT MT OP MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0010 0020 0030 0040 0210 0050 Sign - 1:Qty 250.000 250.000 250.000 175.000 175.000 62.500 7.500 UM L L L L L L L 1 Fruit juice 7 ….Lemon juice 8 ….Sugar 19 ..- Charge 20 ….Container 22.500 KG 250.000 L 12.000 PC April 2001 85 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data SAP AG Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data Use If you use materials that are subject to batch management, you may need to take quantities and properties of specific batches into account when your perform material quantity calculations in the process order. Depending on the active ingredient concentration of a component batch, you may need, for example, different quantities of another component, that is used as a filling material. Since no batches are assigned in the master recipe, you must use the values planned in the material item when you perform calculations there. In the process order, however, you must perform the same calculation again after you have carried out batch determination due to the values of one, or in case of a batch split, several batches selected. For this reason, SAP provides the functions described below to enable you to use the data of a material item in the master recipe and the data of subordinate batches after the batch determination in the process order. These functions can be used in addition to the functions described in Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation [Page 79]. Material quantity calculation is not automatically performed after batch determination in the order. Integration • If you use batch data to calculate component quantities, note the following when you carry out batch determination in the process order: − − You must first carry out batch determination for the components to whose data you refer in the formulas for other components. Material quantity calculation is not automatically performed after batch determination. If required, you must start the calculation manually to update the data of dependent components. • If you also want to use active ingredient management of the Batch Management component, you can perform material quantity calculation either for the physical quantity or for the active ingredient proportion of a component. If you use active ingredient proportions, you can use exact active ingredient quantities to plan the quantity structure of your orders. See also: LO - Batch Management Prerequisites To be able to use material quantity calculation in a master recipe, you must have defined a production version for the master recipe. To transfer the data from material quantity calculation from a master recipe to the process order, you must create the process order with the corresponding production version. 86 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data For you to be able to take into account batch properties such as the active ingredient potency in material quantity calculation, the following requirements must be met: • • • It must be possible to enter the property as a numeric value. You must classify the material master record, the BOM item or the material item of the process order as well as the batch with a class of class type Batch. You must assign the batch property as a characteristic to this class and assign a value to it in the batch as well as in the material master record, the BOM item, or the material list of the process order. Material quantity calculation uses the following values: − − In the master recipe, the value from the BOM or, if this value is missing, the value from the material master record In the process order, the value from the material list of the order If multiple values or value ranges have been defined, the system uses the lowest value. In the material master record, you can also enter a planned value for the batch characteristic for active ingredient management (Additional data, Proportion/prod.unit tab page). To avoid inconsistencies between active ingredient management and material quantity calculation, we recommend using the lowest characteristic value from material classification. Features The following sections provide an overview of the functions of material quantity calculation that take the batch data of a material component into account. In the expressions used: • • stands for the line number of the material item stands for the column number of the batch characteristic The examples refer to the following data: Line Description Type MT OP OP MT MT MT MT MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0010 0010 0010 0020 0020 0020 Sign 1:Qty 100.000 100.000 100.000 93.000 40.000 UM 2:Charact. 1 UM 3:Charact. 2 UM L L L L L 1 XYZ 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. 4 ….ABC 5 ….BA:ABC1 6 7 8 9 ….BA:ABC2 ….BA:ABC3 ….NNM 70.00 % 90.00 % 80.00 % 70.00 % 60.00 % 50.00 % 60.00 % 3.00 % 4.00 % 3.50 % 5.00 % 30.00 % 25.00 % 20.00 % 50.000 L 3.000 L 7.000 LW 4.000 LW 3.000 LW …. BA:NNM1 MT 10 …. BA:NNM2 MT Determining the Number of Batches in a Material Item Use the following function: CNUM() April 2001 87 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data SAP AG The function determines the number of batches that belong to a material item. As long as no batch has been assigned to the material item, the function has value 1. CNUM(004) = 3 Adding up Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values This function adds up the batch quantities or the values in the characteristic column you specified for all batches of a material item. As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item, the function returns the quantity of the material item or the characteristic value of the material item. Use the following function: • To add up batch quantities, use: CSUM() CSUM(004) = 40 + 50 + 3 = 93 • To add up characteristic values, use: CSUM(;) CSUM(004;002) = 90 + 80 + 70 = 240 Calculating the Arithmetic Mean of Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values This function calculates the arithmetic mean of the batch quantities or the characteristic column you specified from all batches of a material item. As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item, the function returns the quantity of the material item or the corresponding characteristic value of the material item. Use the following function: • To calculate the arithmetic mean of the batch quantities, use: CAMV() CAMV(004) = (40 + 50 + 3) / 3 = 31 • To calculate the arithmetic mean of the characteristic value, use: CAMV(;) CAMV(004;002) = (90 + 80 + 70) / 3 = 80 88 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data Adding up Weighted Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values: Product Sum For each batch of a material item, this function multiplies the batch quantity by the value of the characteristic column you specified or the values of both characteristic columns specified. It then adds up the results. The system interprets the characteristic value that you use to weight the first value as a percentage if the description of its unit contains a percent sign (%). As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item, the function calculates the product of the quantity and characteristic value of the material item or the product of the two characteristic values of the material item. You may need this function, for example, to calculate the total of the active ingredient quantities from physical batch quantities based on the active ingredient concentration. Use the following function: • To calculate the product sum of batch quantities, use: CPSM(;) CPSM(004;002) = (40 * 0.9) + (50 * 0.8) + (3 * 0.7) = 78.1 • To calculate the product sum of characteristic values, use: CPSM(;;) CPSM(004;002;003) = (90 * 0.04) + (80 * 0.035) + (70 * 0.05) = 9.9 Adding up Weighted Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values: Quotient Sum For each batch of a material item, this function divides the batch quantities by the value of the characteristic column you specified or the value of the first characteristic column by that of the second column. It then adds up the results. The system interprets the characteristic value that you use to weight the first value as a percentage if the description of its unit contains a percent sign (%). As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item, the function divides the quantity of the material item by the corresponding characteristic value or the first characteristic value of the material item by that of the second value. You may need this function, for example, to calculate the total of the physical batch quantities from the active ingredient quantities of batches based on the active ingredient concentration. Use the following function: • To calculate the quotient sum of batch quantities, use: CQSM(;) CQSM(008;002) = (4 / 0.5) + (3 / 0.6) = 13 • To calculate the quotient sum of characteristic values, use: CQSM(;;) April 2001 89 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data SAP AG CQSM(008;002;003) = (50 / 0.25) + (60 / 0.2) = 500 Examples • • Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches [Page 91] Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities [Page 94] 90 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches Scenario You want to use a fruit premix with varying fruit content and water to produce a fruit juice whose fruit content is always 5 %. During order processing, you always want to use the fruit premix batch with the earliest expiration date. Depending on the fruit content of this batch, you want the system to adjust the quantity of water in such a way that the fruit content intended for the fruit juice is obtained. Realization Entries in Batch Management You define active ingredient management for the material Fruit premix with the following specifications: • You classify the material and its batches with a batch class that contains characteristic Fruit content. In the material, you enter 10 - 20 % as the allowed interval for the fruit content. In the batches, you enter the actual fruit content. In addition, you assign the proportion unit LF (liters of fruit) to the material, which you can use to enter the absolute fruit content of a specific quantity of fruit premix. • For the batch determination for material Fruit premix, you define a batch search strategy that allows batch determination based on proportion quantities. You use the expiration date and the allowed interval defined for the fruit content as selection criteria for determining the batch. Entries in the Master Recipe and Bill of Material (BOM) In the BOM, you enter the required component quantities with reference to a base quantity of the product Fruit juice. For the fruit premix, you use the proportion unit LF, which means that you do not enter the physical quantity of the fruit premix but the fruit quantity it must contain. The quantities and the characteristic values of material classification are transferred to the Material Quantity Calculation screen in the master recipe. The following data is displayed, for example: Line Description Type MT OP OP MT MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0020 Sign 1:Qty 100.000 100.00 100.00 UM 2:Fruit content UM 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. 4 ….Fruit premix 5 ….Water L L L 5.000 LF 50.000 L 10.00 % The absolute fruit content that is required in the fruit premix changes in proportion to the fruit juice quantity. You therefore need not enter a formula for the fruit premix: To obtain the intended fruit content of the fruit juice, you must, however, balance variations in the percent fruit content of the fruit premix. This means that you must adjust the quantity of water. This adjustment is not in proportion to the fruit juice quantity. The following relationship applies: April 2001 91 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches Water = Product quantity – physical quantity of fruit premix = SAP AG You can calculate the physical quantity of the fruit premix as follows in the master recipes: Qty of fruit premix Absolute fruit content in fruit premix / Percent fruit content For the system to be able to correctly calculate the physical quantity of the fruit premix after the batch determination and maybe even a batch split in the order, it must calculate the quotient sum of all fruit premix batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the water: [001,001] – CQSM(004;002) Process During Order Processing In the order, the material data is processed as follows: 3. You create a process order for an order quantity or fruit juice quantity of 500 l for example. 4. The system calculates the following: − − The required fruit premix quantity in the proportion unit LF in proportion to the fruit juice quantity The required quantity of water using the formula Since no batches have been selected, it uses the data from the material component (line 4). As a result, the following data is displayed: Line Description Type MT OP OP MT MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0020 Sign 1:Qty 500.000 500.000 500.000 UM 2:Fruit content UM 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. 4 ….Fruit premix 5 ….Water L L L 25.000 LF 250.000 L 10.00 % 3. You carry out batch determination for the material Fruit premix. Since the batch with the earliest expiration date only covers part of the requirement, you use the following: − − 20 % LF of a batch with 20 % fruit content 5 LF of a batch with 15 % fruit content 4. You start material quantity calculation. The system now updates the quantity of water using the formula and batch data. The following result is displayed: Line Description Type MT OP OP MT MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0010 0010 0020 Sign 1:Qty 500.000 500.000 500.000 UM 2:Fruit content UM 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..- Charge mat. 4 ….Fruit premix 5 ….BA:Premix1 L L L 25.000 LF 20.000 LF 10.00 % 20.00 % 15.00 % 6 ….BA:Premix2 MT 7 ….Water MT 5.000 LF 366.667 L 92 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches April 2001 93 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities SAP AG Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities Scenario You want to use a fruit premix with varying fruit and acid content to produce a fruit juice whose fruit content is always 5 % and whose acid content is always 2 %. The fruit premix batches are selected according to their expiration date. You can use different batches whose expiration dates are close together in one order but each batch is always used up completely. You want to adjust the fruit content of the fruit juice by mixing water into it. The acid content, on the other hand, is adjusted by adding lemon juice with the different lemon juice batches having different acid contents themselves. Realization Entries in Batch Management You define active ingredient management with the following specifications: • You classify materials Fruit juice and Fruit premix as well as the fruit premix batches using a batch class that contains characteristics Fruit content and Acid content. In material Fruit juice, you define the fruit content of 5 % and the acid content of 2 % you want to obtain. In material Fruit premix, you define 10 – 20 % as the allowed fruit content and 1 – 4 % as the allowed acid content. In the batches, you enter the actual fruit and acid contents. • You classify material Lemon juice and its batches with a batch class that contains characteristic Acid content. In the material, you enter 20 – 30 % as the allowed interval for the acid content. In the batches, you enter the actual acid content. In addition, you assign the proportion unit LA (liters of acid) to the material, which you can use to enter the absolute acid content of a specific quantity of lemon juice. • For batch determination, you define a batch search strategy that contains the selection criteria Expiration date and Fruit content for material Fruit premix and a batch search strategy that contains the selection criteria Expiration date and Acid content. The batch search strategy you define for the lemon juice allows batch determination based on a proportion quantity, this means, based on the absolute acid content. Entries in the Master Recipe and Bill of Material (BOM) In the BOM, you enter the required component quantities with reference to a base quantity of the product Fruit juice. For the fruit premix that is to be used as complete batches, you enter the required physical quantity in the BOM. Since the lemon juice is to be used depending on its acid content, you plan it in the proportion unit Liters of acid. This means that you do not enter the physical quantity of the lemon juice but the required absolute acid content instead. The quantities and the characteristic values of material classification are transferred to the Material Quantity Calculation screen in the master recipe. The following data is displayed, for example: 94 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities Line Description Type MT OP MT MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0020 0030 Sign - 1:Qty 100.000 100.000 100.000 50.000 42.500 UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM L L L L L 10.00 % 1.00 % 20.00 % 5.00 % 2.00 % 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 4 ….Fruit premix 5 ….Water 3 ..- Charge mat. OP 6 ….Lemon juice MT 1.500 LS Calculating the Product Quantity The product quantity in the order is determined by the available fruit premix quantity. For this reason, the system must calculate the fruit juice quantity as follows: Fruit juice qty = Absolute fruit content in fruit premix / Intended fruit content in fruit juice = Fruit premix qty * Percent fruit content in fruit premix You can calculate the absolute fruit content of the fruit premix as follows in the master recipe: Absolute fruit content For the system to be able to correctly calculate the fruit content after the batch determination and maybe even a batch split in the order, it must calculate the product sum of all fruit premix batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the fruit juice: CPSM(004;002) / [001,002] Calculating the Lemon Juice Quantity To obtain the intended acid content of the fruit juice, you must balance variations in the percent acid content of the fruit premix. For this reason, you must adjust the lemon juice quantity. This adjustment is not in proportion to the product quantity. The following applies for the calculation of the absolute acid content of the lemon juice required: Absolute acid content = = Intended absolute acid content in the fruit juice – absolute acid content in the fruit premix Fruit juice qty * intended percent acid content - absolute acid content in the fruit premix = Fruit premix qty * Percent acid content in fruit premix You can calculate the absolute acid content of the fruit premix as follows in the master recipe: Acid content of fruit premix For the system to be able to correctly calculate the acid content after the batch determination and maybe even a batch split in the order, it must calculate the product sum of all fruit premix batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the acid content: [001,001] * [001,003] - CPSM(004;003) Calculating the Water Quantity To obtain the intended fruit content of the fruit juice, you must balance variations in the fruit content of the fruit premix. This means that you must adjust the quantity of water. The following relationship applies: Water qty = Fruit juice – Fruit premix qty – Physical qty of lemon juice = Absolute acid content in lemon juice / Percent acid content You can calculate the physical quantity of the lemon juice as follows in the master recipe: Lemon juice qty April 2001 95 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities SAP AG For the system to be able to correctly calculate the lemon juice quantity after the batch determination and maybe even a batch split in the order, it must, however, calculate the quotient sum of all lemon juice batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the water: [001,001] – [004,001] - CQSM(006;003) Process During Order Processing In the order, the material data is processed as follows: 1. You create a process order for an order quantity or fruit juice quantity of 500 l for example. 2. The system calculates the following: − − The required fruit premix quantity in proportion to the fruit juice quantity The required water quantity and the required absolute acid content in the lemon juice using the formulas Since no batches have been selected, it uses the data from the material item (line 4). As a result, the following data is displayed: Line Description Type MT OP Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0020 0030 Sign 1:Qty 500.000 500.000 500.000 250.000 212.500 UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM L L L L L 5.00 % 2.00 % 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. OP 4 ….Fruit premix MT 5 ….Water MT 6 ….Lemon juice MT 10.00 % 1.00 % 20.00 % 7.500 LS 3. You carry out batch determination for the Fruit premix component. The system finds two batches with identical expiration dates. You use the following batches: − − One batch with a quantity of 200 L, a fruit content of 10 %, and an acid content of 3 % One batch with a quantity of 100 L, a fruit content of 15 %, and an acid content of 2 % You adjust the original quantity in the totals record of the material item accordingly. 4. You manually start product quantity calculation. The system makes the following adjustments one after another: a. It calculates the fruit juice quantity using the formula. b. It updates the absolute acid content of the lemon juice and the required water quantity using the formulas. Since no batches have been selected for the lemon juice, the system uses the data of the material item (line 8 of the graphic below) to calculate the quantity of water. The following data is displayed: 96 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities Line Description Type MT OP OP MT Item 0000 0100 0110 0010 0010 0010 0020 0030 Sign - 1:Qty 700.000 700.000 700.000 300.000 200.000 100.000 370.000 UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM L L L L L L L 5.00 % 2.00 % 1 Fruit juice 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..-Charge mat. 4 ….Fruit premix 10.00 % 10.00 % 15.00 % 1.00 % 3.00 % 2.00 % 20.00 % 5 ….BA:Premix1 MT 6 ….BA:Premix2 MT 7 ….Water MT 8 ….Lemon juice MT 6.000 LS 5. You carry out batch determination for the Lemon juice component. You use a batch quantity with an absolute acid content of 6 LA and a percent acid content of 25 %. 6. You start material quantity calculation again. The system again updates the quantity of water using the formula and the batch data available now. The following result is displayed: Line Description Type Item MT 0000 0100 0110 0010 0010 0010 0020 0030 0030 Sign 1:Qty 700.000 700.000 700.000 300.000 200.000 100.000 376.000 UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM L L L L L L L 20.00 % 25.00 % 10.00 % 10.00 % 15.00 % 1.00 % 3.00 % 2.00 % 5.00 % 2.00 % 1 Fruit juice OP 2 ..Create mix. 3 ..- Charge mat. OP 4 ….Fruit premix MT 5 ….BA:Premix1 MT 6 ….BA:Premix2 MT 7 ….Water 9 ….BA:Lemon1 MT MT 8 ….Lemon juice MT 6.000 LS 6.000 LS April 2001 97 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Defining Material Quantity Calculation SAP AG Defining Material Quantity Calculation Use You use this procedure in the process order to define formulas (or adjust formulas taken over from the master recipe) for the calculation of the following values: • • • • The operation quantity or any interim results The phase quantity, the expected phase scrap, or any interim results The quantity of a material component or any interim results The product or order quantity or any interim results If required, you transfer the formula results to the order. When you enter a formula for the product quantity, note that after the product quantity has been calculated the system only updates dependent values for which a formula has been maintained. For this reason, you must also enter a formula for the values that are proportional to the product quantity. In collective orders, material quantity calculation is only supported within the leading order. Header quantities and component quantities of subordinate orders are calculated in proportion to the product quantity of the leading order. For this reason, do not enter formulas for: – – Directly-produced components of the leading order Materials or phases of subordinate orders Prerequisites • • The process order was created with a production version. For you to be able to take into account material properties such as the active ingredient potency in material quantity calculation, the following requirements must be met: − − − It must be possible to enter the property as a numeric value. You must classify the material master record or the component in the material list with a class of class type Batch. You must assign the property as a characteristic to this class and assign a value to it in the material master record or the material list of the process order. Material quantity calculation uses the value from the material list or, if this value is missing, the value from the material master record. If multiple values or value ranges have been defined, the system uses the lowest value. • To transfer the scrap calculated in material quantity calculation to the corresponding phase in the process order, you must have activated scrap management in the parameters of the relevant order type (see Customizing for Process Orders). 98 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Defining Material Quantity Calculation Procedure 1. Choose Materials in the process order. The material list appears. 2. Choose − − . The Material Quantity Calculation screen appears. It consists of two sections: The lower section contains one line with data for each operation, phase, and material contained in the recipe. In the Formula definition section, you can display the formula defined for the field that you have selected in the lower section. Select 3. Place the cursor on the field for which you want to enter a formula and choose formula. 4. Enter the required formula in the Formula definition section. Insert the elements of this formula as follows: − − Use the keyboard to enter number constants. Use the decimal markers defined in your user defaults or the decimal point. To insert a reference to a material or a material property in the formula, double-click the relevant field. The coordinates of the field are inserted in the formula. When the material quantity is calculated, they are replaced with the up-to-date quantity. Note that the system does not take the unit of measure of referred values into account. Percentages, for example, are treated like absolute values during the calculation. − To insert the operators of the basic arithmetical operations or a bracket in the formula, choose the corresponding button in the Formula definition section or use the keyboard to enter the sign. Use the keyboard to enter all other operators or functions. For information on the available operators and functions, see Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation [Page 79] and Material Quantity Calculation with Batch Data [Page 86]. 5. Depending on the values for which your have entered a formula, start the calculation as follows: − − If you want to recalculate component, operation, phase, or scrap quantities, choose If you want to recalculate the product or order quantity, choose Calculate product qty. The system calculates the product quantity and subsequently updates all component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been maintained. The system displays the calculated values in the corresponding fields in the lower screen section. . − April 2001 99 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Defining Material Quantity Calculation 6. Save your entries as follows: − − SAP AG If you want to save the formulas without transferring the formula results to the order, choose and save the process order. If you want to save the formulas and transfer the calculated material quantities to the and save the process order. order, choose The system also copies the calculated material quantities to the order if the Fixed quantity indicator has been set for the component of the material list. 100 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Performing Material Quantity Calculations Performing Material Quantity Calculations Use You use this procedure to manually start material quantity calculation in the process order. Depending on your requirements, you define the scope of the calculation as follows: • • Calculation of the component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been maintained Calculation of the product quantity and subsequent update of the component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been maintained You transfer the formula results to the order. Prerequisites • The formulas of material quantity calculation have been defined in the order. Procedure 1. Choose Materials in the process order. The material list appears. 2. Choose . The system uses the current formulas and data to calculate the component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities and displays the results on the maintenance screen of material quantity calculation. If required, you can change the formulas from this screen (see Defining Material Quantity Calculation [Page 98]). 3. If you also want to recalculate the product or order quantity, choose Calculate product qty. The system calculates the product quantity and subsequently updates all component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been maintained. 4. If you want to transfer the formula results to the order, choose order. and save the process The system also copies the calculated material quantities to the order if the Fixed quantity indicator has been set for the component of the material list. April 2001 101 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Displaying and Printing Formula Overviews SAP AG Displaying and Printing Formula Overviews Use You use this procedure to get an overview of the formulas defined for material quantity calculation. In comparison to the maintenance screen of material quantity calculation, the formula overview has the following advantages: • • The formula overview not only contains the quantities and value fields of material quantity calculation but also the corresponding formulas. References used in the formulas are replaced by the value and the description of the field to which they refer. Procedure 1. Choose on the Material Quantity Calculation screen. The formula overview appears. 2. Choose to print the overview. . 3. Enter the relevant print parameters and choose 102 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Checking the Availability of Material Checking the Availability of Material Before you start production, you can check whether all the material components allocated to the process order are available on the calculated requirements dates. In a process order, the system only checks material components that are relevant to inventory management and have the item category “L” (stock component). Availability checks can be triggered either automatically or manually: • The availability of components in an order can be checked automatically during order creation and/or order release. In Customizing for Process Orders, you specify per order type and plant whether the availability is to be checked automatically. You can always trigger a manual availability check. • The checking scope is defined via the checking group (in the material master record) and the valid checking rule (in Customizing for Process Orders). Together, they define: • • • Which MRP elements are taken into account in the check Which inventory categories are taken into account Whether the replenishment lead time is taken into account. In Customizing for Process Orders (Define Checking Control), you specify against which quantity the material availability is to be checked. You can make the following settings: • Planning (open planned independent requirements) In the check against planned independent requirements, the system only checks the open planned independent requirement quantities created for the components. This means that the ATP quantity is not included in this availability check nor are receipts or stocks. This type of availability check is most useful: • • If assembly planning or phantom assembly planning is carried out for the components If quick statements about the availability situation are required and the results from this check are precise enough The system uses the open planned independent requirements quantity at component level to determine a committed quantity, and this quantity is copied to the planned order header as the committed quantity. In contrast to the availability check according to ATP logic, however, the committed quantity is not recorded in the dependent requirements. The planned independent requirements of the components are not consumed by the committed quantity but by the complete dependent requirements quantity. In further availability checks, the system can only commit quantities for the amount of planned independent requirements that have not yet been consumed. In the availability check against planned independent requirements, the following dates/quantities are not calculated: • • Total confirmation date Partial confirmation date/ partial confirmation quantity April 2001 103 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Checking the Availability of Material • ATP-Quantity SAP AG In the check according to ATP logic, the system checks whether the dependent requirements of each component are covered by specific receipt and issue elements or by stock. This check is carried out dynamically, that is, each time you carry out the check, the system recalculates the current situation. If a quantity can be committed for the requirement date, the system enters precisely this quantity as the committed quantity in the dependent requirements, and the ATP quantity for the components is reduced by the committed quantity. Therefore, in the next availability check, dependent requirements can only be committed for the amount of the remaining ATP quantity. 104 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Checking Group Checking Group You must allocate those material components for which you want to check material availability to a checking group. You do this in the material master record. In the checking group, you can specify: • If the materials to be checked are to be locked during the availability check If the material lock indicator is set, the committed quantities are kept in a lock table. This allows for more exact results since the inspection results for an order are taken into account when checking other orders (before you save the order). • If the normal ATP (available-to-promise) quantity or the cumulative ATP quantity is to be used during the check It is a good idea to use the check with the cumulative ATP quantity, because you can avoid inconsistencies in the commitment situation, which may arise if there is a change in the date of expected goods receipts. The checking group is used to group materials that are to be checked according to the same criteria (see Checking Scope). You can also switch off the availability check for a particular checking group. Materials with such checking groups then do not take part in the check. You must also enter a checking group in the material master record (MRP screens / Sales data screens) of the assemblies/components for which the availability check against planned independent requirements is to be carried out. The system uses the checking group to control whether the check against planned independent requirements is allowed. You can make the following settings for the checking groups: • No check against planned independent requirements If this option has been selected for the checking group, no check against planned independent requirements can be carried out in the planned order for this component. However, the material can still be included in the availability check according to ATP logic. • Always check the material against planned independent requirements If this option has been selected for the checking group, the availability check against planned independent requirements can always be carried out in the planned order for this component. At the same time, it is also possible to carry out the availability check according to ATP logic for this material. • Only check the material against planned independent requirements if the material is a phantom assembly If this option has been selected for the checking group, the system can only carry out the check against planned independent requirements when dealing with phantom assemblies (special procurement key phantom assembly). At the same time, it is also possible to carry out the availability check according to ATP logic for this material. These settings for the checking groups are made in Customizing for Sales and Distribution (Define Checking Groups), in the Relevance during check against planning field. April 2001 105 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Checking Group SAP AG 106 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Check Rule Check Rule You can maintain a check rule in Customizing. Check rules are defined for each application. This means that you can carry out different availability checks for a material in different applications. The combination of check group and check rule defines the checking scope. Together, they define • • • which MRP elements are to be checked which inventory categories are to be checked whether the replenishment lead time is to be taken into account in the check. April 2001 107 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How is the Availability of Materials Determined? SAP AG How is the Availability of Materials Determined? The system determines the availability of materials according to the ATP method (availability-topromise). Using this method, the system checks • • Whether the material requirements can be covered on the requirements date At what point in time the requirements can be covered, if a full coverage of the requirements is not possible on the requirements date. Fur more information, refer to Availability Check [Ext.] as well as How is the Availability Determined? [Ext.] in Production Orders in the Production Planning (PP) component. 108 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) At What Level is the Availability Check Carried Out? At What Level is the Availability Check Carried Out? The availability check can be carried out at plant, storage location or batch level. The level at which the check is actually carried out depends on the data maintained for the material component. You maintain this data as follows: 1. On the Material List screen, select the component for which you want to maintain availability check data. 2. Choose Material → Material details. The Change Process Order: Material -General Data screen appears. 3. Enter data in the Storage location, Batch or Plant fields. The availability check will be carried out for the level (storage location, batch or plant) that you maintain on this screen. If a check is carried out at storage location or batch level and the components are available, the system carries out an additional check at plant level. April 2001 109 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Checking the Availability of the Materials in an Order SAP AG Checking the Availability of the Materials in an Order Use You can check the availability of materials required for producing your order at header level or at the level of each individual component. To check material availability, choose Process order → Functions → Availability check → Material - ATP on the header screen. The system carries out an availability check in the background and issues a message informing you whether you have a material shortfall or whether all materials are available. To find out which shortfalls you have, you can call up the system log for material availability, which will give you details of the missing material components. 110 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) When is the Availability Checked? When is the Availability Checked? You can use either an overall check or an individual check to check the availability of components. • • An overall check determines the availability of all components within an order/collective order. It can be carried out automatically, or you can trigger it manually. An individual check determines the availability of a single component. It can only be triggered manually. You can also use the order information system to carry out an overall check for several orders simultaneously (see Collective Availability Checks [Page 113]). You specify in Customizing whether an availability check is to be carried out automatically. You can also specify when the checks are to be carried out. The checks can be carried out automatically, for example, when you create or release a process order. You can also specify that the availability check is to take place when you save a created or released order. You make these settings in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations → Availability check → Define Checking Control). If an overall check determines that a material is not available on the required date, the system activates the status “material shortfall” in the order header. The status "material shortfall" is withdrawn during an overall or individual check if the required quantity of all components becomes available in the mean time according to ATP (available-topromise) logic. You find information about the inspection results in the following places: In the availability log, you find: • • • The result of the check (whether all components are available) A list of the missing parts A list of the reservations that could not be checked (because, for example, material master data was not maintained) The log is not saved when you leave order maintenance. In the missing parts overview, you find • • • A list of the missing parts The possibility to process missing parts (by changing, for example, the requirements quantity or the issue storage location) The date on which all components are available The missing parts overview always shows the results of the last availability check, independent of whether you have left order processing in the mean time. In the missing parts list, you find • A list of the missing parts April 2001 111 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) When is the Availability Checked? • • • SAP AG A list of reservations that could not be checked (for example, because material master data was not maintained) A list of all checked components if you execute View → Inspection results → All components. The date on which other components are available The missing parts list is not saved if you leave order processing. If the availability is checked at the same time an order is released, the results of the availability check are stored in the release log. If you make changes that could affect the availability of components in the process order (such as date or quantity changes), this does not automatically trigger a new availability check. For up-to-date information on any missing parts in an order, you should restart the availability check manually after you have made the changes. 112 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Collective Availability Checks Collective Availability Checks Use Within the order information system, you can check several orders simultaneously for material availability. Collective availability checks always carry out an overall availability check for each of the orders. Features The orders to be checked can be process orders or planned orders. Just as for individual checks, the checking rule for collective checks is taken from the order type (process orders), or from the MRP group/plant parameters (planned orders). The check can be triggered in the segregated object list ‘order headers’ within the order information system. Activities In Customizing for Process Orders, you can define profiles for collective availability checks ( Define Profile for Order Information System). For more information, refer to Production Orders in the Production Planning (PP) component. Collective Availability Check: Criteria [Ext.] Collective Availability Check: Results [Ext.] Executing Collective Availability Check [Ext.] Checking the Availability of Capacities [Ext.] April 2001 113 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Carrying Out Availability Checks SAP AG Carrying Out Availability Checks You can carry out an availability check either for the entire order or for individual components in the material list. Checking all Material Components in the Order To check the availability of all material components in the order, choose Process order → Functions → Availability check → Material - ATP. The system carries out an availability check. If material components are not available on their requirements date, the status “Material shortfall” is set in the process order. A dialog box appears to inform you about this. Checking Individual Components To check the availability of a particular material, proceed as follows: 1. On the Material list screen, choose Material → Availability → Check. A screen appears on which the quantity required on the requirements date and the confirmed quantity are displayed. 2. Choose ATP quantities to display more detailed information. Choose Period totals to display the material requirements and receipts of the individual periods. In both cases, you can: • • • Display the log (from the dialog box or by choosing Goto → Logs → Mat. availability) Display the material shortfall list (from the dialog box or by choosing Goto → Material shortfall → Mat.shortfall list) Display the material shortfall overview (from the dialog box or by choosing Goto → Material shortfall → Material shortfall) The system only sets the status “Material shortfall” in the process order if you carry out an availability check for all components, that is, for the entire order, and one or more components are not available on their respective requirements dates. In Customizing, you can specify that process orders with status “Material shortfall” are blocked for release. For more information, see the R/3 Library PP - Material Requirements Planning under Availability Check [Ext.]. 114 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Checking Collective Availability Online Checking Collective Availability Online 1. Choose Logistics → Production - process → Process order and then Reporting → Order information system → Object overview. 2. Enter an overall profile. The overall profile specifies whether process orders and/or planned orders are read. You can change the profile defined in Customizing temporarily using the ‘Object selection’ function. For performance reasons, you should restrict the objects to order headers and components. If you do not need to display the individual order components, you can also exclude components from the selection. 3. Enter your criteria for order selection and choose Execute. Choose Order headers. The system lists the selected orders. 4. Select the orders you want to include in the availability check, and choose Check availability. A dialog box for the availability check appears. You can use the Check mode function to call up another dialog box in which you can specify further parameters to determine the availability run. 5. Maintain parameters to determine the availability run, and choose Check availability. The system checks the availability of the orders selected. To display the availability log for a process order, select the order, and choose Goto → Log avail. material. (As a prerequisite for this, you must have specified that a log is to be generated as a parameter for the availability run, and a message of the specified levels or higher must have appeared. April 2001 115 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Preliminary Costing SAP AG Preliminary Costing Use When you create a process order and after each subsequent change of data in the order, the system calculates the planned order costs. The planned costs are allocated to cost elements. For more information, see Process Orders in Cost Object Controlling [Ext.]. 116 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Cost Elements Cost Elements A distinction is made between primary and secondary cost elements: Primary Cost Elements Costs which are considered as primary cost elements include: • • material costs costs for external procurement These costs are allocated to the order via primary costs, such as material issues. Secondary Cost Elements Costs which are considered to be secondary cost elements include: • • • production costs material overhead costs production overhead costs These costs are allocated to the order via internal cost allocations. In the process order, only phases and secondary resources are used to determine manufacturing costs. Cost Segments Cost elements are recorded in cost segments which are managed for each fiscal year. The system uses the latest start date of the phase or the requirement date of the material to calculate the period of the fiscal year in which the planned costs of an order are incurred. Planned/Actual Cost Comparison Both planned costs and actual costs are recorded in cost segments. Actual costs are updated when material issues or completion confirmations are carried out for the order, or when a goods receipt is posted for an externally procured material component, for example. This enables you to compare planned with actual costs at any stage of order processing. April 2001 117 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Planned Costs for Components SAP AG Planned Costs for Components The costing relevancy indicator of the component determines whether or not costs are calculated for a material component. This indicator specifies that the component is fully relevant to costing. If the indicator is not set, the material component is not taken into account in costing. This indicator is on the material list General Data screen in the order. It is set as a default setting, but can be reset manually. The system automatically assigns the material component to the relevant cost element via the MM Consumption Account Assignment. 118 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Planned Costs for Materials Manufactured In-House Planned Costs for Materials Manufactured In-House If a material is manufactured in-house, the system calculates the planned costs of the material using the valuation variant and a price stored in the material master record. In Customizing, a costing variant is defined for each order type and plant. The costing variant refers to a valuation variant which determines which price from the material master record is used to calculate the planned costs of a material (for example, the moving average price or the standard price). April 2001 119 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Planned Costs for Materials Procured Externally SAP AG Planned Costs for Materials Procured Externally For materials procured externally, the system distinguishes between stock components and nonstock components. • • Planned costs for a component kept in stock are calculated in exactly the same way as for a material manufactured in-house. Planned costs for a component not kept in stock equal the value of the requisition created for the component. The value of the requisition is calculated via the valuation price and the price unit of the requisition. 120 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Manufacturing Costs Manufacturing Costs The activities used in an order can be divided into internal activities and external activities. Planned costs are calculated for both types of activities. The system calculates the planned costs for the activities in a phase based on the valuation variant planned for the order type (defined via the costing variant). The values of the individual activities are specified via the activities defined in cost center accounting. For more information, see Cost Center Planning [Ext.]in the CO-CCA documentation. April 2001 121 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Planned Costs for Production SAP AG Planned Costs for Production Whether a phase is calculated depends on the control key and the costing relevancy indicator of the phase. 1. Using the control key of the phase, you can specify whether the phase is relevant to costing. 2. If the phase is relevant to costing, you can additionally use a costing relevancy indicator to specify the factor that is to be used to calculate the services performed in a phase or you can disconnect the phase from costing. Operations are automatically excluded from costing. 122 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Planned Costs for Internal Activity Planned Costs for Internal Activity To calcuate the planned costs for carrying out a phase, the system first sets up a quantity structure for the produced activities. In a second step, the quantity structure is valuated with a price. April 2001 123 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Setting up a Quantity Structure SAP AG Setting up a Quantity Structure The most important data for setting up a quantity structure for an activity is defined in the resource: • • activities formulas Every activity is allocated to an activity type. Each activity type is allocated to a formula in the resource. Using the formula and the standard times in the phase, the system calculates how much activity is expected for a particular activity type in a particular phase. As soon as the system has calculated how much activity is expected for a particular activity type, it can valuate the activity for each activity type. 124 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Overhead Costs Overhead Costs Use Overhead costs are costs that can only be assigned to the process order indirectly, such as electricity costs or general storage costs. Overhead costs are assigned to the process order by way of overhead surcharges, or they are determined in Activity-Based Costing (see also Dynamic Template Allocation in Actual [Ext.]). They are updated in the order under the cost elements defined in the costing sheet. Process Flow A costing variant is defined in Customizing for each order type and plant. The costing variant refers to a valuation variant, which refers to a costing sheet. The costing sheet determines what overhead surcharges are assigned to the order. The costing sheet specifies: • • • • To which direct costs surcharges are applied Under which conditions a surcharge is calculated How high, depending on these conditions, the surcharge percentage is Which object (for example, a cost center) is credited under which cost element during actual postings April 2001 125 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Overhead Groups SAP AG Overhead Groups You can make the calculation of overheads dependent on the material to be produced by specifying an overhead group. Using the overhead group and the costing sheet, the system determines the percentage used to calculate the overhead costs of the order. If you want the calculation of overheads to depend on which material is being produced, you should note the following: • • In the Costing screen of the material master record of the material to be produced, you must have maintained an overhead group which refers to an overhead key. The costing sheet valid for the order must refer to the above-mentioned overhead key. You can find more information on overhead surcharges online in the guide to Organizational Elements Internal Orders, as well as under the menu option “Overhead Surcharges [Ext.]” in the Customizing menu of product cost accounting. 126 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Releasing Process Orders Releasing Process Orders When you create a process order by choosing Process order → Create, the initial status CRTD is shown under System status in the main header. However, if an order is only created and not released, various restrictions apply: • • • • You cannot carry out completion confirmations for the order. You cannot print shop floor papers. You cannot create a control recipe. You cannot carry out goods movements for the order, that is, you cannot withdraw any material components. When you release the order, these restrictions are canceled. April 2001 127 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Releasing Process Orders SAP AG Releasing Process Orders You can release a process order in the create or change mode. On the General Header screen of the application menu for process orders, choose Process order → Functions → Release. The status REL is displayed in the System status field. When you save your entries, the process order is released. All operations and phases in the order then have the status Released. Releasing Process Orders Automatically In the production scheduling profile maintained in Customizing, you can specify that process orders are released automatically. You can assign the profile to the process order in the material master record (Work Scheduling view) of the material to be produced, or via the order type in Customizing. Automatic batch creation [Page 29] can be carried out for the material you want to produce. 128 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Release Operations and Phases How to Release Operations and Phases You can release individual operations/phases of the process order. If you release an operation, all the phases belonging to this operation are also released. The process order is then “partially released” and the status PREL appears under System status in the main header. Once you have released all the operations of a process order, the order automatically receives the status released. Once you have released all the phases of an operation, the operation is automatically released. If you delete the last phase of an operation without releasing it, the operation is released. To release an operation or a phase, proceed as follows: 1. In the Main header screen, select the functions Goto → 2-line operation overview. In this screen, you can see the status of the orders. The 1-line operation overview does not show this status. 2. Select the operations/phases you want to release. 3. Now select the menu options Operation → Functions → For operation/phase → Release. The system now releases the selected operation(s) and/or phases. You can also release individual operations and phases from the 1-line operation overview as follows: 1. In the 1-line operation overview, mark an operation or phase and select Operation → Functions → Release. 2. The system will release the operation or phase if you have not released the whole process order. April 2001 129 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Collective Release of Process Orders SAP AG Collective Release of Process Orders You can several select process orders and release them. You can select process orders according to the following criteria: • • • • • • • order type plant MRP controller material process order number (interval) release date (interval) status profile Now proceed as follows: 1. Select the menu options Logistics → Production - process → Process order, and then Process order → Release. Select the relevant plant. If required, you can enter further criteria for the process order, such as MRP controller, material or status. 2. If you want to select process orders according to their release date, enter the interval desired in the fields Release and To release. 3. If a release period is already proposed in your user master record, the corresponding values are automatically taken over into the fields Release and To release. The system automatically uses the current date as the release date according to which process orders are selected. 4. Select all the process orders you want to release. 5. Select Release. The system releases the selected process orders. If you want the system to also create control recipes after the release, select Release+Control recipe instead of Release. 130 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Actual and Planned Data after Order Release Actual and Planned Data after Order Release When a process order is released, the resource classes are replaced by the selected individual resources. The characteristics of reserved ingredients, such as the active ingredient potency of a particular warehouse batch, replace the values taken over from the master recipe. If scheduling and capacity requirements calculations have been carried out in the rough-cut planning phase for the planned order, these results can be automatically taken over into the process order. April 2001 131 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Deviation Recording SAP AG Deviation Recording Use After a process order has been released, a periodic background job checks whether there are schedule deviations for operations or phases in process orders. If tolerances are exceeded or fallen short of, specific users are notified. Prerequisites In Customizing for Process Orders (under Operations) • • Variants for deviation recording must be defined together with the corresponding data (selection criteria, tolerances, user to be informed) A background job for deviation recording must be planned (on the Step screen, enter program RCOCRDV2). Only orders that were released after the creation (and planning) of the corresponding variants are taken into account in deviation recording. 132 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Inspection Lots/Inspection Characteristics Inspection Lots/Inspection Characteristics Use In a production process, it is sometimes necessary to carry out inspections to ensure the quality of a product. An inspection lot documents a request for an inspection. Inspection characteristics are assigned to the inspection lot. An inspection characteristic defines what needs to be inspected. A distinction is made between qualitative characteristics and quantitative characteristics. With in-process inspections, an inspection lot is created for a process order. Characteristics are assigned to individual operations in the master recipe. The characteristics define the inspection requirements. The results of the inspection are then recorded for each inspection characteristic and stored in the inspection lot. To find out more about inspection lots, see Inspection Processing. To find out more about inspection characteristics, see Inspection Planning. Features The system distinguishes between planned and unplanned inspection characteristics: • • Planned inspection characteristics are maintained in the master recipe Unplanned inspection characteristics are maintained in QM results recording. You can branch to QM from the operation/phase overview of the process order. If inspection data has been maintained and activated in the quality management view of the material master of the material being produced, then the system automatically creates the inspection lot as soon as the first operation in the process order is released. You also have the option of creating an inspection lot manually in the process order. April 2001 133 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Create Inspection Lots SAP AG How to Create Inspection Lots If you use a quality management system, you can have your process inspected by generating an inspection lot for your process order. In this case, this inspection is known as a process accompanying inspection. You can only create an inspection lot in a process order if: • • • The process order is not technically complete The process order has no deletion flag or deletion indicator in the header In the material master record of the material you want to produce, you must maintain the respective QM data. For this purpose call the QM view In flag the field Quality inspection and call function Inspection data On the detail screen QM inspection data, enter an Inspection type (as a rule 03 for inspection in production) and a Quality score procedure. In addition, you must enter an x in field Act to activate the QM inspection for this inspection type and this material. • you have maintained QM data at operation/phase level (inspection characteristics) and for inspection point processing also at recipe header level in the master recipe that you have used to create the process order. You can check the status of a process order in the status line of all process order header screens. You can also use menu options Order → Functions → Status. Create manually To manually create an inspection lot, proceed as follows: 1. In the master recipe go to the Operation overview and select the operations during which you want an inspection to take place. 2. Select Operation → Quality data. In the section Check points in production, click on Offset change to change the type of check point. You must have Time-related flagged here. This means that your inspections will be carried out on a time-related basis. In addition, enter the Time factor and the Time unit. 3. At operation level, in the Operation overview, you must set up at least one inspection characteristic for at least one operation or phase. 4. In the process order, you can generate an inspection lot by selecting Process order → Functions → Generate inspection lot. After you have created the inspection lot, your order receives status ILC (inspection lot created). Create automatically The system automatically generates an inspection lot for a process order when the first operation or phased in the order is released: • If the system manages to create an inspection lot, the system status ILCR (Inspection lot created) is set in the header of the process order. 134 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Create Inspection Lots • If the inspection lot could not be created, the system status ILNC (Inspection lot not created) is set. You can select and process all orders in which the generating of an inspection lot failed by using a selection profile and searching for all orders with the status ILNC April 2001 135 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Delete Inspection Lots SAP AG How to Delete Inspection Lots You can only delete an inspection lot, if • • the operations in the process order do not contain any unplanned characteristics no inspection results have been recorded in the inspection lot To delete an inspection lot... 1. Call up the process order. 2. Select the menu options Process order → Functions → Inspection lot → Delete Insp. lot. The system automatically deletes the inspection lot for the process order. 136 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Partial Lot Creation from the Process Order Partial Lot Creation from the Process Order Use You can create partial lots of material manufactured in a process order using the functionality of the Quality Management (QM) application component. You may want to do this if you produce separate individual quantities of the material in a process order, due to the fact that you, for example: • • Manufacture the material simultaneously using different resources Manufacture the material at different times using the same resource Prerequisites The Quality Management (QM) application component has been installed in your system. Activities To inspect partial lots, you must assign inspection characteristics to your operations in the master recipe or process order. You must then link the master inspection characteristics to general characteristics that you used to classify your material. If your material is to be handled in batches, you can assign individual batch numbers to the partial lots when you record results in QM. For more information, see Master Inspection Characteristics in the Quality Planning (QM-QP) component. April 2001 137 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Creating Inspection Characteristics SAP AG Creating Inspection Characteristics Use Inspection characteristics are normally copied over from the master recipe. You can, however, create inspection characteristics in QM results recording. These are known as ‘unplanned’ inspection characteristics. Procedure 1. Call up the process order. 2. Branch to the operation overview and select the operation to which you want to assign an inspection characteristic. 3. Select the menu options Operation → Functions → Unplanned insp. char. You can only create an inspection characteristic after an inspection lot has been created and saved for the order and after the order has been released. 138 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Delete Operations With Inspection Characteristics How to Delete Operations With Inspection Characteristics If an inspection characteristic has been allocated to an operation (system status ICHA), you can delete the operation providing • • that no unplanned inspection characteristic is assigned to the operation QM results (status QMDA) have not yet been recorded for the operation. To delete an operation with status ICHA... 1. Delete the inspection lot allocated to the order. 2. Delete the operation in question. 3. Regenerate the inspection lot This will ensure that the inspection characteristics of the remaining operations remain in the process order. Remember, if you delete an operation which has already been released, the system activates the system status DLFL in the operation, but leaves the operation in the operation overview. April 2001 139 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Printing SAP AG Printing Use In the SAP System, the printing of shop floor papers is carried out in the form of lists. A list can be a complete printout of a material provision list, for example, or a printout of time tickets. 140 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Printing Shop Floor Papers Printing Shop Floor Papers Use You can print shop floor papers for process orders. Prerequisites The process order(s) must be released. Features You can print the following: • • • • • • • Operations of a process order Operation control ticket Goods issue slip Job ticket Pick list Completion confirmation slip Wage slip You can reprint all these papers at any time. Print Functions You can only print those papers that have been defined for your print settings in Customizing. Under Process order → Settings → List control, you can display the lists of papers that your profile allows you to print. In Customizing for Process Orders (Process Order → Operations → Define Print Control), you can define • Which lists may be printed from the process order You can specify, for example, that all the shop floor papers are created during order processing, but that the printing of the lists can be limited by choosing Process order → Functions → Print. • Which lists a user is allowed to print You can specify, for example, that user “A” is only allowed to print material provision lists and withdrawal slips, and that user “B” is only allowed to print time tickets and completion confirmation slips. • The data a list is to contain You can specify which report is to be used to create a list. The report processes the available data and prints it. • The layout of the list April 2001 141 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Printing Shop Floor Papers You can, for example, define a form which prints a bar code on the completion confirmation slip for a particular order type. • The spool parameters for printing SAP AG You can use the spool parameters to define whether you want the lists printed immediately or stored in the spool and the number of days you want the list stored in the spool before it is deleted. 142 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) External Processing External Processing Purpose You can use external processing to have individual process steps, that is operations or phases, carried out by a different company. This process describes how externally processed steps are treated in order processing. Prerequisites You have installed the application component Purchasing (MM-PUR). The relevant purchasing master data has been created there (see the R/3 Library MMPurchasing, section Master Records from the Purchasing View). The following data has been maintained for the phase or secondary resource (refer to External Processing Data Maintenance [Ext.]): • • • A control key that allows external processing The detail data on external processing In subcontracting phases, allocations of the material components to be provided Process Flow 1. When you create a process order, the external processing data of the phases and secondary resources is copied to the order. You can still change this data in the process order. 2. When you save the process order, the system creates a purchase requisition for externally processed phases and secondary resources for the quantity of the phase or secondary resource. Depending on the data entered in the master recipe, the purchase requisition created is of type Standard purchase order or Subcontracting and is assigned to the process order account. In addition to the external processing data, the system also copies the short text for the phase or secondary resource to the purchase requisition. The purchase requisition number is copied to the external processing data of the phase or secondary resource in the process order (see General Data detail screen). If you later change the dates and quantities in the order, these changes are automatically copied to the purchase requisition. However, they are not copied to an existing purchase order. 3. Purchasing converts the purchase requisitions into purchase orders. 4. By monitoring the material stocks to be provided to a vendor, inventory management determines whether all material components in a reservation are available. If required, it makes a transfer posting to this stock for the material to be provided (movement type 541). 5. The vendor externally processes the phase or secondary resources. April 2001 143 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) External Processing SAP AG After external processing has been completed, you post a goods receipt for the In subcontracting phases, the allocated material components are automatically provided in the purchase order. In subcontracting secondary resources, you must enter the material components to be provided to the vendor in the purchase order yourself. In the process order, the system sets the P.O. exists (Purchase order exists) indicator in the external processing data for the phase or secondary resource. 6. warehouse for the purchase requisition (movement type 101). The following activities are carried out at the same time: – – – – See also: R/3 Library MM- Purchasing Guide In the case of subcontracting purchase orders, the system posts a goods issue for the material to be provided (movement type 543). The quantity from the goods receipt is copied to the external processing data of the phase or secondary resource in the process order. The phase or secondary resources receives status EOPD, External operation partly delivered or EODL, External operation delivered The process order account is charged with the costs for external processing and the material to be provided 144 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Goods Movements Goods Movements Use Before you can start producing a material, all the necessary material components have to be issued from stock via goods issues. The delivery to stock of the manufactured material is documented in the system via a goods receipt. Both types of goods movement trigger the following transactions in the system: • • • A material document is created to record the goods movement. The stock quantities of the material are updated. The stock values are updated in the material master record and the stock/consumption accounts are updated. April 2001 145 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Planned Withdrawal of Material Components SAP AG Planned Withdrawal of Material Components Use When a process order is created, the system automatically creates a reservation for the necessary material components. Each material component in the order is dealt with under a different item number in the reservation. The reserved materials cannot be issued from stock until the operation or phase to which they are assigned in the order has been released. There are two ways in which you can post a goods movement: • • Manually in inventory management As part of process control by transferring a material consumption message (see also R/3 Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.]; PI CONS) If the ‘backflush’ indicator is set for a component contained in the material list, the goods issue is posted automatically when you create the confirmation for the respective phase. For more information on how to control whether a material is backflushed, see Backflushing [Ext.]. The withdrawal of the components causes the value of the components issued to be debited to the order for each cost element and origin as actual costs. To issue material components from stock, you can either refer to the order number or to the reservation number. The reservation number is displayed in the general data screen of the components. Procedure To issue material components from stock, proceed as follows: 1. Choose Logistics → Materials management → Inventory management → Goods movement → Goods issue. 2. Choose → To reservation or → To order. A dialog box appears in which you can either directly enter the reservation or the order number, or search for them via the specified search criteria. 3. Enter the reservation number or order number directly, or select one using the search criteria. Choose Continue. – The system automatically proposes the movement type 261 (goods issue for order) as well as all the material components in the order that are not marked as bulk material or as material to be backflushed. 4. Check the list of material components proposed for issue. Save the goods issue. If you do not refer to a reservation or to a process order when you post a goods issue, the reservations remain open and the required quantity reserved, even though the requirement no longer physically exists. 146 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Use April 2001 147 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Unplanned Withdrawal of Components for an Order SAP AG Unplanned Withdrawal of Components for an Order Use You can withdraw materials for an order even if the materials are not listed as components in the order. These “unplanned withdrawals” cause the actual costs of the order to be updated. Procedure To carry out unplanned withdrawals for a process order, proceed as follows: 1. In the initial screen, select Logistics → Materials management → Inventory management and enter movement type 261 (goods issue for order). 2. Enter the storage location and the plant from which the goods are to be issued. Press Enter. The system automatically branches to the screen Enter goods issue: New items. 3. Now enter the number of your order. For each material you want to be issued, enter: the material number the quantity the quantity unit Batch If the material you want issued is subject to handling in batches, you will have to either enter a specific batch number or carry out batch determination. In order to perform batch determination, you must either: set up a batch search strategy or enter an asterisk (*) in the field Batch. The system will find batches of this material, which you can then copy over to your list of items. 4. Post the goods issue. 148 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Delivery to the Warehouse Delivery to the Warehouse The data required to deliver the manufactured material to the warehouse is contained in the header screen Goods receipt/Valuation of the process order header. This screen contains the following information: • Underdeliv. tol.: Here, you can enter a percentage for the tolerance of underdelivery. If a goods receipt quantity is within the underdelivery tolerance, the receipt is regarded as a partial delivery and accepted without a corresponding warning message. If the goods receipt quantity is less than the expected quantity minus the underdelivery tolerance, the system issues a corresponding message. Overdeliv. tol.: Here, you can enter a percentage for the tolerance of overdelivery. The system does not accept a goods receipt which is greater than the order quantity plus the overdelivery tolerance. If this case arises, the system issues an error message during the posting of the goods receipt. Unlimited: If this indicator is set, unlimited overdeliveries are permitted. The system does not issue any warnings with regard to the quantity of the goods receipt. Quality inspection: If this indicator is set, the system automatically proposes for the material to be posted to stock in quality inspection when the receipt posting is carried out. Goods receipt indicator (GR): If this indicator is set, a goods receipt is expected for the process order. This means that the process order is relevant for inventory management. Delivery complete indicator: This indicator is set automatically by the system as soon as a delivery is posted within the delivery tolerances. You can, however, set this indicator manually during a goods receipt posting. Non-valuated goods receipt indicator (GR non-val): This indicator is set automatically by the system if the order is assigned to an account other than that of the material to be produced (for example to a sales order). Storage location: If a storage location is maintained in the material master of the material being produced, the system proposes it in this field. • • • • • • • If desired, you can also maintain Batch, Goods recipient and Unloading point as additional information for the goods receipt. April 2001 149 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Automatic Goods Receipt SAP AG Automatic Goods Receipt Use In the control key of an operation or phase, you can specify that the system should automatically post the finished material to stock when the operation or phase is confirmed. An automatic goods receipt can only be posted for one operation or phase per order. You should therefore make sure that only one operation or phase in the order (normally the last operation or phase) has a control key that specifies automatic goods receipt. If several operations or phases in an order have a control key that specifies automatic goods receipt, the system issues a warning message when you confirm one of them. In this case, you have to post the goods receipt manually. As a rule, you should not use this function in process manufacturing, for the following reasons: In order to calculate the activities performed, the quantity processed during an operation is confirmed. In PP-PI, as a rule, this quantity does not correspond to the yield. When you use process messages from process control (PI PROD), automatic goods receipts should not be used. 150 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) What Checks are Carried Out During a Goods Receipt? What Checks are Carried Out During a Goods Receipt? When a material is delivered to stock after production, the system carries out the following checks: • Goods receipt indicator – – – • – The system checks whether a goods receipt is permitted for the order (indicator GR) and whether or not the goods receipt is to be valuated (indicator GR non-val). If the delivered quantity is not within the under-/overdelivery tolerances specified in the order header screen Goods receipt/Valuation, the system issues a warning or an error message. Under-/Overdelivery tolerance April 2001 151 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Delivery to Stock: Costs SAP AG Delivery to Stock: Costs When you deliver the material to stock, the system determines the costs of the material produced in the following way: • If the price control indicator in the material master record is set to “S”, the delivered quantity is multiplied by the standard price in the material master record of the material produced. If the price control indicator in the material master record is set to “V”, the delivered quantity is multiplied by the price defined by the valuation variant. • 152 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Material Master Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Material Master The following fields of the material master record (Accounting view) are updated when you post a goods receipt for the material: • • • Total stock quantity The total valuated stock for the material. Total value The value of all the valuated stock of the material. Moving average price Price which is calculated according to the corresponding goods movements and invoices created for the material. The system automatically determines the moving average price by dividing the material value in the stock account by the total warehouse stock of a plant. April 2001 153 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Order SAP AG Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Order The following fields are updated in the header screen Date/Quantity overview and in the main header of the order when you post a goods receipt for the material produced: • • • Confirmed quantity The total quantity of the material that has been delivered to stock. Confirmed finish date The date of the last goods receipt for the material. Order status The status “partially delivered” is activated in the order until – – • – – the total quantity delivered to stock reaches the order quantity (minus the underdelivery tolerance), or the Del. compl. indicator is set manually during a goods receipt. the total quantity delivered to stock for the order is within the tolerance limits of the order, or the Del. compl. indicator is set manually during a goods receipt. The status “final delivery” is activated in the order as soon as The status “final delivery” specifies that no further goods receipt is expected for the order. However, it is still possible to post goods receipts for remaining quantities. 154 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Post a Goods Receipt How to Post a Goods Receipt To deliver an order to stock, proceed as follows: 1. Starting in the initial screen, select the menu options Logistics → Materials management → Inventory management and then Goods movement → Goods receipt → For order. 2. Select the menu options Movement type → Order to warehouse (101). – – – – The system displays the movement type in the corresponding field. Check the entry, add the order number, the plant and the storage location and then press ENTER. You reach the screen Goods Receipt for Order: New Items 0001. The system proposes the following quantity: if you are not using inspection accompanying manufacture, or inspections for operations or phases, the planned quantity is proposed from the order. if you are inspecting using inspection points, the system proposes those quantities recorded during results recording for the operation that feature the indicator ‘last partial lot allocation’. If the material is subject to handling in batches, the material quantity per batch is proposed. Note, that, in this case, the value derived in PP-PI should be ignored, as no confirmations are normally generated by QM. 3. Enter the quantity that you want to deliver to stock. – – If the process order is finished, set the indicator “final delivery”. If only a part of the order quantity is delivered to stock, do not set the indicator. 4. Save the goods receipt. You can find further information on goods movements in the MM Inventory Management Guide. A goods receipt can also be generated using process messages on the produced material quantity from process control. See also R/3 Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.]. April 2001 155 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Completion Confirmations in Process Orders SAP AG Completion Confirmations in Process Orders Use A completion confirmation documents the processing status of orders, operations, phases and individual capacities. As such, completion confirmations are used to monitor the progress of process orders. A completion confirmation is used to record • • • • • The quantity processed in a phase How much activity is used to carry out a phase The actual dates of a phase The resource at which the phase is carried out Who carried out the phase. Precise completion confirmations are important in realistic and exact production planning. A completion confirmation can cause: • • • • • • A reduction in the capacity load on the resource An update of the costs, based on the confirmed data An update of the order data, such as times or order status Withdrawal postings for backflushed components An automatic goods receipt (only for one phase per order) MRP relevant update of the expected yield in the order. 156 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Which Objects Can Be Confirmed? Which Objects Can Be Confirmed? You can enter completion confirmations for: • • • Orders Phases Secondary resources As costing, scheduling, and capacity requirements planning is only carried out on the basis of the confirmation data of the phases, only phases and not operations can be confirmed. At present, an operation is not automatically confirmed when you confirm its phases. Make sure that you assign material components for which backflushing has been defined to phases only. When the respective phase is confirmed, the goods issue for this component is posted. For information on the confirmation of phases and secondary resource, see R/3 Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.]. April 2001 157 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) What Data Can You Confirm? SAP AG What Data Can You Confirm? You can confirm the following data for a phase: • • Quantities You can confirm the quantity processed in a phase. Activity data You can confirm the activity used to carry out the phase, such as the duration of the processing time. You can also enter estimates for the remaining activity to be used. These estimates can then be used in scheduling and capacity planning to adapt the standard values of the phase. • • Times and dates You can confirm when the processing of the phase was started or finished. Personnel data You can, for example, confirm the personnel number of the employee, or the number of employees needed to carry out the phase. • • Resource You can confirm the resource at which the phase was carried out. Posting date A posting date is entered for every completion confirmation. The system automatically proposes the current date as the posting date. You can, however, enter a different date. • Goods movements You can post planned and unplanned goods movements with every confirmation, in the Material overview screen. For more information, see Goods Movements and Confirmations [Page 168]. You can also enter a long text to describe the completion confirmation. 158 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Fixed Parameters in Completion Confirmations Fixed Parameters in Completion Confirmations Use You can enter settings for completion confirmations both in Customizing (fixed parameters) and in the actual confirmation (Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations [Page 160]). In Customizing, you can specify the following for phase confirmations: • • • • • • • Whether partial or final confirmation should be proposed by the system Whether a costing log should be displayed if errors occur during the calculation of costs The default time unit for completion confirmations Whether the underdelivery and/or overdelivery tolerances of the order should be checked during confirmation Whether the system should react if the phase/operation sequence is not adhered to Whether previously confirmed data, or data which is planned to be confirmed should be displayed during confirmation Whether an error log is displayed for goods movements with errors (for backflushing/automatic goods receipts), and that you can correct the errors in the material overview before posting the confirmation Whether the system should check that the date is in the future. • These settings are fixed parameters that can only be maintained in Customizing. You can, however, display these settings in the confirmation function by selecting the menu options Parameters → Fixed parameters in the Process order confirmation screen. April 2001 159 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations SAP AG Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations Use You can enter settings for completion confirmations both in Customizing (fixed parameters) and in the actual confirmation function (variable parameters). In the confirmation function, you can specify the following during each confirmation: • • • • • • Whether a partial or final confirmation should be carried out The confirmation detail screen to which the system should automatically branch after the initial screen Whether previously confirmed phases should be displayed during a confirmation, or only open phases Whether an error log should be displayed for goods movements with errors Whether an error log should be displayed if errors occur during the calculation of actual costs Whether only phases which require confirmation should be displayed, in other words, phases whose control key specifies that they must be confirmed. These settings are variable parameters which you can display and maintain in the confirmation function. Each time you carry out a new confirmation, the system adapts the settings to the parameters maintained in Customizing (fixed parameters). To display or change variable parameters, choose menu options Parameters → Variable parameters. 160 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Entering Completion Confirmations Entering Completion Confirmations Use You can confirm data • For a phase You have two options: – – To confirm quantities, durations, activities or personnel data, enter a confirmation for a time confirmation ticket. To confirm specific times (such as start or finish processing), enter a confirmation for a time event. When you confirm specific events, the system calculates the confirmed duration (for example, the time between start and finish of processing counts as the duration of processing). The following applies for time event confirmations: – Every confirmed time event is assigned internally to a record type group. Processing time events are assigned to record type group 2. Each record type group can be assigned to one or more parameters in the standard value key of the resource (such as machine time). The link between time event and parameter ensures that the calculated duration counts as an activity (for example, when calculating the actual costs of the phase/operation). The processing of a phase requires both machine time and labor time. The time event confirmation for the processing section of the phase can take effect on activity “machine time” and on “processing time”, if you enter record type group “2” for the parameters “machine” and “labor” in the standard value key. You can only confirm quantities when you confirm time events. You can only confirm activities that cannot be assigned to a particular record type group by using the time event “Variable activity”. The confirmed value is assigned to a corresponding value in the standard value key parameters. You can generate confirmations as follows: – – Manually, during order processing. This applies to all the above data. As part of process control by transferring messages on phase status. See also R/3 Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.]. For the individual confirmations, you have the following options: Time Event Confirmation for Phases [Ext.] Time Event Confirmation for Secondary Resources [Ext.] Only in exceptional cases as part of inspection results recording from QM, only when inspection points are used. If you are not using inspection points, it is possible to – April 2001 161 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Use SAP AG return to the confirmation transaction, but no confirmation is automatically transferred from results recording. See also QM documentation on inspection management/inspection recording. As a rule, you should not use this method in process manufacturing, for the following reasons: - QM returns the yield. In process industries, this quantity as a rule, does not equal the processing quantity. However, the processing quantity is required to determine the activity required. - Simultaneous confirmation from QM and process control (message on phase status) is not allowed. For this reason, the indicator that controls the recording of confirmations issued by QM, is preassigned ‘no confirmation’ in PP-PI. • For an order – If you enter a confirmation at order header level, the system confirms all the operations and phases in the order which, according to their control key, can be confirmed or must be confirmed. These phases are confirmed in proportion to the quantity entered at header level. Within process control, you can have the relevant orders confirmed during Material Flow Postings Between Process Orders [Ext.]. If you use the collective entry function, you can confirm the following data for several phases from different orders at the same time: yield reason for variance personnel number resource – • For several phases at the same time – – – – – For each phase, you can also specify whether the entry is a final confirmation. If, during a collective confirmation, you set the indicator “final confirmation” for a phase, and the indicator “Open reservations” is set in the confirmation parameters in Customizing, the system automatically clears any open reservations for that phase. 162 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level To reach the screen for entering completion confirmations, select the menu options Logistics → Production -process → Process order. Confirming a single phase To enter a confirmation at phase level, proceed as follows: 1. Select the menu option Confirmation → Enter for phase → Time ticket or Time event. 2. Specify the phase you want to confirm: – – Enter the completion confirmation number, or the order number, and phase number. This identifies the phase to be confirmed. If you enter only the order number, the system lists the operations and phases contained in the order. Select the phase you want to confirm. You have three possibilities: – Select the menu option Goto and the corresponding screen: → Quantity/activity → Dates → Personnel data → Qty/Activity/Forecast – Press ENTER. The system automatically branches to the screen which is specified in the screen control (Parameters → Variable parameters). – Select the menu options Goto → Actual data. You can now enter quantity/activity and personnel data in the same screen. 4. Choose between final confirmation and partial confirmation. – – If you want to confirm data for a phase that is only partially processed, select the indicator Partial confirmation. If you want to confirm data for a phase that is finished, and you wish to simultaneously clear any open reservations for the phase, mark the indicator Clear open reservs. You can also switch between partial/final confirmation via the menu options Parameters → Variable parameter. 3. Specify which data you want to confirm (for example, dates). A partial confirmation can be especially useful if you work with very large lots. 5. Enter the data you want to confirm. If not all the fields which you need for completion confirmation are available on the screen, you can reach the required fields or the required screens via the function keys or via the menu. April 2001 163 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level SAP AG 6. If required, press the function key Material overview to check or change any goods movements that are to be posted with the confirmation. 7. Save your completion confirmation. Confirming several phases For collective entry, proceed as follows: 1. Select the menu options Confirmation → Enter → For phase → Collective entry. 2. In this screen, you can enter a new completion confirmation in each line. Enter the relevant confirmation numbers and the data you want to confirm. Each line represents one confirmation and is assigned a separate confirmation counter. 3. Save your confirmation. The activities of collective confirmations are calculated using the confirmed quantity and the planned standard values. 164 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Enter Confirmations at Order Level How to Enter Confirmations at Order Level To enter a confirmation at header level, proceed as follows: 1. Select the menu options Logistics → Production - process → Process order, and then Confirmation → Enter for order. 2. Enter the order number and press ENTER. 3. Enter the data that you want to confirm. As an alternative to entering yield, you can enter a degree of processing. April 2001 165 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Entering Collective Confirmations SAP AG Entering Collective Confirmations Prerequisites You can preset the following values (in Customizing for Process Orders, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define Parameters for Collective Confirmation). • Identifying the confirmation You can identify an individual confirmation either by the confirmation number or the order number/phase number. Suggesting actual data You can specify at which time (when entering, when saving) quantities or activities to be suggested. By default, no quantities are suggested and activities are determined when you save. Personnel data and dates are always suggested. • Procedure 1. Choose Logistics → Production process → Process order. 2. Choose Confirmation → Enter for phase → Collective confirm. The Collective Entry: Time Ticket screen appears. 3. Enter the data that is to be valid for all confirmations (for example, unit of measure, personnel number) in the Default values section and choose Enter. You can save these default values as user-dependent so that they appear the next time you log on. You can also delete these default values. Enter your confirmations. Each line corresponds to a confirmation and contains fields that are also available when you make a single entry for a time ticket confirmation. You can determine how the table is to be set up (see Table Controls [Ext.]). You can change the default type of confirmation identification during the input dialog. To do this, choose Edit → Other view. You can have the system suggest actual data (quantities, activities, dates, personnel data). To do so, select the relevant confirmations, choose Actual data, select the relevant actual data, and choose Continue. This data overwrites data that you may have already entered. 4. Save your confirmations. You can go to the actual data screen by choosing Goto → Actual data. You have the complete functionality of time ticket confirmation. From this screen, you can go to the detail screens and to the goods movement overview. If several confirmations have been selected, you can switch between the individual confirmations. 166 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Entering Collective Confirmations You can branch to the goods movement overview from the collective entry screen (choose Goto → Goods movements). On this screen, the goods movements for the selected confirmations are displayed. You can check and, if necessary, change the goods movements. When you go back to the collective entry screen, the Goods movement already determined indicator is set for the selected confirmations. When you save the confirmations, the goods movements are also posted. For more information, see Goods Movement Overview [Ext.]. April 2001 167 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Goods Movements and Confirmations SAP AG Goods Movements and Confirmations Use When you create a confirmation, you can also post planned or unplanned goods movements. You can post goods movements in PP-PI using process messages from process control. If you use this function, you should not trigger material postings using confirmations. Planned Goods Movements The following types of planned goods movements exist: • Backflushing If you confirm an order or a phase with components that have the backflushing indicator set, the system automatically posts a goods issue for these components. • Automatic goods receipt If the control key of the phase being confirmed specifies automatic goods receipt, the system automatically posts the produced material to stock. Automatic goods receipt should not normally be carried out in process manufacturing for the following reasons: The operation quantity (quantity confirmed) does not normally correspond to the quantity produced, If you want to use process messages (PI_PROD) to report material quantities, the goods receipt is triggered by the corresponding message (exception: inspection point processing in QM). See Process Management, R/3 Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.]. An automatic goods receipt can only be posted for one phase/operation per order. You should therefore make sure that only one phase per order (usually the last one) has a control key that specifies automatic goods receipt). Unplanned Goods Movements You can branch from a confirmation to a material overview. In Customizing, you can specify whether the overview lists all the components assigned to the phase/operation, or only those which are to be backflushed/for which an automatic goods receipt is to be posted. You can enter any number of planned and/or unplanned goods movements in the material overview. If you use process messages (PI_CONS, PI_PROD) to report material quantities, you should not post goods movements within order confirmation. If, for some reason, errors occurred in the goods movement (for example, not enough material in stock when the backflushing occurs), you can process the incorrect goods movements either 168 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Use directly in the confirmation transaction or in a separate transaction for processing goods movements with errors. • Correction in the confirmation You can set up Customizing (error handling indicator) so that the system displays an error log before saving a confirmation, if goods movements errors have occurred. You can then correct the errors by branching to the material overview before you save the confirmation. The following restriction applies to the material overview: If the confirmation parameter “All components” is set and you branch to the material overview before you save, the system lists all components in the material overview. If the confirmation parameter “All components” is not set, or if you do not branch to the material overview, the system only displays components that are to be backflushed or for which an automatic goods receipt should occur. • Correction by reworking If you want to correct goods movements errors later, you can use the reworking function. For further information on this function, see Reworking Goods Movements [Page 170]. Goods Movements in the Background Using Running Confirmation Processes Separately [Page 174] in Customizing, you can specify that planned goods movements (backflushing/automatic goods receipt) should be temporarily stored when you post the confirmation and posted in the background. You can start the temporarily stored goods movements periodically using a background job with the program CORUPROC, and post these goods movements. You can configure the background job in Process Order Customizing via Operations → Schedule background jobs. April 2001 169 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Reworking Goods Movements SAP AG Reworking Goods Movements Use This function enables you to correct goods movements errors arising from confirmations, and to carry out the goods movement again. Features This function enables you to: • Display errors in detail Examples of errors are: missing storage location, missing batch, blocked material data, too little stock, posting in the incorrect period. • • Correct goods movements Carry out goods movements again 170 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Rework Goods Movements How to Rework Goods Movements 1. Change to the process order menu. 2. Wählen Sie Environment → Material movement → Rework goods mvmnts 3. Enter the selection criteria for the desired goods movements, and choose Execute. 4. Select the goods movements you want to rework. 5. Choose Environment → Display errors to display the errors in detail. You leave the message by choosing Enter. 6. Select the desired goods movements, and make any necessary changes to them (Goto → Change details, for example). 7. Choose Save to carry out the goods movements again. April 2001 171 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Reworking Actual Costs SAP AG Reworking Actual Costs Use This function enables you to redetermine actual costs if an error has occurred during a previous determination of actual costs during confirmation. Features This function enables you to: • Output an error log on the error details Examples of errors are: missing activity price, invalid cost center, or incorrect allocation of activity type to cost center. • Redetermine actual costs 172 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Redetermine Actual Costs How to Redetermine Actual Costs 1. Change to the process order menu. 2. Choose Confirmation → Rework actual costs. 3. Use selection criteria to choose the confirmations you want to rework. 4. Select the desired confirmations, and choose Goto → Error log. 5. Open a new session, and correct the error. 6. Return to the session for reworking confirmations. 7. Select the confirmations that you changed. 8. Choose Save to redermine the actual costs. April 2001 173 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Running Confirmation Processes Separately SAP AG Running Confirmation Processes Separately In Customizing, you can make settings that specify when processes triggered by a confirmation should run. You can use this setting to improve system performance when entering confirmations. You can specify that the processes run: • • • • • • Immediately online Immediately in the update task Later as a background job. Posting automatic goods receipt Backflushing components Determination of actual costs. You can influence the following confirmation processes that you can: In addition, you can specify in Customizing whether these confirmation processes are to be carried out in parallel, or consecutively. You can specify the following: • • Number of parallel tasks The server to be used. 174 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Canceling Completion Confirmations Canceling Completion Confirmations Use It is possible to cancel data previously confirmed. What can you Cancel? Every completion confirmation entered in the system can be canceled. Thus, if you entered three confirmations for a phase, you can also cancel three confirmations and all confirmations automatically created by them. You also activate user stati (depending on the reason for the malfunction) when confirming a phase. The stati are not automatically canceled when you cancel the confirmation. You can also access this function from within a PI sheet. See also: Canceling Order Confirmations [Ext.]. April 2001 175 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Cancel a Completion Confirmation SAP AG How to Cancel a Completion Confirmation If you want to cancel a confirmation, you must first specify which completion confirmations you want to cancel: • • If only one confirmation has been entered for a phase, you only have to identify the phase. If several confirmations have been entered for a phase, you must also specify which completion confirmation you want to cancel. Proceed as follows: 1. Select the menu options Confirmation → Cancel. 2. Specify the phase for which you want to enter a cancellation: – – By entering the completion confirmation number or the order number and the phase number, you clearly identify the phase. If you enter only the order number, the system branches to a screen with the corresponding phases/operations and their confirmations. Select the phase in question or the confirmation to be canceled. If several confirmations exist for the phase, the system branches to a screen which lists the confirmations. Mark the completion confirmation you want to cancel. Branch to the corresponding detail screen. If only one confirmation exists for the phase, the system branches directly to the detail screen of the confirmation. 3. Press ENTER. – – 4. Check the data to be canceled in the detail screen and save the cancellation. 5. When the cancellation is saved, you can enter a reason for the cancellation in a long text. To reverse the cancellation of a confirmation you must manually reenter a confirmation. 176 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) How to Display Canceled Confirmations How to Display Canceled Confirmations If you want to display confirmation cancellations for the phases of an order, you must call up the completion confirmations in display mode. Proceed as follows: 1. Select the menu options Confirmation → Display. 2. Enter the number of the order in question. The system branches to an overview screen in which all confirmations and cancellations entered for the order are listed. April 2001 177 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Decoupling of Confirmation Processes SAP AG Decoupling of Confirmation Processes Use When you enter confirmations, various processes are triggered (goods movements are posted, actual costs are determined) that may affect the response time of the confirmation dialog. You can avoid this by decoupling these processes from the actual confirmation. Decoupling is set up in Customizing. Features You can decouple the following confirmation processes: • • • • Automatic goods receipt Backflushing Actual cost determination In dialog mode, the processes are triggered immediately. The next dialog step can only take place when all processes have finished. You can define when each of these processes is to run: If an error occurs during actual cost determination or goods movement, you can remove the cause of the error or cancel the processing of the confirmation. • If you are working in the update task, the next dialog step is possible immediately. The data for the processes is passed to the update task without delay and is processed immediately. If the processes are background jobs, they are not executed immediately. The next dialog step can take place right away. • If you do not make any special settings, processing takes place as usual in dialog mode. Background Processing For background processing, note the following: • Future change records are saved for the individual processes. These future change records contain all the necessary information for processing the background job later (see Processing Selected Confirmation Processes). You cannot set deletion flags (status DFVL) for orders with future change records. In the background job, you schedule the CORUPROC program with a variant. You use the variant to define which processes are to be executed in the job.You schedule the job in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations → Schedule Background Jobs). For an example of when you can schedule the processes, see Example: Background Processing.You can process future change records in parallel (see Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation). This is useful if a large number of future change records have to be processed in a limited amount of time. Due to time differences from decoupling, data inconsistencies can arise, which disappear when processing of all future change records is finished. This is the case for instance, if the the confirmed quantity of a material has not yet been posted to stock by the automatic goods receipt. • • 178 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Decoupling of Confirmation Processes April 2001 179 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation SAP AG Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation You can make the following settings for decoupling: • • • Execution time Which processes are to be decoupled (automatic goods receipt, backflushing, actual costs determination)? When is the process to run (dialog mode, update task, background job)? You summarize the following settings in a key term for process control: To define the control key for process control, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define Time for Confirmation Processes in Customizing for Process Orders. • Confirmation parameters In the confirmation parameters, you assign a key term for process control of the confirmation process to an order type in a plant. This activates decoupling for the order type. To enter the confirmation parameters, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define Confirmation Parameters in Customizing for Process Orders. • Parallel processing If you are working with background jobs, you enter the confirmation processes that are to be processed in parallel here. The confirmation processes are divided into two groups: goods movement (goods receipt and goods issue) and actual cost determination. For each group, you can determine the following parameters: • • • Number of parallel tasks The server to be used Maximum number of items per material document (for goods movements) To maintain the paralleling type, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define Paralleling Type for Confirmation Processes in Customizing for Process Orders. 180 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Example: Background Processing Example: Background Processing If confirmations processes are to be processed in the background, you must decide when the individual processes are to take place. As a general guide: • Automatic goods receipts should be processed directly after the actual confirmation. Particularly for materials that are to be processed further or that are required in sales, it is important that stock levels are kept up-to-date. For this reason, processing in dialog mode or in the update task are both possible. Backflushing withdrawals should be processed within larger periods (for example, twice a day). Since the material has already been physically taken from the storage location, up-to-date stock levels are less important. However, other material consumers as well as material requirements planning must be notified. Actual costs determination should take place less frequently (for example, once a day). Actual costs determination is not important for a smooth production process. It is needed for cost control and is therefore to be adapted to the processes in Controlling. • • April 2001 181 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Processing Predefined Confirmation Processes SAP AG Processing Predefined Confirmation Processes Use You can use this function to process future change records for confirmation processes (see also Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation [Page 178]). You only have to process future change records online, in exceptions (for example, for moving up processing when the background job is planned later). Future change records are usually processed as background jobs. There are separate functions for processing goods movements with errors and errors in actual cost determination. Features On the selection screen, you can decide which future change records are to be read. You can limit the selection of orders or the selection of processes. You can use this function to process future change records from confirmations for the following processes: • • • • • Backflushing Automatic goods receipt Actual cost calculation HR data transfer Display an order for a future change record (Select a record and choose Order.) Display a confirmation for a future change record (Select a record and choose Confirmation.) Execute backflushing/automatic goods receipt/actual cost determination (Select a record and choose Save.) Execute data transfer to HR (Choose HR data transfer. You can only execute this action for all records simultaneously.) You can do the following: • • • You cannot cancel confirmations for which there are future change records. Activities You start this function from the Process Orders screen by choosing Confirmation → Predefined Processes. 182 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Settlement Order Settlement For information on order settlement, see the following sections: • • R/3 Library PP Production Orders, section Order Settlement [Ext.] R/3 Library, CO Cost Object Controlling, section Process Orders in Cost Object Controlling [Ext.] April 2001 183 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Closing SAP AG Order Closing Use You use the order closing function to indicate that a process order is complete from the logistics and cost accounting points of view. • • • For process orders that have been completed and for which all costs have been posted, see Business Closing of Process Orders [Page 187]. For process orders that have been completed and for which costs must or can still be posted, see Technical Completion of Process Orders [Page 185]. For process orders that are prematurely terminated or cannot be executed correctly, see Technical Completion of Process Orders [Page 185]. 184 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Technical Completion of Process Orders Technical Completion of Process Orders Use Technical completion is the completion of a process order from the logistics point of view. You usually use this function when you want to terminate execution of an order prematurely, or if the order was not properly executed and you want to delete open requirements of the order (for example, reservations, capacity requirements). Prerequisites You must be allowed to set the order or operation to Technically completed. This means that a system or user status does not stop you from doing so. To set the order to Technically completed, the system checks the Technical completion business transaction (BTAB). For more information, see Business Transactions [Page 196]. Features The following actions are carried out when the order is technically completed: • • • • • The order is not indicated as relevant to MRP anymore. The reservations are deleted. The capacity requirements are deleted. Purchase requisitions that may exist for externally processed operations or non-stock components are deleted. The system status Technically completed (TECO) is set for the order and the operations. If an order is technically completed, you cannot make any changes to the order. You can only display it. However, if the order data must be changed, the technical completion of the order can be revoked. You can still make postings for the order after the technical completion. You can, for example, post a material withdrawal or a confirmation if they were forgotten. Activities You can execute technical completion in the following ways: • • While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing → Technically complete. While carrying out mass processing (Logistics → Production process → Process order → Tools → Mass processing), choose Technically complete in the Actions group box. While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing → Revoke technical completion. You can revoke technical completion in the following way: • April 2001 185 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Technical Completion of Process Orders SAP AG 186 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Business Closing of Process Orders Business Closing of Process Orders Use As a rule you perform business closing of a process order when you do not expect any more cost postings for it. Such an order is then considered closed for cost accounting and is not taken into account when evaluating process orders that are still open. In the system, business closing, in contrast to technical completion, is usually only called "close". Prerequisites You can only perform (business) closing for a process order if: • The order has status Released (REL), Control recipe created (CRCR) or Control recipe discarded (CRAB), or Technically completed (TECO). To have status Technically completed, the order must have already reached status Released. The order balance is 0. There are no more open purchase requisitions, orders, or commitments for it. All data related to the process order is available and correct (For example, the inspection lots for the order must be completed). There are no future change records from the confirmation processes. • • • • The business transaction [Page 196] Close must be allowed for the order or operation. This means that a system or user status does not stop you from doing so. Features The following actions are carried out when the order is closed: • • • • • In contrast to the technical completion, no more costs can be posted to the order. This means no more confirmations or goods movements are allowed for this order. You can no longer change the order. You can only display the order data, revoke the Closed (CLSD) status, and set the deletion flag. All actions belonging to the status Technically completed [Page 185] (TECO) are carried out. The system status Closed (CLSD) is set for the order and the operations. This status (or Technically completed) is a prerequisite for archiving. In the collective order, the status Closed (CLSD) is also set for lower-level orders. If the system detects an order in the collective order that cannot be closed, the orders along the way to the leading order are not closed either. Other parts of collective orders are closed if they only contain orders that can be closed. Activities You can close the order in the following ways: • • While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing → Close. While carrying out mass processing (Logistics → Production process → Process order → Tools → Mass processing), choose Close in the Actions group box. April 2001 187 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Business Closing of Process Orders You can revoke closing as follows: • SAP AG While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing → Revoke closing. 188 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Archiving Archiving Use Archiving process orders is part of the general reorganization procedure for orders. Prerequisites Only one archiving object is required for archiving process orders. It is called PR_ORDER. Process Flow The reorganization of orders is divided into three steps in the R/3 System: 1. Activating the deletion flag in the order 2. Activating the deletion indicator in the order 3. Carrying out an archiving run Orders that have already been archived can be restored and displayed in the R/3 System by means of a fourth step, the retrieval function. An order can only be archived after you have activated a deletion flag for it. You can do this either manually or automatically (that is, in a background job). After a first residence time has elapsed, the deletion indicator is activated for those orders marked with a deletion flag by running a background job. After a second residence time is over, the orders are archived and deleted from the database at the same time. See also: Archiving Process Orders (PP-PI) [Ext.] April 2001 189 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Mass Processing SAP AG Mass Processing Use Mass processing allows you to carry out functions for several orders. Features The following mass processing functions are available: • • • • • • Scheduling Setting up capacity requirements Costing WM material staging Technical completion Closing Test Run You can specify whether the changes made in mass processing should only be carried out as a test. Error messages that may occur are collected. None of the changes are written to the database. Log Log records are written and saved when you execute the function. The log records contain information about how the mass processing functions are executed. If no log record is available, the function was carried out without restrictions. The log records are assigned to the order or the order network. Activities 1. Choose Logistics → Production - Process → Process Order → Tools → Mass Processing. 2. Enter the selection criteria and choose the action to be executed. If required, also specify whether or not you want to limit the number of the orders to be processed, if you want another log and if you only want to carry out a test run. 190 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Status Status Definition A status documents the current processing status of an object. When business transactions are carried out on an object (for example, on a process order, an operation or a component), the status of the object changes accordingly. The status activated influences which business transactions can be carried out on an object. April 2001 191 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) System/User Statuses SAP AG System/User Statuses The SAP System distinguishes between system statuses and user status. System Status A system status is a status set by the system. It informs the user that a particular function was carried out on an object. A system status cannot be influenced by the user, in other words, you can only delete or change a system status in conjunction with certain business transactions predefined in the system. When you release a process order, the system automatically sets the system status “released”. You cannot influence this status unless you carry out a business transaction which leads to a change of the system status (such as marking the process order as “technically complete”). User status A user status is always activated by the user and can be created in addition to the existing system status. You can activate any number of user statuses alongside the internally activated system statuses. To activate user statuses, you need to have created a status profile in Customizing for the relevant order type (see What is a Status Profile? [Ext.]). You can activate any number of statuses in a process order. 192 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Display Status Display Status Use Along with the identification code displayed in the process order header, you can also call up the status in text form. Both forms are language-dependent. Procedure 1. To display the active status of a process order, choose . The Status tab page appears. A list of the statuses for your process orders that are active are displayed. These are the system status or user status, with or without the status number. You can change a defined status profile in the Stat.prof field. 2. If you want to display the business transactions allowed for this status, choose the Business processes tab page. April 2001 193 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Status in Process Orders SAP AG Status in Process Orders The status menu that you can call up in the process order from the Header - General Data screen provides information on the various statuses the system assigns to your order in the course of processing. These statuses are also displayed in the System status field on the header screen. Statuses in the Process Order Status CLSD SETC BNAS BCRQ BASC BRAR BRRQ ORTE ORAC ORRQ CRTD MSPT REL APG APGS APNG APRC APRS MACM MANC NTUP PCMN CSER PIGN CRFI CRCR Description Completed Settlement rule created Batch not assigned Order to be handled in batches Batch assignment complete Batch record archived Batch record required Order record terminated Order record archived Process data documentation/order record required Order created Material shortage Order released Approval granted (for appropriate order types) Single approval granted Approval not granted Based on approved recipe Approval withdrawn Material committed Material availability not checked Dates are not updated Production campaign Error in cost calculation Process instruction generated Control recipe finished Control recipe created 194 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Status in Process Orders CRAB TECO PCNF OPGN PRC Control recipe discarded Technically Completed Partially confirmed Operation generated Order pre-costed April 2001 195 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Business Transactions SAP AG Business Transactions What is a business transaction? A business transaction is an action through which an object (for example, a process order) is taken to another processing level that is indicated in the SAP System by a corresponding status. A business transaction is an action carried out by the user at the screen, such as • • • • • Releasing an order Releasing an operation Posting a goods receipt Entering a completion confirmation Printing an order How can a status influence a business transaction? A status can • • • Allow a business transaction Issue a warning before the business transaction is carried out Forbid the business transaction In the second case, you receive a warning message before the system carries out the transaction desired. It is up to you to decide if you want to proceed, despite the warning. You want to mark a released process order for deletion. However, the order does not yet have the status “technically complete”. The system issues a warning message informing you that the order is not yet technically complete. When can you carry out a business transaction? To be able to carry out a business transaction, the following requirements must be met: • • At least one active status must allow the transaction No active status may forbid the transaction When is a status active? A status is active if it is set in the object. A status in inactive if it • • Has never been activated Was active before but has since been deactivated 196 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) What is a Status Profile? What is a Status Profile? A status profile is created in customizing per order type. Within a status profile you can • • • • • Define user statuses and document their function in long texts Specify the expected sequence of user statuses by assigning a "status number" to each user status Define an initial status, which is automatically set when the object is created Specify that a user status should automatically be activated, if a certain business transaction is carried out Allow or forbid certain transactions, if a status is active Status Numbers For every user status you can define a status number. With the help of the status number you determine the sequence in which the user statuses are activated. If you do not assign a status number to a user status, the user status can always be activated. However, only one user status with a status number can be active at any given time. If you assign a status number to a user status, you must also specify a lowest and a highest status number for the user status. These limit the status number interval from which the next user status can be selected. You have defined the following user statuses with the following status numbers in a status profile: Example of User Statuses with Status Numbers Status no. Status 1 2 3 4 Preparation Execution Check Completion Lowest no. Highest no. 2 3 4 4 1 1 2 4 Planning locked - In this example, ths status "planning locked" can always be activated since it has no status number. Status "preparation" must be activated first. When status "preparation" is active, it is possible to activate status "execution". If status "execution" is active, you can activate either status "preparation" or status "check". April 2001 197 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) What is a Status Profile? SAP AG The lowest and highest number of the highest activated status number is always valid. In the above example it would therefore not be possible to first activate status "execution" from status "check" and to then activate status "preparation" from status "execution". If status "check" is activated, you can activate either status "execution" or status "completion". Once status "completion" is activated, a return to preceding statuses is no longer possible. 198 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) What is a Selection Profile? What is a Selection Profile? In a selection profile, you can define status combinations of user status and system status as selection criteria. Selection profiles are used for selection in the order information system. You can enter the system status as well as user status in a selection profile. If you also want to select according to user status, you must enter the corresponding status profile when creating the selection profile. You cannot assign a status profile to a selection profile at a later time. For more information on creating a selection profile, choose Master Data → Order → Define Selection Profiles in Customizing for Process Orders. April 2001 199 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Co-Products SAP AG Co-Products Use Products that are usually manufactured together can now be produced using one process order, but with separate settlement. One product is regarded as the main product and the remaining products are described as co-products. The system automatically creates a separate order item for each of the co-products. The following applies to process orders with co-products: • • You can settle the main product and the co-product(s) to different receivers Goods movements can be posted simultaneously for all products manufactured in the order. 200 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Process Orders with Co-Products: Prerequisites Process Orders with Co-Products: Prerequisites You must meet the following requirements if you want to create a process order with co-products: • • • Activate the indicator Co-product in the material master of the co-product (MRP 1 screen). The co-product must exist as a component in the material list of the main product (negative quantity, item type L). The indicator Co-product must be activated in the General data screen of the material component. April 2001 201 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Co-Products: Costs SAP AG Co-Products: Costs The costs for the orders are assigned to the order header and then distributed to the individual co-products according to equivalence numbers. You specify an apportionment structure in the material master of the main product. The apportionment structure specifies how the total costs should be distributed over the main product and the co-products. Based on this data, the system creates the following when a process order is created: • • One settlement rule that distributes the total order costs over the main product and the coproducts (i.e. over the individual order items) One settlement rule per item that assigns the costs to stock At present, it is only possible to distribute actual costs. 202 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Co-Products: Using a Source Structure Co-Products: Using a Source Structure By using a source structure, you can enter different equivalence numbers for different cost element groups within the same apportionment structure. Example of equivalence numbers with source structure Cost element grp Production costs Material costs Overhead Main product 1 2 5 Co-product 4 1 3 Here, the cost distribution varies between the cost element groups in the apportionment structure. If you do not use a source structure, the cost distribution must be the same for all cost element groups in the apportionment structure: Example of equivalence numbers without source structure Cost element grp Production costs Material costs Overhead Main product 2 2 2 Co-product 1 1 1 If you want to work with a source structure, you need to: 1. Define a source structure in Customizing. After this, define an apportionment structure in the material master of the main product. 2. Go to the material master of the main product. 3. Branch to the MRP 1 screen. 4. Select the function key 'Co-prod. manufacture'. The system displays a dialog box in which you can enter apportionment structures. An apportionment structure can only be defined for co-products. Therefore, please make sure that the indicator Co-product is activated (indicator next to the function key). April 2001 203 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Information Systems SAP AG Information Systems Use The following information systems are available for process manufacturing: • The order information system [Page 205] for − − • − − − − − − Reporting Mass processing The Shop Floor Information System enabling standard analyses for Resources Operations Material Process orders Material consumption Product costs For more information on the Shop Floor Information System, see the R/3 Library Logistics General -> Logistics Information System (LIS). 204 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Information System Order Information System Use The order information system is a tool that offers the following shop floor control functions for process orders: • • Reporting Mass processing Evaluations are made using the logical database IOC and the original order tables. Prerequisites The profile for the individual objects and the overall profile you want to use for the information system must have been defined in Customizing. Features All orders that exist in the system can be included in the evaluations (including those with deletion flags/indicators). However, archived orders are not taken into account. The order information system offers various list types in reporting. Their layout can be adapted to suit your requirements. The following functions are available to display the objects selected from the database: • • Object Overview [Page 209] (Objects in hierarchical form, shows relationships between objects) Object Detail List [Page 211] (detailed information on individual objects) April 2001 205 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Search Optimization SAP AG Search Optimization Use To improve system performance, you can specify which objects are read from the database. You want to have an overview of the status of all orders of a particular order type. In this case, make sure that all objects except for the order header are deselected. You want additional information on partially released or partially confirmed operations (for example, the operations status). In this case, you must also select the object “operations”. You can select the following data objects: • • • • • • • • • Order header Order item Documented goods movements Operations / phases / secondary resources Components (Individual) capacity requirements Confirmations (order header level, operation level, sub-operation level) Automatic goods movements (order header level, operation level) Incorrect automatic goods movements (order header level, operation level) You can define an overall profile to specify which data objects are read from the database (see Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing [Page 207]). You can also change these settings manually on the initial screen. Object Hierarchies on the Database The objects are stored on the database in a hierarchical structure. The order header is at the top of the hierarchy, followed, by the order items, the confirmations, and so on. When specifying which objects are read from the database, note the following: To display a particular object, the system needs to read the actual object as well as all the objects, which are situated above that object on the data base. You want to create a list of all the components required for a certain group of orders. To be able to display components, the system needs to read the relevant order headers, order items, operation sequences, operations and components. If you select the object “components”, the system will also automatically select all other required objects. 206 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing Use The information displayed in the process order information system as well as the layout of the information is controlled via an overall profile, which you can enter on the initial screen. The overall profile contains several subordinated single profiles. They contain information regarding selection criteria and layout of lists. Overall profiles In an overall profile, you can enter the following information: • • • • • A variant which can be used to suppress selection criteria Which objects to read from the database Which of these objects are to be displayed in the list Object up to which objects are to be expanded on the object overview Single profiles for all objects Single profiles In a single profile, you enter parameters relevant for the object overview list (first point only) and the object detail list (all points). You can enter the following information in a single profile: • • Fields displayed (both in object overview and object detail list) You can specify via a subprofile which fields are displayed when you call up the list. Specifications on how the list is formatted You can, for example, define the width of the columns, influence the grouping of the fields and determine whether the values are to be displayed as percentage rates. • • Sort criteria You can specify via a subprofile how the fields are sorted when you call up the list. Grouping criteria You can specify via a subprofile how the fields are grouped together when you call up the list • User filters Via a report variant, you can store filter criteria for the objects. The corresponding object list is automatically filtered according to these criteria when you call it up. • Status filters Objects that have a status (for example, order headers, operations, and components) can be filtered using a selection profile. April 2001 207 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing SAP AG Activities Maintain the required profiles in Customizing. 208 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Object Overview Object Overview Use The object overview displays the objects selected from the process orders in hierarchical form. This makes it easy to see the relationship between the individual objects (for example component allocated to an operation or confirmation allocated to an order header). The following functions allow you to structure the information in a way which best suits your requirements: • Suppressing irrelevant orders You have, for example, chosen all process orders that belong to a particular sales order. Two of these are of particular interest. You can hide the remaining orders so that you can concentrate on the relevant orders. • Suppressing irrelevant objects You have, for example, chosen all process orders to which a certain component is allocated. In this case, you may want to hide the object “operation” as it is of no interest to you. This can be specified in the transaction, or in the overall profile. • Compressing selected objects You have, for example, selected phases, and now only want to process the operations. You therefore compress the object “sub-operations”. This can be specified in the transaction, or in the overall profile. Whereas suppressing irrelevant objects can be used for hierarchically superior objects (for example suppressing sequences when displaying operations), compressing objects is useful for hierarchically subordinate objects (for ex. compressing phases when displaying operations). • Displaying fields/changing the field sequence You have, for example, selected "operations". You either want to display the field "confirmed time", or you want to put it at the beginning of the line rather than at the end. You change the displayed fields or the sequence of the field display via the field selection for object "operations". This can be specified in the transaction, or in the overall profile. Refreshing the List You can branch into any number of process orders within the list and carry out business transactions, (such as order/operation releases, availability checks, etc.). If you then want to refresh the list to reflect the changes that you made, you have two options: • • Complete refresh: A complete refresh will update all process orders in the list. Partial refresh: If you have only changed a small number of orders in the list, you may only want to refresh the orders that have changed, as this would reduce the system load (To carry out a partial refresh, you first need to mark the relevant objects). April 2001 209 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Object Overview SAP AG 210 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Object Detail List Object Detail List Use Every object selected from the database can be • • Displayed in the object overview, or Displayed in the detail list Each detail lists contains detailed information on the object. You want to display all components that were used during a particular period. The detail list is suited to this purpose, since you do not require detailed information on the superior objects “operation” and “order”. You can, however, group the information in the detail list according to order / operation. Similar objects (for example operations and phases) are displayed in one list. The Process Order Information System offers you the following object detail lists: Object detail list... Header detail list Item detail list Operation detail list Component detail list Confirmation detail list Capacity detail list Goods movements Displays the following objects: Order headers Order items Order operations Order suboperations Order components Confirmations of orders Confirmations of phases Operation capacities Suboperation capacities Goods issues for backflushed components Automatic goods receipts Failed goods movements Goods issues for backflushed components Automatic goods receipts Purchase requisition Purchase order You can control the content and the layout of the list by specifying • • • Which fields are to be displayed for the object The layout of the fields (for example, grouping or width of the field columns) The sequence in which the objects are displayed (ascending/descending order) April 2001 211 Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Object Detail List • • • • SAP AG A selection profile, if you want to make the display of an object dependent on its status. You can print out information displayed on the lists You can filter the information displayed on the lists You can branch to other objects from within the list (If, for example, the Sales order no. field is displayed, you can branch to the sales order by positioning the cursor on the field, and choose Environment → Display object. The object detail list offers the following functionality: If you want to include planned orders in a collective availability check (see Collective Availability Checks [Page 213]), the objects are restricted to order headers and components. If you do not specify which objects are to be displayed in the detail list, the system displays information on all objects. 212 April 2001 SAP AG Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) Collective Availability Checks Collective Availability Checks Use In the process order information system, you can check the material availability of several orders at the same time. These collective availability checks always carry out an overall availability check for each of the orders. The orders to be checked can be process and/or planned orders. As with individual checks, the checking rule is determined via the order type (process orders) or the MRP group / plant parameters (planned order). See also: Availability Checks [Page 103] April 2001 213
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